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1

Comparison of Patients With Anterior Wall Healed Myocardial Infarction With and Without Exercise-Induced ST-Segment Elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the extent of myocardial necrosis and ischemia in patients with anterior wall healed myocardial infarction depending on whether ST-segment elevation was present on precordial leads during exercise testing, 62 consecutive patients (49 men and 13 women, age [mean ± SD] 56 ± 11 years) with anterior wall infarcts were assessed with exercise technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile single-photon emission computed

Jaume Candell-Riera; César Santana-Boado; Llu??s Armadans-Gil; Pere Blanch; Santiago Aguadé; Joan Castell; Josep Vaqué-Rafart; Jordi Soler-Soler

1998-01-01

2

F-18 deoxyglucose and stress N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in anterior wall healed myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate myocardial blood flow and glucose utilization, N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 22 patients with previous anterior wall myocardial infarction, using a high-resolution, multi-slice, whole-body scanner. The N-13 ammonia study was performed at rest and after exercise. The F-18 deoxyglucose study was performed at rest after fasting greater than 5 hours.

T. Fudo; H. Kambara; T. Hashimoto; M. Hayashi; R. Nohara; N. Tamaki; Y. Yonekura; M. Senda; J. Konishi; C. Kawai

1988-01-01

3

Acute Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction due to Occlusion of the Wrapped Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery  

PubMed Central

Acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) generally results in ST segment elevations in precordial leads and reciprocal ST segment depression in inferior leads. The occurrence of isolated inferior myocardial infarction due to occlusion of LAD is very rare. We describe an isolated acute inferior myocardial infarction due to occlusion of a wrapped LAD at the apex which continues as the large posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) beyond the occlusion. PMID:24826303

Sunil Roy, Thottuvelil Narayanan; Nagham, Jafar Saeed; Anil Kumar, Rajappan

2013-01-01

4

Occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome as an immune mediated complication after thrombolysis with streptokinase for acute anterior wall myocardial infarction: a caution to be vigilant.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) constitutes a heterogeneous group of immune-mediated peripheral neuropathic disorders that can be triggered by a variety of antecedent events. Clinical symptoms are thought to result from streptokinase antibody-mediated damage to the local blood-nerve barrier. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction who developed GBS as a manifestation of autoimmune hypersensitivity reaction to the drug 17 days after thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase. The patient was treated with a 5-day course of intravenous ? globulin and his symptoms improved and there was no residual deficit. The case forms a reminder of the autoimmune complications of non-fibrin specific agents that can sometimes be catastrophic and require persistent and vigilant in-hospital and immediate postdischarge follow-up and immediate management. PMID:24099761

Kumar, Basant; Agrawal, Navin; Patra, Soumya; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

5

Occurrence of Sustained Increase in QT Dispersion Following Exercise in Patients With Residual Myocardial Ischemia After Healing of Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to evaluate the effect of exercise on QT dispersion over the next 3 hours, as seen on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in patients with healed myocardial infarction with or without residual ischemia. We measured QT and QTc dispersion before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 hours after symptom-limited, dynamic treadmill exercise tests in 28 patients with healed

Masashi Naka; Issei Shiotani; Yukihiro Koretsune; Katsuji Imai; Yoshiki Akamatsu; Eiji Hishida; Naokazu Kinoshita; Yoshiki Katsube; Hideyuki Sato; Masatsugu Hori

1997-01-01

6

Spectrum and significance of electrocardiographic patterns, troponin levels, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count in patients with stress (tako-tsubo) cardiomyopathy and comparison to those in patients with ST-elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (SC) is a recently recognized syndrome with clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG) presentation resembling ST elevation anterior myocardial infarction. As experience with this condition has evolved, a more diverse spectrum of 12-lead ECG patterns has emerged that may affect differential diagnosis. Fifty-nine consecutive patients with SC were prospectively identified at a large community-based cardiology practice. All were women aged 32 to 90 years (mean 66+/-13) with acute chest pain triggered by emotional or physical incidents and with akinesia of the mid-distal left ventricle; each patient recovered and was discharged within a median of 4 days. On electrocardiography, anterior ST elevation was most common (33 [56%]), with magnitudes less than in controls with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusions (1.4+/-1.5 vs 2.4+/-2.2 mm, p<0.001), with considerable overlap. ECG findings in 26 other patients (44%) without ST elevation revealed diffuse T-wave inversion (10 [17%]) and healed anterior infarctions (6 [10%]) or were nonspecific (5 [8.5%]) or normal (5 [8.5%]). Troponin elevations occurred in 56 patients with SC (95%). The mean peak troponin T level was significantly lower in patients with SC (0.64+/-0.86 ng/ml) than in those with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusions (3.88+/-4.9 ng/ml) (p<0.0001). Patients with SC with or without ST elevation did not differ with respect to the ejection fraction (29+/-9% vs 34+/-9%, respectively, p=NS) or Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts. During recovery, diffuse T-wave inversion evolved in 49 patients with SC (83%). In conclusion, patients with SC present with diverse ECG findings, and no single pattern alone can reliably distinguish this condition from acute coronary syndromes. The diagnosis of SC requires heightened awareness of its unique clinical profile as well as coronary arteriography and left ventriculography. PMID:18549847

Sharkey, Scott W; Lesser, John R; Menon, Madhav; Parpart, Mary; Maron, Martin S; Maron, Barry J

2008-06-15

7

Giant Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of all superficial soft tissue malignancies. Although they may arise anywhere in the body, they most frequently occur in the lower extremities. The incidence of subcutaneous LMS affecting the anterior abdominal wall is very rare. We herein report the case of a patient with a giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in the anterior abdominal wall. It was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and treated accordingly. PMID:25506027

2014-01-01

8

Early results of a novel technique for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair: anterior vaginal wall darn  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique. PMID:24973955

2014-01-01

9

Relaxation within the Left Ventricular Myocardial Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate relaxation mechanics in the wall of the left ventricle needle mounted miniature pressure transducers were inserted at the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) level of the anterior wall of the left ventricle during acute open-chest experiments in 10 mongrel dogs. Pressures were recorded during control, volume load and after verapamil administration. The relaxation time constant (?) was determined

André E. Aubert; Bart G. Denys; Hilaire De Geest

1994-01-01

10

Contained Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the free wall of the left ventricle occurs in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts and accounts for approximately 20% of the total mortality of patients with myocardial infractions. Relatively few cases are diagnosed before death. Several distinct clinical forms of ventricular free wall rupture have been identified. Sudden rupture with massive hemorrhage into the pericardium is the most common form; in a third of the cases, the course is subacute with slow and sometimes repetitive hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms generally occur as a consequence of left ventricular free wall rupture covered by a portion of pericardium, in contrast to a true aneurysm, which is formed of myocardial tissue. Here, we report a case of contained left ventricular free wall rupture following myocardial infarction. PMID:24804119

Shiyovich, Arthur; Nesher, Lior

2012-01-01

11

Quantification of regional myocardial wall motion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile tool that also allows comprehensive and accurate measurement of both global and regional myocardial contraction. Quantification of regional wall motion parameters, such as strain, strain rate, twist and torsion, has been shown to be more sensitive to early-stage functional alterations. Since the invention of CMR tagging by magnetization saturation in 1988, several CMR techniques have been developed to enable the measurement of regional myocardial wall motion, including myocardial tissue tagging, phase contrast mapping, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), and strain encoded (SENC) imaging. These techniques have been developed with their own advantages and limitations. In this review, two widely used and closely related CMR techniques, i.e., tissue tagging and DENSE, will be discussed from the perspective of pulse sequence development and image-processing techniques. The clinical and preclinical applications of tissue tagging and DENSE in assessing wall motion mechanics in both normal and diseased hearts, including coronary artery diseases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and Duchenne muscular dystrophies, will be discussed. PMID:25392821

Jiang, Kai

2014-01-01

12

[Conservative treatment of deformities of the anterior chest wall].  

PubMed

The authors have treated 55 deformities of the anterior chest wall in children. There were 37 cases of symmetrical pectus carinatum, 15 cases of asymmetrical pectus carinatum and 3 cases of pectus arcuatum. Associated lesions of the ribs, scapulae and spine are described. Treatment in every case was by plaster casts followed by a plaster jacket and exercises. The results were much more satisfactory in deformities associated with prominence than with depression of the sternum. In pectus carinatum, the results were better when the apex of the deformity was more distal. The best age for treatment was between 12 and 13 years. No patient was treated by operation. PMID:144304

Vidal, J; Perdriolle, R; Brahin, B; Connes, H; Fischbach, C

1977-09-01

13

Malignant Schwannoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

Malignant schwannoma of the anterior abdominal wall nerves is extremely rare. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and it is found in 4% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1. We present a case of malignant schwannoma in a 28-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis 1. She presented with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. The tumor location was in the abdominal wall in explorative laparatomy and malignant schwannoma was diagnosed in pathologic assessment. The tumor recurred in 3 months and computed tomography showed two masses in the right side of abdominopelvic cavity. Thereafter, second complete surgical resection was performed and pathologic finding was the same. In spite of administering chemotherapy after second surgery,the tumor recurred and magnetic resonance imaging finding showed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass with adhesion to the inner side of the abdominal wall. The patient died because of acute respiratory failure due to multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases. Tumor location and rapid recurrence was unique in our patient. Keywords Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Malignant schwannoma; Abdominal wall PMID:22461875

Khorgami, Zhamak; Nasiri, Shirzad; Rezakhanlu, Freshteh; Sodagari, Nassim

2009-01-01

14

Acute anterior myocardial infarction after multiple bee stings. A case of Kounis syndrome.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man with no history of cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors was stung by honeybees. Soon after, he gradually developed signs of an allergic reaction followed by severe retrosternal pain. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic evidence and positive biochemical markers were consistent with an acute anterolateral myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography showed a left anterior descending artery thrombotic lesion. This is a case of Kounis syndrome, which is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell activation including allergic or hypersensitivity reactions as well as anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. The clinical implications and pathophysiology of this dangerous association are discussed. PMID:18554734

Mytas, Dimitrios Z; Stougiannos, Pavlos N; Zairis, Michael N; Tsiaousis, Georgios Z; Foussas, Stefanos G; Hahalis, George N; Kounis, Nicholas G; Pyrgakis, Vlassios N

2009-05-29

15

Incoordinate left ventricular wall motion after acute myocardial infarction. Serial echocardiographic assessment.  

PubMed Central

Serial simultaneous M mode echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded and digitised in 20 patients with a first myocardial infarction immediately after and two, three, seven, and 56 days after hospital admission. Left ventricular maximum and minimum dimensions, normalised maximum rate of change of dimension during systole and diastole, and three previously defined indices of the coordination of left ventricular wall motion were measured. Incoordinate left ventricular wall motion was detected in all patients but was more pronounced in those with an anterior infarction (15) than in those with an inferior infarction (5). Although on the first three days after admission patients with heart failure (7) were indistinguishable echocardiographically from those without (13), differences became apparent later with an increase in left ventricular dimension and more pronounced evidence of incoordination in those with heart failure. In the first two days after admission patients with full thickness infarcts (14) were indistinguishable echocardiographically from those with partial thickness infarcts (6) despite the former being of much larger size as judged by the measurement of cardiac enzyme activity. Abnormal indices of coordination reverted to normal with time in patients with partial thickness infarctions, whereas only partial reversion of these indices occurred in those with full thickness infarctions. The use of digitised M mode echocardiograms is a sensitive means of detecting and following the evolution of incoordinate left ventricular wall motion in patients with an acute myocardial infarction whatever the position, type, or size of the infarct. Incoordination so detected is, however, quantitatively unrelated to infarct type or size or to the clinical state of the patient. Images PMID:6721948

Dawson, J R; Sutton, G C

1984-01-01

16

Permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice: a model of post-myocardial infarction remodelling and heart failure.  

PubMed

Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail. PMID:25489995

Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Lox, Marleen; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

2014-01-01

17

Myocardial infarction caused by a fistula between the left anterior descending coronary artery and the left ventricle.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old man who had a fistula, located between the left anterior descending coronary artery and the left ventricle, that caused myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography revealed a loss of R-wave progression in leads V(1) through V(4), and transthoracic echocardiography showed an apical aneurysm. Selective coronary angiography was performed. Dimensions of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and digital caliper measurements of stenosis within, were normal. After the injection of angiographic contrast material from the distal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery, a smoky, opaque accumulation colored the left ventricle. The digital caliper measurement of the left anterior descending coronary artery was again found to be normal. In the apex of the left ventricle, ventriculography in the left anterior oblique position revealed a small aneurysm, and a myocardial perfusion scan showed a fixed perfusion defect.Cases of coronary fistulae that result in myocardial infarction are rare. Because the patient had no ongoing symptoms after his myocardial infarction, medical therapy was prescribed. PMID:19436820

Kurt, Ibrahim Halil

2009-01-01

18

Transient ischemic stunning of the myocardium in stress thallium-201 gated SPET myocardial perfusion imaging: segmental analysis of myocardial perfusion, wall motion and wall thickening changes.  

PubMed

Prolonged and persistent myocardial stunning has recently been demonstrated using technetium-99m sestamibi gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging post exercise or pharmacological stress test. In this study, we investigated the early postischemic transient myocardial stunning on early and delayed poststress thallium-201 gated SPET myocardial perfusion imaging using segmental wall motion (WM) and wall thickening (WT) analysis. A total of 1,680 segments from 84 patients' studies (53 men and 31 women, mean age 60 years) were evaluated on both early and delayed thallium-201 gated SPET treadmill exercise (59) or dobutamine stress (25) myocardial perfusion imaging. Semiquantitative analysis of perfusion, WM and WT in all segments was performed by two observers. Segments were classified according to changes in WM and WT between early and delayed images into normal, fixed abnormality, or improved abnormality (transient stunning), and were further classified according to changes in perfusion into normal, fixed defects, or ischemic. There were significant correlations between perfusion and WM, perfusion and WT, and WM and WT segmental scores on both early and delayed images. Transient stunning was seen significantly ( P < 0.001) more often in ischemic segments than were normal or fixed perfusion defects using WM (58%) and WT (50%) assessments. There was also a significant correlation between the severity of ischemia and transient stunning with either WM ( P < 0.05) or WT ( P < 0.005) evaluation. Segmental myocardial contractility assessment from gated SPET (201)Tl myocardial perfusion imaging using WM and WT was comparable, and results correlated well with the myocardial perfusion assessment. Early transient myocardial stunning was frequently observed in ischemic segments and was related to the severity of myocardial ischemia. PMID:12173009

Santiago, Jonas Francisco Y; Heiba, Sherif I; Jana, Suman; Mirzaitehrane, Majid; Dede, Fuat; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

2002-08-01

19

Outcome of prenatally diagnosed anterior abdominal wall defects  

PubMed Central

One hundred consecutive cases of confirmed anterior abdominal wall defect, identified prenatally in the Oxford Prenatal Diagnosis Unit over 11 years, were studied. Fifty nine per cent of cases were suspected omphaloceles and 41% suspected gastroschisis. Fifty four per cent of omphaloceles were accompanied by other defects compared with 5% of those with gastroschisis. Overall, 29% of fetuses with omphalocele had an abnormal karyotype, and of those with another abnormality identified on scan (excluding four cases with no karyotype performed), 54% had an abnormal karyotype. Of the 27 cases with suspected isolated omphalocele, 14 were live born, all of whom have survived. If the 11 whose parents opted for termination of pregnancy are excluded, survival to birth was 88%. Six of the suspected isolated omphaloceles have Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Eight (57%) of the live born babies with omphaloceles had major problems up to the age of 2, but only one (7%) has long term major problems. This child has BWS and is deaf.? Of the 39 cases of suspected isolated gastroschisis, 33 (85%) pregnancies resulted in live birth and one in neonatal death after surgery. Survival rate (excluding terminated pregnancies) was 97%. Gastroschisis was associated with a younger maternal age than omphalocele (p<0.001) and lower birthweight centile (p<0.01).? Fifteen per cent of the gastroschisis babies had major problems up to the age of 2 years and 12% long term developmental problems. Ninety three per cent of the omphalocele babies and 88% of those who had gastroschisis have no long term problems. Over the study period there have been major changes in scanning equipment and expertise. Since 1991 no woman with a suspected isolated lesion has opted for termination of pregnancy.?? PMID:9713034

Boyd, P; Bhattacharjee, A; Gould, S; Manning, N; Chamberlain, P

1998-01-01

20

Persistent ST-segment elevation in patients with anterior myocardial infarctions. Evaluation by exercise electrocardiography, echocardiography and Holter monitoring.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (MI) were followed up at 3-monthly intervals by a full clinical evaluation, exercise electrocardiography and ambulatory Holter monitoring. Fifty-eight patients (34%) had anterior MIs, and of these 23 (40%) had persistent ST-segment elevation over the infarct zone, reflected by leads presenting with Q-S configuration. Fifteen (65,2%) of the latter demonstrated further ST-segment elevation during exercise. They were further investigated by cross-sectional echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was diagnosed in 87% of patients with persistent ST-segment elevation, and in 93% of the patients with additional exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. Organized thrombi occurred in 2 patients (8,7%) and 1 experienced a transient ischaemic attack. Ventricular arrhythmias occurred frequently (ventricular ectopy--91,3%, ventricular tachycardia--17,4%, and couplets--47,8%). Death occurred in 3 patients (13,1%) and 1 patient (4,3%) had a second MI over a mean follow-up period of 83,6 months. This study suggests that persistent ST-segment elevation on the resting ECG of patients with anterior MIs is a reliable indicator of LV wall motion abnormalities, and that this correlation further increases if it is associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. Furthermore, the role of echocardiography as a diagnostic tool in evaluating LV function is stressed. The prognosis of patients with post-infarction LV dysfunction is notably poor and may be the result of frequent complex ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:4012509

Diamond, T H; Steingo, L; Davidoff, R; Smith, R L; Goldman, A P; Kawalsky, D; Borowsky, M H; Myburgh, D P

1985-07-20

21

Adjuvant materials in anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to assess the objective recurrence and complications of adjuvant materials in the treatment\\u000a of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using adjuvant materials\\u000a versus standard surgery for anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The main outcome measures were objective recurrence and complications.\\u000a Ten RCTs (1,087 patients) were included in the

Richard Foon; Philip Toozs-Hobson; P. M. Latthe

2008-01-01

22

Relationship between acute strain pattern and recovery in tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and acute anterior myocardial infarction: a comparative study using two-dimensional longitudinal strain.  

PubMed

After acute-anterior myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular (LV) viable myocardial segments show some degree of active deformation (longitudinal shortening) despite wall motion abnormalities (WMA). Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by myocardial stunning; however, it is unclear whether in TTC the strain pattern mimics AMI. To compare the strain-pattern in TTC and AMI using the 2D-longitudinal strain by speckle-tracking in segments with WMA, and its relationship with recovery of function at follow-up. 21 consecutive patients with typical TTC and 21 age-matched AMI patients treated by primary angioplasty had an analysis of LV-longitudinal strain at the acute-phase and at follow-up (1 and 6 months later for TTC and AMI respectively). The recovery of a segment was defined as normal wall motion at follow-up. Among the 706 analyzable LV-segments at the acute-phase, 406 had WMA (TTC 229, AMI 177). At follow-up, total recovery was observed for 45 % segments in AMI and 100 % in TTC, (p < 0.01). At the acute phase, systolic lengthening duration (47 ± 43 vs. 18 ± 33 %) and amplitude (0.25 ± 0.29 vs. 0.09 ± 0.19) and post systolic shortening (67 ± 53 vs. 39 ± 38 %) were higher in TTC, when compared to AMI-recovery (all, p < 0.01). In AMI, systolic lengthening duration was an independent predictor of poor recovery in multivariate analysis, linked to segmental longitudinal strain at follow-up (all, p ? 0.01). Furthermore, among the 57 % of segments exhibiting any systolic lengthening duration in AMI, only ¼ recovered, versus 62 % of such segments in TTC with 100 % recovery (p < 0.001). The systolic passive motion which is closely and inversely linked to recovery in AMI is paradoxically frequent and severe in TTC. This suggests that myocardial stunning in TTC and AMI is different according to longitudinal strain. PMID:25037469

Meimoun, Patrick; Abouth, Shirley; Boulanger, Jacques; Luycx-Bore, Anne; Martis, Sonia; Clerc, Jérome

2014-12-01

23

Reverse Abdominoplasty Flap in Reconstruction of Post-Bilateral Mastectomies Anterior Chest Wall Defect  

PubMed Central

Reverse abdominoplasty was originally described for epigastric lift. Since the work by Baroudi and Huger in the 1970s, it has become clear that reverse abdominoplasty application can be extended beyond just aesthetic procedure. Through the knowledge of anterior abdominal wall vascularity, its application had included reconstructive prospect in the coverage of various chest wall defects. To date, reverse abdominoplasty flap has been used to reconstruct unilateral anterior chest wall defect or for larger defect but only in combination with other reconstructive techniques. Here, we presented a case where it is used as a standalone flap to reconstruct bilateral anterior chest wall soft tissue defect post-bilateral mastectomies in oncological resection. In conclusion, reverse abdominoplasty flap provided us with a simple, faster, and satisfactory reconstructive outcome. PMID:25161670

Tiong, William HC; Basiron, Normala Hj

2014-01-01

24

[Accurate diagnosis of temporary myocardial ischemia by noninvasive regional wall motion analysis].  

PubMed

Exercise ECG testing is the most popular method clinically detecting temporary myocardial ischemia, but both false-positive and false-negative results are reported. Detection of regional myocardial dysfunction during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography or echocardiography has recently been developed to detect temporary myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. In patients having chest pain and ECG changes during exercise, most of whom have coronary stenosis arteriographically, exercise radionuclide angiocardiography revealed an increased number of abnormal regional motion walls, an aggravation of asynergy by point scoring system, and a decrease of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). In most of patients without coronary stenosis, on the other hand, no asynergy with increase of EF was observed. For detecting temporary myocardial ischemia, abnormal exercise radionuclide angiocardiography seemed rather sensitive than exercise 201-T1 myocardial imaging abnormality. During exercise, the regional wall motion abnormality was detected earlier by echocardiography than by electrical abnormality. In the cases, in which ST segment elevated during exercise, EF measured by radionuclide angiocardiography decreased remarkably, suggesting severe myocardial ischemia. In many of those, however, T waves were negative at rest and became positive during exercise, and EF increased, suggesting the other mechanism than myocardial ischemia. The success rate of exercise radionuclide angiocardiography was high. This method was useful not only in localizing abnormal wall motion but in obtaining reliable EF, though it is such an expensive device that it can be set only in the limited institutions. A major difficulty with standard M-mode echocardiography is in its "ice-pick" view, which may be compensated by 2-dimensional technique. Echocardiography can be used to detect the time course of the influence of myocardial ischemia. For evaluating temporary myocardial ischemia, examinations of regional wall motion abnormality is useful, because of high specificity, high sensitivity, localizing and grading the ischemia, and new interpretation of the findings of other examinations such as exercise ECG. PMID:6520436

Sugishita, Y

1984-01-01

25

Chondrosarcoma of the anterior chest wall: surgical resection and reconstruction with titanium mesh  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant tumors of the chest wall are uncommon. Chondrosarcoma is the most common malignancy of the sternum. The current therapy for chondrosarcoma requires adequate surgical excision. A 52-year-old man presented with a lower-sternal mass. Thorax computed tomography (CT) revealed a well-lineated, hypodense and round mass, which highly suggested the sarcoma of the chest wall. The tumor involved 1/3 distal part of the corpus sterni. Incisional biopsy of the mass was reported as chondrosarcoma. In order to obtain disease-free surgical margins, 1/3 distal part of the sternum with costochondral junctions was resected and reconstruction of anterior chest wall was performed with titanium mesh. The postoperative course was uneventful. The titanium mesh provided the essential rigidity and minimal elasticity over the surgical wound. Our findings show that this technique is adequate even for reconstructing extensive defects of the anterior chest wall. PMID:25364538

Ersöz, Elçin; Evman, Serdar; Alpay, Levent; Aky?l, Mustafa; Vayvada, Mustafa; Gürer, Deniz; Bayram, Serkan

2014-01-01

26

The relationship of ST segment elevation shape with preserved myocardium and signal-averaged electrocardiography in acute anterior myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Although a relation between magnitude of ST segment elevation and myocardial damage has been shown in the early period of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), such a relation between the shape of the ST segment elevation, myocardial damage, and the clinical course remains obscure. For this purpose 62 first anterior AMI patients admitted in the first 6h were enrolled for the study. On the basis of precordial V3 derivation prior to thrombolytic therapy, the shape of the ST elevation was separated into three groups: concave (n = 26), straight (n = 24), or convex types (n = 12). The relation between the shape of the ST elevation recorded on admission, and the results of pre-discharge low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDE) performed (n = 53) and signal-averaged ECG values were investigated. The basal wall motion score index (WMSI) and response to LDE in the concave group were better in the infarct zone. Additionally, the average akinetic segment number in the infarct zone was higher, and improvement in these segments was less in the convex and straight groups (concave 3.78 +/- 2 vs 2.17 +/- 2.1, P < 0.01; straight 5.15 +/- 2.7 vs 4.45 +/- 2.8, not significant (NS); convex 5.4 +/- 2.3 vs 4.8 +/- 2.1, NS; basal vs LDE). While only 13% (3/23) of the patients did not respond to LDE (P < 0.05 vs group B and P < 0.01 vs group C), 35% (7/20) of group B and 60% (6/10) of group C patients did not respond to LDE. Although no relation was found between better left ventricular function (WMSI < 2) and shape of the ST elevation in basal evaluation by multiple logistic regression analysis (P = 0.06), an independent relation was found between them following LDE (P = 0.01, odds ratio (OR) 4.5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.3-14.7). The incidence of ventricular late potential (LP) positivity was 11% (3/26) in the concave group, 16% (4/24) in the straight group, and 58% (7/12) in the convex group (P < 0.001 vs concave and P < 0.05 vs straight groups). We found that shape of the ST elevation could significantly predict the presence of late potentials in multiple logistic regression analysis (P = 0.003, OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.2-51.7). There was no in-hospital death in the concave group, whereas five patients died in either the straight or the convex group. Furthermore, arrhythmia was lower in the concave group during this period (P < 0.05), and exercise capacity was lower. In conclusion, we determined that there was a higher viable myocardium, and lower LP(positivity) and in-hospital mortality in patients with concave ST elevation on admission. PMID:12224785

Karadede, Abdulaziz; Aydinalp, Ozlem; Temamogullari, Ali Vahip; Toprak, Nizamettin

2002-05-01

27

Anatomic Distribution of Nerves and Microvascular Density in the Human Anterior Vaginal Wall: Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of the G-spot (an assumed erotic sensitive area in the anterior wall of the vagina) remains controversial. We explored the histomorphological basis of the G-spot. Methods Biopsies were drawn from a 12 o’clock direction in the distal- and proximal-third areas of the anterior vagina of 32 Chinese subjects. The total number of protein gene product 9.5–immunoreactive nerves and smooth muscle actin–immunoreactive blood vessels in each specimen was quantified using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay. Results Vaginal innervation was observed in the lamina propria and muscle layer of the anterior vaginal wall. The distal-third of the anterior vaginal wall had significantly richer small-nerve-fiber innervation in the lamina propria than the proximal-third (p?=?0.000) and in the vaginal muscle layer (p?=?0.006). There were abundant microvessels in the lamina propria and muscle layer, but no small vessels in the lamina propria and few in the muscle layer. Significant differences were noted in the number of microvessels when comparing the distal- with proximal-third parts in the lamina propria (p?=?0.046) and muscle layer (p?=?0.002). Conclusions Significantly increased density of nerves and microvessels in the distal-third of the anterior vaginal wall could be the histomorphological basis of the G-spot. Distal anterior vaginal repair could disrupt the normal anatomy, neurovascular supply and function of the G-spot, and cause sexual dysfunction. PMID:25379731

Li, Ting; Liao, Qinping; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Xuelian; Li, Xueying; Zhang, Miao

2014-01-01

28

Pedicled omental and split skin graft in the reconstruction of the anterior abdominal wall?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The POSSG is a pedicled graft based on either the right or left gastro-epiploic arteries. It is used with a dual mesh in reconstruction of full thickness defects of anterior abdominal wall and covered by skin grafts. PRESENTATION OF CASE A recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the anterior abdominal wall was excised leaving a large defect. The POSSG was used for reconstruction. A large dual mesh was placed to close the defect in the abdominal wall by suturing it to the remnant rim of abdominal muscles. The omental pedicle was brought through a keyhole in the mesh, spread out over the mesh, sutured and covered by split skin grafts. The final graft take was 90 percent. DISCUSSION The POSSG can be used to reconstruct any size of anterior abdominal wall defects due to the malleable nature of omentum. Its prerequisite however is a dual mesh like PROCEED. The POSSG helps keep the more complex musculofasciocutaneous flaps as lifeboats. It can be used singly where multiple musculofasciocutaneous flaps would otherwise have been required. It can be used in patients with poor prognosis of underlying malignancy. It may be used by general surgeons due to familiarity with anatomy of the relevant structures and lack of need for microsurgical skill. CONCLUSION The POSSG can be used in reconstruction of abdominal wall defects of any size by general surgeons. PMID:24566428

Manay, Priyadarshini; Khajanchi, Monty; Prajapati, Ram; Satoskar, Rajeev

2014-01-01

29

Biatrial Thrombosis After Acute Inferior Wall Myocardial InfarctionA Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of biatrial thrombosis after acute inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) with sinus rhythm. The presence of atrial thrombosis in patients with acute MI has recently been recognized with the aid of echocardiography. However, to the author's knowledge, a case of biatrial thrombosis after acute MI has not been reported previously. In this case, blood stasis,

Mehmet Bilge; Beyhan Eryonucu; Niyazi Güler

2000-01-01

30

A Blunt Chest Trauma Causing Left Anterior Descending Artery Dissection and Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Deferred Angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Traumatic coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We report a case of blunt chest trauma resulting from a motorcycle collision causing ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in a 31-year-old previously healthy male. The patient also suffered from compound comminuted fractures of the humerus and ulna and severe liver laceration, which hampered both percutaneous and surgical acute revasularization. After a stormy hospital course, a bare metal stent was implanted to seal the LAD artery dissection. The patient was discharged in a stable condition and was followed-up for rehabilitation. This case report underscores the multidisciplinary approach in facing challenges encountered after rare sequelae of chest trauma. PMID:22121464

Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Ali, Waleed Muhsin; Al-Ani, Fuad; Abdulrahman, Yassir S.; Alnabti, Abdulrahman

2011-01-01

31

Global and regional right ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: dependence upon site of left ventricular infarction.  

PubMed Central

The relation of global and regional right and left ventricular function during the acute phase after a first myocardial infarction was assessed by first pass radionuclide angiography in 20 patients (10 after anterior and 10 after inferior myocardial infarction). The right ventricular ejection fraction did not differ significantly between the groups, but left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly depressed after anterior myocardial infarction. There was evidence of right ventricular dilatation and impaired transit in the group with inferior infarction. Five patients with anterior infarction and six with inferior infarction had abnormal right ventricular ejection fractions. Right ventricular wall motion abnormalities affected the septal wall in the group with anterior infarction and the free wall in the group with inferior infarction. The relation between right and left ventricular ejection fractions was markedly different in the two groups. In the group with anterior infarction there was a significant linear relation between right and left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas in the group with inferior infarction there was not. Thus right ventricular dysfunction commonly occurs after both anterior and inferior myocardial infarction. Right and left ventricular impairment are related after anterior myocardial infarction, but are independent after inferior myocardial infarction. Finally, the different effects of anterior and inferior myocardial infarction on right ventricular function may be explained by differences in septal and free wall involvement. Images Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 7 PMID:3620249

Caplin, J L; Dymond, D S; Flatman, W D; Spurrell, R A

1987-01-01

32

Evolution of myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function in patients with angina pectoris without myocardial infarction and total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and collaterals from other coronary arteries  

SciTech Connect

Repeated episodes of myocardial ischemia might lead to progressive impairment of left ventricular (LV) function. This radionuclide study assessed myocardial ischemia and LV function several years after documented coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Over 5 years, 24 consecutive patients, who underwent cardiac catheterization for angina pectoris without myocardial infarction, had isolated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery with well-developed collateral vessels. Five patients were successfully treated by coronary bypass grafting and 3 by coronary angioplasty. Among the 16 medically treated patients, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 died (extracardiac death). The mean (+/- standard deviation) follow-up (14 patients) was 48 +/- 15 months. At follow-up, 8 patients still had clinical chest pain, 11 received antianginal therapy, 4 patients had no stress ischemia and the other 10 had greater than or equal to 1 sign of stress ischemia. All patients had a normal LV ejection fraction at rest (mean 60 +/- 3%; range 55 to 65%). Collateral circulation preserves LV function at the time of occlusion and, in some cases, prevents the development of myocardial ischemia; in patients with persisting myocardial ischemia after well-collateralized coronary occlusion, LV function is not impaired at long-term follow-up.

Juilliere, Y.; Marie, P.Y.; Danchin, N.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.; Cherrier, F. (CHU Nancy-Brabois, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

1991-07-01

33

Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Atrial Volume Index in Elderly Patients with Left Ventricle Anterior Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Enlarged left atrium predicts outcomes in patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke. Left atrial volume especially when corrected for body size, is a more accurate representation of true LA size. Aims and Objectives: To study left atrial volume index in elderly patients with left ventricle anterior infarction and correlate LAVi with left ventricle ejection fraction and transmitral Doppler flow. Materials and Methods: Control group consisted of 25 healthy elderly subjects Study group consisted of age and sex matched patients with LV anterior infarction with history of characteristic ischaemic chest pain. Patients with valve lesions, large shunts and rythum disturbances were excluded. On transthoracic echocardiography biplane method of disks was used to calculate LA volume. LAVi was calculated by dividing LA volume by body surface area of subjects. Observation and Results: LAVi was significantly raised in elderly patients who suffered from AMI (P<0.005). We also found significant negative correlation of LAVi with LVEF, E wave peak velocity and deacceleration time. Conclusion: Patients with advanced left venticular systolic and diastolic dysfunction had a significantly larger LAVi than healthy subjects. LAVi is useful for risk stratification and for guiding therapy in such patients. PMID:23181177

Maheshwari, Monika; Tanwar, C. P.; Kaushik, S. K.

2012-01-01

34

The ratio between anterior abdominal wall surface/wall defect surface: a new parameter to classify abdominal incisional hernias.  

PubMed

Current classifications of incisional hernias are often not suitable. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that it is important to consider not only the wall defect surface (WDS) but also the total surface of the anterior abdominal wall (SAW) and the ratio between SAW/WDS). Twenty-three patients affected by > 10 cm size incisional hernias were examined for anthropometric analyses. The SAW, the WDS and the ratio SAW/WDS were calculated. All of the 23 patients were operated on 13 patients were treated with the Rives technique using a polypropylene mesh while the remaning ten patients had an intraperitoneal Parietex Composite mesh (PC). The two groups were compared for post-operative pain (with VAS) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) 48 h after the operation: bladder pressure, length of the procedure, average hospital stay and return to work were calculated. In the Rives group, WDS being equal, the higher IAP values were, the lower was the ratio SAW/WDS; furthermore, SAW/WDS ratio being equal, IAP values were low in cases where intraperitoneal mesh was used. Post-operative pain, measured with VAS, was critical when there was a low SAW/WDS ratio and a high IAP. In our experience, it is possible to predict a strong abdominal wall tension if the SAW/WDA ratio is below 15 mmHg. In these cases it is advisable to use a technique requiring the use of an intraperitoneal mesh. Our experience with PC was so positive that it is used in our department for all cases where an intraperitoneal mesh is required. At present, our proposal is that the SAW/WDS ratio is to be considered as a new parameter in current classifications of incisional hernias. PMID:16172802

Ammaturo, C; Bassi, G

2005-12-01

35

Relation of regional sympathetic denervation and myocardial perfusion disturbance to wall motion impairment in Chagas' cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Impairment of sinus node autonomic control and myocardial perfusion disturbances have been described in patients with chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy. However, it is not clear how these conditions contribute to myocardial damage. In this investigation, iodine-123 (I-123) meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thallium-201 myocardium segmental uptake were studied in correlation with the severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction detected in various phases of Chagas' heart disease. Group I consisted of 12 subjects (43 +/- 4 years, 7 men) with no symptoms and no cardiac involvement on electrocardiogram (ECG) or echocardiography; group II consisted of 13 patients (48 +/- 3 years, 9 men) with abnormal resting ECG and/or echocardiographic segmental abnormalities, and LV ejection fraction of > or = 0.5; group III was comprised of 12 patients (59 +/- 3 years, 10 men) with more severe heart disease, LV dilation, and LV ejection fraction of < 0.5. Eighteen control volunteers (38 +/- 3 years, 9 men) were also included in the study. I-123 MIBG single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) segmental uptake defects were observed in group I (33%), group II (77%), and group III (92%). Quantitative analysis showed mean areas of reduced LV I-123-MIBG uptake: group I was 3.7 +/- 2.1%; group II was 8.3 +/- 2.3%; and group III was 19.0 +/- 3.3%. The differences between group I and both groups II and III were statistically significant (p < 0.001, analysis of variance test). Myocardial perfusion defects (reversible, fixed, and paradox) were observed in group I (83%), group II (69%), and group III (83%). A marked topographic association between perfusion, innervation, and wall motion abnormalities (assessed by gated-SPECT perfusion studies) was observed in all the groups. Defects predominated in the inferior, posterior lateral, and apical LV regions. Thus, extensive impairment of cardiac sympathetic function at the ventricular level occured early in the course of Chagas' cardiomyopathy and was related to regional myocardial perfusion disturbances, before wall motion abnormalities. Both conditions are associated with progression of ventricular dysfunction. PMID:11053710

Simões, M V; Pintya, A O; Bromberg-Marin, G; Sarabanda, A V; Antloga, C M; Pazin-Filho, A; Maciel, B C; Marin-Neto, J A

2000-11-01

36

Sutureless repair for left ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report three cases of left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR) after acute myocardial infarction, which were repaired using a sutureless technique without cardiopulmonary bypass. At operation, a sheet of fibrin tissue-adhesive collagen fleece (TachoComb) was secured to the hematoma surrounding the tear and the infarcted area under compression by the surgeon's fingers. After complete hemostasis, several sheets of an absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) were glued onto the collagen fleece in layers. Intra-aortic balloon pumping was electively performed. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was not carried out. All patients survived the operation but recurrence of the rupture occurred on postoperative day 10 in one patient and an LV aneurysm was found four months after repair in another patient. The sutureless technique may be a simple and fast option for treatment of an oozing type LVFWR; however, careful follow-up is mandatory. PMID:24428225

Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Tayama, Keiichiro; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Teiji; Shintani, Yusuke; Wada, Kumiko; Kosuga, Kenichi

2014-03-01

37

Acute myocardial infarction and myocardial bridging: a case report.  

PubMed

The present report describes a 55-year-old man who presented an anterior myocardial infarction in association with myocardial bridge of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). We discuss the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction occurring with myocardial bridge. PMID:8922051

Baldassarre, S; Unger, P; Renard, M

1996-01-01

38

Anatomical description of the deep venous channel from the anterior vestibular wall of the right atrium.  

PubMed

The deep venous channels in the walls of the right atrium are not routinely described in medical treatises although their existence has been remarked from some time. Our study demonstrates that the right atrium is opened for some of the anterior veins of the heart through a venous channel located deep in the myocardium of the vestibule of the right atrium. We suggest that no Thebesian veins drain into this channel. We achieved anatomical dissection in 14 adult human cadaveric hearts, which had been fixed in formalin solution, and we found the channel in 75% of cases. These channels were measured, photographed and presented in detail. We highlighted the importance of the proximity with the tricuspid annulus in order to avoid incidents during tricuspid annuloplasty. The authors intend that through a qualitative study to draw attention to such a structure often ignored. This vascular structure and its role in cardiac physiology and pathology have not been investigated yet. Although not constant, specialists in cardiology and cardiac surgery should be informed about this basic detail on the endocardium morphology. PMID:24068407

Filipoiu, F M; B?lgr?dean, Mihaela; Brezean, I; Jinga, V

2013-01-01

39

Vaginal Repair of Cystocele with Anterior Wall Mesh via Transobturator Route: Efficacy and Complications with Up to 3-Year Followup  

PubMed Central

Study Objective. The objective of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of cystocele repair with anterior wall mesh placed via a transobturator route (Perigee system, AMS, Minnetonka, MN). Design. Single center retrospective study. Setting. Single center hospital setting and Urogynecology practice in the United States. Patients. 77 women presenting with symptomatic anterior wall prolapse. Intervention. Repair of cystocele with an anterior wall Type I soft-polypropylene mesh placed via a transobturator approach. Concomitant procedures in other compartment were also completed as indicated. Measurements and Main Results. 77 women underwent the Perigee procedure at our institution over a 2-year period. The mesh was attached to the pelvic sidewalls at the level of the bladder neck and near the ischial spine apically with needles passed through the groins and obturator space. Mean follow-up was 18.2 months (range 3–36 months). Objective cure rate was 93%. Subjectively only two patients have had recurrent symptoms of prolapse, and only 1 of these has required repeat surgery for cystocele. Mesh exposure vaginally occurred in 5 patients (6.5%); however all were treated with estrogen and/or local excision of exposed mesh and had no further sequelae. There were no incidences of chronic pain, infection, or abscess, and no patient required complete mesh removal for infection, pain, or extrusion. Conclusion. In select patients with anterior wall prolapse, repair with mesh augmentation via the transobturator route is a safe and effective procedure with up to 3 years of follow-up. PMID:19710939

Moore, Robert D.; Miklos, John R.

2009-01-01

40

Wave propagation of myocardial stretch: correlation with myocardial stiffness.  

PubMed

The mechanism of flow propagation during diastole in the left ventricle (LV) has been well described. Little is known about the associated waves propagating along the heart walls. These waves may have a mechanism similar to pulse wave propagation in arteries. The major goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of myocardial stiffness and preload on this wave transmission. Longitudinal late diastolic deformation and wave speed (Vp) of myocardial stretch in the anterior LV wall were measured using sonomicrometry in 16 pigs. Animals with normal and altered myocardial stiffness (acute myocardial infarction) were studied with and without preload alterations. Elastic modulus estimated from Vp (E VP; Moens-Korteweg equation) was compared to incremental elastic modulus obtained from exponential end-diastolic stress-strain relation (E SS). Myocardial distensibility and ?- and ?-coefficients of stress-strain relations were calculated. Vp was higher at reperfusion compared to baseline (2.6 ± 1.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 m/s; p = 0.005) and best correlated with E SS (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.0001), ?-coefficient (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.0001), distensibility (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.005), and wall thickness/diameter ratio (r2 = 0.42, p = 0.009). Elastic moduli (E VP and E SS) were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Increasing preload increased Vp and E VP and decreased distensibility. At multivariate analysis, E SS, wall thickness, and end-diastolic and systolic LV pressures were independent predictors of Vp (r2 model = 0.83, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the main determinants of wave propagation of longitudinal myocardial stretch were myocardial stiffness and LV geometry and pressure. This local wave speed could potentially be measured noninvasively by echocardiography. PMID:25193091

Pislaru, Cristina; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pislaru, Sorin V

2014-11-01

41

Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard: anterior STEMI (r=0.47, p=0.02) and inferior STEMI (r=0.58, p<0.001). The aim of this review will be to discuss the findings regarding the combining of the Aldrich ST score and initial Selvester QRS score in determining the MaR at the onset of the event in acute anterior or inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:24813354

Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

2014-01-01

42

INCREASED PULMONARY PRESSURES AND MYOCARDIAL WALL STRESS IN CHILDREN WITH SEVERE MALARIA*  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic intravascular hemolysis leads to nitric oxide (NO) depletion and pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease. To test whether this pathophysiology occurs in malaria, we examined 53 children admitted to hospital with severe malaria (excluding cerebral malaria) and 31 age-matched controls in Mali. Methods Severity of hemolysis was assessed from plasma free hemoglobin (Hb) and arginase-1 levels. NO metabolism was assessed by whole blood nitrite levels and plasma NO consumption. Effects on the cardiovascular system and endothelial function were assessed by using echocardiography to measure peak tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) and from plasma levels of N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). Results Children with severe malaria had higher plasma Hb and arginase-1 levels, reduced whole blood nitrite levels and increased NO consumption relative to controls. They also had increased pulmonary arterial pressures (p < 0.05) with elevated levels of NT-proBNP and sVCAM-1 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Children with severe malaria have increased pulmonary pressures and myocardial wall stress. These complications are consistent with NO depletion from intravascular hemolysis, and indicate that the pathophysiologic cascade from intravascular hemolysis to NO depletion and its cardiopulmonary effects is activated in children with severe malaria. PMID:20662718

Janka, Jacqueline J.; Koita, Ousmane A.; Traoré, Broulaye; Traoré, Josépha M.; Mzayek, Fawaz; Sachdev, Vandana; Wang, Xunde; Sanogo, Kassoum; Sangaré, Lansana; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Masur, Henry; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Krogstad, Donald J.

2011-01-01

43

Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an intraabdominal mass in a postpartum woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms that most often arise from muscle aponeurosis and have been associated with both trauma and pregnancy. The etiology of desmoids has not been determined. We report the case of anterior abdominal wall desmoid tumor in a female patient with previous history of cesarean section. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a large mass mimicking a large hematoma or an intraabdominal mass. The tumor was removed by wide excision with safe margins. The abdominal wall defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Subsequent histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Desmoid tumors in females are often associated with pregnancy or occur post-partum. The reasons behind this association are unclear. The most common sites are in the abdominal muscles. PMID:23593530

Trigui, Khaled; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Sassi, Selim; Chebbi, Fathi; Touinsi, Hassen; Sassi, Sadok

2013-01-01

44

Usefulness of T wave inversion in leads with ST elevation on the presenting electrocardiogram to predict spontaneous reperfusion in patients with anterior ST elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Inversion of the T waves (T-) in electrocardiographic leads with ST-segment elevation after the initiation of reperfusion therapy is considered a sign of reperfusion. However, the significance of T- on presentation before the initiation of reperfusion therapy is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether T- on presentation predicts patency of the infarct-related artery in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) who undergo primary percutaneous interventions. The medical records, electrocardiograms, and angiographic findings of 209 consecutive patients who underwent emergent coronary angiography as part of primary percutaneous coronary intervention protocol activation for STEMI were reviewed. A total of 179 patients (86%) had positive T waves (T+), 16 (8%) had biphasic T waves (T+/-), and 14 (7%) had T-. Patency of the infarct-related artery (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] flow grades 2 and 3) was seen in 64.3% of the patients in the T- group compared with only 31.2% in the T+/- group and 19.0% in the T+ group (p <0.001). Among patients with anterior STEMI, patency of the infarct-related artery was seen in all 7 patients in the T- group, compared with 50% of the 4 patients in the T+/- group and 10.1% of the 79 patients in the T+ group (p <0.001). There were no significant differences in TIMI flow grade among the groups in patients with nonanterior STEMIs (p = 0.985). In conclusion, T- in the leads with maximal ST-segment elevation on the presenting electrocardiogram was associated with higher prevalence of patency of the infarct-related artery before intervention (64.3%), especially in patients with anterior STEMIs (100%). PMID:24176061

Alsaab, Ayham; Hira, Ravi S; Alam, Mahboob; Elayda, Macarthur; Wilson, James M; Birnbaum, Y

2014-01-15

45

Doppler-Derived Mitral Deceleration Time An Early Strong Predictor of Left Ventricular Remodeling After Reperfused Anterior Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The relation between remodeling and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function has not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether early assessment of Doppler-derived mitral deceleration time (DT), a measure of LV compliance and filling, may predict progressive LV dilation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results—Fifty-one patients (aged 61 611 years; 6 women)

Giampaolo Cerisano; Leonardo Bolognese; Nazario Carrabba; Piergiovanni Buonamici; Giovanni Maria Santoro; David Antoniucci; Alberto Santini; Guia Moschi; Pier Filippo Fazzini

46

Traumatic anterior abdominal wall hernia: A report of three rare cases  

PubMed Central

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare condition that can follow any blunt trauma. Associated intra-abdominal injuries are infrequent. In this study, we are reporting three cases, diagnosed as abdominal wall hernia associated with herniation of bowel loops due to blunt trauma. In one case, injury of the herniated bowel was seen. In western medical literature, only few cases have been reported especially with intra-abdominal injuries. PMID:21633587

Singal, Rikki; Dalal, Usha; Dalal, Ashwani Kumar; Attri, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Raman; Gupta, Anupama; Naredi, Bikash; Kenwar, Deepesh Benjamin; Gupta, Samita

2011-01-01

47

Temporary relocation of testes to the anterior abdominal wall before radiation therapy of the pelvis or perineum.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the treatment of pelvic malignancies in children has resulted in an increased life expectancy. In the past, treatment of soft tissue sarcomas with simple surgical excision resulted in a recurrence rate of approximately 75%. Combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have significantly altered the outcome of advanced pelvic soft tissue sarcomas. With the improved survival rate of patients treated with combination therapy, sterility secondary to radiation therapy has become an issue. As little as 600 rads to the gonads may result in sterility later in life. To alleviate this problem, relocating the gonads from the field of radiation has been suggested. In this report, we present a novel approach in which the testes are wrapped in SILASTIC (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) sheaths and are relocated temporarily into the anterior abdominal wall away from the radiation field. This alternative surgical approach should be considered in boys who are afflicted with a pelvic/perineal malignancy requiring radiation therapy. PMID:12149714

Acosta, Juan M; Tiao, Greg; Stein, James E; Mahour, G Hossein

2002-08-01

48

Efficacy and Safety of "Tension-free" Placement of Gynemesh PS for the Treatment of Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tension-free placement of a monofilament polypropylene mesh for the repair of an anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP). Materials and Methods Women aged ? 30 years with an AVWP stage of II or greater were included. Forty-nine women underwent trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS. Forty-six women who had symptomatic stress urinary incontinence received a midurethral sling (MUS). At the 12-month follow-up, evaluations were made for changes in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory. Cure was defined as a POP-Q stage of 0 and improvement as a stage of I. Complications were also evaluated. Results The cure rate was 71.4%, and the improvement rate was 18.4%. Obstructive/discomfort, irritative, and stress subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory anterior and posterior subscale scores of the POP Distress Inventory and the obstructive subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. Thirty-two of the 46 women (69.6%) who received MUS procedures reported no leakage after surgery. Complications were 2 cases of increased intraoperative bleeding and 1 case of vaginal erosion. Conclusions Trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS is a feasible and effective procedure for the treatment of AVWP with no significant complications. PMID:21120174

Lee, Young-Suk; Han, Deok-Hyun; Lim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Heon; Choo, Myung-Soo; Seo, Ju-Tae; Lee, Jeong-Zoo; Chung, Byung-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Gu

2010-01-01

49

Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture analysis can improve the level set segmentation around the abdominal region.

Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

2013-12-15

50

Role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting early adverse remodeling and subacute ventricular wall rupture complicating myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular free wall rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction accounting for a significant proportion\\u000a of in-patient deaths. Various imaging modalities including two-dimensional and contrast echocardiography have been applied\\u000a for the early diagnosis of free wall rupture. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has recently gained favor as a tool providing\\u000a accurate diagnosis and visualization of the site of rupture

Unni Krishnan; Gerry P. McCann; Mark Hickey; Matthias Schmitt

2008-01-01

51

The portal bifurcation and the termination of the hepatic veins: an anatomical investigation into the projection of the ultrasonographically important hepatic vessels onto the anterior body wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An investigation was carried out on 50 cadavers, in which the projection onto the anterior abdominal wall of the following vascular points was examined: the portal bifurcation, the direction of the course of the right and left branches of the portal vein and the terminal course of the hepatic veins near their entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC).

T Sauer; H Loeweneck

1991-01-01

52

Wide sternal retraction may impede internal mammary artery graft flow and reduce myocardial function during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: presentation of two cases  

PubMed Central

The internal mammary artery (IMA) is routinely used for grafting of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), providing good flow to the anterior left ventricle (LV) wall. Impeded IMA-to-LAD flow may result in myocardial ischaemia and haemodynamic deterioration. From a study population, we describe two incidents where myocardial ischaemia was observed during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), with a confirmed reduction in the IMA-to-LAD flow in one patient. In patient no. 1, normal IMA flow was assessed by transit-time flow measurement after a complete IMA-to-LAD anastomosis. The anterior LV wall thickening was monitored continuously by epicardial ultrasonic transducers. Normal wall thickening was confirmed after IMA grafting. During a wide sternal opening for circumflex grafting the anterior wall motion displayed an ischaemic pattern, with reduced systolic and increased post-systolic wall thickening. IMA flow was reduced simultaneously. When easing the sternal opening, IMA flow normalized, as did the motion pattern in the anterior LV wall. In patient no. 2, similar changes in wall thickening occurred during a wide sternal opening after IMA-to-LAD grafting. When easing the retractor, the wall thickening normalized. It is important for the surgeon to be aware of this possible cause of myocardial ischaemia, with a risk of subsequent haemodynamic deterioration. This may not only be of great importance during off-pump CABG, but can also be significant for successful weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass machine. PMID:22499803

Espinoza, Andreas; Bergsland, Jacob; Lundblad, Runar; Fosse, Erik

2012-01-01

53

Complete Heart Block Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete heart block (CHB) developed in 10.3% of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). It was more frequent among patients with inferior myocardial infarction compared to anterior myocardial infarction, but the mortality was significantly high among patients with anterior MI who devel oped CHB.A new classification into primary (P) and secondary (S) CHB is suggested by the sequence of events.

M. C. Gupta; M. M. Singh; P. K. Wahal; M. P. Mehrotra; S. K. Gupta

1978-01-01

54

Comparison of myocardial contrast echocardiography with NC100100 and 99mTc sestamibi SPECT for detection of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with previous myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) following intravenous injection of perfluorocarbon microbubbles permits identification of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction.?PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS—22 patients (mean (SD) age 66 (11) years) underwent MCE after intravenous injection of NC100100, a novel perfluorocarbon containing contrast agent, and resting 99mTc sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With both methods, myocardial perfusion was graded semiquantitatively as 1 = normal, 0.5 = mild defect, and 0 = severe defect.?RESULTS—Among the 203 normally contracting segments, 151 (74%) were normally perfused by SPECT and 145 (71%) by MCE. With SPECT, abnormal tracer uptake was mainly found among normally contracting segments from the inferior wall. By contrast, with MCE poor myocardial opacification was noted essentially among the normally contracting segments from the anterior and lateral walls. Of the 142 dysfunctional segments, 87 (61%) showed perfusion defects by SPECT, and 94 (66%) by MCE. With both methods, perfusion abnormalities were seen more frequently among akinetic than hypokinetic segments. MCE correctly identified 81/139 segments that exhibited a perfusion defect by SPECT (58%), and 135/206 segments that were normally perfused by SPECT (66%). Exclusion of segments with attenuation artefacts (defined as abnormal myocardial opacification or sestamibi uptake but normal contraction) by either MCE or SPECT improved both the sensitivity (76%) and the specificity (83%) of the detection of SPECT perfusion defects by MCE.?CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that MCE allows identification of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction, provided that regional wall motion is simultaneously taken into account.???Keywords: myocardial contrast echocardiography; NC100100; single photon emission computed tomography; perfusion PMID:10768900

Jucquois, I; Nihoyannopoulos, P; D'Hondt, A; Roelants, V; Robert, A; Melin, J; Glass, D; Vanoverschelde, J

2000-01-01

55

MRI evaluation of tibial tunnel wall cortical bone formation after platelet-rich plasma applied during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma. PMID:23801907

Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaž; Hussein, Mohsen

2013-01-01

56

Serial thallium-201 myocardial imaging after dipyridamole infusion: diagnostic utility in detecting coronary stenoses and relationship to regional wall motion  

SciTech Connect

After a 4-minute i.v. dipyridamole infusion, 0.14 mg/kg/min, serial thallium-201 scans were obtained in 60 patients undergoing cardia catheterization. Forty patients had significant (greater than or equal to50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 patients had normal coronary arteries or trivial lesions. The images were graded qualitatively for thallium activity by three observers. Sensitivity was 93% (37 of 40) and specificity was 80% (16 of 20). The sensitivity and specificity of the thallium-201 study were not affected by the extent of CAD, the presence of Q waves, or propranolol therapy. Twenty-seven of 37 patients who had initial defects (73%) had complete thallium redistribution of one or more defects. Patient-by-patient anlaysis using a regression model of all patients showed that the fate of a segmental thallium defect predicted abnormal wall motion by angiography better than ECG Q waves. The presence of propranolol therapy or collaterals did not significantly affect the thallium redistribution results. It is concluded that qualitative interpretation by multiple observers of thallium images after dipyridamole infusion is a highly sensitive and specific test for CAD. After dipyridamole, as with exercise stress, the extent of thallium redistribution is related to the degree of myocardial wall motion abnormality.

Leppo, J.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Newell, J.B.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

1982-09-01

57

Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ?2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ?2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ? 0.041) and of grade ? 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

Peterson, Jennifer L., E-mail: peterson.jennifer2@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Buskirk, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bernard, Johnny R. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern Ohio Medical Center, Portsmouth, OH (United States); Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2014-04-01

58

Congenital anterior abdominal wall defects in England and Wales 1987-93: retrospective analysis of OPCS data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Analysis of incidence and characteristics of congenital abdominal wall defects, with special reference to the differences between the incidence of gastroschisis and exomphalos (omphalocele). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (recoded to differentiate exomphalos and gastroschisis) and the National Congenital Malformation Notification Scheme. SETTING: England and Wales, 1987 to 1993. RESULTS: 1043 congenital anterior abdominal wall defects were notified within the seven year study period. Of these, 539 were classified as gastroschisis, 448 as exomphalos, 19 as "prune belly syndrome," and 37 as "unclassified." Gastroschisis doubled in incidence from 0.65 in 1987 to 1.35 per 10,000 total births in 1991, with little further change; the incidence of exomphalos decreased from 1.13 to 0.77 per 10000 births. The overall incidence of notified congenital abdominal wall defects was 2.15 per 10000 total births. Gastroschisis was associated with a lower overall maternal age than exomphalos and with a significantly lower proportion of additional reported congenital malformations (5.0%) than in the cohort with exomphalos (27.4%) (odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.22; P < 0.001). The sex ratio of the two cohorts was the same. The incidence of gastroschisis and exomphalos was higher in the northern regions of England than in the south east of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The national congenital malformation notification system showed an increasing trend in the incidence of fetuses born with gastroschisis and a progressive decreasing incidence of exomphalos in England and Wales between 1987 and 1993. Although the reasons for this are likely to be multifactorial, a true differential change seems likely. The observed increase in incidence of gastroschisis relative to exomphalos and the differentiation in maternal age have implications for resource management within the NHS and warrant further epidemiological monitoring. Regional differences may be due to a dietary or environmental factor, which requires further study. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8876090

Tan, K. H.; Kilby, M. D.; Whittle, M. J.; Beattie, B. R.; Booth, I. W.; Botting, B. J.

1996-01-01

59

Value of electrocardiogram in diagnosing right ventricular involvement in patients with an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.  

PubMed Central

To study the value of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing right ventricular involvement in acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the electrocardiographic findings were analysed in 67 patients who had had scintigraphy to pin-point the infarct. All 67 patients were consecutively admitted because of an acute inferior wall infarction. A 12 lead electrocardiogram with four additional right precordial leads (V3R, V4R, V5R, and V6R) was routinely recorded on admission and every eight hours thereafter for three consecutive days. Thirty-six to 72 hours after the onset of chest pain a 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy and a dynamic flow study were performed to detect right ventricular involvement, which was found in 29 of the 67 patients (43%). ST segment elevation greater than or equal to 1 mm in leads V3R, V4R, V5R, and V6R is a reliable sign of right ventricular involvement. ST segment elevation greater than or equal to 1 mm in lead V4R was found to have the greatest sensitivity (93%) and predictive accuracy (93%). The diagnostic value of a QS pattern in lead V3R and V4R or ST elevation greater than or equal to 1 mm in lead V1 was much lower. ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads was short lived, having disappeared within 10 hours after the onset of chest pain in half of our patients with right ventricular involvement. When electrocardiograms are recorded in patients with an acute inferior wall infarction within 10 hours after the onset of chest pain, additional right ventricular infarction can easily be diagnosed by recording lead V4R. Images PMID:6299315

Braat, S H; Brugada, P; de Zwaan, C; Coenegracht, J M; Wellens, H J

1983-01-01

60

Early diagnosis and management of myocardial rupture.  

PubMed

Left ventricular free wall rupture is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with rupture or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556

Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W

2015-01-01

61

Pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting for the reconstruction of anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn.  

PubMed

Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery. Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient. Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 3·5 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required. PMID:23490336

Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai

2015-02-01

62

A study of the clinical profile of right ventricular infarction in context to inferior wall myocardial infarction in a tertiary care centre  

PubMed Central

Introduction Right ventricular infarction, previously thought to be rare and recently thought to be common, is commonly associated with inferior wall myocardial infarction. We will hereby study the clinical profile of right ventricular infarction (as diagnosed by right precordial electrocardiography) in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and the clinical course of RV infarction in inferior wall myocardial infarction in terms of complications. Aims and objectives 1. To study the incidence of right ventricular infarction in patients of acute inferior myocardial infarction using right precordial electrocardiography. 2. To study the complications of right ventricular infarction. 3. To study the response of specific therapy in patients with right ventricular infarction. Materials & methods 50 patients with a history of chest pain less than 24 h were included in the study, standard 12 leads electrocardiography along with right side chest leads were taken on admission and on daily morning at 7 AM routinely for the first three days. A detailed clinical examination was done to find out the presence of right ventricular failure, left ventricular failure, hypotension and cardiogenic shock at the time of admission. Each patient was subjected to investigations viz. cardiac enzymes. Patients were grouped into two groups group A and group B according to the presence or absence of right ventricular infarction respectively. Results Of the total studied 50 patients, 16 patients had right ventricular infarction in association with inferior wall infarction of left ventricle. Complicated course was present in 75% of patients in group A as compared to 29.42% of patients in group B. Conclusion Complications and in-hospital mortality rates were more common in patients with right ventricular infarction than in patients without it. PMID:24396256

Chhapra, Daanish Aijaz; Mahajan, Sanket Kaushik; Thorat, Sanjay Tukaram

2013-01-01

63

Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness.  

PubMed

Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction < 30%) underwent cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Left ventricular long-axis function was measured as the portion of the SV, in milliliters, generated by AVPD. EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function. PMID:19933422

Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

2010-02-01

64

ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction after Pharmacologic Persantine Stress Test in a Patient with Wellens' Syndrome.  

PubMed

Wellens' syndrome, also known as LAD coronary T-wave inversion syndrome, is a characteristic ECG pattern that highly suggests critical stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. 75% of patients with this finding go on to develop acute anterior wall myocardial infarction within one week unless prevented by early intervention on the culprit lesion. Most instances of ST-elevation occurring during cardiac stress testing have been observed with exercise, with only seven cases reported in the literature with pharmacologic stress. We present a case of a patient with no known cardiac disease who presented with chest pain and an ECG consistent with Wellens' syndrome that developed an acute anterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction after pharmacologic stress test. PMID:25161778

Patel, Kunal; Alattar, Fady; Koneru, Jayanth; Shamoon, Fayez

2014-01-01

65

Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose-volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3-21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9-29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3-24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose-volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast-conserving surgery to decrease the radiation dose to the heart.

Tan Wenyong [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu Dong [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Xue Chenbin [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu Jiaozhen; Li Beihui [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Chen Zhengwang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Hu Desheng [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Wang Xionghong, E-mail: tanwyym@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China)

2012-04-01

66

Effect of tapering internal coronal walls on fracture resistance of anterior teeth treated with cast post and core: In vitro study  

PubMed Central

When fabricating indirect post and core, internal coronal walls are tapered to remove undercuts and allow a better adaptation. To evaluate the fracture strength of anterior tooth reconstructed with post and core and crowned, with two different taper of internal coronal walls, 6° and 30° to the long axis, two groups of 30 clear plastic analogues simulating endodontically treated maxillary central incisors were prepared. The analogues crowned were subjected to a compressive load with a 1-kN cell at a crosshead speed of 0.05?mm/min at 130° to the long axis until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed by Lillifors and Mann–Whitney tests. Mean failure loads for the groups were as follows: group I 1038.69?N (standard deviation ±243.52?N) and group II 1231.86?N (standard deviation ±368.76?N). Statistical tests showed significant difference between groups (p?=?0.0010?walls appears to enhance the fracture resistance of anterior maxillary teeth post and core reconstructed. PMID:25342986

Eid, Rita; Homsy, Fodda; Elhusseini, Hasan

2014-01-01

67

Segmental myocardial wall motion during minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting using open and endoscopic surgical techniques.  

PubMed

Current options for minimally invasive surgical treatment of single-vessel coronary artery disease include beating heart procedures without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via mini-thoracotomy (MIDCAB) and totally endoscopic robot-assisted techniques (TECAB) with CPB. Both procedures are associated with potential myocardial stress before revascularization, such as single-lung ventilation (SLV), temporary coronary artery occlusion, cardiac luxation, intrathoracic carbon dioxide insufflation, and extended CPB and operating time. In this echocardiographic study we sought to evaluate the extent of intraoperative segmental wall motion abnormalities (SWMA) during MIDCAB and TECAB surgery and to identify factors affecting SWMA. Forty-six patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease were studied. Sixteen patients were operated using the MIDCAB technique and 30 patients with TECAB. In both groups sequential transesophageal echocardiograms were recorded during the entire procedure. Hemodynamic data and oxygenation variables were acquired simultaneously. In both groups, mild but obvious perioperative SWMA were identified and noted to increase during the course of the operation. These SWMA were more pronounced in the TECAB group. Independent of operating time, these changes disappeared completely after revascularization. No significant hemodynamic compromise was observed. We conclude that MIDCAB and TECAB techniques are associated with significant perioperative SWMA. The appearance of more profound SWMA in the TECAB group compared with the MIDCAB patients might have been the result of intrathoracic CO(2) insufflation, as SLV was used in both groups. No persistent SWMA or post-CPB SWMA were apparent in either group. More extensive intraoperative ventricular SWMA was detected in the TECAB group, suggesting that a more frequent risk for right ventricular dysfunction may exist during TECAB procedures. PMID:15673848

Mierdl, S; Byhahn, C; Lischke, V; Aybek, T; Wimmer-Greinecker, G; Dogan, S; Viehmeyer, S; Kessler, P; Westphal, Klaus

2005-02-01

68

Resolution of airflow obstruction on polysomnography after laryngotracheal reconstruction with anterior tracheal wall suspension in a patient with DiGeorge Syndrome.  

PubMed

DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) may be associated with airway abnormalities including laryngomalacia and suprastomal collapse of the trachea (SCT), which may lead to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). We present a 4-year-old boy with DGS, SCT, and SDB by polysomnography (PSG) while the tracheostomy tube was capped. The patient underwent anterior tracheal wall suspension (ATWS) with concurrent tracheostomy decannulation. Following the repair, the patient experienced improved airway patency visually and by PSG with resolution of obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation. ATWS is an effective method to repair SCT in selected patients and may lead to early decannulation and improvement of SDB. PMID:25129846

Jon, Cindy; Mitchell, Sarah E; Mosquera, Ricardo A; Stark, James M; Yuksel, Sancak

2014-10-01

69

Rationale and Design of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of B-type Natriuretic Peptide For the Preservation of Left Ventricular Function Post Anterior Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone with pleiotropic cardio-protective properties. Previously in our non-placebo controlled, un-blinded pilot study (BELIEVE) in human ST-elevation anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a 72 hour intravenous infusion (IV) of recombinant human BNP (nesiritide) at a dose of 0.006 ug/kg/min suppressed plasma aldosterone and reduced cardiac dilatation while improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF) at 1 month compared to baseline. Methods and Design The BELIEVE II study is a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single center clinical trial to assess the efficacy of 72 hour IV infusion of nesiritide therapy (0.006 ug/kg/min), in humans with first time ST-elevation anterior AMI and successful reperfusion, in preventing adverse LV remodeling and preserving LV function. A total of 60 patients will be randomized to placebo or nesiritide therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint is LV end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions determined by MUGA scan between placebo and nesiritide group at 30 days; secondary endpoints include 30 day LV EF, diastolic function, infarct size, LV mass and combined total mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Conclusion This will be the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that will assess the clinical efficacy of nesiritide in human ST-elevation anterior AMI. PMID:23910581

Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Burnett, John C.; McKie, Paul M.; Schirger, John A.; Chen, Horng H.

2013-01-01

70

ACS, myocardial bridging, Tako-tsubo syndrome and mitral regurgitation  

PubMed Central

Isolated systolic compression of the mid portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) by a bridge of overlying cardiac muscle is an infrequent but well-recognised angiographic anomaly that is often considered harmless. The long-term prognosis appears to be excellent, but occasional reports of patients with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and sudden death indicate that this is not always true. The prevalence of the anomaly in the normal population is unknown, but the incidence is low and ischaemic events are rare. Tako-tsubo-like left ventricular dysfunction syndrome (TTS) is characterised by ischaemia, anterior ST-segment elevation, no significant coronary artery disease and reversible ampulla-like left ventricular ballooning in postmenopausal females after emotional or physical stress. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a rare but potentially fatal complication of acute anterior wall infarction. We present a patient with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with ST-segment elevation in the anterior leads, transient TTS and transient LVOT obstruction with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve and severe mitral regurgitation. This is the first report of myocardial bridging associated with TTS, and the first report of TTS associated with dynamic LVOT obstruction with SAM and mitral regurgitation. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3

Michels, R.; Brueren, G.; van Dantzig, J.-M.; Pijls, N.; Peels, C.H.; Post, H.

2005-01-01

71

The association of increased stomach wall radiotracer uptake with prolonged use of omeprazole capsules on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT.  

PubMed

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in routine practice for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). Intense curvilinear activity in the stomach wall of a patient was seen on MPI raw data. This phenomenon was completely dissimilar to the familiar intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. This observed activity could have resulted in false-positive or false-negative artifacts - and inaccurate diagnosis - of the inferior wall of the left ventricle after MPI processing. On further exploration, the current researchers found that the patient had a history of 10-year Omeprazole capsule consumption. The authors present this infrequent case of intense stomach uptake to stress the related clinical and diagnostic implications with the aim to stimulate acute awareness of possible, unexpected infringements on image quality that could potentially interfere with accurate interpretation of the data. PMID:24068640

Javadi, Hamid; Jallalat, Sara; Semnani, Shahriar; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Abbaszadeh, Moloud; Assadi, Majid

2013-01-01

72

Transmural Myocardial Mechanics During Isovolumic Contraction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We sought to resolve the 3-dimensional transmural heterogeneity in myocardial mechanics observed during the isovolumic contraction (IC) phase. BACKGROUND Although myocardial deformation during IC is expected to be little, recent tissue Doppler imaging studies suggest dynamic myocardial motions during this phase with biphasic longitudinal tissue velocities in left ventricular (LV) long-axis views. A unifying understanding of myocardial mechanics that would account for these dynamic aspects of IC is lacking. METHODS We determined the time course of 3-dimensional finite strains in the anterior LV of 14 adult mongrel dogs in vivo during IC and ejection with biplane cineradiography of implanted transmural markers. Transmural fiber orientations were histologically measured in the heart tissue postmortem. The strain time course was determined in the subepicardial, midwall, and subendocardial layers referenced to the end-diastolic configuration. RESULTS During IC, there was circumferential stretch in the subepicardial layer, whereas circumferential shortening was observed in the midwall and the subendocardial layer. There was significant longitudinal shortening and wall thickening across the wall. Although longitudinal tissue velocity showed a biphasic profile; tissue deformation in the longitudinal as well as other directions was almost linear during IC. Subendocardial fibers shortened, whereas subepicardial fibers lengthened. During ejection, all strain components showed a significant change over time that was greater in magnitude than that of IC. Significant transmural gradient was observed in all normal strains. CONCLUSIONS IC is a dynamic phase characterized by deformation in circumferential, longitudinal, and radial directions. Tissue mechanics during IC, including fiber shortening, appear uninterrupted by rapid longitudinal motion created by mitral valve closure. This study is the first to report layer-dependent deformation of circumferential strain, which results from layer-dependent deformation of myofibers during IC. Complex myofiber mechanics provide the mechanism of brief clockwise LV rotation (untwisting) and significant wall thickening during IC within the isovolumic constraint. PMID:19356557

Ashikaga, Hiroshi; van der Spoel, Tycho I. G.; Coppola, Benjamin A.; Omens, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

73

Longitudinal peak strain detects a smaller risk area than visual assessment of wall motion in acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opening of an occluded infarct related artery reduces infarct size and improves survival in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this study we performed tissue Doppler analysis (peak strain, displacement, mitral annular movement (MAM)) and compared with visual assessment for the study of the correlation of measurements of global, regional and segmental function with final infarct size and transmurality.

Lene Rosendahl; Peter Blomstrand; Lars Brudin; Tim Tödt; Jan E Engvall

2010-01-01

74

Myocardial microvascular function during acute coronary artery stenosis: effect of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia  

PubMed Central

Aims Coronary collateral arteries (CCA) reduce cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that new microvessels that proliferate in early atherosclerosis may be associated with myocardial protection during acute subtotal coronary artery obstruction (CAO). Methods and results Acute left anterior descending CAO was induced by a balloon catheter in pigs after 12 weeks of high-cholesterol (HC) diet, renovascular hypertension (HTN), or normal control. Cardiac structure, myocardial perfusion, and functional response to iv adenosine and CAO were studied in vivo using electron beam computed tomography (CT). The intra-myocardial microvessels were subsequently evaluated ex vivo using micro-CT, and myocardial expression of growth factors using immunoblotting. Basal myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability were similar among the groups, whereas their responses to adenosine were attenuated in HC and HTN. A significant decline in myocardial perfusion in normal pigs during acute CAO was attenuated in HC and abolished in HTN. CAO also elicited an increase in normal anterior wall microvascular permeability (+202 ± 59%, P < 0.05), which was attenuated in HC and HTN (+55 ± 9 and +31 ± 8%, respectively, P < 0.05 vs. normal). Microvascular (<200 µm) spatial density was significantly elevated in HC and HTN, accompanied by increased myocardial growth factor expression. Conclusion This study demonstrates that early exposure to the cardiovascular risk factors HC and HTN protects the heart from decreases in myocardial perfusion during acute subtotal CAO. This protective effect is associated with and potentially mediated by pre-emptive development of intra-myocardial microvessels that might serve as recruitable CCA. PMID:19423617

Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Daghini, Elena; Chade, Alejandro R.; Versari, Daniele; Krier, James D.; Textor, Kyle B.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

2009-01-01

75

ROC evaluation of SPECT myocardial lesion detectability with and without single iteration non-uniform Chang attenuation compensation using an anthropomorphic female phantom  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to evaluate lesion detectability with and without nonuniform attenuation compensation (AC) in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in women using an anthropomorphic phantom and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) methodology. Breast attenuation causes artifacts in reconstructed images and may increase the difficulty of diagnosis of myocardial perfusion imaging in women. The null hypothesis tested using the ROC study was that nonuniform AC does not change the lesion detectability in myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in women. The authors used a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm and Chang`s single iteration method for AC. In conclusion, with the proposed myocardial defect model nuclear medicine physicians demonstrated no significant difference for the detection of the anterior wall defect; however, a greater accuracy for the detection of the inferior wall defect was observed without nonuniform AC than with it. Medical physicists did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in defect detection accuracy with or without nonuniform AC in the female phantom.

Jang, S.; Jaszczak, R.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Biomedical Engineering]|[Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Radiology; Gilland, D.R.; Turkington, T.G.; Coleman, R.E. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Radiology; Tsui, B.M.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Biomedical Engineering; Metz, C.E. [Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, IL (United States). Radiology

1998-08-01

76

Cardiogenic shock accompanied by dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and myocardial bridging after transient complete atrioventricular block mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with or without mitral regurgitation is typically observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but is also occasionally seen without left ventricular hypertrophy. In this report, we present a case of cardiogenic shock that mimics ST-elevation myocardial infarction, due to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with transient mitral regurgitation and myocardial bridging after transient complete atrioventricular block. Case presentation A 65-year-old man with hypertension presented himself at the emergency department with syncope after chest pain. His initial electrocardiography showed inferior ST elevation with profound precordial ST depression and transient complete atrioventricular block. Due to sustained hypotension, an intra-aortic balloon pump was applied. His coronary angiography revealed almost normal right coronary artery and left circumflex artery and only a severe myocardial bridge in the mid-segment of his left anterior descending artery. Instead, severe mitral regurgitation was found without regional wall motion abnormality both in the left ventriculography and the portable echocardiography. However the severe mitral regurgitation completely disappeared in follow up echocardiography the day after. The pressure gradient across the left ventricular outflow tract was measured at 8.95 mmHg during the resting state, and was increased to 38.95 mmHg during the Valsalva state. Conclusions The patient presented with a case of cardiogenic shock that mimicked ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction combined with myocardial bridging in the mid-left anterior descending artery. PMID:24252345

2013-01-01

77

Commonalities of Cardiac Rupture (Left Ventricular Free Wall or Ventricular Septum or Papillary Muscle) During Acute Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease.  

PubMed

Although mortality rates during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) continue to drop, cardiac rupture (left ventricular free wall [LVFW] or ventricular septum [VS] or papillary muscle [PM] or combination) remains relatively common. The aim was to identify commonalities among patients with AMI complicated by cardiac rupture. During a 22-year period (1993-2014) 64 patients hospitalized for AMI were studied and clinical and morphologic variables in those with (25 patients) - vs - those without (39 patients) cardiac rupture were compared, and previous reports on this topic were reviewed. Compared to the non-rupture cases, the rupture group was significantly older (71 years - vs - 60 years); had a much higher frequency of huge deposits of adipose tissue in the heart (floated in formaldehyde) (88% - vs - 20%) but a lower mean body mass index (28.2 Kg/m(2) - vs - 33.2 Kg/m(2)); a much lower frequency of healed myocardial infarct (scar) (4% - vs - 28%); a lower frequency of diabetes mellitus (24% - vs - 47%), and a higher frequency of thrombolytic therapy during the fatal AMI (32% - vs - 10%). None of the rupture cases had evidence of dilated left ventricular cavities or evidence of heart failure before the AMI complicated by rupture. In conclusion, cardiac rupture appears to account for a high percent of deaths during a first AMI. It most commonly occurs in patients with extremely fatty hearts and in those without evidence of prior heart failure. PMID:25456862

Roberts, William C; Burks, Kendall H; Ko, Jong Mi; Filardo, Giovanni; Guileyardo, Joseph M

2015-01-01

78

Kounis Syndrome together with Myocardial Bridging Leading to Acute Myocardial Infarction at Young Age  

PubMed Central

Kounis syndrome, also named as “allergic angina syndrome,” is a diagnosis in which exposure to an allergen causes mostly coronary spasm and rarely plaque rupture, resulting in ischemic myocardial events. Myocardial bridging is defined as an intramural segment of a coronary artery and its systolic compression by overlying fibers. Myocardial bridging generally has a benign prognosis and mostly affects the mid portion of left anterior descending coronary artery. However, some cases with myocardial ischemia, infarction, and sudden death have also been reported. A 17-year-old boy presented to the clinic with acute anterolateral myocardial infarction after having first dose of clindamycin and diagnosed as Kounis syndrome. Further diagnostic workup of the patient showed myocardial bridging at the mid left anterior descending artery. In this report, we present the combination of Kounis syndrome and myocardial bridging leading to myocardial infarction at young age. PMID:22007234

Caglar, Ilker Murat; Vural, Alper; Turhan Caglar, Fatma Nihan; Ugurlucan, Murat; Karakaya, Osman

2011-01-01

79

Serendipitous discovery of non-sestamibi-avid squamous cell lung cancer invading the heart during myocardial perfusion imaging.  

PubMed

Scintigraphic and radiographic correlation of a non-sestamibi-avid lung mass invading the left ventricle serendipitously discovered during adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging is presented. The only clue to the presence of the mass was deformation of the anterior wall on SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. This case serves as a reminder that although the appearance of pathology on a nuclear medicine imaging study is typically what is seen (specifically, increased radiopharmaceutical uptake), it can just as importantly be what is not seen. PMID:23603600

Achong, Dwight M

2013-06-01

80

An interesting clinical scenario of patient with acute myocardial infarction with single coronary artery  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva  is an extremely rare condition. Right-sided single coronary trunk associated with rudimentary left coronary artery is probably the rarest. The clinical significance of single coronary artery (SCA) depends on its relationship with the great arteries. The causes of myocardial ischaemia in these arteries could be impaired vasodilator response, vascular compression between great arteries or atherosclerosis. We report a 42-year-old gentleman who presented with anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI) and thrombolysed with streptokinase. The coronary angiogram done revealed anomalous right SCA (Lipton type-RII/Yamanaka RIIA) with recanalised left anterior descending artery (LAD). In this case the cause of MI could be atherosclerotic, as this patient responded to thrombolytic therapy and coronary angiogram revealed recanalised LAD. This case highlights the fact that these anomalous arteries are susceptible to atherosclerosis as are normally arising coronary arteries. PMID:23405001

Bhairappa, Shivakumar; Bagi, Vittal; Subramani, Khamitkar Shankar Rao; Prasad, Naviluru Madaiah

2013-01-01

81

Long term prognostic value of subclinical carotid and femoral arterial wall lesions in patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction having percutaneous coronary intervention.  

PubMed

The presence of clinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. However, there are few data regarding the impact of the presence and degree of the subclinical PAD on outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to assess prospectively the grade of subclinical PAD in the setting of patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for the prediction of intermediate- and long-term clinical outcomes. A total of 971 consecutive patients without histories of clinical PAD who under went primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were included in a prospective follow-up. Subclinical PAD severity was blindly assessed on the basis of an ultrasound arterial morphologic classification defined with the assessment of wall carotid and femoral artery bifurcations. This classification included 4 increasing classes of subclinical carotid and femoral arterial wall lesions, and the total group was divided accordingly. Death and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were evaluated. During a median follow-up period of 40 months, a total of 109 patients (11.2%) died, 9 (2.8%) in class I, 12 (3.1%) in class II, 37 (23.7%) in class III, and 51 (49.0%) in class IV (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, mortality in class IV was sevenfold higher (hazard ratio [HR] 7.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3 to 16.33, p <0.001) compared to class I and was also increased in class III (HR 5.38, 95% CI 2.42 to 11.92, p <0.001). Similar results were obtained for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in class IV (HR 7.50, 95% confidence interval 5.36 to 10.50, p <0.0001), class III (HR 6.44, 95% CI 4.45 to 9.32, p <0.001), and class II (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.43, p = 0.002). In conclusion, ultrasound arterial morphologic classification may be applied in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention and can stratify patients for poor clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up. PMID:23246270

Monopoli, Daniel Enrique; Bertelli, Luca; Sgura, Fabio Alfredo; Politi, Luigi; Becirovic, Mirza; Iaccarino, Daniele; Lattanzi, Antonella; Rampino, Katia; Gorlato, Giulia; Menozzi, Mila; Zennaro, Romeo Giulietto; Rossi, Rosario

2013-03-01

82

Changes in myocardial echo amplitude during reversible ischaemia in humans.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--This study investigated the changes in regional myocardial ultrasonic backscatter, measured as myocardial echo amplitude, that occur during reversible myocardial ischaemia in humans. DESIGN--Left anterior descending coronary angioplasty was used to produce reversible myocardial ischaemia in human subjects. Regional myocardial echo amplitude was studied in the interventricular septum and left ventricular posterior free wall before, during, and after coronary occlusion with the angioplasty balloon. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle was performed from simultaneous cross sectional echocardiographic imaging. Patients were studied prospectively. PATIENTS--Six patients (mean age 56 (SD 11), range 46 to 69 years) with single vessel, left anterior descending coronary artery stenoses, were investigated during elective coronary angioplasty. A total of 11 balloon inflations were studied. SETTING--All patient studies were performed at Harefield Hospital. Echo amplitude analysis was performed at the Royal Brompton Hospital. INTERVENTIONS--Angioplasty was performed by the usual procedure at Harefield Hospital for elective coronary angioplasty. All routine medication including beta blockers and calcium antagonists were continued. Inflation pressures were up to 12 atm (1212 kPa) and mean inflation time ranged from 30 to 120 (86 (31)) s. In four studies the first inflation was examined, in three the second, in two the third, and in one each the fourth and fifth inflations. Echo amplitude and cross sectional echo-cardiographic studies were recorded with a 3.5 MHz Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) (720A/8736 series) mechanical sector scanner and an ATL Mark III (860-1 series) echocardiograph system with 45 dB logarithmic grey scale compression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Regional echo amplitude was examined in four regions of the left ventricle--namely, the basal and mid-septum, and basal and mid-posterior wall. Consecutive end diastolic and end systolic frames were analysed and cyclic variation was determined as the difference between the level of echo amplitude at end diastole and at end systole. Measurements were made before balloon inflation, at peak inflation, and after balloon deflation. Regional wall motion and systolic wall thickening were analysed qualitatively. RESULTS--Before balloon inflation, cyclic variation in echo amplitude was noted in all regions (basal septum, 2.4 (SD 1.1) dB; mid-septum, 2.5 (1.1) dB; basal posterior wall, 3.3 (2.1) dB; mid-posterior wall, 3.9 (1.6) dB). During balloon inflation there was a significant fall in cyclic variation to 0.4 (0.9) dB (p < 0.0002) in the mid-septum. This was predominantly owing to an increase in end systolic echo amplitude from 5.4 (2.0) dB to 9.3 (1.9) dB (p < or = 0.01). This was associated with the development of severe hypokinesis or akinesis in the mid-septum. No significant changes in echo amplitude occurred in the three other regions examined. Changes were completely reversed after balloon deflation. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest a causal relation between occlusion of the supplying coronary artery and blunting of myocardial echo amplitude cyclic variation. It is suggested that balloon occlusion produced myocardial ischaemia. The resultant impairment of myocardial contraction then caused a blunting of cyclic variation in echo amplitude. The results of this study provide further data about the ability of quantitative studies of ultrasonic backscatter to identify alterations in the myocardium during injury. PMID:1389716

Lythall, D A; Gibson, D G; Kushwaha, S S; Norell, M S; Mitchell, A G; Ilsley, C J

1992-01-01

83

Survival following self-limited left ventricular free wall rupture during myocardial infarction. Management differences between patients with or without pseudoaneurysm formation.  

PubMed

The clinical, angiographic and therapeutic features of eight patients who developed a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (PA) after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and those of 25 who did not develop this complication following a medically managed left ventricular free wall rupture (FWR) were compared. These 25 patients were treated with pericardiocentesis, extended rest and strict blood pressure control. Most patients with FWR or PA had a first AMI and absence of overt heart failure. Both groups had a comparable age, frequency of systemic hypertension and extent of coronary disease. Pericardial effusion (> or =10 mm) was documented in all patients with FWR and in two of the three with PA with this information. Twenty four patients with FWR were hospitalized within the first 48 h (96%) but only three of those with PA (37.5%, P<0.002). Moreover, in patients with PA, a FWR was not suspected during AMI and, as opposed to those with FWR, they did not undergo a strict blood pressure control or a restriction of physical activity following AMI. Also, beta blockers were administered to 15 patients with FWR (60%) but to only one with PA (11%, P<0.02). Our findings suggest that failure to recognise a self limited FWR during AMI and to provide adequate control of blood pressure and physical exercise during the acute phase and the early weeks postinfarction, are likely to favor development of PA. PMID:11461727

Figueras, J; Cortadellas, J; Domingo, E; Soler-Soler, J

2001-07-01

84

Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans, With or Without Anterior Myocardial Territory and Left Ventricle as Organs at Risk, in Early-Stage Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We evaluated heart sparing using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with the left ventricle (LV) and/or the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as additional organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected for dosimetric planning. Both lungs, the right breast, heart, LV, and AMT were defined as OARs. We generated one tangential field plan and four IMRT plans for each patient. We examined the dose-volume histogram parameters of the planning target volume and OARs. Results: Compared with the tangential field plan, the mean dose to the heart in the IMRT plans did not show significant differences; however, the dose to the AMT and LV decreased by 18.7-45.4% and 10.8-37.4%, respectively. The maximal dose to the heart decreased by 18.6-35.3%, to the AMT by 22.0-45.1%, and to the LV by 23.5-45.0%, And the relative volumes of the heart (V{sub {>=}12}), AMT (V{sub >11}) and LV (V{sub >10}) decreased significantly with different levels, respectively. The volume of the heart, AMT, LV, both lungs, and right breast receiving {>=}5 Gy showed a significant increase. Compared with the IMRT (H) plan, the mean dose to the heart, AMT, and LV decreased by 17.5-21.5%, 25.2-29.8%, and 22.8-29.8% and the maximal dose by 13.6-20.6%, 23.1-29.6%, and 17.3-29.1%, respectively. The IMRT plans for both lungs and the right breast showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The IMRT plans with the addition of the AMT and/or LV as OARs considerably increased heart sparing. We recommend including the LV as an additional OAR in such plans.

Tan Wenyong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang Xiaohong; Qiu Dasheng [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Liu Dong [Department of Radiology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Jia Shaohui; Zeng Fanyu [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Chen Zhengwang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li Beihui; Xu Jiaozhen; Wei Lai [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China); Hu Desheng, E-mail: tanwyym@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiotherapy, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan (China)

2011-12-01

85

Experimental myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Use of digitalis in myocardial infarction is controversial. To determine the efficacy and toxic threshold, serial infusions of 3 ?g/kg per min of acetyl-strophanthidin were given to six intact conscious dogs 24 hr before and 1 hr, 2 days, and 7 days after myocardial infarction induced by inflation of a balloon cuff implanted on the left anterior descending coronary artery. Within 1 hr after myocardial infarction, heart rate increased by 28%. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased from 7 to 20 mm Hg, and stroke volume decreased by 25%. At this time acetylstrophanthidin caused no beneficial hemodynamic change, 1 wk later, the heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure had declined toward normal but remained elevated. At this time, acetylstrophanthidin lowered left ventricular end-diastolic pressure by 25%, and increased the stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 21% respectively, without any change in heart rate or aortic pressure. Tolerance to acetylstrophanthidin, defined as appearance of ventricular tachycardia, declined the 1st hr after myocardial infarction by 24% (P<0.05) from the control level of 43 ±4 ?g/kg (SEM), but subsequently returned to control. Thus, immediately after myocardial infarction, tolerance to acetylstrophanthidin was reduced, and left ventricular failure was not ameliorated. 1 wk later in the healing phase of myocardial infarction, tolerance to acetylstrophanthidin returned to normal and left ventricular performance was improved by this drug. The study suggests a limited therapeutic role for digitalis in the treatment of left ventricular failure in the acute phase immediately after myocardial infarction, but beneficial effects may occur in the healing phase 1 wk later. PMID:5411786

Kumar, Raj; Hood, William B.; Joison, Julio; Gilmour, David P.; Norman, John C.; Abelmann, Walter H.

1970-01-01

86

Norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide responses to exercise testing in rehabilitated and nonrehabilitated men with ischemic cardiomyopathy after healing of anterior wall acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conclusion, a long-term cardiac rehabilitation program can improve exercise performance in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, and resting plasma levels of ANP and NE are sensitive indexes of exercise performance.

Joseph Shemesh; Ehud Grossman; Edna Peleg; Adam Steinmetz; Talma Rosenthal; Michael Motro

1995-01-01

87

Infarct Size as Predictor of Systolic Functional Recovery after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25004416

Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso R.; Cogni, Ana Lúcia; Azevedo, Paula S.; Okoshi, Katashi; Zanati, Silméia G.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

2014-01-01

88

Should We Establish a New Protocol for the Treatment of Peripartum Myocardial Infarction?  

PubMed Central

Peripartum myocardial infarction is a rare event that is associated with high mortality rates. The differential diagnosis includes coronary artery dissection, coronary artery thrombosis, vascular spasm, and stenosis. Our evaluation of 2 cases over a 5-year time period has led to a hypothesis that peripartum myocardial infarction is an immune-mediated event secondary to coronary endothelial sensitization by fetal antigen. In our patients, we supplemented standard medical therapy with immunotherapy consisting of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Herein, we present our most recent case—that of a 29-year-old black woman (gravida V, para IV), 2 weeks postpartum with no relevant medical history. She presented with a 1-week history of chest pain. Initial electrocardiographic and cardiac biomarkers were consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Echocardiography revealed reduced systolic function with inferior-wall hypokinesis. Angiography revealed diffuse disease with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery not amenable to revascularization. We were successful in treating the myocardial infarction without the use of catheter-based interventions, by modifying the immunologic abnormalities. Two cases do not make a protocol. Yet we believe that this case and our earlier case lend credence to the hypothesis that peripartum myocardial infarction arises from sensitization by fetal antigens. This concept and the immune-modifying treatment protocol that we propose might also assist in understanding and treating other inflammatory-disease states such as peripartum cardiomyopathy and standard acute myocardial infarction. All of this warrants further investigation. PMID:22740744

Houck, Philip D.; Strimel, William J.; Gantt, D. Scott; Linz, Walter J.

2012-01-01

89

Should we establish a new protocol for the treatment of peripartum myocardial infarction?  

PubMed

Peripartum myocardial infarction is a rare event that is associated with high mortality rates. The differential diagnosis includes coronary artery dissection, coronary artery thrombosis, vascular spasm, and stenosis. Our evaluation of 2 cases over a 5-year time period has led to a hypothesis that peripartum myocardial infarction is an immune-mediated event secondary to coronary endothelial sensitization by fetal antigen. In our patients, we supplemented standard medical therapy with immunotherapy consisting of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Herein, we present our most recent case-that of a 29-year-old black woman (gravida V, para IV), 2 weeks postpartum with no relevant medical history. She presented with a 1-week history of chest pain. Initial electrocardiographic and cardiac biomarkers were consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Echocardiography revealed reduced systolic function with inferior-wall hypokinesis. Angiography revealed diffuse disease with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery not amenable to revascularization. We were successful in treating the myocardial infarction without the use of catheter-based interventions, by modifying the immunologic abnormalities. Two cases do not make a protocol. Yet we believe that this case and our earlier case lend credence to the hypothesis that peripartum myocardial infarction arises from sensitization by fetal antigens. This concept and the immune-modifying treatment protocol that we propose might also assist in understanding and treating other inflammatory-disease states such as peripartum cardiomyopathy and standard acute myocardial infarction. All of this warrants further investigation. PMID:22740744

Houck, Philip D; Strimel, William J; Gantt, D Scott; Linz, Walter J

2012-01-01

90

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of the association between spatial orientation of ruptured coronary plaques and remodeling morphology of culprit plaques in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the spatial location of plaque rupture and remodeling pattern of culprit lesions in acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Positive remodeling suggests a potential surrogate marker of plaque vulnerability, whereas plaque rupture causes thrombus formation followed by coronary occlusion and MI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can determine the precise spatial orientation of coronary plaque formation. We studied 52 consecutive patients with acute anterior MI caused by plaque rupture of the culprit lesion as assessed by preintervention IVUS. The plaques were divided into those with and without positive remodeling. We divided the plaques into three categories according to the spatial orientation of plaque rupture site: myocardial (inner curve), epicardial (outer curve), and lateral quadrants (2 intermediate quadrants). Among 52 plaque ruptures in 52 lesions, 27 ruptures were oriented toward the epicardial side (52%), 18 toward the myocardial side (35%), and 7 in the 2 lateral quadrants (13%). Among 35 plaques with positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 21 (52%) on the epicardial side, 12 (34%) on the myocardial side, and 2 (6%) on the lateral side. However, among 17 plaques without positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 6 (35%), 6 (35%), and 5 (30%), respectively (p = 0.047). Atherosclerotic plaques with positive remodeling showed more frequent plaque rupture on the epicardial side of the coronary vessel wall in anterior MI than those without positive remodeling. PMID:21892739

Kusama, Ikuyoshi; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Masami; Sumita, Shinnichi; Tsukahara, Kengo; Okuda, Jun; Ebina, Toshiaki; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

2012-11-01

91

[Risk classification of patients with acute myocardial infarct using two-dimensional echocardiography].  

PubMed

30 patients with acute myocardial infarction were examined by means of two-dimensional echocardiography, clinically classified according to Killip and the requisite CK peak level was determined. An echocardiographic score system was used to quantify the wall movement disturbances. The patients were subdivided into 3 groups according to clinical course during hospitalization (average 4 weeks) and these data correlated to Killip classification, CK peak level and echocardiographic score system determined on admission: Group 1 (9 patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction), group 2 (11 patients with complicated posterior wall infarction), group 3 (10 patients with complicated anterior wall infarction). Cardiogenic shock, left ventricular pump failure, life-threatening arrhythmias and death were defined as complications. Mean value difference of the scores between group 1 and group 2 were significant (alpha less than 1%) and between group 1 and group 3 very significant (alpha less than 0.1%). With respect to CK, a significant difference existed between group 1 and group 2 and also between group 1 and group 3 (alpha less than 5%). Killip classification was specific, but very insensitive (64%). The echocardiographic score system is suitable for the prediction of in hospital course after myocardial infarction, and is superior to CK peak level determination. PMID:6666156

Zenker, G; Kandlhofer, B; Forche, G; Harnoncourt, K

1983-10-14

92

Lead aVL on electrocardiogram: emerging as important lead in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction?  

PubMed

Although a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that mandates emergency reperfusion therapy requires ST-segment elevation greater than 1 mm in at least 2 contiguous leads, some of the early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes of AMI can be subtle. Any ST-segment depression or T-wave inversion in lead aVL may be implicated in left anterior descending artery lesion or early reciprocal changes of inferior wall myocardial infarction, particularly when the clinical context suggests ischemia. Early recognition of reciprocal changes and serial ECG help initiate early appropriate intervention. Heightened awareness of ST segment and T-wave changes in lead aVL is of paramount importance to quickly identifying life-threatening condition. PMID:24792939

Hassen, Getaw Worku; Talebi, Soheila; Fernaine, George; Kalantari, Hossein

2014-07-01

93

Myocardial bridges: morphological and functional aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the arrangement of myocardial bridges. DESIGN--A necropsy study of 90 consecutive hearts (56 male, 34 female). RESULTS--Myocardial bridges, either single or multiple, were seen in 50 (55.6%) of the 90 hearts. The left anterior descending artery was the most commonly affected artery. Thirty five of the 50 hearts which contained in total 41 muscle bridges were dissected further

A G Ferreira; S E Trotter; B König; L V Décourt; K Fox; E G Olsen

1991-01-01

94

Percutaneous adventitial delivery of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stem cells via infarct-related artery improves long-term ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) results in ischemic damage and death of cardiomyocytes and loss of vasculature. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a potentially promising strategy for maximizing cardiac function following ischemic injury. Issues of cell source, delivery, and quantification of response have challenged development of clinically viable strategies. In this study we investigate the effects of a well-defined bone marrow-derived allogeneic cell product delivered by catheter directly to the myocardium via the infarct-related vessel on global and regional measures of left ventricular (LV) function in a porcine model of anterior wall myocardial infarction. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) were derived and expanded from the bone marrow of a donor Yorkshire pig. Anterior wall myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced by 90 min of mid-LAD occlusion using a balloon catheter. Two days after AMI was induced, either vehicle (Plasma Lyte-A, n = 7), low-dose (20 million, n = 6), or high-dose (200 million, n = 6) MAPCs were delivered directly to the myocardium via the infarct-related vessel using a transarterial microsyringe catheter-based delivery system. Echocardiography was used to measure LV function as a function of time after AMI. Animals that received low-dose cell treatment showed significant improvement in regional and global LV function and remodeling compared to the high-dose or control animals. Direct myocardial delivery of allogeneic MAPCs 2 days following AMI through the vessel wall of the infarct-related vessel is safe and results in delivery of cells throughout the infarct zone and improved cardiac function despite lack of long-term cell survival. These data further support the hypothesis of cell-based myocardial tissue repair by a paracrine mechanism and suggest a clinically translatable strategy for delivering cells at any time after AMI to modulate cardiac remodeling and function. PMID:22004910

Medicetty, Satish; Wiktor, Dominik; Lehman, Nicholas; Raber, Amy; Popovic, Zoran B; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Penn, Marc S

2012-01-01

95

Multiple coronary fistulae to left ventricle, with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

A rare case of myocardial infarction secondary to multiple coronary artery fistulae is described. Coronary angiography showed the fistulae originating from the distal septal branch of the left anterior descending artery and distal branches of the right coronary and circumflex arteries, and drained into the left ventricle. A myocardial perfusion scan showed a fixed perfusion defect. PMID:24585292

Uyar, Ihsan Sami; Akpinar, Besir; Senarslan, Omer; Sahin, Veysel; Uc, Halil

2014-01-30

96

Myocardial Infarction After Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 28-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after carbon monoxide poisoning is reported. He had chest pain after the exposure to carbon monoxide. The electrocardiogram, serum enzymes, and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigrams showed anterior myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram, which was performed one month after the onset, showed no visible atheroscler otic lesion. As to the cause of myocardial infarction, it

Shoji Ebisuno; Masao Yasuno; Yoshio Yamada; Yoshihide Nishino; Masatsugu Hori; Michitoshi Inoue; Takenobu Kamada

1986-01-01

97

Quantitative detection of myocardial ischaemia by stress echocardiography; a comparison with SPECT  

PubMed Central

Aims Real-time perfusion (RTP) adenosine stress echocardiography (ASE) can be used to visually evaluate myocardial ischaemia. The RTP power modulation technique angio-mode (AM), provides images for off-line perfusion quantification using Qontrast® software, generating values of peak signal intensity (A), myocardial blood flow velocity (?) and myocardial blood flow (Ax?). By comparing rest and stress values, their respective reserve values (A-r, ?-r, Ax?-r) are generated. We evaluated myocardial ischaemia by RTP-ASE Qontrast® quantification, compared to visual perfusion evaluation with 99mTc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and Results Patients admitted to SPECT underwent RTP-ASE (SONOS 5500) using AM during Sonovue® infusion, before and throughout adenosine stress, also used for SPECT. Visual myocardial perfusion and wall motion analysis, and Qontrast® quantification, were blindly compared to one another and to SPECT, at different time points off-line. We analyzed 201 coronary territories (left anterior descendent [LAD], left circumflex [LCx] and right coronary [RCA] artery territories) in 67 patients. SPECT showed ischaemia in 18 patients and 19 territories. Receiver operator characteristics and kappa values showed significant agreement with SPECT only for ?-r and Ax?-r in all segments: area under the curve 0.678 and 0.665; P < 0.001 and < 0.01, respectively. The closest agreements were seen in the LAD territory: kappa 0.442 for both ?-r and Ax?-r; P < 0.01. Visual evaluation of ischaemia showed good agreement with SPECT: accuracy 93%; kappa 0.67; P < 0.001; without non-interpretable territories. Conclusion In this agreement study with SPECT, RTP-ASE Qontrast® quantification of myocardial ischaemia was less accurate and less feasible than visual evaluation and needs further development to be clinically useful. PMID:19534829

Gudmundsson, Petri; Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Winter, Reidar; Dencker, Magnus; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Thorsson, Ola; Willenheimer, Ronnie B; Ljunggren, Lennart

2009-01-01

98

Electrocardiographic pattern combined with echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities in stress related cardiomyopathies: clinical and pathophysiological insights.  

PubMed

We report five cases of stress related cardiomyopathies that occurred in post-menopausal women (age range from 49 to 90) consecutively admitted to our Department in the last year in different clinical settings: typical anginal pain, carotid endarterectomy, pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, and severe asthenia. Apical left ventricular involvement was observed in three patients in conjunction with ECG mild ST segment elevation in anterior precordial leads resembling acute anterior myocardial infarction; isolated mid ventricular dysfunction was present in two patients in conjunction with ST segment depression in the anterior precordial leads. The ECG evolved showing T wave inversion in four cases and normalized in one. In all cases, blood chemistry showed mild elevation of CK-MB and TN. The observed wall motion abnormalities were reversible in four of five cases during hospital stay. Stress echocardiography was performed in two patients (dobutamine in the patient with persistent mid-ventricular hypokinesis, exercise in another case) and correctly predicted the absence of coronary artery disease. We conclude that wall motion analysis at echocardiography combined with ECG ST segment changes and serum markers of myocardial necrosis (CK-MB and TN) may allow recognition of stress cardiomyopathies in different clinical settings. Echo stress may be proposed in those patients in whom some suspicion of coronary artery disease persists. PMID:22452862

Berti, Marco; Ghizzoni, Giuseppe; Gualeni, Anna; Cantamessa, Paola; Oneglia, Carlo

2012-01-01

99

High reproducibility of adenosine stress cardiac MR myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of first-pass contrast-enhanced cardiac MR (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Single centre, tertiary care hospital. Participants 6 outpatient participants with NIDCM. Outcome Reproducibility of semiquantitative myocardial perfusion analysis by CMR. Method 6 patients with NIDCM were studied twice using first-pass of contrast transit through the left ventricular (LV) myocardium with a saturation-recovery gradient echo sequence at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia. The anterior wall was divided into endocardial (Endo) and epicardial (Epi) segments. The Myocardial Perfusion Index (MPI) was calculated as the myocardial signal augmentation rate normalised to the LV cavity rate. The Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index (MPRI) was calculated as hyperaemic/resting MPI. Results Between study 1 and 2, median MPI was similar for resting Endo (0.076 vs 0.077), hyperaemic Endo (0.143 vs 0.143), resting Epi (0.073 vs 0.074), and hyperaemic Epi (0.135 vs 0.134). Median MPRI was similar for Endo (1.84 vs 1.87) and Epi (1.90 vs 2.00). Combining Endo and Epi MPI (N=12), there was excellent agreement between Study 1 and 2 for resting MPI (r=0.998, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.998, coefficients of variation (CoV) 1.4%), hyperaemic MPI (r=0.979, ICC 0.963, CoV 3.3%) and MPRI (r=0.989, ICC 0.94, CoV 3.8%). Conclusions Resting and hyperaemic myocardial perfusion using a normalised upslope analysis during adenosine CMR is a highly reproducible technique in patients with NIDCM. Trial registration number Clinical Trials.Gov ID NCT00574119. PMID:25515841

Lawson, Mark A; Bell, Susan P; Adkisson, Douglas W; Wang, Li; Ooi, Henry; Sawyer, Douglas B; Kronenberg, Marvin W

2014-01-01

100

Aortic arch variant presenting as an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

A woman in her 40s presented to our institution with a first episode of sudden-onset right-sided chest pain. Initially, her ECG revealed ST segment elevation in leads V1–V3 and cardiac biomarkers were elevated with a troponin I (TnI) 5?µg/l. Her cardiac risk factors included type II diabetes mellitus and a history of hypertension. Intravenous heparin was initiated and emergent cardiac catheterisation revealed non-obstructive coronary artery disease. A two-dimensional echocardiogram confirmed hypokinesis of the anterior wall. A CT thorax demonstrated a rare anatomical variant of the aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery. This is a rare case of an aortic arch anomaly presenting as a myocardial infarction. PMID:23314453

Alirhayim, Zaid; Qureshi, Waqas; Shafiq, Ali; Hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

101

Stress echocardiography pattern: a promising noninvasive test for detection of myocardial bridging with haemodynamic relevance.  

PubMed

We reported a case of a young athlete with an underlying myocardial bridging in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) causing myocardial ischemia suspected by contrast exercise stress echocardiography and confirmed by computed tomography coronary angiography. Our report demonstrated that a specific stress echocardiography pattern consisting of reversible focal buckling in the end-systolic to early-diastolic motion of the septum may suggest the presence of an underlying myocardial bridging in the LAD. PMID:25469733

Siciliano, Mariachiara; Migliore, Federico; Piovesana, Piergiuseppe

2014-12-01

102

[Thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarct].  

PubMed

The data gained from clinical studies in the past years have indicated that the thrombolytic therapy (TL) has favourable effect on patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is aimed at reperfusion in the ischaemic area, a decrease in the extent of infarction site and a decrease in mortality. TL administered within the initial hours after the onset of AMI leads to better results than when administered after several hours. Currently, TL is not limited by age. The patients who were given streptokinase (SK) or anistreplase (APSAC) prior to more than 4 days, if necessary, urokinase or alteplase (rt-PA) should be given. There are differences in the opinions as to the optimal selection of thrombolytic drugs. However, all currently used drugs lead to a significant decrease in mortality due to AMI. The preferential use of accelerated administration of rt-PA in contrast to SK is justified in younger patients with extensive AMI of the anterior wall, in whom the therapy has begun within 4 hours since its onset. The occurrence of severe bleeding indicates that TL should be halted and coagulation factors should be replaced by freshly frozen plasma or fibrinogen concentrate, if necessary, transfusion of full blood should take place. If the severe bleeding occurs shortly after the administration of SK, the persisting plasminaemia can be arranged by antifibrinolytic drugs. An improvement in TL results can be achieved by adjuvant antithrombotic therapy. At the same time, in addition to acetylsalicylic acid, the patient treated with rt-PA should be given heparin. Heparin administration is not necessary in patients treated with SK or APSAC. However, heparin is indicated in patients at risk due to systemic embolization in congestive heart disease, extensive infarction or atrial fibrillation. (Tab. 1, Ref. 28.) PMID:9919745

Remková-Okrucká, A

1998-01-01

103

Myocardial Cell Death and Apoptosis in Hibernating Myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was designed to study apoptosis in hypoperfused hibernating myocardium subtending severe coronary stenosis.Background. Apoptosis contributes to myocyte death in acute myocardial infarction.Methods. A left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis was created in 13 pigs and maintained for 24 h (n = 4), 7 days (n = 5) and 4 weeks (n = 4) to reduce coronary blood

Chunguang Chen; Lijie Ma; Douglas R Linfert; Tianjie Lai; John T Fallon; Linda D Gillam; David D Waters; Gregory J Tsongalis

1997-01-01

104

Depression Increases Sympathetic Activity and Exacerbates Myocardial Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction: Evidence from an Animal Experiment  

PubMed Central

Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Excessive sympathetic activation and serious myocardial remodeling may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of depression on sympathetic activity and myocardial remodeling after MI. Wild-type (WT) rats were divided into a sham group (Sham), a myocardial infarction group (MI), a depression group (D), and a myocardial infarction plus depression group (MI+D). Compared with controls, the MI+D animals displayed depression-like behaviors and attenuated body weight gain. The evaluation of sympathetic activity showed an increased level in plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine and higher expression of myocardial tyrosine hydroxylase in the MI+D group than the control groups (p<0.05 for all). Cardiac function and morphologic analyses revealed a decreased fractional shortening accompanied by increased left ventricular dimensions, thinning myocardium wall, and reduced collagen repair in the MI+D group compared with the MI group (p<0.05 for all). Frequent premature ventricular contractions, prolonged QT duration and ventricular repolarization duration, shorted effective refractory period, and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia were displayed in MI+D rats. These results indicate that sympathetic hyperactivation and exacerbated myocardial remodeling may be a plausible mechanism linking depression to an adverse prognosis after MI. PMID:25036781

Liu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoran; Ruan, Bing; Sun, Lifang; Tang, Yanhong; Yang, Bo; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

2014-01-01

105

Acute myocardial infarction following honeybee sting.  

PubMed

The occurrence of acute myocardial infarction following a honeybee sting has been very rarely reported in the previous literature. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms include severe hypotension, rarely hypertension and coronary vasospasm with subsequent thrombosis of coronary vessels developed after the release of vasoactive, inflammatory and thrombogenic substances contained in the bee venom. This syndrome is also known as Kounis syndrome. We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction within 3 h of honeybee sting. He was treated with thrombolytic therapy. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries. PMID:24729117

Puttegowda, Beeresh; Chikkabasavaiah, Nagamani; Basavappa, Ramesh; Khateeb, Syed Tanveer Akmal

2014-01-01

106

Impact of platelet phenotype on myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Abstract In acute myocardial infarction patients the injured vascular wall triggers thrombus formation in the damage site. Fibrin fibers and blood cellular elements are the major components of thrombus formed in acute occlusion of coronary arteries. It has been established that the initial thrombus is primarily composed of activated platelets rapidly stabilized by fibrin fibers. This review highlights the role of platelet membrane phenotype in pathophysiology of myocardial infarction. Here, we regard platelet phenotype as quantitative and qualitative parameters of the plasma membrane outer surface, which are crucial for platelet participation in blood coagulation, development of local inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:25510672

Gabbasov, Zufar; Sabo, Jan; Petrovic, Daniel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Zagatina, Angela; Mrdovic, Igor; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Klimas, Jan; Kruzliak, Peter

2015-02-01

107

Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis  

SciTech Connect

A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

1986-09-01

108

Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine

Markus Schwaiger; Richard Brunken; Maleah Grover-McKay; Janine Krivokapich; John Child; Jan H. Tillisch; Michael E. Phelps; Heinrich R. Schelbert

1986-01-01

109

Anterior femoroacetabular impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior femoroacetabular impingement is a mechanical hip disorder defined as abnormal contact between the anterior acetabular rim and the proximal femur. The typical patient is a young man who practices a martial art that involves kicking. Mechanical groin pain is the main presenting symptom. Passive flexion and internal rotation of the hip replicates the pain. The range of internal rotation

Frédéric Laude; Thierry Boyer; Alexis Nogier

2007-01-01

110

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The bone-patellar tendon-bone has been widely used and considered a good graft source. The quadriceps tendon was introduced as a substitute graft source for bone-patellar tendon-bone. We compared the clinical outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. We selected 72 patients who underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone between 1994 and 2001 and matched for age and gender with 72 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-patellar bone. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. We assessed anterior laxity, knee function using the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores, and quadriceps strength, the means of which were similar in the two groups. More patients (28 or 39%) in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group reported anterior knee pain than in the quadriceps tendon-patellar bone group (six patients or 8.3%). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone graft showed clinical outcomes comparable to those of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the patellar tendon graft, with anterior knee pain being less frequent in the former. Our data suggest the quadriceps tendon can be a good alternative graft choice. Level of Evidence: Level III Therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196393

Han, Hyuk Soo; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Sahnghoon

2008-01-01

111

Relation between white blood cell count and final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the INFUSE AMI trial).  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) on presentation is associated with an increased risk of cardiac mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the responsible mechanisms are unknown. We therefore sought to investigate whether elevated WBCc is associated with increased infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Intracoronary Abciximab and Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients With Large Anterior Myocardial Infarction trial. INFUSE AMI randomized patients with STEMI and proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion to bolus intracoronary abciximab versus no abciximab and to manual aspiration versus no aspiration. WBCc at hospital admission was available in 407 of 452 randomized patients. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of WBCc. At 30 days, a significant stepwise increase in infarct size (percentage of total left ventricular mass) was apparent across tertiles of increasing WBCc (median [interquartile range] for tertiles I vs II vs III = 11.2% [3.8% to 19.6%] vs 17.5% [0.5% to 22.9%] vs 19.1% [13.7 to 26.0], respectively, p <0.0001). Absolute infarct mass in grams and abnormal wall motion score were also significantly increased across tertiles of WBC. By multivariate linear regression analysis, WBCc was an independent predictor of infarct size along with intracoronary abciximab randomization, age, time from symptom onset to first device, proximal left anterior descending location, and baseline TIMI flow of 0/1. In conclusion, in patients with anterior wall STEMI, an elevated admission WBCc is a powerful independent predictor of infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24063843

Palmerini, Tullio; Brener, Sorin J; Genereux, Philippe; Maehara, Akiko; Della Riva, Diego; Mariani, Andrea; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Godlewski, Jacek; Parise, Helen; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Ochala, Andrzej; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W

2013-12-15

112

Percutaneous Intramyocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Superior Improvement in Regional Left Ventricular Function Compared with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Porcine Myocardial Infarcted Heart  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the efficacy and feasibility of percutaneous intramyocardial injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC) on cardiac functional improvement in porcine myocardial infarcted hearts. Methods and Results: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in 22 minipigs by temporary balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60min.Two weeks post AMI, BMMNC (n = 7, 245 ± 98×106), MSC (n = 8, 56 ± 17×106), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 7) were injected intramyocardially. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion were analyzed by echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) at 1 week before AMI and 2 and 10 weeks after AMI. Cell engraftment, proliferation, vascular density, and cardiac fibrosis were evaluated by histology analysis. In all groups, the echocardiography revealed no significant change in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), or left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) at 10 weeks after AMI compared with those at 2 weeks after AMI. However, the wall motion score index (WMSI) and left ventricular systolic wall thickening (WT%) were significantly improved at 10 weeks compared with those at 2 weeks after AMI in the MSC group (WMSI 1.55 ± 0.06 vs. 1.87 ± 0.10, WT 33.4 ± 2.3% vs.24.8 ± 2.7%,p < 0.05) but not in the BMMNC group. In addition, myocardial perfusion quantified by SPECT/CT was improved in both the MSC and BMMNC groups, whereas the MSC group showed a superior improvement in vascular density and collagen volume fraction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This preclinically relevant study suggests that when delivered by percutaneous (transcatheter) intramyocardial injection, MSC might be more effective than BMMNC to improve ischemia and reperfusion after AMI. PMID:25553108

Tao, Bo; Cui, Mingliang; Wang, Chen; Ma, Sai; Wu, Feng; Yi, Fu; Qin, Xing; Liu, Junting; Wang, Haichang; Wang, Zhe; Ma, Xiaowei; Tian, Jie; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Jing; Cao, Feng

2015-01-01

113

Usefulness of low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography for evaluating reversibility of brain death–induced myocardial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the myocardial wall motion abnormalities in heart donors are reversible after transplantation, indicating that the presence of wall motion abnormalities should not automatically lead to the exclusion of donor hearts. The present study observes the natural course of brain death–induced myocardial dysfunction, and investigates whether low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography could identify reversible myocardial dysfunction in brain-dead patients. We

Tatsuji Kono; Takuya Nishina; Hiroshi Morita; Yuzo Hirota; Keishiro Kawamura; Akira Fujiwara

1999-01-01

114

[Comparative effects of intracoronary fibrinolysis and conventional treatment of myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

57 patients with a complete coronary thrombosis were treated by intracoronary fibrinolysis during the first 6 hours of inaugural myocardial infarction. The artery was revascularised in 37 cases (65 p. 100). Eleven patients had isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending artery and 16 patients isolated stenosis of the right coronary artery. These patients were compared with 27 other patients admitted between the 6th and 18th hours of primary myocardial infarction treated conventionally, in whom coronary angiography performed between the 14th and 21st day after infarction showed isolated left anterior descending disease in 14 cases (9 thromboses and 5 stenoses) and isolated right coronary disease in 13 cases (7 thromboses and 6 stenoses). The haemodynamic data and heart rates were identical in both groups during control coronary angiography between the 14th and the 21st days. Global left ventricular function and regional wall motion were studied by 30 degrees right anterior oblique ventriculography using the Stanford method before fibrinolysis in the first group and at the end of the 3rd week in both groups. In LAD, repermeabilisation by fibrinolysis, significant improvements were observed in ejection fraction (EF p. 100 = 42 +/- 9 vs 50.6 +/- 14 p. 100, p less than 0.05); fractional shortening of the hypokinetic segment (FS p. 100 = 4.5 +/- 4.6 vs 12.4 +/- 8.8 p. 100, p less than 0.001), and in the number of hypokinetic or akinetic segments (6.0 +/- 1.1 vs 4.2 +/- 2.1, p less than 0.05). Segmental and global left ventricular function was much poorer in the group treated conventionally at the 21st day (EF p. 100 = 44 +/- 11 p. 100, p less than 0.05; FS p.t100 = 5.8 +/- 9.7 p.t100, p less than 0.05; number of diseased segments: 6.0 +/- 1.4, p less than 0.01). On the other hand, the improvement was less marked in patients with inferior wall infarction; the results in the two groups were comparable. PMID:3929713

Ledain, L; Colle, J P; Ohayon, J; Gosse, P; Besse, P

1985-06-01

115

A murine closed-chest model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.  

PubMed

Surgical trauma by thoracotomy in open-chest models of coronary ligation induces an immune response which modifies different mechanisms involved in ischemia and reperfusion. Immune response includes cytokine expression and release or secretion of endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors. Activation of innate immunity can potentially modulate infarct size. We have modified an existing murine closed-chest model using hanging weights which could be useful for studying myocardial pre- and postconditioning and the role of innate immunity in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. This model allows animals to recover from surgical trauma before onset of myocardial ischemia. Volatile anesthetics have been intensely studied and their preconditioning effect for the ischemic heart is well known. However, this protective effect precludes its use in open chest models of coronary artery ligation. Thus, another advantage could be the use of the well controllable volatile anesthetics for instrumentation in a chronic closed-chest model, since their preconditioning effect lasts up to 72 hours. Chronic heart diseases with intermittent ischemia and multiple hit models are other possible applications of this model. For the chronic closed-chest model, intubated and ventilated mice undergo a lateral blunt thoracotomy via the 4th intercostal space. Following identification of the left anterior descending a ligature is passed underneath the vessel and both suture ends are threaded through an occluder. Then, both suture ends are passed through the chest wall, knotted to form a loop and left in the subcutaneous tissue. After chest closure and recovery for 5 days, mice are anesthetized again, chest skin is reopened and hanging weights are hooked up to the loop under ECG control. At the end of the ischemia/reperfusion protocol, hearts can be stained with TTC for infarct size assessment or undergo perfusion fixation to allow morphometric studies in addition to histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22847277

Kim, Se-Chan; Boehm, Olaf; Meyer, Rainer; Hoeft, Andreas; Knüfermann, Pascal; Baumgarten, Georg

2012-01-01

116

Implantation of a Three-Dimensional Fibroblast Matrix Improves Left Ventricular Function and Blood Flow After Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine if a viable biodegradable three-dimensional fibroblast construct (3DFC) patch implanted on the left ventricle after myocardial infarction (MI) improves left ventricular (LV) function and blood flow. We ligated the left coronary artery of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted the 3DFC at the time of the infarct. Three weeks after MI, the 3DFC improved LV systolic function by increasing (p < 0.05) ejection fraction (37 ± 3% to 62 ± 5%), increasing regional systolic displacement of the infarcted wall (0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.11 ± 0.03 cm), and shifting the passive LV diastolic pressure volume relationship toward the pressure axis. The 3FDC improved LV remodeling by decreasing (p < 0.05) LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters with no change in LV systolic pressure. The 3DFC did not change LV end-diastolic pressure (LV EDP; 25 ± 2 vs. 23 ± 2 mmHg) but the addition of captopril (2mg/L drinking water) lowered (p < 0.05) LV EDP to 12.9 ± 2.5 mmHg and shifted the pressure–volume relationship toward the pressure axis and decreased (p < 0.05) the LV operating end-diastolic volume from 0.49 ± 0.02 to 0.34 ± 0.03 ml. The 3DFC increased myocardial blood flow to the infarcted anterior wall after MI over threefold (p < 0.05). This biodegradable 3DFC patch improves LV function and myocardial blood flow 3 weeks after MI. This is a potentially new approach to cell-based therapy for heart failure after MI. PMID:19558777

Thai, Hoang M.; Juneman, Elizabeth; Lancaster, Jordan; Hagerty, Tracy; Do, Rose; Castellano, Lisa; Kellar, Robert; Williams, Stuart; Sethi, Gulshan; Schmelz, Monika; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven

2009-01-01

117

Acute myocardial infarction in a young man after heat exhaustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 33-year-old man with heat exhaustion was admitted to our hospital suffering from severe chest pain. Serum creatine kinase elevation and new Q waves revealed myocardial infarction of the inferior wall. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate suggested diffuse myocardial damage, although the left ventricular function was normal by echocardiography. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of heat stroke and heat exhaustion, as

Juan C. García-Rubira; Javier Aguilar; Dolores Romero

1995-01-01

118

Relation among exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, and viability late after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

This study assesses the relation between exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and scintigraphic markers of myocardial ischemia and viability in patients referred for exercise stress testing late after acute myocardial infarction. We studied 171 patients (144 men, age 57 +/- 10 years) with resting wall motion abnormalities by exercise stress testing in conjunction with methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography at a mean of 4.1 years after myocardial infarction. Ischemia was defined as reversible perfusion abnormalities. Myocardial viability was considered in myocardial segments with resting wall motion abnormalities in the presence of normal perfusion, a reversible defect or a fixed defect with regional MIBI uptake > or = 50% of maximal uptake. Exercise-induced VA occurred in 46 patients (27%). Patients with VA had a higher prevalence of infarct-related artery stenosis (43 [93%] vs 93 [74%], p < 0.01), peri-infarction ischemia (32 [70%] vs 54 [43%], p < 0.005), and ischemia in > or = 2 vascular regions (20 [43%] vs 27 [22%], p < 0.01) than patients without VA. Reversible defects were detected in 39 of 97 dyssynergic segments (40%) in patients with versus 40 of 248 dyssynergic segments (16%) in patients without VA (p < 0.0001). In dyssynergic segments without reversible perfusion abnormalities, the percent resting MIBI uptake was > or = 50% in 39 of 58 segments (67%) in patients with versus 63% in 131 of 208 segments in patients without VA (p = NS). The percentage of viable segments was 80% and 69% in patients with and without VA, respectively (p < 0.05). It is concluded that patients with exercise-induced VA late after myocardial infarction have a higher prevalence of ischemia in the peri-infarction zone and in multivessel distribution. Myocardial ischemia in the dyssynergic myocardium appears to be a major mechanism underlying the occurrence of VA in these patients. PMID:11018190

Elhendy, A; Sozzi, F B; van Domburg, R T; Bax, J J; Geleijnse, M L; Roelandt, J R

2000-10-01

119

Contrast echocardiography accurately predicts myocardial perfusion before angiography during acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) can quickly and accurately assess myocardial perfusion and infarct-related artery (IRA) patency before emergency angiography during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging experimental and clinical studies, the reliability and practicality of MCE in predicting IRA patency during AMI before angiography has not been proven. METHODS: Two-dimensional echocardiography and MCE were performed in 51 patients with AMI just before emergency angiography. With knowledge of the electrocardiogram findings and regional wall motion, myocardial perfusion was assessed to predict IRA patency. RESULTS: Myocardial perfusion studies were adequate for interpretation in 40 patients. An occluded IRA was predicted in 28 patients; the artery was occluded in 22 patients, and six patients had Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 2 flow or less. A patent IRA was predicted in 12 patients; eight patients had TIMI grade 3 flow, one patient had TIMI grade 2 flow and the IRA was occluded in three patients. In one of the three patients, the appropriate view was not obtained. In another patient, collateral flow was adequate for near-normal regional wall motion, and in the last, the findings suggested reperfusion of the proximal artery with distal embolic occlusion. Taken together, MCE accurately predicted either TIMI grade 2 flow or less, or TIMI grade 3 flow in 36 of 40 patients. Sensitivity was 87.5%, specificity and positive predictive value were 100% and negative predictive power was 66.7% (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MCE, together with the electrocardiogram and regional wall motion, can be used to quickly and reliably predict IRA patency early during AMI and may be useful to facilitate a management strategy. PMID:17985005

Schnell, Gregory B; Kryski, Albert J; Mann, Luana; Anderson, Todd J; Belenkie, Israel

2007-01-01

120

The course of myocardial hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Results of a 10-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Sixty-nine patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were followed up for a minimum period of 10 years, with detailed quantitation of myocardial hypertrophy using two-dimensional echocardiography at a two-year interval. The parameters determined included maximum myocardial wall thickness, mean myocardial wall thickness (defined as the arithmetic mean of myocardial wall thickness values measured in ten areas of approximately the same size the LV and septal myocardium had been divided into), and the extent of hypertrophy (percentage of the myocardium affected by hypertrophy). Other echocardiographic parameters as well as clinical, ECG and Holter data were also assessed. Seven patients (10%) showed a gradual increase in mean myocardial wall thickness (associated with an increase in maximum myocardial wall thickness and in the extent of hypertrophy in two). By contrast, a progressive decrease in hypertrophy was observed in six patients (9%). In either case, the observed changes tended to involve areas in segments outside the zone of maximum wall thickness. Generally, the changes in hypertrophy were not related to the development of clinical or Holter manifestations, and were unaffected by verapamil or beta-blocker therapy. There was no death among these patients unlike the five deaths in a group with stationary hypertrophy. Based on their results, the authors conclude that changes in myocardial hypertrophy (regardless of whether there is progression or regression) probably make part of natural variations in the course of the disease, and have no clinical or prognostic implications for the majority of patients. PMID:8348815

Gregor, P; Widimský, P

1993-01-01

121

Full-motion pulse inversion power Doppler contrast echocardiography differentiates stunning from necrosis and predicts recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe goal of this study was to determine, in patients with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) and residual wall motion abnormalities within the distribution of the infarct-related artery, whether normal perfusion by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) would accurately predict recovery of segmental left ventricular (LV) function.BACKGROUNDLeft ventricular dysfunction after acute MI may be secondary to myocardial stunning or necrosis. Recent

Michael L. Main; Anthony Magalski; Nicholas K. Chee; Michael M. Coen; David G. Skolnick; Thomas H. Good

2001-01-01

122

A Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly: Double Left Anterior Descending Artery  

PubMed Central

Double left anterior descending coronary artery arising from the left and right coronary arteries is one of the rarest of coronary anomalies. In this report, we present a case of double left anterior descending coronary artery with one originating from the left main stem and the second one originating from the same ostium with the right coronary artery, passing to the left side following an inter-arterial course between aorta and right ventricular outflow tract and spreading to the anterior wall of the left ventricle. The diagnosis was made with multislice computed tomography angiography. To our knowledge, only a few such cases have been published in the literature so far. PMID:23393639

Oncel, Guray; Oncel, Dilek

2012-01-01

123

Effect of Hyperinsulinemia on Myocardial Fluorine18FDG Uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of insulin on myocardial kinetics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)and glucose in patients with ischemie heart disease. Methods: Twelve male pa tients (age range 54-79 yr; mean age 69 ±8 yr) were studied during the fasting awake state. Patients with diabetes and previous myo cardial infarction of the left anterior descending vascular bed were excluded

Chin K. Ng; Robert Soufer; Patrick H. McNulty

124

Acute myocardial infarction and multiple traumas: a dilemma of protocol.  

PubMed

Treatment of myocardial infarction is today governed by specific protocols. Angioplasty involves a therapeutical anticoagulation to prevent the risk of acute thrombosis. Acute myocardial infarction after a blunt trauma has been described, but there is no specific treatment recommendations extant, particularly weighing the risk of hemorrhage. In this report, we describe an adolescent boy who suffered from an acute myocardial infarction by dissection of the left anterior descending coronary after a car crash. He also presented with a subdural hemorrhage and a lung contusion, injuries, which both present a substantial risk of hemorrhage. After diagnosing the therapeutical problem, we describe our decisions regarding how we approached this case. We provide an algorithm of treatment coming from our experience of these cases with the hope it can help physicians in their future decisions. PMID:21295431

Chimot, Loïc; Leroux, Lionel; Morel, Nicolas

2012-01-01

125

Intake of hot water-extracted apple protects against myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.  

PubMed

Intakes of apple and its products are shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by delaying occlusion of coronary arteries. In our previous study, we showed that apple pectin protected against myocardial injury by prohibiting apoptotic cascades in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, we hypothesized that water-extracted apple, into which apple pectin was released from the cell wall, might exhibit the same efficacy as apple pectin. To test this hypothesis, we fed rats either cold water- (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or hot water-extracted apples (HWEA; 40, 100, and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Three days later, the rats were subjected to myocardial injuries by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (30 minutes), and subsequently, the heart (3 hours) reperfused by releasing the ligation. Only the rats that were supplemented with HWEA (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) showed significant reductions in infarct size, which was 28.5% smaller than that of the control group. This infarct size reduction could be partly attributed to the prevention of steps leading to apoptosis. These steps are manifested by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio, lower procaspase-3 conversion to caspase-3, and inhibition of DNA nick generation, which reflects the extent of apoptosis. The findings indicate that HWEA supplementation reduces myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that apple intake, specifically boiled apple, might reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by inhibiting postocclusion steps, such as myocardial injury after artery occlusion, as well as preocclusion steps, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:25304826

Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

2014-11-01

126

Acute myocardial infarction: a rare complication of the thrombotic tendency in nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

The association of nephrotic syndrome with a hypercoagulable state and vascular thrombosis is well recognised. We present a case of acute anterior myocardial infarction in a young man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change glomerulonephritis, in which subsequent coronary angiography showed no evidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and thrombotic occlusion of an otherwise normal left anterior descending coronary artery was the likely cause of presentation. PMID:7917806

Lip, G Y; Tean, K N; Dunn, F G

1994-01-01

127

Gene therapy with iNOS provides long-term protection against myocardial infarction without adverse functional consequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects against myocardial infarction at 3 days after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of iNOS gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and cardiac function are unknown. To address this issue, we used a recombinant adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector (Av3) with deletions of the E1, E2a, and E3 regions, which enables long-lasting recombinant gene expression for at least 2 mo due to lack of inflammation. Mice received intramyocardial injections in the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall of Av3/LacZ (LacZ group) or Av3/iNOS (iNOS group); 1 or 2 mo later, they were subjected to myocardial infarction (30-min coronary occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion). Cardiac iNOS gene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting and activity assays at 1 and 2 mo after gene transfer. In the iNOS group, infarct size (percentage of risk region) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) both at 1 mo (24.2 ± 3.4%, n = 6, vs. 48.0 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group) and at 2 mo (23.4 ± 3.1%, n = 8, vs. 36.6 ± 2.4%, n = 7). The infarct-sparing effects of iNOS gene therapy were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (23.1 ± 3.4%, n = 10). iNOS gene transfer had no effect on LV function or dimensions up to 8 wk later (echocardiography). These data demonstrate that iNOS gene therapy mediated by the Av3 vector affords long-term (2 mo) cardioprotection without inflammation or adverse functional consequences, a finding that provides a rationale for further preclinical testing of this therapy. PMID:16172153

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Tan, Wei; Stein, Adam B.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Wu, Wen-Jian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Tariq; Tiwari, Sumit; Bolli, Roberto

2013-01-01

128

Quantification of resting myocardial blood flow velocity in normal humans using real-time contrast echocardiography. A feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is a novel method for assessing myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a very low-power real-time MCE for quantification of regional resting myocardial blood flow (MBF) velocity in normal human myocardium. Methods Twenty study subjects with normal left ventricular (LV) wall motion and normal coronary arteries, underwent low-power real-time MCE based on color-coded pulse inversion Doppler. Standard apical LV views were acquired during constant IV. infusion of SonoVue®. Following transient microbubble destruction, the contrast replenishment rate (?), reflecting MBF velocity, was derived by plotting signal intensity vs. time and fitting data to the exponential function; y (t) =A (1-e-?(t-t0)) + C. Results Quantification was feasible in 82%, 49% and 63% of four-chamber, two-chamber and apical long-axis view segments, respectively. The LAD (left anterior descending artery) and RCA (right coronary artery) territories could potentially be evaluated in most, but contrast detection in the LCx (left circumflex artery) bed was poor. Depending on localisation and which frames to be analysed, mean values of were 0.21–0.69 s-1, with higher values in medial than lateral, and in basal compared to apical regions of scan plane (p = 0.03 and p < 0.01). Higher ?-values were obtained from end-diastole than end-systole (p < 0.001), values from all-frames analysis lying between. Conclusion Low-power real-time MCE did have the potential to give contrast enhancement for quantification of resting regional MBF velocity. However, the technique is difficult and subjected to several limitations. Significant variability in ? suggests that this parameter is best suited for with-in patient changes, comparing values of stress studies to baseline. PMID:15958173

Malm, Siri; Frigstad, Sigmund; Helland, Frode; Oye, Kjetil; Slordahl, Stig; Skjarpe, Terje

2005-01-01

129

Clinical features of early myocardial rupture of acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We assessed the clinical features of patients with myocardial rupture within 48 to 72 hours, defined as early myocardial rupture, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Six patients (4 men, 66 ± 13 years) with early myocardial rupture were identified from 1252 consecutive patients undergoing PCI for STEMI. We evaluated the degree of microvascular reperfusion using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade and a resolution of sum of ST-segment elevation in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Time from PCI to myocardial rupture was 11 ± 7 hours. All patients showed TMP grade 0 or 1 and an increase in sum of ST-segment elevation after PCI (1.9 ± 0.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.7 mV; P = .032), suggesting severely failed reperfusion at the level of microcirculation as the common feature to develop early myocardial rupture after PCI for STEMI. PMID:22007028

Suzuki, Makoto; Enomoto, Daijiro; Seike, Fumiyasu; Fujita, Shimpei; Honda, Kazuo

2012-08-01

130

Magnetic targeting enhances retrograde cell retention in a rat model of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Retrograde coronary venous infusion is a promising delivery method for cellular cardiomyoplasty. Poor cell retention is the major obstacle to the establishment of this method as the preferred route for cell delivery. Here, we explored whether magnetic targeting could enhance retrograde cell retention in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Methods Rat mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with superparamagnetic oxide nanoparticles. The magnetic responsiveness of MSCs was observed while cells flowed through a tube that served as a model of blood vessels in a 0.6-Tesla magnetic field. In a Sprague–Dawley rat model of acute myocardial infarction, 1?×?106 magnetic mesenchymal stem cells were transjugularly injected into the left cardiac vein while a 0.6-Tesla magnet was placed above the heart. The cardiac retention of transplanted cells was assessed by using quantitative Y chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography, and histologic analyses of infarct morphology and angiogenesis were obtained. Results The flowing iron oxide-labeled mesenchymal stem cells were effectively attracted to the area where the magnet was positioned. Twenty-four hours after cellular retrocoronary delivery, magnetic targeting significantly increased the cardiac retention of transplanted cells by 2.73- to 2.87-fold. Histologic analyses showed that more transplanted cells were distributed in the anterior wall of the left ventricle. The enhanced cell engraftment persisted for at least 3 weeks, at which time, left ventricular remodeling was attenuated, and cardiac function benefit was improved. Conclusions These results suggest that magnetic targeting offers new perspectives for retrograde coronary venous delivery to enhance cell retention and subsequent functional benefit in heart diseases. PMID:24330751

2013-01-01

131

Myocardial neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity after coronary artery thrombosis and thrombolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophil accumulation and free radical release are implicated in the genesis of reperfusion injury. However, little is known about the changes in myocardial lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in relation to coronary artery thrombosis and thrombolysis. To investigate this issue, 18 dogs with electrically induced occlusive thrombus in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were given tissue-type plasminogen activator

Li Ying Chen; Wilmer W. Nichols; James Hendricks; Jawahar L. Mehta

1995-01-01

132

Myocardial infarction in a 17-year-old patient due to neurofibromatosis-associated coronary aneurysm.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant multi-system genetic disorder. Extra-cardiac vascular manifestations of neurofibromatosis have been previously described in many reports. However, coronary arterial involvements have been rarely described. A 17-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis presented to our institute with subacute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram revealed an aneurysm with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. PMID:22813835

Evrengul, Harun; Kilic, Dogu I; Zungur, Mustafa; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Tanriverdi, Halil

2013-06-01

133

Effects of intravenous nitroglycerin on left ventricular function and ST segment changes in acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed Central

It has been shown previously that 30-minute infusions of intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with acute myocardial infarction are able to lower left ventricular filling pressure and improve left ventricular function while lowering mean arterial pressure by only 7 mmHg (0.9 kPa). A decrease in sigmaST in praecordial ST segment mapping studies during nitroglycerin infusion in patients with anterior infarction suggested a decrease in the extent of myocardial ischaemia. In the present study, 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction received 1- to 3-hour infusions of intravenous nitroglycerin at infusion rates sufficient to lower mean arterial pressure by an average of 22 mmHg (2.9 kPa). An improvement in ventricular function was noted in that subgroup of patients with the msot severe left ventricular dysfunction. All patients with anterior myocardial infarction underwent serial ST segment mapping and, irrespective of the presence or absence of left ventricular failure, showed a decrease in sigmaST during nitroglycerin infusion (P less than 0.005). These findings suggest that infusion of nitroglycerin improves left ventricular function and/or alters left ventricular compliance in patients with left ventricular failure complicating myocardial infarction and furthermore decreases sigmaST in all patients, irrespective of the presence or absence of left ventricular failure, suggesting that the extent of myocardial ischaemia is decreased. PMID:819021

Flaherty, J T; Come, P C; Baird, M G; Rouleau, J; Taylor, D R; Weisteldt, M L; Greene, H L; Becker, L C; Pitt, B

1976-01-01

134

[A successful repair of left ventricular rupture after surgical treatment of ventricular septal perforation complicated due to acute myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman was admitted complaining of anterior chest pains, and peripheral coldness. The 6th day after admission, a loud systolic murmur of Levine IV/VI was audible at the apex. The chest X-ray film demonstrated a cardiomegaly and ST elevation in the V1-V5 leads. UCG and right-heart catheterization revealed an intraventricular shunt from left to right, and the diagnosis of ventricular septal perforation after acute antero-septal myocardial infarction was confirmed. Although, we were continuing and aggressive medical treatment with the intraaortic balloon pumping, an emergency operation for ventricular septal perforation was performed, 15 days after onset. The direct closure of the septal perforation and the plication of the left ventricular free wall with two felt strips were performed. The postoperative course seemed well. But in the 3rd postoperative day, massive bleeding was recognized through the drainage tube. The left ventricular rupture was suggested, and a massive blood transfusion was done. An emergency operation was performed. Another left ventricular free wall was lacerated about 6 mm at the apex. The laceration was closed with teflon felt strips. The patient survived through the operation, and is doing well after 7 years since the operation. PMID:8913067

Kurata, N; Woda, K; Kanamori, Y; Shoumura, S; Isojima, A

1996-10-01

135

Acute myocardial infarction in a 35-year-old man with coronary artery aneurysm most probably caused by Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

We present a 35-year-old man with history of Kawasaki disease who referred with myocardial infarction, and angiography, revealing aneurysm of left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombectomy and was discharged after 6 d. Coronary artery sequels of Kawasaki disease should be considered as one of the underlying causes of acute myocardial infarction in young adults. PMID:25183138

Parsa, Saeed Alipour; Khaheshi, Isa; Paydary, Koosha; Haybar, Habib

2014-01-01

136

Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives worldwide than any other. Etiologically, the dominant trajectory involves atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process of lipid-rich lesion growth in the vascular wall that can cause life-threatening myocardial infarction (MI). Those who survive MI can develop congestive heart failure, a chronic condition of inadequate pump activity that is frequently fatal. Leukocytes – white blood cells – are important participants at the various stages of cardiovascular disease progression and complication. This review will discuss leukocyte function in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:23307733

Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

2013-01-01

137

Focal myocardial infarction induces global remodeling of cardiac sympathetic innervation: neural remodeling in a spatial context  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) induces neural and electrical remodeling at scar border zones. The impact of focal MI on global functional neural remodeling is not well understood. Sympathetic stimulation was performed in swine with anteroapical infarcts (MI; n = 9) and control swine (n = 9). A 56-electrode sock was placed over both ventricles to record electrograms at baseline and during left, right, and bilateral stellate ganglion stimulation. Activation recovery intervals (ARIs) were measured from electrograms. Global and regional ARI shortening, dispersion of repolarization, and activation propagation were assessed before and during sympathetic stimulation. At baseline, mean ARI was shorter in MI hearts than control hearts (365 ± 8 vs. 436 ± 9 ms, P < 0.0001), dispersion of repolarization was greater in MI versus control hearts (734 ± 123 vs. 362 ± 32 ms2, P = 0.02), and the infarcted region in MI hearts showed longer ARIs than noninfarcted regions (406 ± 14 vs. 365 ± 8 ms, P = 0.027). In control animals, percent ARI shortening was greater on anterior than posterior walls during right stellate ganglion stimulation (P = 0.0001), whereas left stellate ganglion stimulation showed the reverse (P = 0.0003). In infarcted animals, this pattern was completely lost. In 50% of the animals studied, sympathetic stimulation, compared with baseline, significantly altered the direction of activation propagation emanating from the intramyocardial scar during pacing. In conclusion, focal distal anterior MI alters regional and global pattern of sympathetic innervation, resulting in shorter ARIs in infarcted hearts, greater repolarization dispersion, and altered activation propagation. These conditions may underlie the mechanisms by which arrhythmias are initiated when sympathetic tone is enhanced. PMID:23893167

Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Yagishita, Daigo; Patel, Krishan J.; Vaseghi, Marmar; Zhou, Wei; Yamakawa, Kentaro; So, Eileen; Lux, Robert L.; Mahajan, Aman

2013-01-01

138

Computed tomographic staging of anterior mediastinal neoplasms.  

PubMed Central

Sixty patients with anterior mediastinal neoplasms undergoing computed tomography before surgical exploration were entered in a prospective study to assess the value of computed tomography in the preoperative staging of anterior mediastinal tumours. Correct prediction of location, size, and tissue density was obtained in all 60 cases. Correct identification of the nature of the tumours was achieved by computed tomography in 37 of the 54 previously undiagnosed cases. Particular attention was given to the evaluation of the relation of the tumour to adjacent mediastinal structures, to predict the feasibility of radical surgical procedures. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in identifying resectability were 46%, 85%, and 64%, with positive and negative predictive indices of 78% and 58%. Capsulated or highly invasive lesions were clearly distinguished, and the presence or absence of infiltration of mediastinal vessels, pericardium, and chest wall was correctly recognised in most cases. It is suggested that the evaluation of anterior mediastinal neoplasms should include computed tomography because of its accuracy in predicting size, location, and tissue density of the neoplasm. Computed tomography may suggest, often with good reliability, the histological type of the tumour and its relation to contiguous mediastinal structures, thus contributing to the choice of the appropriate surgical approach or route for biopsy. Images PMID:3420555

Rendina, E A; Venuta, F; Ceroni, L; Martelli, M; Gualdi, G; Caterino, M; Ricci, C

1988-01-01

139

Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574

Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

2014-01-01

140

[Risk stratification after uncomplicated myocardial infarct: the usefulness of the echocardiographic-dipyridamole test].  

PubMed

To assess the value and safety of echo-dipyridamole test in risk stratification soon after an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction, 56 consecutive patients were enrolled in a prospective study with a 1-year follow-up period for new coronary events. Echo-dipyridamole and symptom-limited ECG stress test were performed respectively 14 to 20 days and 4 to 5 weeks after acute event. Echo-dipyridamole test was performed administering 0.84 mg/kg iv of the drug in 10 min: any worsening of left ventricular regional wall motion was considered as a positive test. Up to December 1989, 43 out of 56 patients had their follow-up period completed: the infarction was anterior in 13 (30%), inferior in 22 (51%), non-Q wave in 8 (19%); mean age was 55 +/- 10; basal echocardiographic ejection fraction was 52 +/- 6%. There were no major complications during echo-dipyridamole test. Coronary events occurred in 7 patients (16%): reinfarction in 3, angina in 4; there were no cardiac deaths. A positive echo-dypiridamole test was observed in 12/43 patients (28%); sensitivity versus coronary events was 43%, specificity 75%, negative predictive value 87%. Ten out of 43 patients (23%) had positive and 9/43 (21%) non valuable ECG stress test: sensitivity versus coronary events was 50%, specificity 75%, predictive negative value 88%. The 2 tests showed no significant difference in detecting patients at risk of future coronary events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2078848

Ugliengo, G; Margaria, F; Meinardi, F; Vado, A; De Benedictis, N

1990-08-01

141

Effects of Nitroglycerin on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Regional myocardial blood flow before and after sublingual nitroglycerin was measured in 10 patients with coronary artery disease. During thoracotomy, 133Xe was injected directly into the subepicardium in diseased regions of the anterior left ventricular wall, and washout rates were recorded with a scintillation counter. All disappearance curves were closely approximated by two exponential decays analyzed as two parallel flow systems by the compartmental method. The appearance of a double exponential decay pattern in diseased regions suggests that the slow phase was associated with collateral blood flow, although nonhomogeneous myocardium-to-blood partition coefficients for xenon cannot be excluded. Nitroglycerin increased the rapid phase flow in 9 of 10 patients and the slow flow in 7 of 10 patients. Average flow increased in 9 of the 10 patients (P < 0.01). Mean rapid phase flow in the control state was 110 ml/100 g per min and after nitroglycerin increased to 132 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.01); slow phase flow increased from 12 ml/100 g per min to 15 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.05). It is concluded that, under these conditions, nitroglycerin improves perfusion in regions of diseased myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:4999635

Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Gorlin, Richard; Taylor, Warren J.; Kemp, Harvey G.

1971-01-01

142

Evaluating anterior knee pain.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal complaints account for about 20% to 30% of all primary care office visits; of these visits, discomfort in the knee, shoulder, and back are the most prevalent musculoskeletal symptoms. Having pain or dysfunction in the front part of the knee is a common presentation and reason for a patient to see a health care provider. There are a number of pathophysiological etiologies to anterior knee pain. This article describes some of the common and less common causes, and includes sections on diagnosis and treatment for each condition as well as key points. PMID:24994047

Hong, Engene; Kraft, Michael C

2014-07-01

143

Thrombolysis after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Appropriate use of a thrombolytic agent may save 20 to 30 lives per 1000 treatments. Thrombolysis should be considered in all patients presenting with cardiac chest pain lasting more than 30 minutes for up to 12 hours after symptom onset. ECG criteria include ST elevation of at least 1 mm in limb leads and/or at least 2 mm in two or more adjacent chest leads or left bundle branch block. There is no upper age limit. All patients should also receive oral aspirin and subcutaneous (intravenous with rt-PA) heparin. Other adjuvant treatments have been reviewed previously in this journal. Streptokinase is the drug of choice except where there is persistent hypotension, previous streptokinase or APSAC at any time, known allergy to streptokinase, or a recent proven streptococcal infection. In these circumstances the patient should receive rt-PA. Additional indications for rt-PA, based on subset analysis by the GUSTO investigators, include patients with ALL of the following: age less than 75 years, presentation within four hours of symptom onset, and ECG evidence of anterior acute myocardial infarction. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible. The greatest benefit is observed in patients treated early, pain to treat intervals of less than one hour make possible mortality reductions of nearly 50%. "When" matters more than "where": fast tracking to the CCU is one option but A&E initiated thrombolysis is feasible and timely. Prehospital thrombolysis is appropriate in certain geographical situations. The development of practical guidelines for thrombolysis represents the most comprehensive example of evidence based medicine. Streptokinase was first shown to influence outcome in acute myocardial infarction nearly 40 years ago. More recently alternative regimes have been evaluated in several prospective randomised controlled trials yielding pooled data on nearly 60,000 patients. However, systematic review of cumulative data reveals a statistically significant mortality gain for intravenous streptokinase over placebo which could have been identified as early as 1971-at least 15 years before it became generally used in clinical practice. PMID:9023613

Nee, P A

1997-01-01

144

Myocardial diseases of animals.  

PubMed Central

In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

1986-01-01

145

Sex-specific criteria for interpretation of thallium-201 myocardial uptake and washout studies  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to determine the effect of gender on criteria for the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy. The studies of 26 normal females and 23 normal males were subjected to bilinear interpolative background subtraction and horizontal profile analysis. Significant sexual differences were found in both regional uptake ratios and washout rates. These differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and upper septal uptake in females, and faster washout in females. Faster myocardial /sup 201/Tl washout rates in females could not be clearly ascribed to either a physiological or artifactual explanation. It is concluded that since important differences exist between males and females in the detected pattern of /sup 201/Tl myocardial uptake and washout, sex-specific criteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy.

Rabinovitch, M.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.; Staniloff, H.; Tang, A.; Rush, C.; Aldis, A.; Tannous, R.; Turek, M.; Addas, A.

1986-12-01

146

Giant cell tumor arising from anterior arc of the rib.  

PubMed

A primary giant cell tumor of the rib is very rare. The most common site of a giant cell tumor arising from the rib is the posterior arc. A giant cell tumor arising from the anterior arc of the rib is extremely rare. The treatment of a giant cell tumor of the rib is not well defined. Generally, a complete surgical resection is performed in a patient with a primary giant cell tumor of the rib. We report a case of a giant cell tumor arising from the anterior arc of the rib that was treated with a wide excision and chest wall reconstruction. PMID:24175276

Heo, Woon; Kang, Do Kyun; Min, Ho-Ki; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

2013-10-01

147

Comparison of dobutamine stress echocardiography with dipyridamole stress echocardiography for detection of viable myocardium after myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography to detect functional recovery of stunned but viable myocardial regions early after acute myocardial infarction, and to predict late functional recovery of the reperfusion salvaged myocardium within the infarct area. METHODS: Within 10 d of acute myocardial infarction, 51 patients--30 anterior and 21 inferior, 44 Q wave and seven non-Q-wave infarction--were submitted to a dobutamine echocardiography test at low dose (5-10 micrograms/kg/min over 5 min) and high dose (20-40 micrograms/kg/min over 3 min) and to dipyridamole echocardiography test (0.56 mg/kg over 4 min + 0.28 mg/kg over 2 min) on different days and in random order, after interruption of any vasoactive drug. Resting echocardiography was repeated at two months in 41 of 51 patients (80%). Regional wall motion of the left ventricle was analysed in a semiquantitative manner on a 14-segment model. Viability was defined as improvement of one grade or more of at least two basally asynergic segments in the infarcted area. RESULTS: Regional functional recovery was detected by low dose dobutamine in 38/51 patients (75%) and in 147/308 (48%) of basally asynergic segments, compared to 25/51 patients (49%; P < 0.001) and 78/308 segments (25%; P < 0.001) only identified by dipyridamole. Late spontaneous functional recovery was detected in 24/41 patients (59%) and in 78/254 basally asynergic segments (31%). The sensitivity of dobutamine and dipyridamole echocardiography for predicting spontaneous functional recovery was 72% and 51% respectively (P < 0.001), specificity 68% and 82% (P < 0.001), positive predictive value 50% and 56%, and negative predictive value 85% and 79%. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with dipyridamole in patients with thrombolysed myocardial infarction, dobutamine induces regional functional recovery. This suggests that dobutamine is more sensitive in showing the presence of viable myocardium within the infarct zone, though it has a lower specificity in predicting delayed spontaneous functional recovery of non-contractile but still viable areas. PMID:8800985

Poli, A.; Previtali, M.; Lanzarini, L.; Fetiveau, R.; Diotallevi, P.; Ferrario, M.; Mussini, A.; Specchia, G.; Montemartini, C.

1996-01-01

148

Compensatory mechanisms for cardiac dysfunction in myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Loss of contractile myocardial tissue by myocardial infarction would result in depressed cardiac output if compensatory mechanisms would not be operative. Frank-Straub-Starling-mechanism and increased heart rate and contractility due to sympathetic stimulation are unlikely to chronically compensate for cardiac dysfunction. Structural left ventricular dilatation may be compensatory, but results in increased wall stress and, ultimately, in progressive dilatation and heart failure. In patients with myocardial infarction, we have shown left-ventricular dilatation in dependence of infarct size and time after infarction. Dilatation is compensatory first and normalizes stroke volume. However, left ventricular dilatation progresses without further hemodynamic profit and, thus, may participate in development of heart failure. PMID:1838246

Ertl, G; Gaudron, P; Eilles, C; Schorb, W; Kochsiek, K

1991-01-01

149

Thallium myocardial perfusion scans for the assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with cystic fibrosis. A comparison with other noninvasive techniques  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy in 32 patients with cystic fibrosis was studied using thallium 201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion scans, and compared with other noninvasive techniques including electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, and M-mode echocardiography. The patients (mean age, 17.3 yr; range, 7 to 33) had a wide range of clinical and pulmonary abnormalities (mean Shwachman-Kulczycki score, 66.6). In the total study group, TI-201 scans, like the vectorcardiograms and the M-mode echocardiograms, gave a surprisingly high proportion of positive predictions for right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) (44%). The correlations with all other noninvasive methods were uniformly poor, so caution must be exercised in using this technique to predict early RVH in order to follow the natural history of cor pulmonale in cystic fibrosis. At the time of the study, 6 patients had clinical evidence of right ventricular failure, and in this disease setting must have had RVH. In 3 patients, RVH was confirmed at autopsy, and it was successfully predicted by TI-201 scans in 5 of the 6 patients. The false negative scan may have been due to regional myocardial ischemia secondary to severe right ventricular failure. In contrast, the vectorcardiogram, using Fowler's new criteria, made a successful prediction of RVH in all 6 patients, and the electro cardiogram in only 3. Although the M-mode echocardiogram was abnormal in all patients, it would have predicted RVH (with increased right ventricular anterior wall thickness) in only 1 patient. We concluded that TI-201 myocardial perfusion cans are good at confirming RVH in cases with established right ventricular failure, but have no advantage over vectorcardiographic assessments, which are logistically easier to perform and carry no radiation risks.

Newth, C.J.; Corey, M.L.; Fowler, R.S.; Gilday, D.L.; Gross, D.; Mitchell, I.

1981-01-01

150

[Left atrial myxoma evidenced by silent acute myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old female patient was in-hospital admitted due to a traumatic femoral fracture. A routinely performed ECG showed signs of anterior acute myocardial infarction, clinically silent, and pathological levels of myocardial serum enzyme were recorded. The echocardiographic-Doppler examination confirmed the LV dyssynergy of contraction and, unexpectedly, revealed a large peduncolated and mobile mass in left atrium, connected to the interatrial septum and prolapsing in left ventricle, referable to myxoma. In the clinical history of the patient, a previous cerebral transitory ischemic attack was present (probably due to myxomatous embolization), but no any other cardiovascular symptoms. The patient successfully underwent coronary angiography, which showed no coronary artery disease, and cardiac surgery for tumoral removal. On the basis of clinical and instrumental data, also acute myocardial infarction may be considered a very likely consequence of a intracoronary embolus. Systemic embolization from left atrial myxomas are frequent; however, the involvement of coronary tree, with clinical manifestations and diagnosis during life, is extremely rare. Complete lack of symptoms due to atrial myxoma and myocardial infarction, and the fortuitous diagnosis of both diseases are peculiar findings of the reported case. Many systemic embolizations from myxomas, although sources of tissue damages, may likely occur without symptoms and may be unrecognized during acute period. PMID:8682228

Lattanzi, F; Paci, A M; Topi, A; Squarcini, G; Topi, P L

1995-10-01

151

Anterior uveitis associated with latanoprost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report the association of anterior uveitis with the use of latanoprost.Methods: We studied four patients with complicated open-angle glaucoma who had anterior uveitis associated with the use of latanoprost. The uveitis was unilateral and occurred only in the eye receiving latanoprost in three patients. In one patient, latanoprost was used in both eyes, and the uveitis was bilateral.

Robert D. Fechtner; Albert S. Khouri; Thom J. Zimmerman; John Bullock; Robert Feldman; Prasad Kulkarni; Andrew J. Michael; Tony Realini; Ronald Warwar

1998-01-01

152

Superoxide dismutase does not cause scar thinning after myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that treatment with superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of superoxide anions, limits the extent of myocardial injury in a canine preparation of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Little is known, however, about the effects of superoxide dismutase on the healing of a myocardial infarct. Therefore, this study was performed to determine whether treatment with superoxide dismutase during myocardial ischemia impairs formation of scar tissue after infarction. Dogs received 2 hour infusions of superoxide dismutase or albumin (controls) by way of the left atrium beginning 15 minutes before and ending 15 minutes after a 90 minute occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Six weeks later the animals were killed. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed before surgery and before induced death. Wall thickening in the central ischemic zone was decreased at 6 weeks compared with baseline studies (p less than 0.05), but the decrease was similar for both groups. The hydroxyproline concentrations (microgram/mg dry weight) of the scar tissue in the superoxide dismutase and control groups, respectively, were 35.3 +/- 3.8 and 28.7 +/- 5.0 (p less than 0.05). The ratios of the scar thickness to normal wall thickness were superoxide dismutase 0.91 +/- 0.03 and control 0.89 +/- 0.03 (p greater than 0.05). Thus, superoxide dismutase had no adverse effect on wall thickening or scar formation assessed 6 weeks after myocardial infarction, and may be useful to limit oxygen radical-mediated damage during reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium. PMID:3558989

Werns, S W; Shea, M J; Vaporciyan, A; Phan, S; Abrams, G D; Buda, A J; Pitt, B; Lucchesi, B R

1987-04-01

153

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection as a cause of myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare disease that is usually seen in young women in left descending coronary artery and result in events like sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction. A 70-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chest pain which started 1 h ago during a relative's funeral. The initial electrocardiography demonstrated 2 mm ST-segment depression in leads V1-V3 and the patient underwent emergent coronary angiography. SCAD simultaneously in two different coronary arteries [left anterior descending (LAD) artery and left circumflex (LCx)] artery was detected and SCAD in LCx artery was causing total occlusion which resulted in acute myocardial infarction. Successful stenting was performed thereafter for both lesions. In addition to the existence of SCAD simultaneously in two different coronary arteries, the presence of muscular bridge and SCAD together at the same site of the LAD artery was another interesting point which made us report this case. PMID:25548620

Aksakal, Aytekin; Arslan, U?ur; Yaman, Mehmet; Urumda?, Mehmet; Ate?, Ahmet Hakan

2014-12-26

154

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection as a cause of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare disease that is usually seen in young women in left descending coronary artery and result in events like sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction. A 70-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chest pain which started 1 h ago during a relative’s funeral. The initial electrocardiography demonstrated 2 mm ST-segment depression in leads V1-V3 and the patient underwent emergent coronary angiography. SCAD simultaneously in two different coronary arteries [left anterior descending (LAD) artery and left circumflex (LCx)] artery was detected and SCAD in LCx artery was causing total occlusion which resulted in acute myocardial infarction. Successful stenting was performed thereafter for both lesions. In addition to the existence of SCAD simultaneously in two different coronary arteries, the presence of muscular bridge and SCAD together at the same site of the LAD artery was another interesting point which made us report this case.

Aksakal, Aytekin; Arslan, U?ur; Yaman, Mehmet; Urumda?, Mehmet; Ate?, Ahmet Hakan

2014-01-01

155

Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241). We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002) during HD sessions. Conclusion Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. PMID:23976841

Gracitelli, Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa; Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Penha, Fernando; Góes, Miguel Ângelo; Draibe, Sérgio Antonio; Canziani, Maria Eugênia; Junior, Augusto Paranhos

2013-01-01

156

Green tea extract given before regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats improves myocardial contractility by attenuating calcium overload.  

PubMed

There is evidence for a negative correlation between green tea consumption and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine whether green tea extract (GTE) given before regional myocardial ischemia could improve depression of myocardial contractility by preventing cytosolic Ca(2+) overload. Regional ischemia-reperfusion (IR) was induced in rats by ligating the left anterior descending branch for 20 min, then releasing the ligature. Ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in rats without GTE pretreatment, but decreased arrhythmogenesis was seen in rats pretreated 30 min earlier with GTE (400 mg/kg). During reperfusion, arrhythmias only occurred during the initial 5 min, and GTE pretreatment had no effect. After overnight recovery, serum cTnI levels were greatly increased in control post-IR rats but only slightly elevated in GTE-pretreated post-IR rats. Myocardial contractility measured by echocardiography was still depressed after 3 days in control post-IR rats, but not in GTE-pretreated post-IR rats. No myocardial ischemic injury was seen in post-IR rats with or without GTE pretreatment. Using freshly isolated single heart myocytes, GTE was found to attenuate the post-IR injury-associated cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and modulate changes in the levels and distribution of myofibril, adherens junction, and gap junction proteins. In summary, GTE pretreatment protects cardiomyocytes from IR injury by preventing cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, myofibril disruption, and alterations in adherens and gap junction protein expression and distribution. PMID:20922441

Liou, Ying-Ming; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Chen, Jan-Yow

2010-11-01

157

Myocardial apoptosis and SIDS.  

PubMed

Apoptosis mediates cardiac damage in severe forms of myocarditis. In fatal myocarditis, large amounts of cardiomyocytes show apoptotic DNA fragmentation, while in human controls, few apoptotic cardiomyocytes are found. In the present study the frequency of apoptosis in 88 SIDS cases (category 1b according to the San Diego Classification) and 15 control cases was investigated. In every case myocardial samples from 8 standard locations were collected. Detection of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was performed by TUNEL method. Furthermore the myocardial tissue was stained with HE and immunohistochemical methods (LCA, CD68, CD45-R0). More than 90% of the slides did not contain apoptotic cardiomyocytes at all. The detection rate of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was almost equal in control group (26.7%) and SIDS group (23.86%). A quantification of apoptotic cardiomyocytes per mm(2) revealed no significant difference between both groups either. Altogether there is no evidence for a higher rate of apoptosis in SIDS. PMID:25460101

Grasmeyer, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

2015-01-01

158

38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3.379 Section 3.379 ...Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a...

2013-07-01

159

38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3.379 Section 3.379 ...Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a...

2014-07-01

160

38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3.379 Section 3.379 ...Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a...

2011-07-01

161

38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3.379 Section 3.379 ...Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a...

2012-07-01

162

38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3.379 Section 3.379 ...Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a...

2010-07-01

163

Significance of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation and T-wave pseudonormalization for improvement of function in healed Q-wave myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation and pseudonormalization of negative T waves (ST-T segment changes) in infarct leads indicate myocardial viability after Q-wave myocardial infarcts in some patients and may therefore identify patients who will benefit from revascularization. Global left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities of the left ventricle were analyzed in 34 patients with healed myocardial infarction (11 patients with

ChristianA Schneider; AnneK Helmig; FrankM Baer; Michael Horst; Erland Erdmann; Udo Sechtem

1998-01-01

164

Deep anterior lamellar Keratoplasty.  

PubMed

Keratoconus is a disease causing increased steepening of the cornea resulted in irregular astigmatism. Treatment options are Glasses, Hard contact lenses, Cross linking, Intracorneal Segments insertion, Refractive surgery (Gilda et al., 2008), or Keratoplasty. Lamellar Keratoplasty (LKP) can be a better choice to manage cases of moderate and some cases of severe Keratoconus without deep scarring and severe thinning, also in cases of corneal scarring not involving the deeper layers of the cornea. LKP is a corneal graft technique consisting of transplantation of partial-thickness donor tissue, devoid of endothelium, Descemet membrane (DM), and rear stroma into a recipient healthy stromal bed after dissection of pathologic anterior stroma. However, deep lamellar Keratoplasty (DLKP) is a surgical method that completely removes pathologic corneal stroma tissue down to the DM, followed by transplantation of donor cornea without endothelium over the host bed. DLKP has a number of advantages over penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP). Because it does not violate the intraocular structures of the eye, it diminishes or eliminates the chance of postoperative glaucoma, cataract formation, retinal detachment, cystoids macular edema, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage and epithelial ingrowths. Furthermore, this procedure avoids the replacement of host endothelium with donor endothelium and thus precludes endothelial graft rejection, with comparable visual outcomes and low rate of chronic endothelial cell loss compared to PKP. PMID:23960861

Al-Kharashi, Soliman A; Al-Obailan, Majed M; Almohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Torbak, Abdullah A

2009-10-01

165

Deep anterior lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Keratoconus is a disease causing increased steepening of the cornea resulted in irregular astigmatism. Treatment options are Glasses, Hard contact lenses, Cross linking, Intracorneal Segments insertion, Refractive surgery (Gilda et al., 2008), or Keratoplasty. Lamellar Keratoplasty (LKP) can be a better choice to manage cases of moderate and some cases of severe Keratoconus without deep scarring and severe thinning, also in cases of corneal scarring not involving the deeper layers of the cornea. LKP is a corneal graft technique consisting of transplantation of partial-thickness donor tissue, devoid of endothelium, Descemet membrane (DM), and rear stroma into a recipient healthy stromal bed after dissection of pathologic anterior stroma. However, deep lamellar Keratoplasty (DLKP) is a surgical method that completely removes pathologic corneal stroma tissue down to the DM, followed by transplantation of donor cornea without endothelium over the host bed. DLKP has a number of advantages over penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP). Because it does not violate the intraocular structures of the eye, it diminishes or eliminates the chance of postoperative glaucoma, cataract formation, retinal detachment, cystoids macular edema, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage and epithelial ingrowths. Furthermore, this procedure avoids the replacement of host endothelium with donor endothelium and thus precludes endothelial graft rejection, with comparable visual outcomes and low rate of chronic endothelial cell loss compared to PKP. PMID:23960861

Al-Kharashi, Soliman A.; Al-Obailan, Majed M.; Almohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Torbak, Abdullah A.

2009-01-01

166

Diagnostic Ultrasound Induced Inertial Cavitation to Non-Invasively Restore Coronary and Microvascular Flow in Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound induced cavitation has been explored as a method of dissolving intravascular and microvascular thrombi in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of cavitation required for success, and whether longer pulse duration therapeutic impulses (sustaining the duration of cavitation) could restore both microvascular and epicardial flow with this technique. Accordingly, in 36 hyperlipidemic atherosclerotic pigs, thrombotic occlusions were induced in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Pigs were then randomized to either a) ½ dose tissue plasminogen activator (0.5 mg/kg) alone; or same dose plasminogen activator and an intravenous microbubble infusion with either b) guided high mechanical index short pulse (2.0 MI; 5 usec) therapeutic ultrasound impulses; or c) guided 1.0 mechanical index long pulse (20 usec) impulses. Passive cavitation detectors indicated the high mechanical index impulses (both long and short pulse duration) induced inertial cavitation within the microvasculature. Epicardial recanalization rates following randomized treatments were highest in pigs treated with the long pulse duration therapeutic impulses (83% versus 59% for short pulse, and 49% for tissue plasminogen activator alone; p<0.05). Even without epicardial recanalization, however, early microvascular recovery occurred with both short and long pulse therapeutic impulses (p<0.005 compared to tissue plasminogen activator alone), and wall thickening improved within the risk area only in pigs treated with ultrasound and microbubbles. We conclude that although short pulse duration guided therapeutic impulses from a diagnostic transducer transiently improve microvascular flow, long pulse duration therapeutic impulses produce sustained epicardial and microvascular re-flow in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23922797

Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Radio, Stanley; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William; Powers, Jeffry; Unger, Evan; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Porter, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

167

Multi-embolic ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Aortic Valve Endocarditis.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 42 year-old woman admitted to hospital with ST-elevation myocardial infarction involving two separate coronary territories. Angiography revealed multi-embolic occlusions of her left anterior descending (LAD) and first obtuse marginal (OM1) coronary arteries. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) showed a lesion attached to the left cusp of the aortic valve and she was treated for infective endocarditis. We discuss the management issues raised from this unique patient, including reperfusion strategies in endocarditis-associated myocardial infarction. PMID:25150649

Rischin, Adam P; Carrillo, Philip; Layland, Jamie

2015-01-01

168

Cardiac magnetic resonance in cocaine-induced myocardial damage.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old male with history of cocaine abuse underwent trans-thoracic echocardiography that showed hyper-echogenicity of the basal segments of the septum and infero-lateral wall of the left ventricle. The patient underwent cardiac CT that reported diffuse non-obstructive CAD. Cardiac MR showed LGE patterns consistent with non-ischemic myocardial damage associated with cocaine abuse. PMID:24481724

Arcadi, Teresa; Bolognesi, Massimo; Maffei, Erica; Cademartiri, Filippo

2014-04-01

169

Myocardial injury following the intentional inhalation of typewriter correction fluid.  

PubMed

The first known case of myocardial injury, as documented by evolutionary electrocardiographic changes and echocardiographic septal wall motion abnormality associated with the voluntary inhalation of typewriter correction fluid, is reported. Typewriter correction fluid, which contains a combination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, is rapidly becoming a substance of abuse. Therefore, primary care practitioners should be alerted to specific organ system damages that may arise from the voluntary inhalation of this substance. PMID:2030845

Wodka, R M; Jeong, E W

1991-04-01

170

Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

1975-01-01

171

Diagnosing CAD: additional markers from myocardial perfusion SPECT  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades, stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) has been utilized as a standard modality for the diagnosis, risk stratification and prognostic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition to the perfusion information, MPS can also provide functional information of the left ventricle, including volume, ejection fraction, wall motion and dyssynchrony. This article introduces the incremental value of these non-perfusion parameters as markers and prognosticators of CAD. PMID:24285945

Hung, Guang-Uei

2013-01-01

172

Acute myocardial infarction and rapid development of coronary aneurysms in a young woman – unusual presentation of Takayasu arteritis?  

PubMed Central

The present report describes a young female patient with acute myocardial infarction and inflammatory lesions limited to proximal and midsegments of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Based on the presence of positive inflammatory markers, an angiographically confirmed coronary artery lesion and the young age of the patient, an atypical presentation of Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed. PMID:17245485

Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Prech, Marek; Hrycaj, Pawel; Lesiak, Maciej; Grajek, Stefan; Cieslinski, Andrzej

2007-01-01

173

Paracrine Action Enhances the Effects of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation on Vascular Regeneration in Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. There are several reports that engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulate angiogenesis in the ischemic heart, but the mechanism remains con- troversial. We hypothesize that transplantation of MSCs enhances vascular regeneration through a paracrine action. Methods. A transmural myocardial infarction was cre- ated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats. Those with an ejection fraction

Yao Liang Tang; Qiang Zhao; Xinyu Qin; Leping Shen; Leilei Cheng; Junbo Ge; M. Ian Phillips

2005-01-01

174

Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

Garrick, James G.

1989-01-01

175

Imaging of anterior mediastinal tumours  

PubMed Central

Abstract Anterior mediastinal tumours include primary and secondary tumours. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms related to local tumour invasion or systemic symptoms due to release of hormones/cytokines or antibodies. The most common symptoms at presentation include chest pain, dyspnoea, cough, fever and chills. Despite rapid developments in imaging techniques, accurate staging of anterior mediastinal tumours remains a diagnostic quandary. Multimodality imaging plays an important role in determining surgical resectability and/or impact on subsequent management. This article briefly discusses the epidemiology and incidence of anterior mediastinal tumours and describes the role of imaging in tumour characterization and staging in detail. We focus on the more commonly encountered anterior mediastinal tumours. PMID:23131900

Ching Ong, Ching

2012-01-01

176

Diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The heart is challenged by a plethora of extracellular stimuli over the course of a normal day, each of which distinctly influences myocardial contractile function. It is therefore not surprising that myocardial metabolism also oscillates in a time-of-day dependent manner. What is becoming increasin...

177

Left atrial and left atrial appendage systolic function in patients with post-myocardial distal blocks  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study aimed to evaluate function of the left atrium (LA) and of the left atrial appendage (LAA) after myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by intracardiac conduction disturbances. Material and methods The study comprised 59 patients with persistent post-myocardial distal blocks, who were allocated to one of the three following subgroups: study group I – 20 patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB); study group II – 20 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), and study group III –19 pts with left anterior hemiblock (LAHB). The control groups included patients with MI in their history and no BBBs (19 pts – group IV) and clinically healthy people (16 patients – group V). The parameters of LA and LAA systolic function were determined by means of transthoracic (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). Results We showed that patients who experienced myocardial infarction not complicated with conduction disturbances expressed compensatory LA systolic function enhancement. In patients with post-myocardial RBBB and LAHB significant enhancement of LA systolic function was observed as well but it was expressed to a lesser degree. There was also a tendency towards deterioration of LA systolic function in patients with post-myocardial LBBB. LBBB did not affect LAA systolic function negatively. Conclusions Parameters of LAA systolic function showed its enhancement in all patients after myocardial infarction irrespective of whether it was complicated by conduction disturbances. PMID:22427763

Piotrowski, Grzegorz; Szyma?ski, Piotr; Banach, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aneta; Gawor, Rafa?; Rysz, Jacek; Gawor, Zenon

2010-01-01

178

A Nonthoracotomy Myocardial Infarction Model in an Ovine Using Autologous Platelets  

PubMed Central

Objective. There is a paucity of a biological large animal model of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that, using autologous-aggregated platelets, we could create an ovine model that was reproducible and more closely mimicked the pathophysiology of MI. Methods. Mepacrine stained autologous platelets from male sheep (n = 7) were used to create a myocardial infarction via catheter injection into the mid-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Serial daily serum troponin measurements were taken and tissue harvested on post-embolization day three. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the mepacrine-stained platelet-induced thrombus, and histology performed to identify three distinct myocardial (infarct, peri-ischemic “border zone,” and remote) zones. Results. Serial serum troponin levels (?g/mL) measured 0.0 ± 0.0 at baseline and peaked at 297.4 ± 58.0 on post-embolization day 1, followed by 153.0 ± 38.8 on day 2 and 76.7 ± 19.8 on day 3. Staining confirmed distinct myocardial regions of inflammation and fibrosis as well as mepacrine-stained platelets as the cause of intravascular thrombosis. Conclusion. We report a reproducible, unique model of a biological myocardial infarction in a large animal model. This technique can be used to study acute, regional myocardial changes following a thrombotic injury. PMID:24367790

Spata, Tyler; Bobek, Daniel; Whitson, Bryan A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Mohler, Peter J.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Kilic, Ahmet

2013-01-01

179

Insulin-like growth factor I and II preserve myocardial structure in postinfarct swine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II improve myocardial function after coronary occlusion in different animal models.?OBJECTIVES—To investigate the mechanism of improved myocardial function after administration of IGF-I or IGF-II in acute myocardial infarction.?METHODS—Female pigs (mean (SD) weight 25 (5) kg) were subjected to acute myocardial infarction by microembolisation with 75-150 µm affigel blue beads. The beads contained and slowly released 150 µg/pig of IGF-I (n = 6), IGF-II (n = 6), or pig albumin (n = 6). Echocardiography, perfusion imaging, and haemodynamic measurements were performed before infarction and during four weeks after infarction. Regional wall motion of different left ventricular segments was scored semiquantitatively on the basis of a three point scoring system, from normal = 0 to dyskinesia = 3. Serum cardiac troponin I concentration was measured before, immediately after, and three hours after the infarct. Excised hearts were analysed for actin, desmin, blood vessel density, and DNA laddering within the infarct, border, and normal myocardial areas.?RESULTS—Myocardial function of the infarct related area improved significantly during the four weeks of follow up in both the IGF groups (p = 0.01). Myocardial perfusion, heart rate, and blood pressure were similar in all the animals during the study. Treated animals had lower serum cardiac troponin I concentration (p = 0.001), more actin in the border area (p = 0.01) and infarct area (p = 0.0001), and reduced DNA laddering in the infarct area compared with the controls (p < 0.05). IGF groups had more blood vessels in the border area (p = 0.04) and the infarct area (p = 0.003).?CONCLUSIONS—Both types of IGF improved myocardial function and the improvement was associated with preservation of myocardial structure. IGF-I was more effective than IGF-II.???Keywords: myocardial infarction; growth factors; ventricular function; troponin I PMID:11711471

Kotlyar, A; Vered, Z; Goldberg, I; Chouraqui, P; Nas, D; Fridman, E; Chen-Levy, Z; Fytlovich, S; Sangiorgi, G; Spagnoli, L; Orlandi, A; Savion, N; Eldar, M; Scheinowitz, M

2001-01-01

180

Successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a centenarian patient with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

A 104-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the anterior leads. He was immediately taken to the catheterisation laboratory for emergency angiography, which showed thrombotic stenosis at the proximal portion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. After intervention on the LAD lesion, successful balloon angioplasty with stenting was performed. Here, we report a case of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a centenarian patient with acute myocardial infarction. There are few clinical data on centenarian patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. To the best of best our knowledge, this case is the first reported in the literature where primary PCI was performed on a centenarian patient. PMID:24626570

Aksoy, Sukru; Velibey, Yalcïn; Koroglu, Bayram; Cagdas, Metin; Guzelburc, Ozge; Cam, Nese; Eren, Mehmet

2014-01-01

181

Myocardial fibre calcification.  

PubMed Central

Three cases of myocardial fibre calcification found at post-mortem examination are described. In one case there was antemortem hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia and the case was clearly an example of metastatic calcification. In the other two cases there was ischaemic myocardial necrosis and calcification was seen in fibres which were not overtly necrotic, but which were both in proximity to (the majority) and remote from the necrotic zones. Since renal failure with hyperphosphataemia was present in both cases, these were considered to be examples of augmented (by the hyperphosphataemia) dystrophic calcification. The histological, histochemical and ultrastructural features were identical in the three cases. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed initially in mitochondria, followed by spillage of crystals into the cytosol and ultimately into the interstitium. It is suggested that the fundamental lesion is a dysfunction of the fibre membrane; the similarity of this reaction with the calcification seen in skeletal muscle fibres in various myopathies is noted and a unifying hypothesis of the mechanism of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibre calcification is thereby suggested. Images PMID:7309897

McClure, J; Pieterse, A S; Pounder, D J; Smith, P S

1981-01-01

182

Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction is being recognized as a spectrum of clinical subsets. This appreciation has been brought about to a large degree by the development of several new tools that can be applied clinically to aid in evaluation of patients with acute infarction, and in some cases to provide short and long-term prognostic information. In the realm of noninvasive methods, several tests utilizing radiopharmaceuticals and scintillation cameras have emerged and are rapidly becoming reliable diagnostic parameters in patients with coronary disease and infarction. Technetium 99m (stannous) pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy, one of the first of these techniques to find clinical use, has been shown to be an accurate indicator of acute transmural myocardial infarction and provides added sensitivity and specificity to the diagnosis. Increased diagnostic accuracy, the dimension of visible localization and the potential for infarct sizing promise physicians better understanding of a patient's clinical presentation and a more rational approach to management. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:339549

Werner, Jeffrey A.; Botvinick, Elias H.; Shames, David M.; Parmley, William W.

1977-01-01

183

(1) Coronary Events Caused by Myocardial Bridge  

PubMed Central

Myocardial bridge (MB), which covers a part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), is a normal anatomical variant structure (45% in frequency by autopsy) in LAD. MB contraction plays the role of a “double-edged sword” on the coronary events, suppressing coronary atherosclerosis under the MB, yet generating abnormal blood flow associated with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). High shear stress driven by MB compression causes the suppression of vascular permeability and vasoactive protein expression such as e-NOS and endothelin-1, which leads to the suppression of atherosclerosis in the LAD segment under the MB. However, despite the prevalent view of MB as benignancy by conventional coronary angiography (5-6% in frequency), with advance of imaging technique such as multislice spiral computed tomography [(MSCT); 16% in frequency], cardiologists are now frequently aware of symptomatic MB occurring not only in hospitalized patients, but also in young athletes free from atherosclerosis. Moreover, the large mass volume of MB muscle induces atherosclerosis evolution at the settled site in LAD proximal to MB and contributes to the occurrence of myocardial infarction. These events upon the coronary events result from the different pathophysiological mechanisms induced by contractile force of MB, which is solely determined just by the integration of anatomical properties of MB, such as the location, length and thickness of MB in an individual LAD. A recent MSCT provides the objective quantification of the anatomical variables that correlate with the histopathological results in relation to the occurrence of CHD. In this review, we therefore discuss the necessity to explore MB as a inherent chance anatomical risk factor for CHD. PMID:23555365

Yoko, Kawawa; Ehiichi, Kohda; Toshiharu, Ishii

2009-01-01

184

[Coronary vasomotion in myocardial ischemia].  

PubMed

Coronary vasomotion can be characterized with respect to its localization in the coronary vascular tree as segmental (epicardial, collateral, resistive), with respect to its localization in the myocardium as transmural (subendocardial vs subepicardial), or with respect to its mediators (myogenic, metabolic, endothelial, neuronal, humoral). Coronary vessels exhibit a marked coronary dilator reserve which can be recruited to maintain regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function distal to coronary stenoses. Even in the presence of myocardial ischemia, coronary vessels retain a significant dilator reserve which can only be recruited pharmacologically. A critical reduction in blood flow at the level of epicardial coronary arteries is the underlying cause for a range of pathophysiological processes that extends from changes in the hemodynamic severity of a fixed stenosis to dynamic coronary stenosis, and finally to true spasm. These pathophysiological processes differ in the quantitative contribution of active coronary vasoconstriction and fixed mechanical obstruction to the initiation of myocardial ischemia; the mediators of epicardial coronary constriction are largely unclear. Significant alpha 2-adrenergic coronary constriction of the resistive vessels, predominantly in the subendocardium, contributes to the initiation of poststenotic myocardial ischemia during sympathetic activation and exercise in experimental studies. Intracoronary alpha-blockade with phentolamine also attenuates exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with stable angina. Experimental analyses of regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function in ischemic myocardium reveal that a discrepancy between O2-supply (flow) and O2-demand (function) does not exist on a hemodynamic level. Regional myocardial blood flow and function are instead adequately reduced in ischemic myocardium. Thus, absolute regional myocardial blood flow--as a result of coronary vasomotion and blood flow redistribution--is the significant determination of myocardial ischemia. PMID:2678793

Heusch, G

1989-08-01

185

3D Myocardial Contraction Imaging Based on Dynamic Grid Interpolation: Theory and Simulation Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of local myocardial contraction is important for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, because decreases of myocardial motion often appear in the early stages of the disease. Three-dimensional (3-D) assessment of the stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Since myocardium motion occurs radially within the left ventricle wall and the ultrasound beam propagates axially, conventional approaches, such as tissue Doppler imaging and strain-rate imaging techniques, cannot provide us with enough quantitative information about local myocardial contraction. In order to resolve this problem, we propose a novel myocardial contraction imaging system which utilizes the weighted phase gradient method, the extended combined autocorrelation method, and the dynamic grid interpolation (DGI) method. From the simulation results, we conclude that the strain image's accuracy and contrast have been improved by the proposed method.

Bu, Shuhui; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Takizawa, Hotaka

186

Myocardial cleft in a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: an unusual association identified by cardiac magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

We present the case of an 84-year-old woman admitted for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy complicated by congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed on day five and confirmed severely depressed left ventricular systolic function with typical apical ballooning. In steady-state free precession long-axis cine imaging, a basal inferior myocardial cleft was also observed, with no signs of myocardial noncompaction or regional wall motion abnormalities involving this segment. The pre-discharge CMR study confirmed the presence of a basal inferior myocardial cleft and significant improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Myocardial clefts are congenital abnormalities that have been described in healthy individuals as well as in the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but it is not clear whether it is a benign structural variant or a distinct cardiomyopathy phenotype. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of this abnormality in a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:24530240

Ribeiro, Vânia; Pinho, Teresa; Oliveira, Sílvia Marta; Madureira, António J; Ramos, Isabel; Maciel, Maria Júlia

2014-02-01

187

Circumferential myocardial strain in cardiomyopathy with and without left bundle branch block  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to decrease mortality in 60-70% of advanced heart failure patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and QRS duration > 120 ms. There have been intense efforts to find reproducible non-invasive parameters to predict CRT response. We hypothesized that different left ventricular contraction patterns may exist in LBBB patients with depressed systolic function and applied tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess circumferential strain in this population. Methods We determined myocardial circumferential strain at the basal, mid, and apical ventricular level in 35 subjects (10 with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 15 with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and 10 healthy controls). Patterns of circumferential strain were analyzed. Time to peak systolic circumferential strain in each of the 6 segments in all three ventricular slices and the standard deviation of time to peak strain in the basal and mid ventricular slices were determined. Results Dyskinesis of the anterior septum and the inferior septum in at least two ventricular levels was seen in 50% (5 out of 10) of LBBB patients while 30% had isolated dyskinesis of the anteroseptum, and 20% had no dyskinesis in any segments, similar to all of the non-LBBB patients and healthy controls. Peak circumferential strain shortening was significantly reduced in all cardiomyopathy patients at the mid-ventricular level (LBBB 9 ± 6%, non-LBBB 10 ± 4% vs. healthy 19 ± 4%; both p < 0.0001 compared to healthy), but was similar among the LBBB and non-LBBB groups (p = 0.20). The LBBB group had significantly greater dyssynchrony compared to the non-LBBB group and healthy controls assessed by opposing wall delays and 12-segment standard deviation (LBBB 164 ± 30 ms vs. non-LBBB 70 ± 17 ms (p < 0.0001), non-LBBB vs. healthy 65 ± 17 ms (p = 0.47)). Conclusions Septal dyskinesis exists in some patients with LBBB. Myocardial circumferential strain analysis enables detailed characterization of contraction patterns, strengths, and timing in cardiomyopathy patients with and without LBBB. PMID:20047696

2010-01-01

188

Relation between early mitral regurgitation and left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-3 echo substudy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of left ventricular thrombosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and whether the occurrence of early mitral regurgitation has a protective effect against the formation of left ventricular thrombus. Design and setting: Multicentre clinical trial carried out in 47 Italian coronary care units. Patients and methods: 757 patients from the GISSI-3 echo substudy population with their first acute myocardial infarct were studied by echocardiography at 24–48 hours from symptom onset (S1), at discharge (S2), at six weeks (S3), and at six months (S4). The diagnosis of left ventricular thrombosis was based on the detection of an echo dense mass with defined margins visible throughout the cardiac cycle in at least two orthogonal views. Results: In 64 patients (8%), left ventricular thrombosis was detected in one or more examinations. Compared with the remaining 693 patients, subjects with left ventricular thrombosis were older (mean (SD) age: 64.6 (13.0) v 59.8 (11.7) years, p < 0.005), and had larger infarcts (extent of wall motion asynergy: 40.9 (11.5)% v 24.9 (14)%, p < 0.001), greater depression of left ventricular ejection fraction at S1 (43.3 (6.9)% v 48.1 (6.8)%, p < 0.001), and greater left ventricular volumes at S1 (end diastolic volume: 87 (22) v 78 (18) ml/m2, p < 0.001; end systolic volume: 50 (17) v 41 (14) ml/m2, p < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation on colour Doppler at S1 was greater in patients who had left ventricular thrombosis at any time (10.2% v 4.2%, p < 0.05). On stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis the only independent variables related to the presence of left ventricular thrombosis were the extent of wall motion asynergy and anterior site of infarction. Conclusions: Left ventricular thrombosis is not reduced, and may even be increased, by early moderate to severe mitral regurgitation after acute myocardial infarction. The only independent determinant of left ventricular thrombosis is the extent of the akinetic-dyskinetic area detected on echocardiography between 24–48 hours from symptom onset. PMID:12117831

Ascione, L; Antonini-Canterin, F; Macor, F; Cervesato, E; Chiarella, F; Giannuzzi, P; Temporelli, P L; Gentile, F; Lucci, D; Maggioni, A P; Tavazzi, L; Badano, L; Stoian, I; Piazza, R; Bosimini, E; Pavan, D; Nicolosi, G L

2002-01-01

189

ST elevation without myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myocarditis may mimic myocardial infarction because the affected patients report 'classical' chest pain; the ECG changes and echocardiography are identical to those observed in acute coronary syndromes, and serum markers are increased. We describe a case with ST segment elevation on admission ECG, and coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance with myocardial delayed enhancement sequences is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing myocarditis. PMID:24711464

Bitar, Zouheir Ibrahim; Swede, Mohammad; Almerri, Khaled

2014-01-01

190

Matrix metalloproteinase expression in cardiac myocytes following myocardial infarction in the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial infarction (MI), leads to cardiac remodeling, thinning of the ventricle wall, ventricular dilation, and heart failure, and is a leading cause of death. Interactions between the contractile elements of the cardiac myocytes and the extracellular matrix (ECM) help maintain myocyte alignment required for the structural and functional integrity of the heart. Following MI, reorganization of the ECM and the

Anne M. Romanic; Cynthia L. Burns-Kurtis; Bernard Gout; Isabelle Berrebi-Bertrand; Eliot H. Ohlstein

2001-01-01

191

Diastolic Dysfunction in Hypertensive Heart Disease Is Associated With Altered Myocardial Metabolism  

E-print Network

and is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease.1 Early detection of changes in cardiacDiastolic Dysfunction in Hypertensive Heart Disease Is Associated With Altered MyocardialD; Joost Doornbos, PhD; Ernst E. van der Wall, MD; Albert de Roos, MD Background--Hypertension

Ouwerkerk, Ronald

192

Quantification of Myocardial Strain at Early Systole in Mouse Heart: Restoration of Undeformed Tagging Grid with Single-Point HARP  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop accurate strain and torsion quantification method for the assessment of myocardial contraction in mice by MRI tagging. Materials and Methods Ventricular wall motion at baseline and during ?-adrenergic stimulation was assessed in mice using MRI tagging. Myocardial strain and torsion were quantified using finite element analysis method. A harmonic phase (HARP) based method was developed for the restoration of undeformed taglines for more accurate calculation of myocardial wall strain and torsion. Results Myocardial deformation was observed at early systole (< 20 ms after QRS) both at baseline and during ?-adrenergic stimulation. The HARP-based method allowed robust restoration of undeformed taglines that can be used as the reference in finite element analysis of the tagged images. Without such correction for myocardial deformation in the reference image, inaccuracy in strain quantification underestimated significant strain development at early systole in dobutamine-stimulated hearts. Conclusion The HARP-based method developed in the current study enabled automated restoration of undeformed taglines in mouse hearts, leading to more accurate calculation of myocardial wall strain and torsion during dobutamine stimulation. PMID:20815058

Li, Wei; Yu, Xin

2010-01-01

193

Chronic beta-adrenoreceptor activation increases cardiac cavity size through chamber remodeling and not via modifications in myocardial material properties.  

PubMed

Chronic beta-adrenoreceptor (beta-AR) activation increases left ventricular (LV) cavity size by promoting a rightward shift in LV diastolic pressure-volume (P-V) relations in association with increases in low-tensile strength myocardial (non-cross-linked) collagen concentrations. Because diastolic P-V relations are determined by chamber remodeling as well as by myocardial material properties (indexed by myocardial stiffness), both of which are associated with modifications in myocardial collagen cross-linking, we evaluated whether chamber remodeling or alterations in myocardial material properties govern beta-AR-mediated modifications in diastolic P-V relations. The effects of chronic administration of isoproterenol (Iso; 0.04 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) from 12 to 19 mo of age) to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) on LV cavity dimensions, LV diastolic P-V relations, myocardial collagen characteristics, myocardial stiffness constants [e.g., the slope of the LV diastolic stress-strain relation (k)], and LV chamber and myocardial systolic function were assessed. SHRs at 19 mo of age had normal LV diastolic P-V relations, marked myocardial fibrosis (using a pathological score), increased myocardial cross-linked (insoluble to cyanogen bromide digestion) type I and type III collagen concentrations, and enhanced myocardial k values. Iso administration to SHRs resulted in enlarged LV cavity dimensions mediated by a rightward shift in LV diastolic P-V relations, increased volume intercept of the LV diastolic P-V relation, decreased LV relative wall thickness despite a tendency to augment LV hypertrophy, and increased non-cross-linked type I and type III myocardial collagen concentrations. Iso administration resulted in reduced pump function without modification of intrinsic myocardial systolic function. However, despite increasing myocardial non-cross-linked concentrations, Iso failed to alter myocardial k in SHRs. These results suggest that beta-AR-mediated rightward shifts in LV diastolic P-V relations, which induce decreased pump function, are mediated by chamber remodeling but not by modifications in myocardial material properties. PMID:15319203

Gibbs, Mark; Veliotes, Demetri G A; Anamourlis, Christopher; Badenhorst, Danelle; Osadchii, Oleg; Norton, Gavin R; Woodiwiss, Angela J

2004-12-01

194

Imaging of Anterior Knee Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

nterior knee pain (AKP) is a common complaint in primary care and orthopedic clinics. In fact, in the sports medicine clinic, up to 25% of patients with knee complaints have symptoms of anterior knee pain (1). Adolescent females and other young individuals are at particular risk for AKP. In these individuals, symptoms are usually related to increased use, fre- quently

Stephen R. Christian; M. Bret Anderson; Ronald Workman; William F. Conway; Thomas L. Pope

2006-01-01

195

Left atrial volume index is a predictor of silent myocardial ischemia in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Silent myocardial ischemia is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the criteria for coronary artery disease screening remain unclear in asymptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether baseline echocardiographic parameters can predict myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD. We investigated 259 high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD who underwent both echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at the initiation of dialysis. We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as a reversible or fixed perfusion defect. Silent myocardial ischemia was found in 99 (38.2 %) high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD at the initiation of dialysis. In patients with myocardial ischemia, left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume index, LV mass index, left atrial volume index (LAVI), and the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to peak mitral annulus velocity were significantly higher, and LV ejection fraction was significantly lower, than those without myocardial ischemia. Multivariate analysis showed that LAVI, LV ejection fraction, and regional wall motion abnormalities were independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia. Severe (LA) enlargement was independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia (odds ratio 1.97; 95 % confidence interval 1.08-3.57; p = 0.026). LA enlargement is a potential marker for identifying patients with ESRD at high risk of silent myocardial ischemia. PMID:23657494

Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Kim, Sung Gyun; Yoon, Joung Woo; Koo, Ja Ryong; Kim, Hyung Jik; Song, Young Rim

2013-10-01

196

Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation decreases lymphangiogenesis and adverse myocardial remodeling in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Cardiac lymphatic system in the remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been overlooked. We wanted to investigate the role of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and their contribution to lymphatic distribution in myocardial remodeling after AMI. Mouse (C57bl/6J) MI models were created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or EPCs. Real-time RT-PCR with 2- to 4-week myocardial tissue samples revealed that lymphangiogenetic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C (8.5 fold, P < 0.05), VEGF-D (6.1 fold, P < 0.05), Lyve-1 (15 fold, P < 0.05), and Prox-1 (11 fold, P < 0.05) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the PBS group than the EPC group. The PBS group also showed a significantly higher density of lymphatic vessels in the peri-infarction area. Echocardiography showed that from 2 weeks after the treatment, left ventricle (LV) dimensions at both systole and diastole were significantly smaller in the EPC group than in the PBS group (P < 0.01) and LV fractional shortening was higher in the EPC group accordingly (P < 0.01). Lymphangiogenic markers increased in a mouse MI model. EPC transplantation decreased lymphangiogenesis and adverse ventricular remodeling after AMI. These novel findings suggest that new lymphatic vessels may be formed in severely damaged myocardium, and may be involved in adverse myocardial remodeling after AMI. PMID:21694495

Park, Jae-Hyeong; Yoon, Jung Yeon; Ko, Seon Mi; Jin, Seon Ah; Kim, Jun Hyung; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Seong, In-Whan

2011-01-01

197

Wonderful Walls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

Greenman, Jim

2006-01-01

198

Dual ACE-inhibition and angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism with curcumin attenuate maladaptive cardiac repair and improve ventricular systolic function after myocardial infarctionin rat heart.  

PubMed

Curcumin has been shown to improve cardiac function by reducing degradation of extracellular matrix and inhibiting synthesis of collagen after ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that attenuation of maladaptive cardiac repair with curcumin is associated with a dual ACE-inhibition and angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45min ischemia followed by 7 and 42 days of reperfusion, respectively. Curcumin was fed orally at a dose of 150mg/kg/day only during reperfusion. Relative to the control animals, dietary treatment with curcumin significantly reduced levels of ACE and AT1 receptor protein as determined by Western blot assay, coincident with less locally-expressed ACE and AT1 receptor in myocardium and coronary vessels as identified by immunohistochemistry. Along with this inhibition, curcumin significantly increased protein level of AT2 receptor and its expression compared with the control. As evidenced by less collagen deposition in fibrotic myocardium, curcumin also reduced the extent of collagen-rich scar and increased mass of viable myocardium detected by Masson?s trichrome staining. Echocardiography showed that the wall thickness of the infarcted anterior septum in the curcumin group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Cardiac contractile function was improved in the curcumin treated animals as measured by fraction shortening and ejection fraction. In cultured cardiac muscle cells, curcumin inhibited oxidant-induced AT1 receptor expression and promoted cell survival. These results suggest that curcumin attenuates maladaptive cardiac repair and enhances cardiac function, primarily mediated by a dual ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction. PMID:25445044

Pang, Xue-Fen; Zhang, Li-Hui; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Ijaz Shah, Ahmed; Garner, Ron; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

2015-01-01

199

Catheter-based endomyocardial delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells using 3D echo guidance improves cardiac function in a chronic myocardial injury ovine model.  

PubMed

The administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells may provide a new treatment option for patients with heart failure. Transcatheter cell injection may require multi-imaging modalities to optimize delivery. This study sought to evaluate whether endomyocardial injection of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) could be guided by real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) in treating chronic, postinfarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in sheep. Four weeks after induction of an anterior wall myocardial infarction in 39 sheep, allogeneic MPCs in doses of either 25 × 10(6) (n = 10), 75 × 10(6) (n = 9), or 225 × 10(6) (n = 10) cells or nonconditioned control media (n = 10) were administered intramyocardially into infarct and border zone areas using a catheter designed for combined fluoroscopic and RT3DE-guided injections. LV function was assessed before and after injection. Infarct dimension and vascular density were evaluated histologically. RT3DE-guided injection procedures were safe. Compared to controls, the highest dose MPC treatment led to increments in ejection fraction (3 ventricula 3% in 225M MPCs vs. -5 ± 4% in the control group, p < 0.01) and wall thickening in both infarct (4 ± 4% in 225M MPCs vs. -3 ± 6% in the control group, p = 0.02) and border zones (4 ± 6% in 225M MPCs vs. -8 ± 9% in the control group, p = 0.01). Histology analysis demonstrated significantly higher arteriole density in the infarct and border zones in the highest dose MPC-treated animals compared to the lower dose or control groups. Endomyocardial implantation of MPCs under RT3DE guidance was safe and without observed logistical obstacles. Significant increases in LV performance (ejection fraction and wall thickening) and neovascularization resulted from this technique, and so this technique has important implications for treating patients with postischemic LV dysfunction. PMID:23107489

Cheng, Yanping; Yi, Genghua; Conditt, Gerard B; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank D; Tellez, Armando; Polyakov, Igor; Gu, Anguo; Aboodi, Michael S; Wallace-Bradley, David; Schuster, Michael; Martens, Timothy; Itescu, Silviu; Kaluza, Greg L; Basu, Shubhayu; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F; Sherman, Warren

2013-01-01

200

Intra-myocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Left Ventricular and Cardiomyocyte Contractile Dysfunction Following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation may improve the overall heart function, the heterogeneity of myocardial cells makes it difficult to determine the nature of cells benefited from transplantation. This study evaluated the effect of intra-myocardial MSC transplantation on myocardial function following MI. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor MSCs from C57BL/6-Tg (UBC-GFP) 30Scha/J mice were transplanted into LV free wall in the region bordering an infarct in C57 recipient mice following ligation of left main coronary artery (MI+MSC group). Ten days after MI, LV function was assessed using echocardiography. Cardiomyocyte contractility and intracellular Ca2+ transients were measured in cells from the area at risk surrounding the infarct scar. The EGFP donor cells were traced in the MSC recipient mice using fluorescence microscopy. TUNEL, H&E and Masson trichrome staining were used to assess apoptosis, angiogenesis and myocardial fibrosis, respectively. MI dilated LV as evidenced by increased end-diastolic and systolic diameters. MI significantly reduced fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte peak shortening, and maximal velocity of shortening and relengthening, all of which were attenuated or abrogated by MSC therapy. MI also reduced resting intracellular Ca2+, intracellular Ca2+ rise and decay rate, which were reconciled by MSC. MSC therapy attenuated MI-induced apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis but not myocardial fibrosis in peri-infarct area. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MSC therapy significantly improved both LV and cardiomyocyte function possibly associated with its beneficial role in apoptosis and angiogenesis, indicating a key role for cardiomyocytes in stem cell tissue engineering. PMID:20303399

Li, Qun; Turdi, Subat; Thomas, D. Paul; Zhou, Tianjie; Ren, Jun

2010-01-01

201

New application of myocardial antimyosin scintigraphy: diagnosis of myocardial disease in polymyositis.  

PubMed Central

Heart disease is a rare but important complication of polymyositis. Diagnosis of myocardial disease is usually based on non-specific clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data. This paper reports a case of polymyositis with myocardial disease diagnosed by myocardial imaging with radiolabelled antibody to myosin, a specific marker of the necrotic myocardial fibre. Images PMID:8484680

Le Guludec, D; Lhote, F; Weinmann, P; Royer, I; Jarrousse, B; Caillat-Vigneron, N; Guillevin, L; Moretti, J L

1993-01-01

202

Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology  

PubMed Central

A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

2015-01-01

203

Effect of flosequinan (BTS 49465) on myocardial oxygen consumption.  

PubMed

BTS 49465 (flosequinan), a putative selective, balanced arterial and venous vasodilator, displays positive inotropic effects in doses lower than those producing vasodilation. Thus rather than unloading the myocardium, flosequinan may increase myocardial work and oxygen consumption (MVO2), and may adversely affect the patient with myocardial ischemia or compromised coronary blood flow. This study compared the effects of flosequinan with milrinone, a mixed positive inotropic agent and vasodilator, and with nitroprusside (SNP), a standard direct-acting vasodilator, on myocardial dP/dT, MVO2, and myocardial energetics in the normal pentobartital-anesthetized dog. The effect of flosequinan on myocardial work was also evaluated in the dog with propranolol-induced heart failure (PIHF). Fifteen minutes after intraduodenal (id) administration of flosequinan (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) to seven dogs, mean myocardial dP/dT was increased by 11%, 27%, and 54%, respectively, whereas stroke MVO2 was increased by 10%, 24%, and 47%, respectively. Doses of flosequinan greater than 0.3 mg/kg decreased left ventricular (LV) work but LV efficiency decreased in a dose-related manner. Milrinone (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg, id) increased LV dp/dt by 34%, 68%, and 104% above basal values, while increasing stroke MVO2 by 24%, 106%, and 249%, respectively (n = 7). LV work and LV efficiency decreased after each dose of milrinone. SNP (0.001, 0.003, and 0.01 mg/kg/min, intravenously) did not increase dP/dT but decreased LV work by 28%, 42%, and 46% (n = 5). In animals with PIHF, flosequinan (1 and 3 mg/kg, id) increased LV dP/dT 58% and 87% and increased LV work by 58% and 76% above control values. It was concluded that (1) flosequinan is a positive inotropic agent as well as a vasodilator; (2) in the normal animal the energy cost of positive inotropic activity is less with flosequinan than with milrinone, despite the lesser vasodilating action of the former; and (3) in the animal with a depressed myocardium, flosequinan may adversely affect myocardial work and wall tension. PMID:2353621

Greenberg, S; Touhey, B; Paul, J

1990-06-01

204

Secondary anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clincopathological features and pathogenesis of secondary mosaic degeneration of the cornea (anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt) are described. The structural basis for the normal anterior corneal mosaic pattern seems to lie in the particular arrangement of many prominent collagen lamellae of the anterior stroma that thake an oblique course to gain insertion into Bowman's layer. Since, at normal intraocular

R C Tripathi; A J Bron

1975-01-01

205

Magnetic resonance stress imaging of myocardial perfusion and wall motion.  

PubMed

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a powerful tool for the detection and management of coronary artery disease. Beyond morphology, CMR imaging can probe relevant physiological parameters such as perfusion and function by means of stress testing. This article reviews current applications of CMR stress imaging with an emphasis upon vasodilators and positive inotropic agents. Further, technical aspects, image interpretation, diagnostic performance, and prognostic value of stress tests will be addressed. PMID:24157620

Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Bremerich, Jens

2014-01-01

206

CAD of myocardial perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our purpose is in the automated evaluation of the physiological relevance of lesions in coronary angiograms. We aim to extract as much as possible quantitative information about the physiological condition of the heart from standard angiographic image sequences. Coronary angiography is still the gold standard for evaluating and diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. The dimensions of the stenosis can be assessed nowadays successfully with image processing based Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA) techniques. Our purpose is to assess the clinical relevance of the pertinent stenosis. We therefore analyze the myocardial perfusion as revealed in standard angiographic image sequences. In a Region-of-Interest (ROI) on the angiogram (without an overlaying major blood vessel) the contrast is measured as a function of time (the so-called time-density curve). The required hyperemic state of exercise is induced artificially by the injection of a vasodilator drug e.g. papaverine. In order to minimize motion artifacts we select based on the recorded ECG signal end-diastolic images in both a basal and a hyperemic run in the same projection to position the ROI. We present the development of the algorithms together with results of a small study of 20 patients which have been catheterized following the standard protocol.

Storm, Corstiaan J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

2007-03-01

207

Myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of silent myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Despite the widespread use of the exercise stress test in diagnosing asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, exercise radionuclide imaging remains useful for detecting silent ischemia in numerous patient populations, including those who are totally asymptomatic, those who have chronic stable angina, those who have recovered from an episode of unstable angina or an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and those who have undergone angioplasty or received thrombolytic therapy. Studies show that thallium scintigraphy is more sensitive than exercise electrocardiography in detecting ischemia, i.e., in part, because perfusion defects occur more frequently than ST depression and before angina in the ischemic cascade. Thallium-201 scintigraphy can be performed to differentiate a true- from a false-positive exercise electrocardiographic test in patients with exercise-induced ST depression and no angina. The development of technetium-labeled isonitriles may improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging. 11 references.

Beller, G.A.

1988-04-21

208

Protective anti-inflammatory effect of ADAMTS13 on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease is a major cause of death in the western world. Although essential for successful recovery, reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is inevitably associated with reperfusion injury. To investigate a potential protective role of ADAMTS13, a protease cleaving von Willebrand factor multimers, during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, we used a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. We found that Adamts13?/? mice developed larger myocardial infarctions than wild-type control mice, whereas treatment of wild-type mice with recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) led to smaller infarctions. The protective effect of ADAMTS13 was further confirmed by a significant reduction of cardiac troponin-I release and less myocardial apoptosis in mice that received rhADAMTS13 compared with controls. Platelets adherent to the blood vessel wall were observed in few areas in the heart samples from mice treated with vehicle and were not detected in samples from mice treated with rhADAMTS13. However, we observed a 9-fold reduction in number of neutrophils infiltrating ischemic myocardium in mice that were treated with rhADAMTS13, suggesting a potent anti-inflammatory effect of ADAMTS13 during heart injury. Our data show that ADAMTS13 reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice and indicate that rhADAMTS13 could be of therapeutic value to limit myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:22915644

De Meyer, Simon F.; Savchenko, Alexander S.; Haas, Michael S.; Schatzberg, Daphne; Carroll, Michael C.; Schiviz, Alexandra; Dietrich, Barbara; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

2012-01-01

209

A PNIPAAm-based thermosensitive hydrogel containing SWCNTs for stem cell transplantation in myocardial repair.  

PubMed

Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel was a widely used carrier in therapeutic agent delivery. However, its bioactivities for encapsulated cells were not satisfactory. In the study, we aimed to determine whether modification with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) could improve the bioactivitis, especially supportive adhesion of PNIPAAm to encapsulated cells and favor their efficacy in myocardial repair. A thermosensitive SWCNTs-modified PNIPAAm hydrogel (PNIPAAm/SWCNTs) were prepared by incorporating the SWCNTs into base PNIPAAm hydrogel. The bioactivities of the resulted hydrogel to brown adipose-derived stem cells (BASCs) were evaluated and compared with the base PNIPAAm hydrpgel in vitro. Then, the PNIPAAm-containing hydrogel was used as carrier for imtromyocardial delivery of BASCs in rats with myocardial infarction. The efficacy of PNIPAAm/SWCNTs hydrogel in stem cell-based myocardial repair was systematically evaluated. In vitro study showed that the PNIPAAm/SWCNTs hydrogel demonstrated significantly higher bioactivities to encapsulated BASCs compared with onefold PNIPAAm hydrogel, including promoting cell adhesion and proliferation. When used as carrier for intramyocardial delivery of BASCs after myocardial infarction, the PNIPAAm/SWCNTs hydrogel significantly enhanced the engraftment of seeding cells in infarct myocardium and augmented their therapeutic efficacies in myocardial infarction (MI). The data provided a supportive evidence for the myocardial application of the SWCNTs-modified hydrogel and offered a new perspective in development or improvement of cardiac tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:24746964

Li, Xia; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Lü, Shuanghong; Sun, Hongyu; Li, Junjie; Lin, Qiuxia; Yang, Boguang; Duan, Cuimi; Xing, Malcolm Mengqiu; Wang, Changyong

2014-07-01

210

Visualization of myocardial perfusion defects in single photon emission computerized (SPECT) studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a semi-automatic technique to quantize and to visualize myocardial perfusion defects volumetrically. This involves: (1) differentiating the myocardium from encroaching viscera, (2) determining the mass of myocardium, (3) locating and measuring the perfusion defects, and (4) graphically rendering them. First, to differentiate between myocardium and other thoracic structures, we introduce the concept of Maximum Intensity Surface Segmentation (MISS). By locating local maximums in our cardiac Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) image and connecting ones sufficiently close together, we generate the basic shape of the myocardium and the encroaching ones sufficiently close together, we generate the basic shape of the myocardium and the encroaching structures. Second, with the shape of the myocardium determined, we then measure the thickness at each point of the heart wall. Fitting bicubic splines to the measured myocardial thicknesses, we create smooth epicardial and endocardial boundaries for both normal and abnormal regions. Third, using a thresholding technique based on the maximal myocardial activity, we determine the abnormal regions. Finally, with the abnormal regions and the myocardial mass determined, we can calculate the abnormality's size as a percentage of the total myocardial mass. By providing quantitative measurements, our technique meets the physician's long standing need for a volumetric quantitation of the size of myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

Malone, L. J.; Zeidler, James R.; Ku, Walter H.; Yeung, David W.

1994-09-01

211

Myocardial tissue tagging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the gold standard for assessing both global and regional myocardial function. New tools for quantifying regional function have been recently developed to characterize early myocardial dysfunction in order to improve the identification and management of individuals at risk for heart failure. Of particular interest is CMR myocardial tagging, a non-invasive technique for assessing regional

Monda L Shehata; Susan Cheng; Nael F Osman; David A Bluemke; João AC Lima

2009-01-01

212

Relationship Between MDCT?Imaged Myocardial Fat and Ventricular Tachycardia Substrate in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial fibrofatty infiltration is a milieu for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and can be depicted as myocardial hypodensity on contrast?enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with high spatial and temporal resolution. This study aimed to assess the relationship between MDCT?imaged myocardial fat and VT substrate in ARVC. Methods and Results We studied 16 patients with ARVC who underwent ablation and preprocedural MDCT. High?resolution imaging data were processed and registered to high?density endocardial and epicardial maps in sinus rhythm on 3?dimensional electroanatomic mapping (3D?EAM) (626±335 and 575±279 points/map, respectively). Analysis of the locations of low?voltage and fat segmentation included the following endocardial and epicardial regions: apex, mid (anterior, lateral, inferior), and basal (anterior, lateral, inferior). The location of local abnormal ventricular activities (LAVA) was compared with fat distribution. RV myocardial fat was successfully segmented and integrated with 3D?EAM in all patients. The ? agreement test demonstrated a good concordance between the epicardial low voltage and fat (?=0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84), but fair concordance with the endocardium (?=0.41, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.56). The majority of LAVA (520/653 [80%]) were located within the RV fat segmentation, of which 90% were not farther than 20 mm from its border. Registration of MDCT allowed direct visualization of the coronary arteries, thus avoiding coronary damage during epicardial radiofrequency delivery. Conclusions The integration of MDCT?imaged myocardial fat with 3D?EAM provides valuable information on the extent and localization of VT substrate and demonstrates ablation targets clustering in its border region. PMID:25103203

Komatsu, Yuki; Jadidi, Amir; Sacher, Frederic; Denis, Arnaud; Daly, Matthew; Derval, Nicolas; Shah, Ashok; Lehrmann, Heiko; Park, Chan?Il; Weber, Reinhold; Arentz, Thomas; Pache, Gregor; Sermesant, Maxime; Ayache, Nicholas; Relan, Jatin; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

2014-01-01

213

Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic indexes for functional tissue recovery. Segmental blood flow and glucose utilization were evaluated using a circumferential profile technique and compared with previously established semiquantitative criteria. Relative N-13 ammonia uptake was depressed in 32 left ventricular segments. Sixteen segments demonstrated a concordant decrease in flow and glucose metabolism. Regional function did not change over time in these segments. In contrast, 16 other segments with reduced blood flow revealed maintained F-18 deoxyglucose uptake consistent with remaining viable tissue. The average wall motion score improved significantly in these segments (p less than 0.01), yet the degree of recovery varied considerably among patients. Coronary anatomy was defined in 9 of 13 patients: patent infarct vessels supplied 8 of 10 segments with F-18 deoxyglucose uptake, while 10 of 13 segments in the territory of an occluded vessel showed concordant decreases in flow and metabolism (p less than 0.01). Thus, positron emission tomography reveals a high incidence of residual tissue viability in ventricular segments with reduced flow and impaired function during the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. Absence of residual tissue metabolism is associated with irreversible injury, while preservation of metabolic activity identifies segments with a variable outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.; Tillisch, J.H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

1986-10-01

214

Is arterial wall-strain stiffening an additional process responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary bifurcations?: an in vivo study based on dynamic CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Coronary bifurcations represent specific regions of the arterial tree that are susceptible to atherosclerotic lesions. While the effects of vessel compliance, curvature, pulsatile blood flow, and cardiac motion on coronary endothelial shear stress have been widely explored, the effects of myocardial contraction on arterial wall stress/strain (WS/S) and vessel stiffness distributions remain unclear. Local increase of vessel stiffness resulting from wall-strain stiffening phenomenon (a local process due to the nonlinear mechanical properties of the arterial wall) may be critical in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify WS/S and stiffness in coronary bifurcations and to investigate correlations with plaque sites. Anatomic coronary geometry and cardiac motion were generated based on both computed tomography and MRI examinations of eight patients with minimal coronary disease. Computational structural analyses using the finite element method were subsequently performed, and spatial luminal arterial wall stretch (LWStretch) and stiffness (LWStiff) distributions in the left main coronary bifurcations were calculated. Our results show that all plaque sites were concomitantly subject to high LWStretch and high LWStiff, with mean amplitudes of 34.7 ± 1.6% and 442.4 ± 113.0 kPa, respectively. The mean LWStiff amplitude was found slightly greater at the plaque sites on the left main coronary artery (mean value: 482.2 ± 88.1 kPa) compared with those computed on the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries (416.3 ± 61.5 and 428.7 ± 181.8 kPa, respectively). These findings suggest that local wall stiffness plays a role in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21685261

Gharib, Ahmed M.; Garcia, Alberto; Heroux, Julie; Yazdani, Saami K.; Malvè, Mauro; Tracqui, Philippe; Martinez, Miguel-Angel; Doblare, Manuel; Finet, Gérard; Pettigrew, Roderic I.

2011-01-01

215

Wall Turbulence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

Hanratty, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

216

Wall Tension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of Hyperphysics, from Georgia State University, develops the relationship between tension, pressure, and radius in a balloon. The same ideas are then applied to the walls of spherical and cylindrical containers. Several links provide further information.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-11-15

217

Mechanisms of cell death in acute myocardial infarction: pathophysiological implications for treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the growing list of pathophysiological phenomena occurring in blood, the vessel wall and cardiac tissue during myocardial infarction. A further aim is to point to the complexity of factors, contributing to cardiac dysfunction and the implications for therapy, aimed at limiting myocardial cell death. Not all pathophysiological mechanisms have been elucidated yet, indicating the necessity for further research in this area. In addition we describe interventions which have shown promise in animal studies, those which may show promise in humans, and those which are accepted as therapies of choice.

de Zwaan, C.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Hermens, W.Th.

2001-01-01

218

Detection of multivessel disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy: No additional value of quantitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to determine the value of visual and quantitative thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of multivessel disease in 67 patients with a sustained transmural myocardial infarction. Also the viability of the myocardial regions corresponding to pathologic Q-waves was evaluated. Of the 67 patients, 51 patients had multivessel coronary artery disease (76%). The sensitivity of the exercise test was 53%, of thallium scintigraphy 69%, when interpreted visually, and 67%, when analysed quantitatively. The specificity of these methods was 69%, 56%, and 50%, respectively. Sixty-two infarct-related flow regions were detected by visual analysis of the thallium scans, total redistribution was observed in 11/62 (18%) of patients, partial redistribution in 26/62 (42%), and no redistribution in 25/62 (40%) of patients. The infarct-related areas with total redistribution on the thallium scintigrams were more likely to be associated with normal or hypokinetic wall motion (7/11: 64%) than the areas with a persistent defect (7/25:28%) (P = 0.05), which were more related with akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion. Based on our results, it is concluded that (1) both visual and quantitative analysis of thallium exercise scintigraphy have limited value to predict the presence or absence of multivessel coronary artery disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction, and (2) exercise-induced thallium redistribution may occur within the infarct zone, suggesting the presence of viable but jeopardized myocardium in presumed fibrotic myocardial areas.

Niemeyer, M.G.; Pauwels, E.K.; van der Wall, E.E.; Cramer, M.J.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Ascoop, C.A. (Merwede Hospital, Dordrecht (Netherlands))

1989-01-01

219

Wellens’ syndrome: a classical electrocardiographic sign of impending myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of previously healthy 72-year-old man, who presented with rest angina. The ECG revealed sinus rhythm, biphasic T waves with preserved R waves in V1–V4 precordial leads. Subsequent evaluation revealed the normal serum cardiac marker levels and echocardiography with the coronary angiography showing a critical lesion in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Thus it was diagnosed as Wellens’ syndrome. In our case, we highlight the subtle though classical ECG findings of Wellens’ syndrome and its specific angiographic correlation. It can be of vital importance to identify these changes and intervene in time appropriately so as to avoid the development of myocardial infarction that carries a substantial morbidity and mortality. Important aspects of diagnosis and management have also been reviewed. PMID:23420731

Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Yadvinder; Singla, Vivek; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

2013-01-01

220

Cellular therapy reverses myocardial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Cellular cardiomyoplasty refers to the implantation of autologous skeletal muscle cells into the myocardium to reinforce its structure and function. In this study a reproducible method for the creation of a myocardial lesion was developed. The functional benefit of cell implantation was evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography for global contraction and color kinesis echocardiography, which allows the precise assessment of

C. Rajnoch; J.-C. Chachques; A. Berrebi; P. Bruneval; M.-O. Benoit; A. Carpentier

2001-01-01

221

Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the

S. R. Underwood; C. Anagnostopoulos; M. Cerqueira; P. J. Ell; E. J. Flint; M. Harbinson; A. D. Kelion; A. Al-Mohammad; E. M. Prvulovich; L. J. Shaw; A. C. Tweddel

2004-01-01

222

Improved diagnostic value of combined time and frequency domain analysis of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTime domain analysis (TD) of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG) presents a higher incidence of false positives in inferior myocardial infarction (MI), whereas spectral turbulence analysis (STA) suffers from a higher incidence of false positives in anterior MI. We investigated the hypothesis that a combined TD and STA (TD+STA) analysis of the SAECG could improve its predictive accuracy for major arrhythmic

Rafael Vázquez; Edward B Caref; Francisco Torres; Margarita Reina; Aurora Espina; Nabil El-Sherif

1999-01-01

223

Recording locations in multichannel magnetocardiography and body surface potential mapping sensitive for regional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction This study aimed to identify the optimal locations in multichannel magnetocardiography (MCG) and body surface potential mapping\\u000a (BSPM) to detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Methods We studied 17 healthy controls and 24 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with stenosis in one of the main coronary artery\\u000a branches: left anterior descending (LAD) in 11 patients, right (RCA) in 7 patients, and

Helena Hänninen; Panu Takala; Markku Mäkijärvi; Juha Montonen; Petri Korhonen; Lasse Oikarinen; Kim Simelius; Jukka Nenonen; Toivo Katila; Lauri Toivonen

2001-01-01

224

Acute Myopericarditis in an Adolescent Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myopericarditis is primarily a pericarditic syndrome with variable myocardial involvement, as evidenced by elevated cardiac enzymes. It is a rare entity, exclusively seen in male adolescents and accounts for less than 2% of the cases of inpatient admissions for chest pain/pericarditis in the pediatric age group. The electrocardiographic changes of pericarditis include J point/ST segment elevation, which needs to be differentiated from the benign early repolarization pattern that is common in young adolescents and the subtle anterior ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Differentiating acute myopericarditis from acute coronary syndromes can be challenging because they share the presenting triad of acute chest pain, ST segment changes, and elevated cardiac enzymes. The accurate distinction of myopericarditis from acute myocarditis or acute coronary syndrome is important because of their differences in risk for specific complications, prognosis, and treatment implications. We present a case of acute myopericarditis in an adolescent who presented with atypical precordial chest pain, accompanied by inferolateral focal electrocardiographic changes and significant elevation of cardiac enzymes. The differential diagnosis and management of myopericarditis is reviewed with a focus on electrocardiographic changes and troponin assays. PMID:25229187

Sharma, Jayendra; Fernandes, Nithi; Alvarez, Dora; Khanna, Shefali

2014-09-16

225

Atorvastatin ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is known to play an important role in mediating myocardial ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Some previous studies have shown that atorvastatin alleviates myocardial I/R injury in animal models, but whether attenuation of ERS-induced apoptosis contributes to this effect remains to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we sought to investigate the modulatory effect of atorvastatin on myocardial I/R-induced ERS in rats. Myocardial I/R injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 0.5 h followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Atorvastatin was administered at different dosages (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg) at the onset of reperfusion. The levels of the CK-MB and LDH were detected by ELISA. Myocardial ischemia and infarct size were evaluated by Evans blue and tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to investigate myocardial cell apoptosis. The expression levels of the genes encoding glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78, widely used as a marker of ERS), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 (widely used as markers of ERS-induced apoptosis) were assessed using RT-PCR. The expression levels of the ERS proteins GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12, c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) were detected by western blot. Our results showed that atorvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and myocardial cell apoptosis, and decreased the plasma levels of CK-MB and LDH in I/R rats. This treatment also significantly modulated mRNA and protein levels, specifically down-regulating GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 expression along with JNK activation. These results suggest that the attenuation of ERS-induced apoptosis may be involved in the cardioprotective mechanisms of atorvastatin in myocardial I/R injury.

Wu, Hui; Tang, Qizhu; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jiawang; Ye, Ming; Dong, Wusong

2014-01-01

226

Intracardiac Myocardial Elastography in canines and humans in vivo  

PubMed Central

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a useful imaging modality which is used during radiofrequency (RF) ablation procedures to help identify anatomical structures. Utilizing ICE in adjunct with myocardial elastography (ME) can provide additional information on the mechanical properties of cardiac tissue and provide information on mechanical changes due to ablation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that ICE can be used at high frame rate using a diverging beam transmit sequence to image myocardial strain and differentiate myocardial tissue properties before, during and after ablation for a clinical ablation procedure. In this feasibility study, three normal canines and eight patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were studied in vivo. A 5.8-MHz ICE transducer was used to image the heart with a diverging beam transmit method achieving 1200 frames per second (fps). Cumulative axial displacement estimation was performed using 1-D cross-correlation with a window size of 2.7mm and 95% overlap. Axial cumulative strains were estimated in left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) using a least-squares estimator with a kernel of 2mm on the axial displacements. In the canine case, radial thickening was detected in the lateral wall and in the interatrial septum during LA emptying. For AF patients, mean absolute strain in the ablated region was lower (6.7±3.1%) than before the ablation (17.4±9.3%) in LA at end LA emptying. In the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) region, mean absolute strain magnitude at end RA emptying was found to be higher during ablation (43.0±18.1%) compared to after ablation (33.7±15.8%). Myocardial strains in the LA of an AF patient were approximately 2.6 times lower in the ablated region than before ablation. This initial feasibility may suggest ME as a new imaging modality to be used in adjunct with ICE in RF ablation guidance and lesion monitoring. PMID:25643083

Grondin, Julien; Wan, Elaine; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2014-01-01

227

Percutaneous electrocatheter technique for on-line detection of healed transmural myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Healed myocardial infarction has been recognized by its particular tissue electrical impedance spectrum measured with intramural needle electrodes in animal models. The aim of this study was to develop a percutaneous approach for in vivo recognition of areas of healed myocardial infarction by measuring myocardial electrical impedance with an intracavitary contact electrocatheter. Electrical impedance (resistance and phase angle) of normal myocardium and of a 2-month-old anterior transmural infarction were measured in nine chloralose anesthetized pigs by applying alternating currents from 1 kHz to 1 MHZ between a bipolar intracavitary catheter and a reference electrode placed on the epicardium (group I, n = 4) or on the precordium (group II, n = 5). Resistance of the infarcted myocardium was lower than that of healthy tissue at all current frequencies (ANOVA, P < 0.001) (i.e., at 1 kHz: 15 +/- 4 omega vs 50 +/- 19 omega in group I, and 64 +/- 13 omega vs 76 +/- 13 omega in group II). Phase angle at 316 kHz best differentiated transmural infarction from normal tissue (group I: -2.5 +/- 1.9 degrees vs -14.8 +/- 4.6 degrees, P < 0.001; group II: +0.7 +/- 1.0 degrees vs -2.7 +/- 1.4 degrees, P < 0.001). This study shows that analysis of myocardial impedance spectrum using a percutaneous intracavitary contact catheter approach permits on-line recognition of areas of healed transmural myocardial infarction. This technique may be useful to optimize clinical application of energy sources (i.e., radiofrequency ablation, laser myocardial revascularization). PMID:10962753

Warren, M; Bragós, R; Casas, O; Rodríguez-Sinovas, A; Rosell, J; Anivarro, I; Cinca, J

2000-08-01

228

Effect of transplantation of bone marrow stem cells on myocardial infarction size in a rabbit model  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Intravenous transplantation has been regarded as a most safe method in stem cell therapies. There is evidence showing the homing of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) into the injured sites, and thus these cells can be used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous and epicardial transplantion of BMSCs on myocardial infarction size in a rabbit model. METHODS: A total of 60 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control group, epicardium group (group I) and ear vein group (group II). The BMSCs were collected from the tibial plateau in group I and group II, cultured and labeled. In the three groups, rabbits underwent thoracotomy and ligation of the middle left anterior descending artery. The elevation of ST segment >0.2 mV lasting for 30 minutes on the lead II and III of electrocardiogram suggested successful introduction of myocardial infarction. Two weeks after myocardial infarction, rabbits in group I were treated with autogenous BMSCs at the infarct region and those in group II received intravenous transplantation of BMSCs. In the control group, rabbits were treated with PBS following thoracotomy. Four weeks after myocardial infarction, the heart was collected from all rabbits and the infarct size was calculated. The heart was cut into sections followed by HE staining and calculation of infarct size with an image system. RESULTS: In groups I and II, the infarct size was significantly reduced after transplantation with BMSCs when compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the infarct size between groups I and II (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Transplantation of BMSCs has therapeutic effect on MI. Moreover, epicardial and intravenous transplantation of BMSCs has comparable therapeutic efficacy on myocardial infarction. PMID:25215138

Ji, Li-li; Long, Xiao-feng; Tian, Hui; Liu, Yu-fei

2013-01-01

229

'Stucco' Walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

2004-01-01

230

Hadrian's Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hadrian's Wall is an historical monument built by the Romans in Britain and spans more than 2,000 years of history. Standing as a "reminder of past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations," the Wall is equipped with museums, forts, and events that bring Roman history to life. Designed by the World Heritage Site, this Web site offers tourist information (such as travel and hotel arrangements) for anyone interested in visiting this historical landmark that ranks along with the great wonders of the world.

1998-01-01

231

Myocardial contrast echocardiography to assess perfusion in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive approaches for measuring anatomical and physiological changes resulting from myocardial ischemia / reperfusion injury in the mouse heart have significant value since the mouse provides a practical, low-cost model for modeling human heart disease. In this work, perfusion was assessed before, during and after an induced closed- chest, coronary ischemic event. Ultrasound contrast agent, similar to MP1950, in a saline suspension, was injected via cannulated carotid artery as a bolus and imaged using a Siemens Sequoia 512 scanner and a 15L8 intraoperative transducer operating in second harmonic imaging mode. Image sequences were transferred from the scanner to a PC for analysis. Regions of interest were defined in septal and anterior segments of the myocardium. During the ischemic event, when perfusion was diminished in the anterior segment, mean video intensity in the affected segment was reduced by one half. Furthermore, following reperfusion, hyperemia (enhanced blood flow) was observed in the anterior segment. Specifically, the mean video intensity in the affected segment was increased by approximately 50% over the original baseline level prior to ischemia. Following the approach of Kaul et al., [1], gamma variate curves were fitted to the time varying level of mean video intensity. This foundation suggests the possibility of quantifying myocardial blood flow in ischemic regions of a mouse heart using automated analysis of contrast image data sets. An improved approach to perfusion assessment using the destruction-reperfusion approach [2] is also presented.

Hossack, John A.; Li, Yinbo; Christensen, Jonathan P.; Yang, Zequan; French, Brent A.

2004-04-01

232

Fabrication of biologically derived injectable materials for myocardial tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This protocol provides methods for the preparation of an injectable extracellular matrix (ECM) gel for myocardial tissue engineering applications. Briefly, decellularized tissue is lyophilized, milled, enzymatically digested, and then brought to physiological pH. The lyophilization removes all water content from the tissue, resulting in dry ECM that can be ground into a fine powder with a small mill. After milling, the ECM powder is digested with pepsin to form an injectable matrix. After adjustment to pH 7.4, the liquid matrix material can be injected into the myocardium. Results of previous characterization assays have shown that matrix gels produced from decellularized pericardial and myocardial tissue retain native ECM components, including diverse proteins, peptides and glycosaminoglycans. Given the use of this material for tissue engineering, in vivo characterization is especially useful; here, a method for performing an intramural injection into the left ventricular (LV) free wall is presented as a means of analyzing the host response to the matrix gel in a small animal model. Access to the chest cavity is gained through the diaphragm and the injection is made slightly above the apex in the LV free wall. The biologically derived scaffold can be visualized by biotin-labeling before injection and then staining tissue sections with a horse radish peroxidase-conjugated neutravidin and visualizing via diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Analysis of the injection region can also be done with histological and immunohistochemical staining. In this way, the previously examined pericardial and myocardial matrix gels were shown to form fibrous, porous networks and promote vessel formation within the injection region. PMID:22158083

Seif-Naraghi, Sonya; Singelyn, Jennifer; Dequach, Jessica; Schup-Magoffin, Pamela; Christman, Karen

2010-01-01

233

The relationship between myocardial extracellular matrix remodeling and ventricular function.  

PubMed

Elevations in myocardial stress initiate structural remodeling of the heart in an attempt to normalize the imposed stress. This remodeling consists of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and changes in the amount of collagen, collagen phenotype and collagen cross-linking. Since fibrillar collagen is a relatively stiff material, a decrease in collagen can result in a more compliant ventricle while an increase in collagen or collagen cross-linking results in a stiffer ventricle. If continued elevations in wall stress exceed the ability of the heart to compensate, then the ventricular wall thickness is disproportionately reduced compared to chamber volume and diastolic and systolic dysfunction ensues. This review describes the structural organization of collagen within the myocardium, discusses its effect on ventricular function and considers whether therapy aimed at reducing fibrosis is efficacious in heart failure. The evidence indicates that chamber stiffness can clearly be affected by alterations in both collagen quantity and quality, with the effect of changes in collagen concentration being modified by the extent of collagen cross-linking. The limited evidence available regarding the effects of collagen on systolic function indicates that pharmacological attempts to reduce interstitial collagen have a negative impact. Accordingly, a shift in treatment strategies directed more specifically at affecting collagen cross-linking, rather than reducing the concentration of collagen, may be warranted in the prevention of the adverse impact of collagen alterations on myocardial remodeling. PMID:16935520

Brower, Gregory L; Gardner, Jason D; Forman, Mary F; Murray, David B; Voloshenyuk, Tetyana; Levick, Scott P; Janicki, Joseph S

2006-10-01

234

The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON); 50% saturated fat (SAT); 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA); 40% saturated fat + 10% ?-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA). Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC), and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation), lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation) and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding. These findings suggest that myocyte hypertrophy may be an early change leading to gross LV hypertrophy in the hearts of "healthy" obese rats, in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and myocardial ischemia. PMID:21649916

2011-01-01

235

[Anterior osteosynthesis of odontoid fractures].  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The conservative treatment of an odontoid fracture with immobilization in a halo-vest or collar often results in pseudoarthrosis. Therefore, surgical treatment is preferred, and the Magerl-Böhler anterior osteosynthesis of the C2 dens is one of the options for achieving good bony union. The aim of this study was to show that the success of reducing an odontoid fracture is related to the direction of fracture lines and that of displacement, and that anterior osteosynthesis of the C2 dens provides sufficient stability when fixed either with one or two screws. MATERIAL Patients treated for odontoid fracture at the Department of Neurosurgery, Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University in Olomouc, were followed up and prospectively evaluated. From February 1994 to October 2006, 50 patients between 17 and 98 years of age (average age, 51.16 years) underwent surgery by the Magerl-Böhler method. Of them, 40 were men (average age, 46.0 years) and 10 were women (average age, 71.8 years). The minimum follow-up period was 1 year. METHODS In each patient, X-ray examination of the upper cervical spine in antero-posterior and lateral projections was done and a CT scan of the C2 vertebra was obtained. The radiographs were evaluated for location of the fracture, direction of the fracture line and direction of dens displacement. The fracture was then categorized according to the conventional classifications of Anderson- D'Alonzo (1974), Roy-Camille (1973) and White-Panjabi (1978). The patients with type II and some with type III fractures (shallow type) were indicated for surgery, regardless of fracture line direction and the direction and extent of displacement. Patients suspected of spinal cord injury were immobilized and the fracture was reduced by skull traction as soon as possible after injury. In patients without neurological deficit the fracture was reduced under general anaesthesia before surgery carried out by the Magerl-Böhler method from the anterior approach. The extent of antero-posterior displacement of the odontoid fracture was measured on lateral X-ray images at the first week after surgery and then at complete bony union. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS An anatomical position of the dens after reduction was achieved in 18 patients (38 %). In the remaining 32 patients, reduction was not complete but sufficient to permit screw insertion. Fractures with an anterior oblique fracture line were more difficult to reduce than fractures with a posterior oblique or a transverse fracture line. The average displacement values following reduction of the fractures were as follows: anterior displacement of 3.88 mm; posterior displacement of 1.86 mm; and anterior or posterior displacement of 1.08 mm. The differences were statistically significant. A recurrent displacement during bone healing occurred in 13 patients (26 %). It affected type A fracture in five of 17 patients (29.4 %), type B fracture in seven of 21 patients (33.3 %) and type C fracture in one patient out of 12 (8.3 %). The average extent of displacement was 1.53 mm in type A, 1.20 mm in type B, and 0.08 mm in type C fractures. The average displacement for the whole group was 1.04 mm. This implies that recurrent displacement of the dens was more frequent in fractures with an anterior oblique fracture line than in those with either posterior oblique or transverse fracture line, and this was statistically significant. Of the 43 patients with single-screw fixation, 12 (28 %) experienced recurrent displacement during healing, and of the seven patients with two screws one patient had displacement (14 %). Although the extent of displacement was higher in one-screw than in two-screw fixation (average, 1.17 mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. In patients under 70 years of age, 21.6 % and, in patients over 70 years of age, 41.7 % of the fractures had recurrent displacement (average, 0.78 mm and 1.83 mm, respectively). This was not statistically significant. Bony union was ach

Hrabálek, L; Burval, S; Vaverka, M

2008-10-01

236

Wall Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

McGinley, Connie Q.

2004-01-01

237

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

2008-09-01

238

Prognostic significance of predischarge 2D-echocardiography after first transmural myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Predischarge two dimensional echocardiography (2D Echo) was performed in 45 survivors of first transmural myocardial infarction to assess its value in predicting major cardiac complications (MCC) during convalescence. Wall motion score was derived for each patient by analysing endocardial motion in 11 left ventricular segments. In 18 months follow up 11 of 14 patients (78%) who had major cardiac complications had wall motion score of at least 5. Wall motion score of less than 5 was present in 29 of the 31 (94%) of patients in asymptomatic group. Non-invasively obtained wall motion score helps in risk stratification of survivors of AMI. Wall motion score at predischarge 2D Echo or more identifies high risk cases from a relatively asymptomatic group (Killip Class I & II). PMID:2632534

Kumbla, D K; Parikh, J A; Shah, V K; Gandhi, M J

1989-11-01

239

Salmonella Urosepsis Complicated by Metastatic osteomyelitis of the Chest Wall.  

PubMed

Although tens of thousands of Salmonella infections occur annually in this country, most involve the gastrointestinal tract with involvement of the urinary tract being quite infrequent.1-3 I would like to report a case of urosepsis due to Salmonella with eventual development of metastatic osteomyelitis of a rib that proved refractory to treatment. A 59-year-old Latin American male who resided in the Texas Rio Grande Valley presented to an emergency room with inability to void, having first noted a decreased urinary stream and dribbling a few months earlier. In-and-out bladder catheterization yielded 700 cc of urine, and he was sent out on co-trimoxazole one double-strength tablet twice daily. The patient returned within several hours, again unable to void, and a Foley catheter was inserted draining 1100 cc of urine. The patient was admitted for further evaluation. Past history was notable for long-standing inflammatory arthritis treated with injectable gold, hydroxychloroquine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. He had previously undergone left shoulder replacement and synovectomy of both knees. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed 6 years earlier and treated with oral hypoglycemic agents. The patient denied any gastrointestinal complaints. Examination was notable for a temperature of 102.4 degreesF and obvious sequelae of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. The abdomen was entirely benign, but rectal examination revealed an enlarged, nontender prostate. White blood cell count was 11,200/mm3. Urinalysis revealed 10-12 white blood cells per high power field and 15-20 red blood cells per high power field. Two blood cultures from admission grew Salmonella species sensitive to all antibiotics. Urine cultured at the time of admission remained sterile. The patient was treated initially with tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and was changed to ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously every 12 hr when the Salmonella was identified. Ultrasound examination confirmed an enlarged prostate but disclosed no ureteral or renal abnormalities. Intravenous pyelogram also revealed the enlarged prostate but was otherwise unremarkable. On the ninth hospital day a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed with histologic evidence of abscesses containing acute inflammatory cells in the resected tissue. The tissue itself was culture negative. He gradually defervesced and completed a 14-day course of parenteral therapy. The patient did well for about 6 months at which point he developed anterior chest wall pain for which he applied a heating pad. A second degree burn developed which ulcerated and began to drain. Culture revealed Salmonella species with a similar sensitivity pattern as the previous isolate. Local care as well as courses of oral ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol failed to eradicate the drainage. The patient underwent surgical excision of the sinus tract 11 months after the initial bacteremia. Surgical specimens again grew Salmonella. Unfortunately, neither this nor the previous chest wall isolate was saved for further analysis. The area continued to drain and bone scan was consistent with osteomyelitis of the left sixth rib. Ceftriaxone 2 g intravenously per day was begun. The following month (16 months after the initial bacteremia) the patient underwent extensive debridement of the anterior chest wall with removal of the sixth and seventh ribs, and closure via a pectoralis myocutaneous flap. Forty-eight hours postoperatively, the patient suffered an acute myocardial infarction and expired. Postmortem revealed severe coronary artery disease. No additional focus of Salmonella infection was found. PMID:9815503

Vartian

1997-09-01

240

Selective importance of the rat anterior thalamic nuclei for configural learning involving distal spatial cues  

PubMed Central

To test potential parallels between hippocampal and anterior thalamic function, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were trained on a series of biconditional learning tasks. The anterior thalamic lesions did not disrupt learning two biconditional associations in operant chambers where a specific auditory stimulus (tone or click) had a differential outcome depending on whether it was paired with a particular visual context (spot or checkered wall-paper) or a particular thermal context (warm or cool). Likewise, rats with anterior thalamic lesions successfully learnt a biconditional task when they were reinforced for digging in one of two distinct cups (containing either beads or shredded paper), depending on the particular appearance of the local context on which the cup was placed (one of two textured floors). In contrast, the same rats were severely impaired at learning the biconditional rule to select a specific cup when in a particular location within the test room. Place learning was then tested with a series of go/no-go discriminations. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions could learn to discriminate between two locations when they were approached from a constant direction. They could not, however, use this acquired location information to solve a subsequent spatial biconditional task where those same places dictated the correct choice of digging cup. Anterior thalamic lesions produced a selective, but severe, biconditional learning deficit when the task incorporated distal spatial cues. This deficit mirrors that seen in rats with hippocampal lesions, so extending potential interdependencies between the two sites. PMID:24215178

Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Aggleton, John P

2013-01-01

241

Accumulation of Iron in a Model of Myocardial Infarction and Its Cell Toxicity in Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite advancements in medicine leading to a marked decline in mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (MI), mortality due to post-MI heart failure (HF) remains high. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is important in the pathogenesis of HF following MI. Previous reports investigating iron overload in anemia and chronic liver cirrhosis suggest that excess iron exhibits cell toxicity in multiple organ systems. During acute MI, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by temporary coronary ischemia results in massive necrosis followed by fibrosis. Previous reports studying tissue injury demonstrated that iron accumulation suppresses wound healing and exacerbates tissue injury in other organs. However, the role of iron in scar formation and LV remodeling is not well characterized. Methods: To address this, we investigated iron, transferrin, and fibrosis in heart tissue sections after I/R injury, and potential cytotoxic effects of iron in the form of FeCl3 on HL-1 and H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Mice underwent surgical I/R injury using left anterior descending coronary ligation to induce 30-minute transient ischemia. The hearts were harvested 1 week later and prepared for histological assays. Results: Masson's trichrome staining revealed fibrosis from the anterior to posterior wall in the mid-myocardium. Perl's iron staining revealed non-transferrin bound iron localized in scar tissue at anterior and posterior aspects of the heart. Immunohistochemistry found ferritin localization to areas of fibrosis, specifically in the extracellular fluid of mid-myocardium and intracellular fluid of fibroblasts and surrounding cardiomyocytes. While iron was undetectable in iron stains of sham operated mice, more than 50 cells were positive with the iron stain in I/R group. Image J (NIH) showed increased anti-ferritin staining in the I/R group compared to sham controls (more than a four-fold increase). To further investigate this, HL-1 and H9C2 cardiomyocytes were cultured with doses of 1 µM to 1 mM FeCl3 for 24 hours, and cell death was analyzed with Live/Dead Cell Viability Assay (Invitrogen). Treatment greater than 100 µM decreased cell viability, and significant cell death (n=6, P<.05) was observed in cardiomyocytes exposed to 50 µM FeCl3 or more, and that excess iron leads to cell death. Conclusions: These results suggest that iron accumulation may play a role in cardiac cell death and fibrosis in ventricular myofiber remodeling after I/R injury. Taken together, excess iron in MI may induce cell death, leading to LV remodeling following I/R injury. Understanding the role of iron accumulation in the heart could develop new therapeutic strategies for treating multiple heart diseases including HF.

Higa, Jason K; Matsui, Takashi

2014-01-01

242

Myocardial infarction associated with eosinophilia and plasma extravasation at multiple sites. A variant of Kounis syndrome.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction occurring during the course of type I hypersensitivity constitutes Kounis syndrome. We report a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction and peripheral blood eosinophilia. He had rhinitis and malaise for several days prior to presentation. There was no urticarial rash or pruritus to suggest hypersensitivity. Coronary angiogram revealed only mild plaque disease. Blood investigations revealed moderate eosinophilia and elevated IgE levels. CT of the thorax revealed fluid extravasation at multiple sites. Screening for a possible secondary cause for eosinophilia revealed hypersensitivity to multiple antigens. A diagnosis of Kounis syndrome was made. Within days of starting steroids and antihistamines, the patient's eosinophil count returned to normal with improvement of clinical picture. This case differs from classical Kounis syndrome as there was no acute allergic reaction (except atopic rhinitis). Fluid extravasation at multiple sites has not been described in previous cases. PMID:25608982

Gunawardena, Mudalige Don Vajira Malin; Weerasinghe, Anura; Herath, Jagath; Amarasena, Naomali

2015-01-01

243

Myocardial Strain Imaging Based on Two-Dimensional Displacement Vector Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abnormalities of myocardial wall motion caused by changes in wall stiffness often appear in the early stage of ischemic heart disease. Since the myocardium exhibits complex and large motion, a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) assessment of stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis. Although a 3D assessment is ultimately required, as a stepped approach for practical use, we propose novel methods for tracking the 2D motion using a one-dimensional (1D) phased array and for assessing myocardial malfunction by visualizing the invariant of a strain tensor. The feasibilities of the proposed methods were evaluated by numerically simulating the short-axis imaging of a 3D myocardial model. This model includes a hard infarction located between 1 and 3 o’clock, which is difficult to detect by conventional tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging, and the motions of the model were assigned by referring to actual myocardial motion. These results revealed that the proposed imaging methods clearly depicted the hard infarction area which conventional imaging could not detect.

Nitta, Naotaka; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

2004-05-01

244

[Diagnosis and therapy of chronic myocardial ischemia. Role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

In patients with chronic coronary artery disease different therapeutic strategies, such as optimal medical therapy, revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting have been shown to improve the prognosis and symptoms and yield proven superiority over other treatment strategies in different patient populations. Thus, individual assessment of cardiac function and structure is of paramount importance to choose the optimal therapeutic strategy and subsequently improve patient prognosis. In this setting cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has been shown to provide important diagnostic information. Myocardial ischemia can be detected by either perfusion stress CMR demonstrating perfusion deficits indicative of hemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenosis or dobutamin stress CMR for objectifying wall motion abnormalities during stress. Both techniques are superior to single photon emission computerized tomography and stress echocardiography in specific patient populations. Myocardial viability can be assessed by means of end-diastolic wall thickness or delayed enhancement imaging which allows quantification of the transmural extent of scarring. Furthermore, low-dose dobutamin stress CMR can detect a contractile reserve. Delayed enhancement imaging leads to accurate results due to its high resolution, can be performed at rest requiring no stress within a short time period and is easy to analyze. Thus this technique can be recommended as the favored technique to assess myocardial viability. In the following article the CMR techniques for ischemia and viability testing will be presented and their role in diagnosis and therapy of chronic myocardial ischemia will be discussed. PMID:23604110

de Waha, S; Eitel, I; Desch, S; Fuernau, G; Lurz, P; Schuler, G; Thiele, H

2013-06-01

245

Imaging and Modeling of Myocardial Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Current imaging methods have focused on evaluation of myocardial anatomy and function. However, since myocardial metabolism and function are interrelated, metabolic myocardial imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography, single photon emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy present novel opportunities for probing myocardial pathology and developing new therapeutic approaches. Potential clinical applications of metabolic imaging include hypertensive and ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiac transplantation, as well as cardiomyopathies. Furthermore, response to therapeutic intervention can be monitored using metabolic imaging. Analysis of metabolic data in the past has been limited, focusing primarily on isolated metabolites. Models of myocardial metabolism, however, such as the oxygen transport and cellular energetics model and constraint-based metabolic network modeling, offer opportunities for evaluation interactions between greater numbers of metabolites in the heart. In this review, the roles of metabolic myocardial imaging and analysis of metabolic data using modeling methods for expanding our understanding of cardiac pathology are discussed. PMID:20559785

Jamshidi, Neema; Karimi, Afshin; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Hoh, Carl

2010-01-01

246

Myocardial Depression in Sepsis and Septic Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial dysfunction is an important component in the hemodynamic collapse induced by sepsis and septic shock. A series\\u000a of inflammatory cascades triggered by the inciting infection generate circulatory myocardial depressant substances, including\\u000a TNF-?, IL-1?, PAF and lysozyme. Current evidence suggests that septic myocardial depression in humans is characterized by\\u000a reversible biventricular dilatation, decreased systolic contractile function, and decreased response to

A. Kumar; J. E. Parrillo

247

Pharmacology of myocardial calcium-handling.  

PubMed

Disturbed myocardial calcium (Ca(+)) handling is one of the pathophysiologic hallmarks of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and certain types of tachyarrhythmias. Pharmacologic treatment of these diseases thus focuses on restoring myocardial Ca(2+) homeostasis by interacting with Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. In this article, we review the currently used pharmacologic agents that are able to restore or maintain myocardial Ca(2+) homeostasis and their mechanism of action as well as emerging new substances. PMID:22707076

Vogler, Julia; Eckardt, Lars

2012-07-01

248

Myocardial function in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients with acute pancreatitis had 68 physiologic cardiopulmonary assessments performed, and they were compared with 61 performed on normal postoperative patients, and 113 on 41 cirrhotics. It was found that the patients with pancreatitis have an elevated cardiac index (CI), which is not due to the hyperdynamic hemodynamic state found in cirrhotics. In spite of this, the Sarnoff curves demonstrated that pancreatitis was accompanied by a myocardial depression p less than 0.03, not found in hyperdynamic cirrhotics. Cirrhotics are unable to increase their oxygen consumption in response to an increase in CI, as do normal patients or those with acute pancreatitis. In cirrhotics the hemodynamic lesion occurs at the capillary level with the opening of arteriovenous shunts which rob the tissues of their nutritive blood supply, while the patient with acute pancreatitis has a primary myocardial depression and his peripheral vasculature reacts like that of a normal person. PMID:7247538

Ito, K; Ramirez-Schon, G; Shah, P M; Agarwal, N; Delguercio, L R; Reynolds, B M

1981-01-01

249

Correlates of knee anterior laxity in sportswomen.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any of the following factors are related to knee anterior laxity in healthy sportswomen: anthropometric characteristics, lower limb alignment characteristics, hormone-related factors and sport history. Six hundred and sixteen sportswomen were tested in the pre-season. The data have been analysed using linear regression for possible association of knee anterior laxity with other variables. Univariate linear regression indicated a positive association of knee anterior laxity with knee extension and navicular drop and a negative association with body height. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between knee anterior laxity and the combination of passive knee extension and the chosen sport (R(2)=0.089; p<0.05). The combination of passive knee extension and sport type was found to be related to the amount of knee anterior laxity, although the association was weak with this combination of factors able to explain only about 9% of the variability in laxity. Knowing which factors influence the amount of knee anterior laxity will help us to better interpret the results of knee anterior laxity testing and help us to understand the possible role of knee anterior laxity as a risk factor for knee injury. PMID:19423353

Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C; Rutherford, Olga M; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A; Perme, Maja Pohar

2009-12-01

250

Myocardial Ischemia with Penetrating Thoracic Trauma  

PubMed Central

Penetrating trauma is a rare cause of myocardial infarction. Our report describes a 47-year-old female who presented with a gunshot wound from a shotgun and had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The patient received emergent coronary angiography, which demonstrated no evidence of coronary atherosclerotic disease but did show occlusion of a marginal vessel secondary to a pellet. The patient was managed medically for the myocardial infarction without cardiac sequelae. Patients with penetrating trauma to the chest should be evaluated for myocardial ischemia. Electrocardiography, echocardiography and cardiac angiography play vital roles in evaluating these patients and helping to guide management. PMID:21691532

Elms, Andrew R.; Wong, Garret; Wisner, David; Bair, Aaron

2011-01-01

251

Role of labetalol in acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

1 The role of labetalol in managing acute myocardial infarction is reviewed. 2 After intravenous infusion labetalol lowers blood pressure in patients with increased blood pressure associated with acute myocardial infarction. 3 Although average heart rate was decreased, cardiac index fell only slightly and stroke index was substantially unchanged. 4 In patients whose pretreatment pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressures were increased, labetalol induced decreases, whereas in the presence of normal pressures, these were unchanged. 5 It is concluded that labetalol infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction is unlikely to precipitate heart failure and is likely to be of value in reducing myocardial oxygen requirement. PMID:7093093

Timmis, A. D.; Fowler, M. B.; Jaggarao, N. S. V.; Vincent, R.; Chamberlain, D. A.

1982-01-01

252

Histopathology of Early Myocardial Infarcts  

PubMed Central

The histopathology of human myocardial infarcts is reviewed in a series of 46 cases ranging from sudden death to a clinical age of 3 days. A set of histopathologic features is described whereby the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction can be made, even in cases of sudden death, on routine sections and even after considerable autolysis. This is primarily a stretching and waviness of the myocardial fibers, especially at the border of the infarcted area. Its mechanism is probably twofold: the rythmical pull exerted by the normal myocardium against the infarcted paralyzed area and the outward bulging of this area at every systole. On the basis of human material alone, it may be inferred that this pattern develops very rapidly: surely less than 1 hour and perhaps a few minutes after the local circulation has failed. ImagesFig 15Fig 2Fig 16Fig 3Fig 17Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Figs 10 and 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 1 PMID:4359735

Bouchardy, Bernard; Majno, Guido

1974-01-01

253

Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have –in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly. PMID:22396870

Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

254

Traditional Chinese Medicine Shuang Shen Ning Xin Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Preserving of Mitochondrial Function  

PubMed Central

To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10?mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45?mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40?min and reperfusion for 120?min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25031602

Li, Xueli; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Li; Guo, Yujie; Lin, Chengren; Zhang, Cuixiang; Yang, Bin

2014-01-01

255

Electrolyte changes in myocardial injury.  

PubMed

The shifts in the myocardial electrolyte metabolism during secondary or primary cardiopathies in dogs and rats, respectively, are described. Major attention is paid to the changes of Ca in the myocardial tissue. The increase in the Ca level after ligation of ramus circumflex of the left coronary artery, or after F-COL + Na2HPO4, and vitamin D2 administration, is regarded as a triggering process for more profound successive changes in the metabolism of the myocardial cell, which eventually lead to depletion of the high energy phosphate reserves. In the dogs with experimental coronary occlusion, the normalization of the myocardial ionogram, i.e., the ratio of K, Na, Ca, and Mg, was achieved by means of the mechanical heart assist, using the original design of the blood pump, where bypass and counterpulsation principles work simultaneously. The normalization of the Ca level in this case was achieved on the basis of a marked reduction of the volume work of the left ventricle, which is secured by the bypass component; on the other hand, the counterpulsation component of the combined pump secures the reduction of pressure work placed upon the left ventricle (represented by the decrease fo the end-diastolic pressure) and helps in the opening of the collaterals in the infarcted area during early diastole. Thus, the oxygen supply to the ischemic zone is improved. On the basis of our experiments with the combined blood pump, the failing heart is supported, not only hemodynamically, but also from the metabolic point of view. A similar effect is achieved by the administration of K-Mg-aspartate, and K-L- or K-DL-aspartate in dogs with experimental infarction. In primary electrolyte steroid cardiopathies characterized by necrosis, K-Mg-aspartate or K-aspartate only prevents the Ca increase in the myocardial tissue, whereas Mg-L- or Mg-DL-aspartate remains without andy effect. The necrotic changes observed after vitamin D2 administration are always accompanied by extremely high Ca levels in the myocardium. It shown in our experiments that administration of K-Mg-aspartate or Fe-dextran decreases the Ca level and reduces the necrotic and myolytic changes in the cardiac tissue. The authors recommend as an effective means in the therapy of acute heart failure the combination of mechanical heart support with the causative pharmacological therapy. PMID:1197895

Urbánek, E; Vask?, J; Bednarík, B; Praslicka, M; Pospísil

1975-01-01

256

[Early detection of myocardial disease in young patients with Becker's muscular dystrophy asymptomatic from the cardiac point of view: value of myocardial doppler tissue imaging].  

PubMed

Becker's muscular dystrophy is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterised by progressive muscle weakness and possible cardiac disease. Cardiac involvement is assumed to be rare in young patients. Early diagnosis could lead to earlier treatment at an infra-clinical stage of the disease. The object of the study was to evaluate systolic and diastolic cardiac function of young patients with Becker's disease by echocardiography and using Doppler tissue imaging. Consecutive patients under 20 years of age with Becker's disease confirmed genetically were included and compared with paired normal subjects. Subendocardial and subepicardial myocardial velocities were obtained by Doppler tissue imaging and the corresponding velocity gradients were measured. Twelve patients were included (17.4 +/- 2.5 years). None of them had disabling muscle disease. No significant difference was observed from normal subjects with respect to: ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, fractional shortening, E/A ratio measured by transmitral Doppler. Nevertheless, patients with Becker's disease had lower systolic and diastolic intra-myocardial velocity gradients: 2.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.4 s(-1), p = 0.006, and 3.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.3 s(-1), p = 0.048, respectively, compared with the control group. These results show that myocardial disease is possible in patients with Becker's muscular dystrophy under the age of 20. Myocardial Doppler tissue imaging is a sensitive method for detecting these early abnormalities and should be recommended in the young patients. PMID:17536422

Meune, C; Wahbi, K; Bécane, H M; Laforet, P; Eymard, B; Leturcq, F; Devaux, J Y; Weber, S; Duboc, D

2007-03-01

257

Acute insulin resistance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients is associated with incomplete myocardial reperfusion and impaired coronary microcirculatory function  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance (IR) assessed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients was recently established as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality. In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and fixed perfusion defect on single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) determined six weeks after pPCI were analyzed according to HOMA indices. Results IR was present in 55 % and 58 % of patients on day 2 and day 7, respectively. Incomplete post-procedural ST-E resolution was more frequent in patients with IR compared to patients without IR, both on day 2 (p?=?0.001) and day 7 (p? 20% (OR 11.37, 95% CI 1.34-96.21, p?=?0.026). Conclusion IR assessed by the HOMA index during the acute phase of the first anterior STEMI in patients without diabetes treated by pPCI is independently associated with poorer myocardial reperfusion, impaired coronary microcirculatory function and potentially with larger final infarct size. PMID:24708817

2014-01-01

258

Ameloblastoma of the anterior mandible  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastoma or adamantinoma is the rarest of the three forms of tumor of the odontogenic type. They are benign, locally aggressive neoplasms arising from ameloblasts, which typically occur at the angle of the mandible, and are often associated with an un-erupted tooth and must, therefore, be differentiated from a dentigerous cyst which will be centered on the crown. When in the maxilla (less common), they are located in the premolar region, and can extend up in the maxillary sinus. Ameloblastoma is reported to constitute about 1-3% of tumors and cysts of the jaws. The tumor is by far more common in the mandible than in the maxilla and shows predilection for various parts of the mandible in different racial groups. The relative frequency of the mandible to maxilla is reported as varying from 80-20% to 99-1%. Here, we are representing a case of ameloblastoma of anterior mandible which was considered as a rare site of occurrence. PMID:25298718

Hariram; Mohammad, Shadab; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha; Das, Sugata; Mehta, Gagan

2014-01-01

259

Imaging of anterior mediastinal masses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Multiple different types of anterior mediastinal masses may be encountered on computed tomography (CT) imaging, and many of these lesions are neoplastic in etiology. These include masses arising from the thymus, thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as lymph nodes, pericardium, and vessels and nerves. Often, the CT attenuation of the mass can be helpful in narrowing down the differential diagnosis, and attenuation values suggesting fat, water or calcium may suggest certain diagnoses; significant enhancement of the mass with intravenous contrast may also be a helpful feature. Lesions with fatty attenuation include teratomas, thymolipomas and Morgagni hernias. Lesions that may manifest the attenuation of water include pericardial and thymic cysts, abscesses, and lymphangiomas, as well as neurogenic and germ cell tumors. Multiple types of lesions may contain calcium, including thyroid goiters and cancers, thymomas, thymic carcinomas and carcinoids, treated lymphoma, germ cell tumors, parathyroid adenomas, and lymph nodes involved with silicosis, sarcoid, tuberculosis, fungal diseases and pneumocystis. Contrast enhancement may be seen in lesions of vascular origin and in vascular neoplasms, such as parathyroid adenomas and Castleman's disease. In addition to CT attenuation values, the exact location and morphology of the mass in question, in conjunction with clinical features such as patient age, gender, signs, symptoms, and laboratory values, can usually lead to a short list of possible etiologies, thereby directing appropriate additional diagnostic procedures or therapeutic approaches. PMID:17921091

2007-01-01

260

Myocardial sestamibi uptake in healthy subjects is related to age, gender and habitus.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, age and anthropometric data on regional isotope uptake in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT (myocardial sestamibi single-photon emission technique). Seventy-one healthy, non-smoking subjects, 42 men and 29 women between 40 and 80 years of age, with less than 5% likelihood of having coronary artery disease were studied. All subjects underwent a maximal exercise and rest MIBI-SPECT using a 2-day protocol and a 180 degrees anterior circular rotation. No correction for scatter or attenuation was made. Normalized regional activity was different in men and women in the anterior and inferior regions, with higher values anteriorly in men and inferiorly in women. Regional activity also differed with age in both women and men with higher relative activity in the anterior regions in the oldest age groups. Higher activities were seen in the basal parts of the left ventricle at rest compared with stress in both men and women. Regional isotope uptake was significantly affected by habitus expressed as body mass index (BMI) and thoracic circumference. Different protocols for stress and rest seem to be needed for men and women in different age groups, and for stress and rest when performing semiquantitative MIBI-SPECT and comparing data with a normal file of healthy subjects. Furthermore, such anthropometric data as BMI and/or thoracic circumference should be considered in order to minimize the risk for false-positive or false-negative scintigraphic results. PMID:10068869

Bouvier, F; Bevegård, S; Nejat, M; Jensen-Urstad, M

1999-01-01

261

Beneficial effects of muscone on cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Musk has been traditionally used in East Asia to alleviate the symptoms of angina pectoris. However, it remains unclear as to whether muscone, the main active ingredient of musk, has any beneficial effects on persistent myocardial ischemia in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscone can improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Mice were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce MI, and then randomly treated with muscone (2 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle (normal saline) for 3 weeks. Sham-operated mice were used as controls and were also administered the vehicle (normal saline). Treatment with muscone significantly improved cardiac function and exercise tolerance, as evidenced by the decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, as well as an increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening and time to exhaustion during swimming. Pathological and morphological assessments indicated that treatment with muscone alleviated myocardial fibrosis, collagen deposition and improved the heart weight/body weight ratio. Muscone inhibited the inflammatory response by reducing the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Treatment with muscone also reduced myocardial apoptosis by enhancing Bcl-2 and suppressing Bax expression. Muscone also induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Our results demonstrate that muscone ameliorates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by MI by exerting anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in the ischemic myocardium. PMID:24807380

WANG, XIAOYAN; MENG, HAOYU; CHEN, PENGSHENG; YANG, NAIQUAN; LU, XIN; WANG, ZE-MU; GAO, WEI; ZHOU, NINGTIAN; ZHANG, MIN; XU, ZHIHUI; CHEN, BO; TAO, ZHENGXIAN; WANG, LIANGSHENG; YANG, ZHIJIAN; ZHU, TIEBIN

2014-01-01

262

Acute myocardial infarction after hydrochloric acid ingestion.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute ST segment elevated myocardial infarction associated with hydrochloric acid ingestion. Severe systemic acidosis developed shortly after massive hydrochloric ingestion; it was complicated by the presence of acute myocardial infarction. A new complication of acid ingestion is presented and a possible mechanism is discussed. PMID:16358168

Yanturali, Sedat; Aksay, Ersin; Atilla, Ridvan

2005-11-01

263

Cell sheet engineering for myocardial tissue reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial tissue engineering has now emerged as one of the most promising treatments for the patients suffering from severe heart failure. Tissue engineering has currently been based on the technology using three-dimensional (3-D) biodegradable scaffolds as alternatives for extracellular matrix. According to this most popular technique, several types of 3-D myocardial tissues have been successfully engineered by seeding cardiomyocytes into

Tatsuya Shimizu; Masayuki Yamato; Akihiko Kikuchi; Teruo Okano

2003-01-01

264

Modulation of myocardial contraction by peroxynitrite  

PubMed Central

Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidant that is quickly emerging as a crucial modulator of myocardial function. This review will focus on the regulation of myocardial contraction by peroxynitrite during health and disease, with a specific emphasis on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling, proposed signaling pathways, and protein end-targets. PMID:23248603

Kohr, Mark J.; Roof, Steve R.; Zweier, Jay L.; Ziolo, Mark T.

2012-01-01

265

Bimanual anterior segment revision surgery for anterior capsule contraction syndrome associated with anterior flexion of intraocular lens haptics  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the incidence of anterior capsule contraction syndrome (ACCS) and to present a novel minimally invasive bimanual technique for anterior segment revision surgery associated with ACCS with anterior flexion of the intraocular lens haptics. Methods A consecutive cohort of 268 eyes of 161 patients undergoing phacoemulsification and implantation of the same type of hydrophilic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens cohort were analysed and a novel technique of minimally invasive bimanual technique for anterior segment revision surgery is described. Results We identified four eyes (1.5%) of three patients with advanced ACCS. Successful restoration of a clear visual axis with minimal induction of astigmatism and rapid visual rehabilitation was achieved in all four cases. Conclusion This technique is a safe and minimally invasive alternative to laser or vitrector-cut capsulotomy to restore a clear visual axis. In cases of advanced ACCS, it offers the option for haptic reposition or amputation. PMID:24037236

Zinkernagel, M; Papazoglou, A; Patel, C K

2013-01-01

266

Variants of cerebral arteries – anterior circulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Advances in imaging techniques allow for in vivo identification of abnormalities and normal variants of cerebral arteries. These arterial variations can be asymptomatic and uncomplicated although, some of them increase the risk of aneurysm formation, acute intracranial hemorrhage, play a vital role in neurosurgical planning or can be misidentified as serious pathology and medical errors. The goal of this publication is to discuss arterial anomalies of anterior cerebral circulation, their prevalence and demonstrate radiological images of some of those variants. In this article we will discuss variants of internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery, middle cerebral artery, persistent stapedial artery and fenestration. PMID:24115959

Makowicz, Grzegorz; Poniatowska, Renata; Lusawa, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

267

Apical myocardial infarction with bizarre coronary images mimicking left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although several etiopathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, the causes of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome are still controversial. Case presentation A 51-year-old Japanese woman consulted the emergency room complaining of the sudden onset of anterior chest pain while shopping. We initially suspected her disease as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome based on her clinical background and laboratory examinations. However, the initial coronary angiogram demonstrated diffuse lesions in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery, and she was finally diagnosed with apical myocardial infarction. The blood flow in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery had markedly improved in the chronic phase. If the reduced blood flow in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery was induced by coronary vasospasm and the vasospasm was relieved before the coronary angiogram was performed, this case must be diagnosed as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. Conclusion We think this case may promote discussion regarding the pathophysiology of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. PMID:24716472

2014-01-01

268

Comparison of sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography with positron emission tomography for estimating left ventricular myocardial viability.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (technetium-99m sestamibi [MIBI]) is distributed in the myocardium according to blood flow. Reports comparing stress rest sestamibi protocols with reinjection thallium or resting fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), or both, in patients with coronary artery disease have shown appreciable discordance regarding myocardial viability in these settings. We performed this analysis with regard to regional comparisons within discordant segments and made comparisons in a subset of patients who underwent revascularization. Thirty-seven patients with coronary artery disease had single-photon emission computed tomography MIBI, N-13 ammonia/18FDG positron emission tomography (PET), and radionuclide ventriculography performed at rest. One hundred two segments were viable and 29 were nonviable by both MIBI and FDG. The concordance was 71%. In MIBI nonviable/FDG viable segments, most of the discordance was in the inferior wall. In MIBI nonviable discordant segments, FDG accurately predicted an increase in percent regional ejection fraction (preoperative 36% [+/- 5 SE] to postoperative 48% [+/- 5.5 SE][p < 0.0006]). MIBI underestimates myocardial viability as assessed by PET. Seventy-one percent of myocardial segments were concordant by both quantitative sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography and FDG PET. Discordance in MIBI nonviable segments was predominantly in the inferior wall. PET can be helpful in detecting myocardial viability in patients suspected of having had MIBI nonviability in the inferior wall. PMID:7778542

Soufer, R; Dey, H M; Ng, C K; Zaret, B L

1995-06-15

269

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of an anterior communicating artery ruptured during angiography.  

PubMed

We present a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the hemodynamic environment of an anterior communicating artery that spontaneously ruptured immediately following three-dimensional rotational angiography. Subsequent digital subtraction angiography allowed for the localization of the point of rupture within the aneurysm dome. CFD analysis demonstrated a concentrated jet that impinged directly at the site of rupture. Peak systolic pressure and wall shear stress were both maximal near the rupture location. PMID:23493342

Hodis, Simona; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Kallmes, David F; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

2014-03-01

270

Thrombotic markers during myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The authors carried out a study on the behavior of some thrombotic molecular "markers" in a group of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, just after the first symptoms and after two weeks from the event. The series consists of 12 subjects (6 males, 6 females, mean age 52 +/- 7), suffering from acute myocardial infarction; just after the first symptoms and instrumental signs (before the thrombolysis) and after two weeks a venous blood withdrawal was done; on the plasma of each sample the determination of fibrinogen (F) (coagulative method), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), D-dimer (D-D), fibrinopeptide A (FPA) and betathromboglobulin (BTG) (ELISA methods) was performed. The values of t-PA, FPA and BTG did not show remarkable variations; after two weeks from the myocardial infarction compared to the basal values a significant reduction of PAI-1 (4.6 +/- 0.28 UI/ml vs 5.4 +/- 0.33 UI/ml, p < 0.01), D-D (215 +/- 10 ng/ml, vs 253 +/- 12 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and a significant increase of F (294 +/- 28, vs 218 +/- 16 mg%, p < 0.05) were observed. The authors suggest that a basal reduction of the fibrinolytic activity documented by the enhanced PAI-1, may play a major role, influencing pathogenetically the thrombotic event; the other markers seem to be of lower importance, being only secondarily altered in the first phase and gradually returning to a normal pattern after an adequate elapsed time; a preinfarctual hypofibrinolytic condition, probably enhanced by some triggering factor, actually appears the sole prothrombotic system to be counteracted with adequate diet and drug treatments. PMID:8869368

Ferlito, S; Gallina, M; Mangiameli, S; Chiaranda, G

1995-09-01

271

Traditional formula, modern application: chinese medicine formula sini tang improves early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rats.  

PubMed

SINI TANG (SNT) IS A TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL FORMULA CONSISTING OF FOUR DIFFERENT HERBS: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor- ? 1 (TGF- ? 1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF- ? 1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI. PMID:24971143

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

272

Biomarkers of myocardial injury after cardiac arrest or myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed

Outcomes of victims of cardiac arrest or acute myocardial ischemic events have improved with advances in medical therapy. Heart failure, however, remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after these conditions have occurred. Clinical features may be useful for predicting patients who are at risk of developing such complications, but they lack of sensitivity and specificity. Biomarkers have been therefore suggested as means to provide relevant prognostic information. The more commonly used biomarkers after cardiovascular ischemic events, including cardiac arrest, are creatin kinases and troponins. In addition, natriuretic peptides and C-reactive protein have gained great interest and now sufficient data has been collected such to justify their clinical applicability. Finally, several other novel biomarkers, to be used after resuscitation from cardiac arrest or more generally after a myocardial ischemic event, have been anticipated. Nevertheless, the "perfect" biomarker, able to provide diagnosis and prognosis with high sensitivity and specificity does not exit. A multimarker strategy that categorizes patients based on the number of elevated biomarkers at presentation is therefore suggested. PMID:20036954

Ristagno, Giuseppe; Santonocito, Cristina; Li, Yongqin; Li Volti, Giovanni; Gullo, Antonino

2010-01-01

273

Myocardial injury due to lightning.  

PubMed

The report deals with a 27-year-old male who was standing in a tent and was injured by lightning as it struck a tree about 1.5 m away. He immediately lost consciousness and exhibited ventricular fibrillation when the emergency physician arrived. A clinical picture of hypoxaemic brain damage emerged after initially successful resuscitation. Brain death was diagnosed on the fifth day after injury. The discrete external findings (remaining arborescent skin marks) contrasted markedly with the severe thermal damage to the pectoral muscle and cardiac musculature found during the autopsy. The histological cardiac findings indicated severe acute myocardial infarction affecting virtually all parts of the myocardium. PMID:9387016

Zack, F; Hammer, U; Klett, I; Wegener, R

1997-01-01

274

Mechanisms Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Spironolactone after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our objective was to analyze the effect of spironolactone on cardiac remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI), assessed by matricellular proteins levels, cardiac collagen amount and distribution, myocardial tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1(TIMP-1) concentration, myocyte hypertrophy, left ventricular architecture, and in vitro and in vivo cardiac function. Methods Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: control group, in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM group; n=9); group that received spironolactone and in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM-S group, n=9); myocardial infarction group, in which animals were submitted to coronary artery ligation (MI group, n=15); and myocardial infarction group with spironolactone supplementation (MI-S group, n=15). The rats were observed for 3 months. Results The MI group had higher values of left cardiac chambers and mass index and lower relative wall thicknesses compared with the SHAM group. In addition, diastolic and systolic functions were worse in the MI groups. However, spironolactone did not influence any of these variables. The MI-S group had a lower myocardial hydroxyproline concentration and myocyte cross-sectional area compared with the MI group. Myocardial periostin and collagen type III were lower in the MI-S group compared with the MI-group. In addition, TIMP-1 concentration in myocardium was higher in the MI-S group compared with the MI group. Conclusions The predominant consequence of spironolactone supplementation after MI is related to reductions in collagens, with discrete attenuation of other remodeling variables. Importantly, this effect may be modulated by periostin and TIMP-1 levels. PMID:24098808

Minicucci, Marcos F.; dos Santos, Priscila P.; Rafacho, Bruna P. M.; Gonçalves, Andrea F.; Silva, Renata A. C.; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Okoshi, Katashi; Pereira, Elenize J.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

2013-01-01

275

Noninvasive determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and efficiency in normal humans by carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography imaging.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were: (1) to measure noninvasively and near simultaneously myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and contractile function and (2) to analyze myocardial energy expenditure and efficiency at rest and during dobutamine stress in normal humans. Dynamic and gated carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in 11 normal subjects. The initial uptake of (11)C-acetate was measured to estimate myocardial blood flow. Oxygen consumption was derived from the monoexponential slope of the (11)C-clearance curve recorded during myocardial washout. ECG-gated systolic and diastolic images were acquired during the peak myocardial (11)C activity to measure left ventricular radius, myocardial wall thickness, and long axis length. Myocardial oxygen consumption and parameters of cardiac geometry were used to determine myocardial energetics and cardiac efficiency by tension-area area analysis. Myocardial blood flow averaged 0. 8+/-0.06 ml min(-1) g(-1) at rest and 1.48+/-0.15 ml min(-1) g(-1) during dobutamine stress. Oxygen delivery and consumption were 151+/-13 and 88+/-15 microl O(2) min(-1) g(-1) at rest and increased to 291+/-31 and 216+/-31 microl O(2) min(-1) g(-1), respectively, during pharmacological stress (P<0.001). Oxygen extraction increased from 59%+/-8% at rest to 76%+/-9% during stress (P<0.001). Mechanical efficiency was 29%+/-6% at rest and 32%+/-6% during dobutamine stress (P=NS) while external work efficiency was 16%+/-6% at rest and increased to 21%+/-4% (P<0.01) during dobutamine stress. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified rate-pressure product and external cardiac work as major correlates of oxygen consumption. In summary, rapid dynamic and gated PET (11)C acetate imaging provides the unique capability to study noninvasively determinants of myocardial energy delivery, expenditure, and efficiency. PMID:10552089

Porenta, G; Cherry, S; Czernin, J; Brunken, R; Kuhle, W; Hashimoto, T; Schelbert, H R

1999-11-01

276

Perioperative stroke following anterior cervical discectomy.  

PubMed

We describe a case of postoperative stroke in a patient undergoing anterior cervical discectomy caused by a combination of intraoperative retraction of an atherosclerotic carotid vessel and arterial hypotension. PMID:20536291

Radhakrishnan, M; Bansal, S; Srihari, G S; Sampath, S; Rao, G S Umamaheswara

2010-10-01

277

Anterior regeneration in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava  

PubMed Central

Ptychodera flava is a hemichordate whose anterior structures regenerate reproducibly from posterior trunk pieces when amputated. We characterized the cellular processes of anterior regeneration with respect to programmed cell death and cell proliferation, following wound healing. We found scattered proliferating cells at day two of regeneration using a PCNA antibody. On day four, most proliferating cells were associated with the nerve tract under the epidermis, and on day six, a small proboscis derived from proliferated cells was regenerated, and a mouth had broken though the epidermis. TUNEL detected elevated levels of apoptosis in the endoderm that began furthest away from the region of wound healing, then moved anteriorly over eight days. Posterior to anterior apoptosis is likely to remove digestive endoderm for later differentiation of pharyngeal endoderm. We hypothesize that P. flava regeneration is nerve dependent and that remodeling in the gut endoderm plays an important role in regeneration. PMID:18924231

Rychel, Amanda L.; Swalla, Billie J.

2008-01-01

278

Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia

2014-01-01

279

[Myocardial ischemia caused by overuse of headache medications].  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction as the most severe clinical manifestation of coronary atherosclerosis is the major cause of death in western countries. Although rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is generally causal for this event, in recent years differential diagnoses have been discussed to further optimize diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia. The "universal definition of myocardial infarction" defines five subtypes of myocardial infarction: in particular, type 2 myocardial infarction includes other diseases related to myocardial ischemia such as hyper- or hypotension, coronary artery spasms, arrhythmia, etc. Some medications for the acute therapy of migraine like triptans can lead to myocardial infarction. PMID:25270719

Kraya, T; Schlitt, A

2014-10-01

280

Relation between the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy and myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Objective—To investigate the relations between myocardial metabolism and the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy.?Methods—46 patients within six weeks after the onset of acute myocardial infarction underwent resting myocardial dual isotope, single acquisition, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated 15-iodophenyl 3-methyl pentadecaenoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201, exercise thallium-201 SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) using nitrogen-13 ammonia (NH3) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) under fasting conditions. The left ventricle was divided into nine segments, and the severity of defects was assessed visually.?Results—In the resting SPECT, less BMIPP uptake than thallium-201 uptake was observed in all of 40 segments with reverse redistribution of thallium-201, and in 21 of 88 segments with a fixed defect of thallium-201 (p < 0.0001); and more FDG uptake than NH3 uptake (NH3-FDG mismatch) was observed in 35 of 40 segments with reverse redistribution and in 38 of 88 segments with fixed defect (p < 0.0001). Less BMIPP uptake in the resting SPECT was observed in 49 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution in exercise SPECT, and in nine of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005); NH3-FDG mismatch was observed in 42 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution and in five of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005).?Conclusions—Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy provides information about not only myocardial perfusion and viability but also about myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction.?? Keywords: thallium-201 SPECT;  BMIPP SPECT;  FDG PET;  myocardial infarction;  redistribution PMID:9764055

Yamagishi, H; Akioka, K; Takagi, M; Tanaka, A; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J; Ochi, H

1998-01-01

281

[Clinical research of safflower injection on hibernating myocardial revascularization].  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Safflower attracts great attention owing to its anti-ischemia/reperfusion injury effect. Ninety-three patients with CAD were included and randomized into safflower treatment group, PCI group and control group. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed to measure end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall motion score index (WMSI) to determine the recovery of hibernating myocardium and cardiac function in all patients before treatment and after 3-month follow-up. The study was to investigate the effects of safflower on hibernating myocardial revascularization and cardiac function. It was found that LVEF was significantly improved, while the ESV and WMSI were significantly reduced after 2-week treatment in safflower and PCI treatment groups. No significant differences were found between safflower and PCI treatment groups in ESV, EDV, WMSI and LVEF after treatment Safflower injection effectively improved hibernating myocardial function. PMID:25011274

Zheng, Chang-Zhu; Xian, Yu-Qiong; Chen, Jing; Xu, Ying-Hui; Shi, Qian; Wang, Yu-Hua; Ju, Hai-Ning

2014-04-01

282

The science of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This review of the literature assessed what is known about the biomechanics of the normal anterior cruciate ligament during rehabilitation exercises, the biomechanical behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament graft during healing, and clinical studies of rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament replacement. After anterior cruciate replacement, immobilization of the knee, or restricted motion without muscle contraction, leads to undesired outcomes for the ligamentous, articular, and muscular structures that surround the joint. It is clear that rehabilitation that incorporates early joint motion is beneficial for reducing pain, minimizing capsular contractions, decreasing scar formation that can limit joint motion, and is beneficial for articular cartilage. There is evidence derived from randomized controlled trials that immediately after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, weightbearing is possible without producing an increase of anterior knee laxity and is beneficial because it lowers the incidence of patellofemoral pain. Rehabilitation with a closed kinetic chain program results in anteroposterior knee laxity values that are closer to normal, and earlier return to normal daily activities, compared with rehabilitation with an open kinetic chain program. This review revealed that more randomized, controlled trials of rehabilitation are needed. These should include the clinicians' and patients' perspective of the outcome, and biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism. PMID:12218469

Beynnon, Bruce D; Johnson, Robert J; Fleming, Braden C

2002-09-01

283

Parametric display of myocardial function.  

PubMed

Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential to provide more specific diagnosis of cardiac disease and cardiac malfunction than currently possible. Local heart motion may be captured from various medical imaging scanners. In this study, 3-D reconstructions of pre-infarct and post-infarct hearts were obtained from the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR)[Ritman EL, Robb RA, Harris LD. Imaging physiological functions: experience with DSR. Philadelphia: Praeger, 1985; Robb RA, Lent AH, Gilbert BK, Chu A. The dynamic spatial reconstructor: a computed tomography system for high-speed simultaneous scanning of multiple cross sections of the heart. J Med Syst 1980;4(2):253-88; Jorgensen SM, Whitlock SV, Thomas PJ, Roessler RW, Ritman EL. The dynamic spatial reconstructor: a high speed, stop action, 3-D, digital radiographic imager of moving internal organs and blood. Proceedings of SPIE, Ultrahigh- and High-speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry 1990;1346:180-91.] (DSR). Using functional parametric mapping of disturbances in regional contractility and relaxation, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle is color mapped onto a deformable heart model to facilitate appreciation of the structure-to-function relationships in the myocardium, such as occurs in regional patterns of akinesis or dyskinesis associated with myocardial ischemia or infarction resulting from coronary artery occlusion. PMID:11679210

Eusemann, C D; Ritman, E L; Bellemann, M E; Robb, R A

2001-01-01

284

Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction by Biomarkers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable

2014-11-08

285

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a neglected cause of acute myocardial ischaemia and sudden death.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial ischaemia. Eight consecutive fatal cases which occurred in women aged 34-54 years (mean 43) are described. The dissection involved the left anterior descending coronary artery in four, the left main trunk in two, the right coronary artery in one, and both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in one. The clinical presentation was sudden death in six cases, and acute myocardial infarction in two. Diagnosis was made at necropsy in every case but one, in which coronary dissection was diagnosed during life by selective coronary angiography. The only ascertained risk factor was hypertension in one patient; none of the women was in the puerperium, and Marfan syndrome was excluded in all. Histology showed a haematoma between the coronary tunica media and adventitia, that flattened and occluded the lumen; a coronary intimal tear was detected in only two cases. Unusual histological findings were cystic medial necrosis in one case, eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates in four, and angiomatosis of the tunica adventitia in one. Patients dying of spontaneous coronary dissection are usually middle aged women, with no coronary atherosclerosis and apparently no risk factors. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is unpredictable, and sudden death is the usual mode of clinical presentation. Prompt diagnosis and life saving treatment is far from being achieved. Images PMID:8665336

Basso, C.; Morgagni, G. L.; Thiene, G.

1996-01-01

286

Arthroscopic management of mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

Background: Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a less understood entity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament and to assess the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment in these patients. Materials and Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2011, 20 patients were diagnosed to be suffering from mucoid degeneration of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histopathology, and arthroscopy findings. 12 patients were males and 8 patients were females, with mean age of 42.2 years for males (range 28-52 years) and 39.4 years for females (range 30–54 years). They presented with pain on terminal extension (n=10) and on terminal flexion (n=2) without history of significant preceding trauma. MRI showed an increased signal in the substance of the ACL both in the T1- and T2-weighted images, with a mass-like configuration that was reported as a partial or complete tear of the ACL by the radiologist. At arthroscopy, the ACL was homogenous, bulbous, hypertrophied, and taut, occupying the entire intercondylar notch. A debulking of the ACL was performed by a judicious excision of the degenerated mucoid tissue, taking care to leave behind as much of the intact ACL as possible. Releasing it and performing a notchplasty treated impingement of the ACL to the roof and lateral wall. In one patient, we had to replace ACL due to insufficient tissue left behind to support the knee. Results: Good to excellent pain relief on terminal flexion–extension was obtained in 19 of 20 knees. The extension deficit was normalized in all knees. Lachman and anterior drawer test showed a firm endpoint in all, and 85% (n=17) showed good to excellent subjective satisfaction. Conclusions: Mucoid hypertrophy of the ACL should be suspected in elderly persons presenting pain on terminal extension or flexion without preceding trauma, especially when there is no associated meniscal lesion or ligamentous insufficiency. They respond well to a judicious arthroscopic release of the ACL with notchplasty. PMID:23162150

Chudasama, Chirag H; Chudasama, Vyoma C; Prabhakar, Mukund M

2012-01-01

287

Mapping of Regional Myocardial Strain and Work During Ventricular Pacing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of myocardial function (myofiber shortening and work) within the left ventricular (LV) wall during ventricular pacing. BACKGROUND Asynchronous electrical activation, as induced by ventricular pacing, causes various abnormalities in LV function, perfusion and structure. These derangements may be caused by abnormalities in regional contraction patterns. However, insight into these patterns during pacing is as yet limited. METHODS In seven anesthetized dogs, high spatial and temporal resolution magnetic resonance-tagged images were acquired in three orthogonal planes. Three-dimensional deformation data and LV cavity pressure and volume were used to determine midwall circumferential strain and external and total mechanical work at 192 sites around the left ventricle. RESULTS During ventricular pacing, systolic fiber strain and external work were approximately zero in regions near the pacing site, and gradually increased to more than twice the normal value in the most remote regions. Total mechanical work, normalized to the value during right atrial pacing, was 38 ± 13% (right ventricular apex [RVapex] pacing) and 61 ± 23% (left ventricular base [LVbase] pacing) close to the pacing site, and 125 ± 48% and 171 ± 60% in remote regions, respectively (p < 0.05 between RVapex and LVbase pacing). The number of regions with reduced work was significantly larger during RVapex than during LVbase pacing. This was associated with a reduction of global LV pump function during RVapex pacing. CONCLUSIONS Ventricular pacing causes a threefold difference in myofiber work within the LV wall. This difference appears large enough to regard local myocardial function as an important determinant for abnormalities in perfusion, metabolism, structure and pump function during asynchronous electrical activation. Pacing at sites that cause more synchronous activation may limit the occurrence of such derangements. PMID:10334450

Prinzen, Frits W.; Hunter, William C.; Wyman, Bradley T.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

288

Exercise-induced QRS amplitude changes in patients with isolated myocardial bridging: a marker of myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed

Myocardial bridging (MB) of coronary arteries has been considered as an incidental angio-graphic finding; however, several reports suggest its association with angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, and even infarction. In this study the authors aimed to assess exercise-induced QRS changes in patients with isolated MB and to compare those with coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 17 patients with angiographically proven MB (group 1), 16 patients with left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis (group 2), and 14 healthy subjects (group 3). Each subject underwent treadmill exercise testing according to Bruce protocol. In each subject amplitude of the Q, R, and S waves in leads aVF and V(5) was measured manually before and immediately after exercise. The Athens QRS score was calculated by subtracting the Q-, R-, and S-wave differences in leads aVF and V(5). Baseline characteristics of each group were similar. There was no difference among the groups with respect to exercise testing parameters (peak heart rate, blood pressure, test duration, etc). In group 1, ST-segment depression ratio was found to be higher than that of group 3 but lower than that of group 2. In group 1, exercise QRS score was found to be lower than that of group 3 while it was higher than that of group 2 (2.9 +/- 2.3 vs 6.5 +/- 3.2 p = 0.001 and 2.9 +/- 2.3 vs 2.6 +/- 2.4 p = 0.001, respectively). In patients with MB exercise, QRS score was significantly lower than in those with normal coronary flow while it was higher in those with CAD. This may result from exercise-induced ischemia at the area perfused by the bridged artery. PMID:15889193

Turkmen, Muhsin; Barutcu, Irfan; Esen, Ali Metin; Karakaya, Osman; Esen, Ozlem; Basaran, Yelda

2005-01-01

289

The importance of sex-specific quantitative criteria in thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Breast attenuation is an important cause of artifactual cold spots on visually interpreted TL-201 myocardial images. This study was undertaken to determine the need for sex-specific criteria in the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution TL-201 myocardial scintigraphy (SCINT). The studies of 13 normal females (F) and 12 normal males (M) were processed according to the method of a previous study. Significant sexual differences were found in 7/12 regional uptake (U) proportions, 9/11 regional washout (WO) percentages, 0/3 image redistribution indices, and 0/1 lung to heart ratio. The differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and septal uptake in F, a proportionately decreased inferior and inferoapical U in M, and faster WO in F. Sex-specific and total population normal boundaries were set a +- 3SD of the mean for each parameter. Sex-specific boundaries were narrower, and, for 5 parameters (4U and 1WO), contained within the total population boundaries. It was estimated that these differences in boundaries would result in a 6 to 25% discrepancy in patient classification. These results predict that a subset of M and F with coronary artery stenoses could be misclassified as normal by total population criteria, while properly classified as abnormal by sex-specific criteria. The authors conclude that since important differences exist between M and F in the detected pattern of TL-201 myocardial U and WO, sex-specific cr4iteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of SCINT.

Rabinovitch, M.A.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.; Turek, M.; Addas, A.; Burgess, J.H.; Rosenthall, L.

1984-01-01

290

Simultaneous double coronary thrombosis in a 47-year-old male patient with acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Acute myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Double myocardial infarction involving two culprit major vessels is a rarely reported presentation with high incidence of mortality. Case Report: In this study, we report 47-year-old male patient who had an attack of chest pain associated with ST-segment elevation in the antero-lateral leads. Pharmaco-invasive reperfusion approach was adopted with full dose tissue plasminogen activator, followed by transferring the patient to a specialized heart center for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography showed a fresh thrombus totally occluding Left Anterior Descending (LAD) and another thrombus causing distal total occlusion of a dominant Right Coronary Artery (RCA). Two Bare metal stents were placed in both lesions with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow post dilatation, but the patient, unfortunately, went into Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) followed by asystole and died 35 minutes later. Conclusions: Acute double vessel coronary artery thrombosis is a serious event that requires prompt diagnosis and management to prevent its complications. PMID:24175009

Ahmed, Mahmoud; Abdul, Arabi

2013-01-01

291

Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 2 limits infarct size after myocardial infarction in mice.  

PubMed

Various strategies have been devised to reduce the clinical consequences of myocardial infarction, including acute medical care, revascularization, stem cell transplantations, and more recently, prevention of cardiomyocyte cell death. Activation of embryonic signaling pathways is a particularly interesting option to complement these strategies and to improve the functional performance and survival rate of cardiomyocytes. Here, we have concentrated on bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), which induces ectopic formation of beating cardiomyocytes during development in the mesoderm and protects neonatal cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction, an i.v. injection of BMP-2 reduced infarct size in mice when given after left anterior descending artery ligation. Mice treated with BMP-2 are characterized by a reduced rate of apoptotic cardiomyocytes both in the border zone of the infarcts and in the remote myocardium. In vitro, BMP-2 increases the frequency of spontaneously beating neonatal cardiomyocytes and the contractile performance under electrical pacing at 2 Hz, preserves cellular adenosine triphosphate stores, and decreases the rate of apoptosis despite the increased workload. In addition, BMP-2 specifically induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 proteins and protected adult cardiomyocytes from long-lasting hypoxia-induced cellular damage and oxidative stress without activation of the cardiodepressant transforming growth factor-? pathway. Our data suggest that BMP-2 treatment may have considerable therapeutic potential in individuals with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia by improving the contractility of cardiomyocytes and preventing cardiomyocyte cell death. PMID:23376954

Ebelt, Henning; Hillebrand, Ina; Arlt, Stephan; Zhang, Ying; Kostin, Sawa; Neuhaus, Herbert; Müller-Werdan, Ursula; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Werdan, Karl; Braun, Thomas

2013-04-01

292

Myocardial kinetics and organ distribution of thallium-201 in two different age groups of rats  

SciTech Connect

Effects of aging were investigated on kinetics and distribution of 201 thallium (201TI) in isolated myocardial tissue and other organs of rats after injection in vivo of this radionuclide. Older rats showed a trend toward lesser organ uptake, but this was statistically significant only in kidneys, fat, and fur. Experimental outflow curves for 201TI from isolated myocardial wall segments revealed a sustained higher level of 201TI in the older rats throughout the outflow. Further analysis of the washout kinetics with a three-compartment model (extracellular, intracellular, and subcellular) showed a significant reduction of extracellular compartment and increase of subcellular compartment in older rats. The extracellular to overall intracellular ratio also decreased significantly in the older rats. The changes found for 201TI in extracellular and subcellular myocardial compartments in older rats at rest are also similar to those seen in myocardium of young rats after exercise. It is concluded that, although aging has effects on distribution of 201TI in myocardium, such effects are not likely to impair the quality of myocardial scintigraphy in older patient

Madden, J.A.; Smith, G.A.; Llaurado, J.G.

1982-01-01

293

Mesenchymal Cell Transplantation and Myocardial Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Targeted delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) can modify left ventricular (LV) cellular and extracellular remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether and to what degree LV remodeling may be affected by MPC injection post-MI, and whether these effects are concentration dependent remain unknown. Methods and Results Allogeneic MPCs were expanded from sheep bone marrow, and direct intra-myocardial injection was performed within the borderzone region one hour following MI induction (coronary ligation) in sheep at the following concentrations: 25×106 (25 M, n=7), 75 ×106 (75 M, n=7), 225 ×106 (225 M, n=10), 450 ×106 (450 M, n=8), and MPC free media only (MI Only, n=14). LV end diastolic volume increased in all groups but was attenuated in the 25 and 75 M groups. Collagen content within the borderzone region was increased in the MI Only, 225, and 450 M groups. Whereas plasma ICTP, an index of collagen degradation, was highest in the 25 M group. Within the borderzone region matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and MMP tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) also changed in a MPC concentration dependent manner. For example, borderzone levels of MMP-9 were highest in the 25 M group when compared to the MI Only and other MPC treatment group values. Conclusions MPC injection altered collagen dynamics, MMP, and TIMP levels in a concentration dependent manner, and thereby influenced indices of post-MI LV remodeling. However, the greatest effects with respect to post-MI remodeling were identified at lower MPC concentrations, thus suggesting a therapeutic threshold exists for this particular cell therapy. PMID:19752372

Dixon, Jennifer A.; Gorman, Robert C.; Stroud, Robert E.; Bouges, Shenikqua; Hirotsugu, Hamamoto; Gorman, Joseph H.; Martens, Timothy P.; Itescu, Silviu; Schuster, Michael D.; Plappert, Theodore; St. John-Sutton, Martin G; Spinale, Francis G.

2009-01-01

294

Apple pectin, a dietary fiber, ameliorates myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Myocardial cell death due to occlusion of the coronary arteries leads to myocardial infarction, a subset of coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fiber is known to be associated with a reduced risk of CHD, the underlying mechanisms of which were suggested to delay the onset of occlusion by ameliorating risk factors. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that a beneficial role of dietary fiber could arise from protection of myocardial cells against ischemic injury, manifested after occlusion of the arteries. MATERIALS/METHODS Three days after rats were fed apple pectin (AP) (with 10, 40, 100, and 400 mg/kg/day), myocardial ischemic injury was induced by 30 min-ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 hr-reperfusion. The area at risk and infarct area were evaluated using Evans blue dye and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, respectively. DNA nicks reflecting the extent of myocardial apoptosis were assessed by TUNEL assay. Levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Supplementation of AP (with 100 and 400 mg/kg/day) resulted in significantly attenuated infarct size (IS) (ratio of infarct area to area at risk) by 21.9 and 22.4%, respectively, in the AP-treated group, compared with that in the control group. This attenuation in IS showed correlation with improvement in biomarkers involved in the apoptotic cascades: reduction of apoptotic cells, inhibition of conversion of procaspase-3 to caspase-3, and increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, a determinant of cell fate. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that supplementation of AP results in amelioration of myocardial infarction by inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, the current study suggests that intake of dietary fiber reduces the risk of CHD, not only by blocking steps leading to occlusion, but also by protecting against ischemic injury caused by occlusion of the arteries. PMID:25110558

Lim, Sun Ha; Kim, Mi Young

2014-01-01

295

Normal values for nuclear cardiology: Japanese databases for myocardial perfusion, fatty acid and sympathetic imaging and left ventricular function.  

PubMed

Myocardial normal databases for stress myocardial perfusion study have been created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Working Group. The databases comprised gender-, camera rotation range- and radiopharmaceutical-specific data-sets from multiple institutions, and normal database files were created for installation in common nuclear cardiology software. Based on the electrocardiography-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), left ventricular function, including ventricular volumes, systolic and diastolic functions and systolic wall thickening were also analyzed. Normal databases for fatty acid imaging using (123)I-beta-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid and sympathetic imaging using (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine were also examined. This review provides lists and overviews of normal values for myocardial SPECT and ventricular function in a Japanese population. The population-specific approach is a key factor for proper diagnostic and prognostic evaluation. PMID:20108130

Nakajima, Kenichi

2010-04-01

296

Intracardiac myocardial elastography in canines and humans in vivo.  

PubMed

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a useful imaging modality which is used during RF ablation procedures to identify anatomical structures. Utilizing ICE in conjunction with myocardial elastography (ME) can provide additional information on the mechanical properties of cardiac tissue and provide information on mechanical changes caused by ablation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that ICE can be used at high frame rate using a diverging beam transmit sequence to image myocardial strain and differentiate myocardial tissue properties before, during, and after ablation for a clinical ablation procedure. In this feasibility study, three normal canines and eight patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were studied in vivo. A 5.8-MHz ICE transducer was used to image the heart with a diverging beam transmit method achieving 1200 frames per second (fps). Cumulative axial displacement estimation was performed using 1-D cross-correlation with a window size of 2.7 mm and 95% overlap. Axial cumulative strains were estimated in the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) using a least-squares estimator with a kernel of 2 mm on the axial displacements. In the canine case, radial thickening was detected in the lateral wall and in the interatrial septum during LA emptying. For AF patients, the mean absolute strain in the ablated region was lower (6.7 ± 3.1%) than before the ablation (17.4 ± 9.3%) in LA at the end of the LA emptying phase. In the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) region, mean absolute strain magnitude at the end of the RA emptying phase was found to be higher during ablation (43.0 ± 18.1%) compared with after ablation (33.7 ± 15.8%). Myocardial strains in the LA of an AF patient were approximately 2.6 times lower in the ablated region than before ablation. This initial feasibility indicates that ME can be used as a new imaging modality in conjunction with ICE in RF ablation guidance and lesion monitoring. PMID:25643083

Grondin, Julien; Wan, Elaine; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa

2015-02-01

297

Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

2013-01-01

298

Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial imaging in assessing right ventricular pressure in patients with congenital heart defects.  

PubMed Central

Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in patients with congenital heart defects to determine whether, by quantification of right ventricular isotope uptake, one could assess the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy and so predict the level of right ventricular pressure. A total of 24 patients ranging in age from 7 months to 30 years was studied; 18 were studied before corrective surgery and six after operation. All but three had congenital heart defects which had resulted in pressure and/or volume-overload of the right ventricle. At routine cardiac catheterisation, 20 microCi/kg thallium-201 as thallous chloride was injected through the venous catheter and myocardial images were recorded in anterior and left anterior oblique projections; these were subsequently analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Insignificant right ventricular thallium-201 counts judged as being less than 1 per cent of the injected dose or less than 0.3 of the left ventricular counts were present in six patients all with right ventricular peak systolic pressure less than 30 mmHg. In the remaining 18 patients there was a good correlation between the right ventricular/left ventricular peak systolic pressure ratio and the right ventricular/left ventricular thallium-201 counts ratio. All patients with right ventricular/left ventricular peak systolic pressure less than 0.5 had right ventricular/left ventricular thallium-201 counts less than 0.4. Qualitative evaluation of right ventricular isotope intensity proved helpful mainly in distinguishing the patients with right ventricular pressures at or above systemic levels. Thus quantitative analysis of myocardial imaging with thallium-201 is of use clinically in patients with congenital heart defects, in assessing the severity of pulmonary stenosis or the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension. Images PMID:7459178

Rabinovitch, M; Fischer, K C; Treves, S

1981-01-01

299

Predictive factors of cardiac rupture in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction*  

PubMed Central

Cardiac rupture (CR) is a potentially fatal mechanical complication of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of CR in Chinese STEMI patients. A total of 9798 consecutive STEMI patients from four centers in China were retrospectively analyzed, among which 178 patients had CR. STEMI patients without CR were chosen as a control group. Clinical characteristics were compared between STEMI patients with CR and those without CR. The incidence of CR in STEMI patients was 1.82%, and the 30-d mortality was up to 61.2%. CR patients were significantly older, more female, and associated with a longer time from onset of pain to hospital admission than their non-CR counterparts (P<0.001). More patients with anterior myocardial infarction (82.1%) were found in the CR group, and CR patients had significantly higher heart rates than the control group ((91±19) bpm vs. (71±16) bpm; P<0.001). In multiple-adjusted models, the independent risk factors of CR were advanced age, female gender, anaemia, increased heart rate, anterior myocardial infarction, increased white blood cell (WBC) count, delayed admission, and renal dysfunction. The level of hemoglobin remained a significant determinant factor of CR (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.75–0.89); P<0.001) after adjusting for various potential confounding factors. Counts of WBC also remained a significant determinant of the CR (OR (95% CI): 1.08 (1.04–1.12); P<0.001). A number of variables were independently related to CR. This study indicated, for the first time, that both hemoglobin and WBC levels were independently correlated with occurrence of CR. PMID:25471834

Qian, Geng; Wu, Chen; Chen, Yun-dai; Tu, Chen-chen; Wang, Jin-wen; Qian, Yong-an

2014-01-01

300

Multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography: improved detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and aneurysms by the addition of the left lateral view  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of adding the left lateral (LLAT) view to the standard anterior and left anterior oblique views in multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was assessed in 50 patients. Contrast ventriculography was used as the standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess results. Recognition of inferior wall motion abnormality and left ventricular aneurysms was improved significantly by the addition of the LLAT view. Sensitivity was improved for inferior wall motion abnormality and for aneurysms; there was no loss of specificity. There was no improvement in recognition of anterior wall and apical regional abnormalities in the absence of aneurysms.

Kelly, M.J.; Giles, R.W.; Simon, T.R.; Berger, H.J.; Langou, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.T.

1981-04-01

301

Wall-E Learns About Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate the diameter of the moon with the help of Wall-E. In this video, the mischievous robot learns that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is mapping the moon. From Earth, the moon looks too small to land on. Wall-E learns to use math to determine the size of the moon. The moon is compared to the size of a baseball, and Earth is compared to the size of a basketball.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

2009-07-11

302

Patellar tendonitis and anterior knee pain.  

PubMed

Patellar tendonitis or "jumper's knee" is an important cause of anterior knee pain. The natural history, classification of the lesion, and treatment methods, however, remain controversial. This article presents a retrospective review of 40 patients (50 knees) with various stages of patellar tendonitis and examines the etiology, presentation, clinical picture, investigation, and results of conservative treatment. Twenty-nine men and 11 women ranging in age from 17-48 years comprised the study population. Ten patients had bilateral involvement. The overall evaluation of patients' treatment was 70% with normal or nearly normal results and 30% with abnormal or very abnormal results; most required surgical treatment in the form of arthroscopy, anterior compartment decompression, and patellar tendon exploration. Thirty-seven percent of the patients had a previous history of anterior knee pain (25% had Osgood-Schlatter disease and 12.5% had anterior knee pain). Patellar tendon involvement is appraised according to a new concept. Since patellar tendonitis is part of the wider picture of anterior knee pain, patellar tendonitis is classified as primary or secondary according to presentation, magnetic resonance imaging in general, and the pathology of the patellar tendon in particular. Treatment is planned accordingly. PMID:10323501

Duri, Z A; Aichroth, P M; Wilkins, R; Jones, J

1999-01-01

303

An Unruptured Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Bilateral Infraoptic Anterior Cerebral Arteries. Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Variations of the anterior cerebral artery-anterior communicating artery complex are commonly identified in aneurysm surgery. An infraoptic course of the anterior cerebral artery is exceedingly rare. Robison first described this anomaly from an anatomic dissection in 1959. A unilateral anomalous infraoptic anterior cerebral artery is more common than anomalies of bilateral infraoptic anterior cerebral arteries. We present the case of an unruptured aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery in a patient with bilateral infraoptic anterior cerebral arteries, identified by computed tomography angiography and verified during surgery. Implications for aneurysm formation and surgical treatment are discussed. PMID:25599046

Chua, Michelle H.; Thomas, Ajith J.; Fusco, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

304

Myocardial infarction in young adults  

PubMed Central

Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

2005-01-01

305

Recurrent acute myocardial infarction with coronary artery aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, with mucocutaneous, ocular, articular, vascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous system manifestations. Although cardiac involvement is not an uncommon manifestation of Behçet's disease, coronary aneurysm has rarely been reported. Case presentation A 36-year-old Iranian man was admitted to our emergency department for retrosternal pain of two and a half hours duration. His detailed medical history revealed that he had no risk factors for coronary artery disease, however, Behçet's disease had been diagnosed about 10 years earlier. His electrocardiogram showed inferior myocardial infarction. He underwent coronary angiography that showed multiple giant aneurysms in his coronary arteries. Two months later, he experienced another episode of unstable angina. This was followed by two episodes of anterior myocardial infarction 2 and 5 months afterwards. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of myocardial infarction in patients. In our patient, Behçet's disease proved to be the cause of recurrent myocardial infarction. PMID:19918280

2009-01-01

306

Repetitive myocardial infarctions secondary to delirium tremens.  

PubMed

Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal. PMID:25197580

Schwartzberg, David; Shiroff, Adam

2014-01-01

307

Repetitive Myocardial Infarctions Secondary to Delirium Tremens  

PubMed Central

Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal. PMID:25197580

Schwartzberg, David; Shiroff, Adam

2014-01-01

308

Changes in Absolute and Relative Importance in the Prognostic Value of Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Congestive Heart Failure After Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the importance of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure (CHF) with time after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after the introduction of thrombolytic therapy have not been studied. LV systolic function, measured as wall motion index (WMI) by echocardiography, was assessed in 6,676 consecutive patients with an enzyme-confirmed AMI. So that changes in the prognostic

Lars Køber; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Stig Jørgensen; Per Eliasen; A. John Camm

1998-01-01

309

Novel adjunctive treatments of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and myocardial infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis. Early and successful restoration of myocardial reperfusion following an ischemic event is the most effective strategy to reduce final infarct size and improve clinical outcome, but reperfusion may induce further myocardial damage itself. Development of adjunctive therapies to limit myocardial reperfusion injury beyond opening of the coronary artery gains increasing attention. A vast number of experimental studies have shown cardioprotective effects of ischemic and pharmacological conditioning, but despite decades of research, the translation into clinical effects has been challenging. Recently published clinical studies, however, prompt optimism as novel techniques allow for improved clinical applicability. Cyclosporine A, the GLP-1 analogue exenatide and rapid cooling by endovascular infusion of cold saline all reduce infarct size and may confer clinical benefit for patients admitted with acute myocardial infarcts. Equally promising, three follow-up studies of the effect of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) show clinical prognostic benefit in patients undergoing coronary surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The discovery that RIC can be performed noninvasively using a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to induce brief episodes of limb ischemia and reperfusion has facilitated the translation of RIC into the clinical arena. This review focus on novel advances in adjunctive therapies in relation to acute and elective coronary procedures. PMID:24976915

Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Pryds, Kasper; Bøtker, Hans Erik

2014-01-01

310

[Reconstruction for radionecrotic chest wall ulcer using autogenous replacements].  

PubMed

When reconstructing the radionecrotic chest wall ulcer, safety of the flap is essential. If the flap becomes necrotic, fatal situations may arise, such as pyothorax, especially when prosthetic replacement is chosen. Thus, flaps with a rich and stable blood supply must be chosen for necrotic chest wall reconstruction.We present the case of a 67-year-old lady who developed radionecrosis following irradiation of the chest wall after radical mastectomy. The ensuing radionecrosis of the skin and chest wall progressed to advanced ischemia with secondary infection. The necrotic ribs and surrounding tissue were debrided and the anterior chest wall was reconstructed by pediculed omental and vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. The patient is currently well and alive without any evidence of recurrence of either infection or breast carcinoma. PMID:24743412

Hiratsuka, Masafumi; Iwasaki, Akinori

2014-01-01

311

Myocardial oxygenation and functional recovery in infarct rat hearts transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapy for myocardial tissue repair is limited by the poor survival of transplanted cells, possibly because of inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygenation level and functional recovery after allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial oxygen tension (Po2) was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using an implantable oxygen-sensing spin probe (OxySpin). MSCs incubated with OxySpins showed substantial uptake of the probe without affecting its oxygen sensitivity or calibration. The cells internalized with OxySpins were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial cell lineages. The labeled cells tested positive for CD44 and CD29 markers and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD14 and CD45. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced in rats by permanently ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs with OxySpins were transplanted in the infarct region of hearts. A significant increase in Po2 was observed in the MSC group compared with the untreated MI group (18.1 ± 2.6 vs. 13.0 ± 1.8 mmHg, n = 4, P < 0.05) at 4 wk after transplantation. Echocardiography showed a significant improvement in ejection fraction and fraction shortening, which inversely correlated with the magnitude of fibrosis in the treated hearts. The cell-transplanted hearts also showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor level and capillary density in the infarct region. The study established our ability to measure and correlate changes in myocardial tissue oxygenation with cardiac function in infarcted rat hearts treated with MSCs. PMID:19286938

Chacko, Simi M.; Khan, Mahmood; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Bratasz, Anna; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2009-01-01

312

Cardiospheres and tissue engineering for myocardial regeneration: potential for clinical application.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is an increasingly expanding area of research in the cardiovascular field that involves engineering, chemistry, biology and medicine. Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) aims to regenerate myocardial damage by combining cells, matrix, biological active molecules and physiological stimuli. The rationale behind CTE applications is that in order to regenerate the ventricular wall after a myocardial infarction it is necessary to combine procedures that regenerate both cardiomyocytes and the extracellular matrix. The application of (stem) cells together with a matrix could represent an environment protected from the inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals, a stemness/survival reservoir slowly releasing cells and factors promoting tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This review will focus on the applications and advantages that CTE application could offer compared to conventional cell therapy. PMID:20465579

Gaetani, Roberto; Rizzitelli, Giuseppe; Chimenti, Isotta; Barile, Lucio; Forte, Elvira; Ionta, Vittoria; Angelini, Francesco; Sluijter, Joost P G; Barbetta, Andrea; Messina, Elisa; Frati, Giacomo

2010-05-01

313

Predictors of infarct size after primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction from pooled analysis from four contemporary trials.  

PubMed

Determinates of infarct size in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been incompletely characterized, in part because of the limited sample size of previous studies. Databases therefore were pooled from 4 contemporary trials of primary or rescue PCI (EMERALD, COOL-MI, AMIHOT, and ICE-IT), in which the primary end point was infarct size assessed using technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging, measured at the same core laboratory. Of 1,355 patients, infarct size was determined using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging in 1,199 patients (88.5%), at a mean time of 23 +/- 15 days. Median infarct size of the study population was 10% (interquartile range 0% to 23%; mean 14.9 +/- 16.1%). Using multiple linear regression analysis of 18 variables, left anterior descending infarct artery, baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0/1 flow, male gender, and prolonged door-to-balloon time were powerful independent predictors of infarct size (all p <0.0001). Other independent correlates of infarct size were final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade <3 flow (p = 0.0001), previous AMI (p = 0.005), symptom-onset-to-door time (p = 0.021), and rescue angioplasty (p = 0.026). In conclusion, anterior infarction, time to reperfusion, epicardial infarct artery patency before and after reperfusion, male gender, previous AMI, and failed thrombolytic therapy were important predictors of infarct size after angioplasty in patients with AMI assessed using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging and should be considered when planning future trials of investigational drugs or devices designed to enhance myocardial recovery. PMID:17950792

Stone, Gregg W; Dixon, Simon R; Grines, Cindy L; Cox, David A; Webb, John G; Brodie, Bruce R; Griffin, John J; Martin, Jack L; Fahy, Martin; Mehran, Roxana; Miller, Todd D; Gibbons, Raymond J; O'Neill, William W

2007-11-01

314

Regional and Systemic Platelet Function Is Altered by Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion.  

PubMed

Background: Myocardial reperfusion after short durations of ischemia causes prolonged contractile dysfunction (myocardial stunning). Recently it has also been suggested that ischemia-reperfusion results in impaired coronary endothelial function. Since platelet function is, in part, regulated by an intact functioning endothelium, platelet function could be expected to change during ischemia-reperfusion. However, the effect of ischemia and reperfusion on regional and systemic platelet function is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a brief period of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion on regional and systemic platelet function. Methods: Fourteen swine in an open-chest model underwent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion for 15 minutes followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Platelet aggregability in response to 5 µM ADP was determined simultaneously in the femoral (systemic; N = 14) and great cardiac (regional; N = 9) venous blood at baseline, during occlusion, and at 40 and 90 minutes after reperfusion. LAD blood flow and regional myocardial function were determined by standard methods. Results: Hemodynamics remained stable in all animals. During LAD occlusion platelet aggregability, increased only in the regional coronary circulation (126% of baseline, p =.0001). At 40 minutes of reperfusion systemic platelet aggregahility decreased (86% of baseline, p =.0001) and subsequently increased at 90 minutes at reperfusion in both the systemic (127% of baseline, p =.0001) and regional circula. tions (156% of baseline, p =.0001). Ischemia was evident by the absence ofdistal LAD flow during occlusion that returned during reperfusion and a typical response ofmyocardial stunning in each animal (stunning time = 47.7 +/- 5.2 minutes). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that platelet function is not static during ischemia-reperfusion. Instead, during ischemia regional platelet aggregability is increased. Systemic and regional platelet aggregability also increase during myocardial reperfusion. The mechanism of these responses is unknown but may be related to regional endathelial dysfunction created by ischernia. The response observed could also be explained by the release of proaggregatory mediators in the connary and/or systemic circulation during ischemia-reperfusion. The relative hyeraggregability observed following reperfusion may be relevant for further investigations of coronary artery reocclusion occurring after the relief of myocardial ischemia. PMID:10603529

Gurbel; Serebruany; Komjathy; Collins; Sane; Scott; Schlossberg; Herzog

1995-01-01

315

Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m SQ30217: Comparison with thallium-201 and coronary anatomy  

SciTech Connect

Myocardial perfusion in ten normal volunteers and 20 patients with coronary artery disease documented by recent coronary arteriography was studied with 99mTc-labeled SQ30217 and /sup 201/TI. Plantar /sup 201/TI imaging followed standard treadmill exercise and planar SQ30217 imaging followed upright bicycle exercise, performed to angina, or the same double product achieved on the treadmill test. Upright anterior, 30 degrees left anterior oblique, and 60 degrees left anterior oblique images were obtained for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, starting 2 min after injection of 15 mCi of 99mTc SQ30217. A second 15-mCi dose was injected at rest approximately 2 hr later, and the same imaging protocol was followed. No adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities attributable to SQ30217 were observed. All scans on the normal volunteers were interpreted as normal. Qualitative readings of both tests were equally sensitive for detecting patients with coronary disease (SQ30217 - 16/20, TI - 17/20, p = NS) and identifying abnormal vessels (SQ30217 - 19/45, TI - 21/45, p = NS). Both agents were falsely positive in 1/15 vessels. Ten vascular regions showed persistent abnormalities on resting SQ30217 scans; eight of these were distal to stenoses of at least 90% and three were also abnormal on thallium redistribution images. Hepatic uptake of SQ30217 obscured inferoapical segments in some views in 14/20 patients but did not interfere with abnormal vessel identification.

Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L.; Blood, D.K.; Muschel, M.J.; Smith, K.F.; Wall, R.M.; Cannon, P.J.

1989-03-01

316

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

317

Angiographic determinants of infarct size after successful percutaneous intervention for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the impact of distal embolisation  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the impact of distal embolisation and other angiographic determinants in patients after successful primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Methods Angiographic data were assessed on the coronary angiogram carried out immediately after successful (TIMI 2 or 3) coronary angioplasty in 631 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. Embolisation was defined as a distal filling defect with an abrupt 'cutoff' in ?1 of the peripheral coronary artery branches of the infarct-related artery, distal to the site of angioplasty. Endpoints were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and enzymatic infarct size. Results Left anterior descending artery related myocardial infarction, impaired myocardial blush and distal embolisation were independent determinants of infarct size. Distal embolisation was present in 102 patients (16%) and was associated with a larger enzymatic infarct size (LDH Q48 2250 vs. 1532, p=0.001) and a lower LVEF (41% vs. 44%, p=0.04). There was no difference in the frequency of distal embolisation between patients treated with or without stents. Conclusions In successful primary angioplasty, infarct-related artery, impaired myocardial blush and distal embolisation are independent determinants of infarct size. Distal embolisation can be visualised in 16% of the patients and is associated with a larger enzymatic infarct size and lower LVEF. Intracoronary stenting is not associated with an increased risk of distal embolisation during primary angioplasty.

Henriques, J.P.S.; Zijlstra, F.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Dambrink, J-H.E.; van 't Hof, A.W.J.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; de Boer, M-J.; Suryapranata, H.

2002-01-01

318

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

319

In vivo myocardial distribution of multipotent progenitor cells following intracoronary delivery in a swine model of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims There are few data comparing the fate of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) used in cardiac cell therapy after myocardial infarction (MI). To document in vivo distribution of MPCs delivered by intracoronary (IC) injection. Methods and results Using an anterior MI swine model, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence was used for in vivo tracking of labelled MPCs [mesenchymal stromal (MSCs), bone marrow mononuclear (BMMNCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMNCs)] cells early after IC injection. Signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of injected over non-injected (reference) zones were used to report NIR fluorescence emission. Following IC injection, significant differences in mean SIR were documented when MSCs were compared with BMMNCs [1.28 ± 0.10 vs. 0.77 ± 0.11, P < 0.001; 95% CI (0.219, 0.805), respectively] or PBMNCs [1.28 ± 0.10 vs. 0.80 ± 0.14, P = 0.005; 95% CI (0.148, 0.813), respectively]. Differences were maintained during the 60 min tracking period, with only the MSC-injected groups continuously emitting NIR fluorescence (SIR>1). This is correlated with greater cell retention for MSCs relative to mononuclear cells. However, there was evidence of MSC-related vessel plugging in some swine. Conclusion Our in vivo NIR fluorescence findings suggest that MPC distribution and retention immediately after intracoronary delivery vary depending on cell population and could potentially impact the clinical efficacy of cardiac cell therapy. PMID:19687154

Ly, Hung Q.; Hoshino, Kozo; Pomerantseva, Irina; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Fortier, Annik; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Vooght, Carrie; Frangioni, John V.; Hajjar, Roger J.

2009-01-01

320

Anterior Dislodgement of a Fusion Cage after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach. PMID:24175028

Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

321

Wind tunnel wall interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

1986-01-01

322

Anterior uveitis and its relation to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSIdiopathic recurrent acute anterior uveitis (RAAU) is a common reason for attendance at ophthalmic casualty departments. Patients who suffer with this condition may have multiple recurrent episodes which are often debilitating and necessitate time off work. If recurrences are identified early and treatment initiated rapidly, the inflammation can be minimised and settles quickly on topical treatment with a speedy functional

B Mulholland; M Marks; S L Lightman

2000-01-01

323

Graft inserter for anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simple instrument for graft insertion in anterior cervical fusion. This device obviates the need for screw distraction of the adjacent vertebrae or the use of an impactor for insertion. This device simplifies graft insertion where the disc space is narrow, particularly in multilevel fusions, and reduces the risk of over-penetration of the graft. PMID:24974192

Hitchon, Patrick W; Kumar, Rajinder; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dahdaleh, Nader S

2014-11-01

324

Quantitative analysis of anterior cruciate ligament instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify end-feel by evaluating instantaneous stiffness and change in stiffness of the tibiofemoral joint. Normal (n = 26), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient (n = 6), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficient (n = 2) subjects were tested using the KT 2000 knee ligament arthrometer. Analogue force and displacement data were digitized, filtered,

M. E. Maitland; G. D. Bell; N. G. H. Mohtadi; W Herzog

1995-01-01

325

Predicting Recurrence after Primary Anterior Shoulder Dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the factors influencing the recurrence rate after primary anterior traumatic shoulder dislocation, especially sports activity. A significant number of patients changed to athletic activities that produce less shoulder strain. The natural assumption would be that sports activity directly influences recurrence. However, age-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the correlation between sports and recurrence rate was false. Our statistical

Franz S. Kralinger; Karl Golser; Ralph Wischatta; Markus Wambacher; Gernot Sperner

2002-01-01

326

Orthodontic treatment of mandibular anterior crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns orthodontic treatment of a 17 years old Bangladeshi female with a class I malocclusion along with anterior crowding in the mandibular arch. Orthodontic treatment carried out with preadjusted Roth type (018 slot) fixed brackets with labial flaring of the mandibular incisors to accomplish the treatment. The esthetics and occlusion were maintained after retention.

MK Alam

2009-01-01

327

[Acute stent thrombosis and reverse transient left ventricular dilatation after performing a single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old male patient with a history of stent implantation in the left anterior descending three months before. Due to the presentation of vegetative symptoms, he was referred for gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion. During acquisition of the resting images he presented chest pain and ST segment elevation, so that urgent cardiac catheterization was performed, showing stent thrombosis. Rest perfusion imaging showed a defect in anterior and apical perfusion, more severe and extensive than in the stress images, with striking left ventricular dilatation and a fall in the ejection fraction related to the acute ischemia phenomenon. Intense exercise is associated with a transient activation of the coagulation system and hemodynamic changes that might induce thrombosis, especially in recently implanted coronary stents that probably still have not become completely endothelialized. PMID:25129322

Miranda, B; Pizzi, M N; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Domingo, E; Candell-Riera, J

2014-08-13

328

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction creating the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial portal. Surgical technique.  

PubMed

The anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a common procedure that improves stability and function of the knee. The surgical technique continues to evolve and many issues are still under debate. These mainly include: (1) graft selection (patellar tendon, hamstring, quadriceps tendon, or allografts), (2) surgical technique (double versus single bundle), and (3) femoral tunnel drilling. Currently, the most controversial one is the femoral tunnel drilling (transtibial vs. anteromedial portal drilling). Common opinion is that drilling the femoral tunnel through the anteromedial (AM) allows a more anatomic placement of the graft and a better rotational stability; therefore, this technique is gaining in popularity compared with the transtibial drilling despite a greater difficulty and the risk of medial condyle damage, tunnel back wall blowout, and inadequate socket length. The aim of this article is to describe the surgical technique of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (single and double bundle), drilling the femoral tunnel through the AM portal. PMID:21541700

Pastrone, Antonio; Ferro, Andrea; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide E; Pellegrino, Pietro; D'Elicio, Davide; Cottino, Umberto; Rossi, Roberto

2011-06-01

329

Anatomic Outside-In Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Suspension Device for Femoral Fixation  

PubMed Central

Cortical suspension is one of the most frequently used methods of femoral fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We present a simple technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a suspension device for femoral fixation. The purposes of this technique are to ensure greater contact between the graft and the tunnel walls—a goal that is achieved by using the femoral fixation device with the shortest possible loop—to avoid the flip step and the need for hyperflexion, and in short, to minimize the risk of complications that can occur when using the anteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel. To this end, both the femoral and tibial tunnels are created in an outside-in manner and with the same guide. The graft is passed through in a craniocaudal direction, and the suspension device is fitted inside an expansion piece for a better adaptation to the femoral cortex. PMID:24904774

Espejo-Baena, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro

2014-01-01

330

Structure and anterior regeneration of musculature and nervous system in Cirratulus cf. cirratus (Cirratulidae, Annelida).  

PubMed

Cover illustration. Cirratulidae are a family of marine sedentary annelids with a remarkable regenerative ability. In this issue of the Journal of Morphology,Weidhase et al. (pp. 1418-1430, 10.1002/jmor.20316) investigated the structure of musculature and nervous system in intact and anterior regenerating individuals of Cirratulus cf. cirratus using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Additionally, implications for general regeneration patterns in annelids were discussed. The cover image is a depth coded confocal maximum projection of the musculature of the anterior end in lateral view, showing the two layers of the body wall musculature and further muscle fibers of the parapodia, the tentacles, and the mouth opening. PMID:25392962

Weidhase, Michael; Bleidorn, Christoph; Helm, Conrad

2014-12-01

331

Allograft anterior tibialis tendon with bioabsorbable interference screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a variety of reasons, bone–patellar tendon–bone and Achilles tendon allografts have been used more commonly in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Soft-tissue allografts used mainly are the semitendinosus, gracilis, and occasionally the quadriceps tendons. The anterior tibialis tendon is a thick, strong tendon that can be prepared with one doubling of the graft, has a large cross-sectional area, and has

David N. M. Caborn; Jeffrey B. Selby

2002-01-01

332

TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT WITH COMBINED HIP ARTHROSCOPY AND LIMITED ANTERIOR DECOMPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior femoroacetabular impingement results from abnormal abutment of the anterolateral femo- ral head-neck junction with the anterior acetabu- lar-labral complex resulting in pain and progres- sive hip dysfunction. This under-recognized problem could be the manifestation of acetabular or proximal femoral deformity, and when left un- treated leads to the development of osteoarthritis of the hip. Conservative treatment is usually un-

John C. Clohisy; J. Thomas McClure

333

Myocardial calcifications: Pathophysiology, etiologies, differential diagnoses, and imaging findings.  

PubMed

Myocardial calcifications are not uncommonly encountered by the cardiac imager and may have a range of imaging appearances, from focal calcific deposits to diffuse myocardial involvement. A number of pathological processes can both cause and result from myocardial calcification; therefore, accurate identification and characterization are important. This pictorial essay will review the mechanisms, etiologies, imaging features, and differential diagnoses of myocardial calcification with imaging examples. PMID:25456525

Nance, John W; Crane, Genevieve M; Halushka, Marc K; Fishman, Elliot K; Zimmerman, Stefan L

2014-10-22

334

A timely diagnosis of myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction currently rests on the measurement of troponin, a biomarker of myocardial necrosis. Unfortunately, the current generation troponin assays detect troponin only 6-9 h after symptom onset. This can lead to a delay in diagnosis and also excessive resource utilization when triaging patients who, ultimately, have noncardiac causes of acute chest pain. For these reasons, there has been extensive research interest in biomarkers that can detect and rule out myocardial infarction early after symptom onset. These include markers of myocardial injury, such as myoglobin, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, glycogen phosphorylase BB; hemostatic markers, such as D-dimer; and finally, inflammatory markers, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9. Recently, highly sensitive troponin assays have reported an early sensitivity for myocardial infarction of greater than 95%, although at a cost of reduced specificity. The optimal strategy with which to use these novel biomarkers and highly sensitive troponins has yet to be determined, and interpretation of their results in light of thorough clinical assessment remains essential. PMID:20550472

Shand, J A; Menown, I B; McEneaney, D J

2010-06-01

335

Biochemical assessment of acute myocardial ischaemia.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To evaluate the efficacy of biochemical parameters in different fluids in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction of different causes, analysed after death. METHODS--The myoglobin concentration and total creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) activities were measured in serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humour from seven diagnostic groups of cadavers classified according to the severity of myocardial ischaemia and cause of death. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myosin were measured only in serum and pericardial fluid, and cathepsin D only in pericardial fluid. Routine haematoxylin and eosin and acridine orange staining were used for microscopy studies of heart tissue. RESULTS--In pericardial fluid there were substantial differences between the different groups with respect to CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities and myosin concentrations. The highest values were found in cases with morphological evidence of myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS--Biochemical parameters, which reach the pericardial fluid via passive diffusion and ultrafiltration due to a pressure gradient, were thus detectable in this fluid earlier than in serum in cases with myocardial ischaemia. These biochemical parameters may be of use for ruling out myocardial ischaemia in those controversial cases in which reliable morphological findings are lacking. PMID:7745110

Perez-Cárceles, M D; Osuna, E; Vieira, D N; Martínez, A; Luna, A

1995-01-01

336

Comparison of stromal hydration techniques for clear corneal cataract incisions: conventional hydration versus anterior stromal pocket hydration.  

PubMed

Anterior stromal pocket hydration was compared with conventional hydration for preventing wound leak after 2.8 mm uniplanar clear corneal incisions (CCIs) in patients having routine cataract surgery. Conventional hydration involves hydration of the lateral walls of the main incision with visible whitening of the stroma. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique involves creation of an additional supraincisional stromal pocket overlying the main incision, which is then hydrated instead of the main incision. Sixty-six eyes of 48 patients were included in the data analysis with 33 assigned to each study group. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique was significantly better than conventional hydration in preventing wound leak due to direct pressure on the posterior lip of the incision. PMID:22624890

Mifflin, Mark D; Kinard, Krista; Neuffer, Marcus C

2012-06-01

337

Correlation between D-dimer levels and coronary artery reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction patients after thrombolytic treatment.  

PubMed

The correlation between plasma D-dimer level and reperfusion has not been clarified yet in thrombolytic therapy applied for acute myocardial infarction patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between reperfusion and fibrinolytic activity in acute myocardial infarction patients treated with thrombolytic therapy. Fibrinolytic activity was reflected by plasma D-dimer levels. During the study period, 186 patients were initially analyzed. But 18 of these patients were excluded from the study because they were not suitable for study criteria. Blood was collected from 168 acute myocardial infarction patients within first 6 h. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (100 mg) or streptokinase (1,500,000 U) was applied to patients. Mean age of the patients was 58 (28-86) years and majority was men (86%). The number of anterior, inferior, and lateral myocardial infarction patients were 76 (45.2%), 85 (50.6%), and seven (4.2%), respectively. The mean time from symptom onset to thrombolytic application was 134 (95-212) min. Reperfusion occurred in 115 (68.5%) patients. D-dimer levels were markedly high after thrombolytic therapy versus before (155 mg/dl, 362 mg/dl, P<0.005). We compared the D-dimer values before and after thrombolytic therapy between reperfused group and the nonreperfused group (189-409 mg/l in reperfused group, P=0.086; 82-258 mg/l in the nonreperfused group, P=0.173). In conclusion, in this study, D-dimer levels were elevated markedly in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction after thrombolytic therapy, but no significant difference was seen in D-dimer levels between the reperfused and nonreperfused groups. PMID:23917585

Cakar, Mehmet A; Gunduz, Huseyin; Varim, Ceyhun; Ozdemir, Fatma; Vatan, Mehmet B; Akdemir, Ramazan

2013-09-01

338

Role of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy is being increasingly employed as a method for assessing the efficacy of coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. New thallium uptake after intracoronary tracer administration after successful recanalization indicates that nutrient blood flow has been successfully restored. One may also presume that some myocardial salvage occurred if thallium administered in this manner is transported intracellularly by myocytes with intact sarcolemmal membranes. However, if one injects thallium by way of the intracoronary route immediately after reperfusion, the initial uptake of thallium in reperfused myocardium may predominantly represent hyperemic flow and regional thallium counts measured may not be proportional to the mass of viable myocytes. When thallium is injected intravenously during the occlusion phase the degree of redistribution after thrombolysis is proportional to the degree of flow restoration and myocardial viability. When thallium is injected for the first time intravenously immediately after reperfusion, an overestimation of myocardial salvage may occur because of excess thallium uptake in the infarct zone consequent to significant hyperemia. Another approach to myocardial thallium scintigraphy in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy is to administer two separate intravenous injections before and 24 hours or later after treatment. Finally, patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive intravenous thrombolytic therapy are candidates for predischarge exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for risk stratification and detection of residual ischemia.

Beller, G.A.

1987-03-01

339

Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Myocardial cell damage  

PubMed Central

This review article summarizes the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess myocardial necrosis in humans. Different histopathological features of myocardial cell necrosis are reviewed. In addition, the present role of echocardiographic techniques in assessing irreversible myocardial damage is briefly summarized. PMID:16209715

Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro

2005-01-01

340

Acute brain death alters left ventricular myocardial gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The depressed myocardial function observed in brain dead organ donors has been attributed to massive sympathetic discharge and catecholamine cardiotoxicity. Because elevated catecholamines are associated with altered myocardial gene expression, we investigated whether acute brain death from increased intracranial pressure alters the expression of myocardial gene products important in contractility. Methods: A balloon expansion model was used to increase

Thomas Yeh; Andrew S. Wechsler; Laura J. Graham; Kathryn E. Loesser; Domenic A. Sica; Luke Wolfe; Emma R. Jakoi

1999-01-01

341

MYOCARDIAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FATTY ACIDS IN DOGS WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare the myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with control dogs using myocardium from 7 dogs with DCM, 16 control dogs. Myocardial tissues were homogenized and total fatty acids extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial fatty acids conce...

342

Neuroprotective Antioxidant STAZN Protects Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Protecting the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury has significant potential to reduce the complications of myocardial infarction and interventional revascularization procedures. Reperfusion damage is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Here we use a novel method of percutaneous coronary occlusion to show that the potent antioxidant and neuroprotective free-radical scavenger, stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN), confers marked cardioprotection when given immediately prior to reperfusion. Methods and Results Physiologically controlled male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, paralyzed with pancuronium and mechanically ventilated. A guide wire was introduced via the femoral artery and advanced retrogradely via the aorta into the left coronary artery under fluoroscopic guidance. Rats with established coronary ischemia (85 min after occlusion) were given STAZN 3.5 mg/kg or its vehicle 5 minutes before and 2 hours after reperfusion, and were subjected to functional and histopathologic studies at 3 days. Ischemia-associated Q wave amplitude was reduced by 73% in STAZN-treated rats (P=0.01), while infarct-related ejection fraction, fractional shortening and severe regional wall-motion impairments were reduced by 48%, 54% and 37%, respectively, relative to vehicle-treated controls (P=0.05). Total myocardial infarct volume in STAZN-treated rats was correspondingly reduced by 43% (P<0.05), representing a sparing of 14% of the total left ventricular myocardium. Conclusions STAZN, a second-generation azulenyl nitrone with potent neuroprotective efficacy in brain ischemia, is also a rapidly acting and highly effective cardioprotective agent in acute coronary ischemia. Our results suggest the potential for clinical benefit in the setting of acute coronary syndromes. PMID:17936251

Ley, James J.; Prado, Ricardo; Wei, Jian Qin; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Becker, David A.; Ginsberg, Myron D.

2009-01-01

343

Myocardial morphology and cardiac function in rats with renal failure.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic renal failure on cardiac performance and myocardial morphology were studied in rats: 17 with 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF rats) and 12 with sham operation (controls). Cardiac function was assessed 8 weeks postoperatively, using the Langendorff technique for an isolated working heart model. After the hemodynamic study the hearts were fixed for electron and light microscopy. In the CRF rats left ventricular systolic pressure was significantly higher at all preloads (10-20 cmH2O) and afterloads (70-90 cmH2O), and left ventricular stroke work was significantly increased at preload 20 cmH2O with afterloads 70 or 90 cmH2O. Light microscopy revealed fibronecrotic lesions consisting of fibroblastic proliferation with newly formed collagen interposed between or entrapping degenerative myocytes. The changes were focally distributed, with perivascular accentuation and were most frequent in the basal half of the ventricular wall. Electron microscopy of non-necrotic myocytes showed intact myocytes, with mitochondria morphometrically similar in the 2 groups, but a significantly lower incidence of mitochondrial granules in the CRF rats. Thus 8 weeks of CRF showed no cardiac dysfunction associated with the focally distributed fibronecrotic myocardial lesions and decrease in mitochondrial granules. The precise mechanism of the discrepancy between the morphological change and the cardiac function is unclear. One possible explanation may be that because the pathological changes in the myocardium were focal or mild to moderate, some compensation mechanism may be involved or it may be the turning point of functional change from acute renal failure to the chronic state. PMID:10952158

Hatori, N; Havu, N; Hofman-Bang, C; Clyne, N; Pehrsson, S K

2000-08-01

344

Myocardial infarction in Antigua. 1990 to 1995.  

PubMed

Between January 1990 and May 1995, 117 patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at Holberton Hospital, Antigua, for chest pain due to suspected acute myocardial infarction. 39 (45%) of 86 patients whose records were available for retrospective review had confirmed (27 patients) or probable (12 patients) acute myocardial infarction. Risk factors identified among the patients included hypertension, diabetes, tobacco smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity. On admission, 82% were Killip class I and 18% were Killip class II. Medications in the Intensive Care Unit included nitrates, aspirin, calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, heparin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (21%). No thrombolytic agents were available. The average hospital stay was 10 days and the in-hospital mortality rate was 13%. These data indicate that early mortality from acute myocardial infarction can be reduced in developing countries by early admission to an Intensive Care Unit and use of drugs known to be effective in its treatment. PMID:9361495

Martin, T C; Van Longhuyzen, H W; Amaraswamy, R; Tangutoori, R; Bennett, B

1997-09-01

345

Action of acetylstrophanthidin on experimental myocardial infarction.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental animal model with acute myocardial infarction of a size insufficient to produce profound heart failure or shock was used to study the effects of acute infarction on digitalis tolerance and the hemodynamic changes produced by moderate and large doses of acetylstrophanthidin. With acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxic arrhythmias could be precipitated with significantly lower doses of digitalis than in animals without myocardial infarction. There was no precise correlation between the size of infarction and the toxic dose of glycoside. Coronary artery ligation produced a stable but relatively depressed circulatory state, as evidenced by lowered cardiac output and stroke volume and elevated systemic vascular resistance and left atrial mean pressure. When digitalis was infused, the following significant changes were observed at nontoxic doses: (1) elevation of aortic and left ventricular pressures; (2) further decline in cardiac output; and (3) decreased left atrial mean pressure.

Nola, G. T.; Pope, S. E.; Harrison, D. C.

1972-01-01

346

Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation in a cat with myocardial fibro-fatty infiltration.  

PubMed

Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation were diagnosed in a 4-year-old castrated Birman cat with progressive signs of dyspnea, tachypnea, and lethargy. Echocardiography revealed massive right-sided heart dilatation with ascites and hydrothorax. Electrocardiogram recording showed atrial fibrillation. Medical therapy with diuretics, benazepril, and antithrombotic agents was unsuccessful. The owner requested euthanasia. In post-mortem examination, changes associated with myocardial fibro-fatty infiltration were confirmed. Changes were most marked in the right ventricular wall but with left ventricular involvement was detected. PMID:21126897

Harjuhahto, Tytti A I; Leinonen, Merja R; Simola, Outi T M; Järvinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rajamäki, Minna M

2011-02-01

347

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

348

Acute myocardial infarction and heart block: a challenge to emergency physicians  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a patient who underwent an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction of the inferior wall and transitory total heart block in the first hours of his clinical presentation. There was no haemodynamic instability before the thrombolytic therapy was performed 8?h after the onset of pain. There was no block recurrence. The current case shows a possible complication during the thrombolytic therapy and the urge for a quick decision by the emergency physician. Pacemaker implantation should be considered in the event of the patient's haemodynamic worsening once the success of the therapy is a reflex of the arrhythmia reversion most of the times. PMID:23355585

Bacci, Marcelo Rodrigues; Santos, Janaina Aparecida Boide; Nogueira, Leonardo Fernando Ferrari; Namura, José Jorge

2013-01-01

349

What affects continence after anterior resection of the rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional results after anterior rectal resections are commonly considered satisfactory but variable percentages of postoperative incontinence are often reported. Continence was evaluated after 20 low anterior resections (LAR) and 13 high anterior resections (HAR) by means of clinical assessment, anorectal manometry, and evacuation proctography. Whereas all HAR patients had perfect continence, 10 patients (50 percent of the LAR group had

Giacomo Batignani; Iacopo Monaci; Ferdinando Ficari; Francesco Tonelli

1991-01-01

350

The Role of Immune System in Idiopathic Anterior Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic anterior uveitis is an anterior segment inflammation in which a detailed medical history, general and ocular physical examination is not as- sociated with any defined clinical syndrome. Alterations in immune system parame- ters have been reported in patients with idiopathic posterior uveitis; however no data on the role of immune system in idiopathic anterior uveitis has yet been

Mansour Rahimi; Morteza Najafi

351

Patterns of Muscular Strain in the Embryonic Heart Wall  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that inner layers of contracting muscular tubes undergo greater strain than concentric outer layers was tested by numerical modeling and by confocal microscopy of strain within the wall of the early chick heart. We modeled the looped heart as a thin muscular shell surrounding an inner layer of sponge-like trabeculae by two methods: calculation within a two-dimensional three-variable lumped model and simulated expansion of a three-dimensional, four-layer mesh of finite elements. Analysis of both models, and correlative microscopy of chamber dimensions, sarcomere spacing, and membrane leaks, indicate a gradient of strain decreasing across the wall from highest strain along inner layers. Prediction of wall thickening during expansion was confirmed by ultrasonography of beating hearts. Degree of stretch determined by radial position may thus contribute to observed patterns of regional myocardial conditioning and slowed proliferation, as well as to the morphogenesis of ventricular trabeculae and conduction fascicles. PMID:19418446

Damon, Brooke J.; Rémond, Mathieu C.; Bigelow, Michael R.; Trusk, Thomas C.; Xie, Wenjie; Perucchio, Renato; Sedmera, David; Denslow, Stewart; Thompson, Robert P.

2009-01-01

352

Myocardial infarction (ST-elevation)  

PubMed Central

Introduction About a quarter of people having an acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the USA will die of it, half of them within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms. Cardiogenic shock develops in over 5% of people surviving the first hour after an acute MI, with a mortality of 50-80% in the first 48 hours. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Which treatments improve outcomes in acute MI? Which treatments improve outcomes for cardiogenic shock after MI? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 50 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, aspirin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, early cardiac surgery, early invasive cardiac revascularisation, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, nitrates (with or without thrombolysis), positive inotropes, primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), pulmonary artery catheterisation, thrombolysis (with or without low molecular weight heparin, with or without unfractionated heparin), vasodilators, and ventricular assistance devices and cardiac transplantation. PMID:19445779

2009-01-01

353

Myocardial infarction (ST-elevation)  

PubMed Central

Introduction About one quarter of people having an acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the USA will die of it, half of them within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms. Cardiogenic shock develops in over 5% of people surviving the first hour after an acute MI, with a mortality of 50% to 80% in the first 48 hours. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Which treatments improve outcomes in acute MI? Which treatments improve outcomes for cardiogenic shock after MI? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 52 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, aspirin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, early cardiac surgery, early invasive cardiac revascularisation, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, nitrates (with or without thrombolysis), positive inotropes, primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), pulmonary artery catheterisation, thrombolysis (with or without low molecular weight heparin, with or without unfractionated heparin), vasodilators, and ventricular assistance devices and cardiac transplantation. PMID:21477402

2011-01-01

354

Computational study of anterior communicating artery hemodynamics before aneurysm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that complexity in the flow pattern at the anterior communicating artery (AComA) is associated with the high rate of aneurysm formation in that location observed in large studies. A previous computational hemodynamic study showed a possible association between high maximum intraaneurysmal wall shear stress (WSS) at the systolic peak with rupture in a cohort of AComA aneurysms. In another study it was observed a connection between location of aneurysm blebs and regions of high WSS in models where blebs were virtually removed. However, others reported associations between low WSS and either rupture or blister formation. The purpose of this work is to study associations between hemodynamic patterns and AComA aneurysm initiation by comparing hemodynamics in the aneurysm and the normal model where the aneurysm was computationally removed. Vascular models of both right and left circulation were independently reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography images using deformable models, and fused using a surface merging algorithm. The geometric models were then used to generate high-quality volumetric finite element grids of tetrahedra with an advancing front technique. For each patient, the second anatomical model was created by digitally removing the aneurysm. It was iteratively achieved by applying a Laplacian smoothing filter and remeshing the surface. Finite element blood flow numerical simulations were performed. It was observed that aneurysms initiated in regions of high and moderate WSS in the counterpart normal models. Adjacent or close to those regions, low WSS portions of the arterial wall were not affected by the disease.

Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

2012-03-01

355

Strabismus following implantable anterior intraocular lens surgery.  

PubMed

Strabismus in adults is increasing and has recently become an important focus of attention due to the development of refractive surgery techniques. In this case, permanent strabismus developed in a woman with previous high myopia after implantable anterior intraocular lens surgery. An ophthalmologic examination revealed the presence of a lens which was placed slightly downward in relation to the center of visual axis in the anterior chambers and up-drawn pupils in both eyes. The prismatic effect due to lens decentration may be the main cause of strabismus. Therefore, we suggest precise intraocular lens insertion and placement technique during surgery as well as careful ophthalmologic assessment including cover/uncover tests in all candidates for refractive surgery and full ocular motility evaluation if there is any doubt about binocular issues. PMID:23525958

Park, Kyung Soo; Yim, Jin Ho

2014-02-01

356

[Management of anterior mediastinal masses in adults].  

PubMed

The discovery of an anterior mediastinal mass requires careful management with specific consideration of the pathology. More than 50% of all mediastinal masses seen in adults are in the anterior mediastinum. The most frequent diagnoses are thymoma, lymphoma, teratoma and benign thyroid tumours. 60% of cases are malignant. Often the clinical and radiological findings do not allow a definitive diagnosis and a histological diagnosis is often required to select the optimal treatment modality. The choice of biopsy technique depends on the localization of the lesion, clinical factors, and the availability of special techniques and equipment. Biopsy may be obtained by trans-thoracic puncture under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance, or by a surgical approach (mediastinotomy or thoracoscopy). PMID:22405109

Gonzalez, M; Ris, H-B; Krueger, T; Jayet, P-Y

2012-02-01

357

Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

2014-01-01

358

Motor Vehicle Licences and Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Health standards for truck drivers are higher than those for the general motoring public, particularly concerning the need to restrict driving following recovery from a myocardial infarction. An analysis of risk shows that at most 12 Ontario truckers would develop a fatal recurrence of infarction in any given year, and that most if not all of these would have sufficient warning of the recurrence to stop their vehicle safely. In terms of reducing traffic fatalities, the control of alcohol and drug abuse would be at least two orders more effective than the imposition of restrictions upon patients who have recovered from a myocardial infarction. PMID:20469425

Shephard, Roy J.

1984-01-01

359

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

360

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

361

Brain tissue transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye: 2. Fluorescence histochemistry of immature catecholamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons innervating the rat vas deferens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small pieces of the wall of the rat vas deferens were homologously transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye together with small pieces of embryonic brain stem containing either developing noradrenaline (NA) cells of the locus coeruleus or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons of the developing raphe system. The eyes of the recipients were sympathetically denervated. The double transplants became rapidly

Lars Olson; Åke Seiger

1975-01-01

362

Quadruple hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The use of blunt-threaded titanium interference screws for arthroscopic-assisted fixation of a quadruple-strand hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has recently been reported. However, the pitfalls of the low medial portal technique, rehabilitation protocol, and long-term results have not. The purpose of this multicenter study was to prospectively evaluate this technique's application to ACL instability in symptomatic patients as

Pierce E. Scranton; James E. Bagenstose; Brick A. Lantz; Marc J. Friedman; E. Edward Khalfayan; M. Kevin Auld

2002-01-01

363

Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine and summarize previous retrospective and observational studies assessing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms and to examine such reported ACL injury mechanisms based on ACL loading patterns due to knee loadings reported in in vivo, in vitro, and computer simulation studies. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE from 1950 through 2007 using the key words anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms; anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + retrospective; and anterior cruciate ligament + injury + mechanisms + video analysis. Study Selection: We selected retrospective studies and observational studies that specifically examined the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms (n ?=? 7) and assessed ACL loading patterns in vivo, in vitro, and using computer simulations (n ?=? 33). Data Extraction: The motion patterns reported as noncontact ACL injury mechanisms in retrospective and observational studies were assessed and critically compared with ACL loading patterns measured during applied external or internal (or both) forces or moments to the knee. Data Synthesis: Noncontact ACL injuries are likely to happen during deceleration and acceleration motions with excessive quadriceps contraction and reduced hamstrings co-contraction at or near full knee extension. Higher ACL loading during the application of a quadriceps force when combined with a knee internal rotation moment compared with an external rotation moment was noted. The ACL loading was also higher when a valgus load was combined with internal rotation as compared with external rotation. However, because the combination of knee valgus and external rotation motions may lead to ACL impingement, these combined motions cannot be excluded from the noncontact ACL injury mechanisms. Further, excessive valgus knee loads applied during weight-bearing, decelerating activities also increased ACL loading. Conclusions: The findings from this review lend support to ACL injury prevention programs designed to prevent unopposed excessive quadriceps force and frontal-plane or transverse-plane (or both) moments to the knee and to encourage increased knee flexion angle during sudden deceleration and acceleration tasks. PMID:18668173

Shimokochi, Yohei; Shultz, Sandra J

2008-01-01

364

Symptomatic anterior subtalar arthrosis after ankle arthrodesis.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man reported right lateral heel pain 11 years after ankle arthrodesis. Clinically, there was tenderness in the right sinus tarsi and over the junction point between the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints. Radiographs showed that the joint spaces of the posterior subtalar joint and the talonavicular joint were preserved although there were osteophytes at both joints. Arthroscopic findings showed degeneration of the anterior subtalar and talonavicular joints. The symptoms subsided after arthroscopic debridement. PMID:24825553

Lui, Tun Hing

2014-01-01

365

Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22474639

Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Griffith, James Francis; Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Paunipagar, Bhawan; Law, Billy Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick Shu Hang

2011-01-01

366

Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm. PMID:8505649

Beri?, A; Light, J K

1993-01-01

367

Anterior Approach for Difficult Major Right Hepatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In selected patients with huge right hepatic tumors that had infiltrated the surrounding structures, injudicious\\u000a mobilization of the liver before transection, as in the conventional manner, may result in excessive bleeding, prolonged ischemia\\u000a from rotation of the hepatoduodenal ligament, and spillage of cancer cells into the systemic circulation. Alternatively, the\\u000a “anterior” approach, which involves initial completion of the parenchymal

Edward C. S. Lai; Sheung-Tat Fan; Chung-Mau Lo; Kent-Man Chu; Chi-Leung Liu

1996-01-01

368

Changes in Anterior Chamber Configuration after Cataract Surgery as Measured by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and angle width induced by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in normal eyes using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods Forty-five eyes (45 patients) underwent AS-OCT imaging to evaluate anterior chamber configuration before and 2 days after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. We analyzed the central ACD and angle width using different methods: anterior chamber angle (ACA), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), angle opening distance (AOD), and trabecular iris surface area (TISA) in the nasal and temporal quadrants. Comparison between preoperative and postoperative measurement was done using paired t-tests and each of the angle parameters was analyzed with Pearson correlation testing. Subgroup analyses according to the IOL and axial length were performed with a general multivariate linear model adjusted for age. Results Before surgery, the mean anterior chamber angle widths were 23.21 ± 6.70° in the nasal quadrant and 24.89 ± 7.66° in the temporal quadrant. The mean central ACD was 2.75 ± 0.43 mm. After phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, the anterior chamber angle width increased significantly to 35.16 ± 4.65° in the nasal quadrant (p = 0.001) and 36.03 ± 4.86° in the temporal quadrant (p = 0.001). Also, central ACD increased to 4.14 ± 0.31 mm (p = 0.001). AOD, TISA, and TIA increased significantly after cataract surgery and showed positive correlation with ACA. Conclusions After cataract surgery, the ACD and angle width significantly increased in eyes with cataract. AS-OCT is a good method for obtaining quantitative data regarding anterior chamber configuration. PMID:21461218

Kim, Martha; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Dong Myung

2011-01-01

369

LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification.  

PubMed

In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm(2) between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm(2) between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients. PMID:22968138

Kadir, K; Gao, H; Payne, A; Soraghan, J; Berry, C

2012-10-01

370

Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS) after cataract surgery and investigate the cause. Materials and methods In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively. Results Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent. Conclusion TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. PMID:25336907

Cetinkaya, Servet; Dadaci, Zeynep; Aksoy, Hüsamettin; Acir, Nursen Oncel; Yener, Halil Ibrahim; Kadioglu, Ekrem

2014-01-01

371

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a neglected therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In patients with MI, the treatment of choice for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). However, the process of reperfusion can itself induce cardiomyocyte death, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. A number of new therapeutic strategies currently under investigation for preventing myocardial reperfusion injury have the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI treated with PPCI. PMID:23281415

Hausenloy, Derek J.; Yellon, Derek M.

2013-01-01

372

Extragenital aggressive angiomyxoma of the axilla and the chest wall.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxomas are uncommon mesenchymal tumours which most often arise in the perineal and the pelvic regions in women. Extragenital aggressive angiomyxonas are extremely rare. We are reporting a young male with an aggressive angiomyxoma which involved the axillary region and extended into the anterior chest wall, which demonstrated its characteristic histomorphological features. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A careful histological examination, along with immunohistochemistry, aids in diagnosing this lesion and differentiating it from tumours which have similar histologies. PMID:23730656

Nayal, Bhavna; Rao, Lakshmi; Rao, Anuradha C K; Sharma, Swati; Shenoy, Rajgopal

2013-04-01

373

An effective technique to correct anterior mitral leaflet prolapse.  

PubMed

Up to one-third of the patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and severe mitral regurgitation have anterior mitral valve prolapse due to chordal rupture or elongation. Surgical treatment of such a condition is often technically demanding and not infrequently associated with suboptimal results. Techniques used to treat anterior leaflet prolapse include chordal transfer, chordal shortening, artificial chordae, and anterior leaflet resection or plication. Each of these strategies has potential shortcomings, and there is considerable controversy concerning the durability of anterior leaflet prolapse repairs using these techniques. The "edge-to-edge" technique, a simple and effective method of correcting anterior mitral leaflet prolapse is described. PMID:11021374

Alfieri, O; Maisano, F

1999-01-01

374

Fabrication of Cardiac Patch with Decellularized Porcine Myocardial Scaffold and Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineered cardiac grafts are a promising therapeutic mode for ventricular wall reconstruction. Recently, it has been found that acellular tissue scaffolds provide natural ultrastructural, mechanical, and compositional cues for recellularization and tissue remodeling. We thus assess the potential of decellularized porcine myocardium as a scaffold for thick cardiac patch tissue engineering. Myocardial sections with 2 mm thickness were decellularized using 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and then reseeded with differentiated bone marrow mononuclear cells. We found that thorough decellularization could be achieved after 2.5 weeks treatment. Reseeded cells were found to infiltrate and proliferate in the tissue constructs. Immunohistological staining studies showed that the reseeded cells maintained cardiomyocyte-like phenotype and possible endothelialization was found in locations close to vasculature channels, indicating angiogenesis potential. Both biaxial and uniaxial mechanical testing showed a stiffer mechanical response of the acellular myocardial scaffolds; however, tissue extensibility and tensile modulus were found to recover in the constructs along with the culture time, as expected from increased cellular content. The cardiac patch that we envision for clinical application will benefit from the natural architecture of myocardial extracellular matrix, which has the potential to promote stem cell differentiation, cardiac regeneration, and angiogenesis. PMID:20694977

Wang, Bo; Borazjani, Ali; Tahai, Mina; de Jongh Curry, Amy L.; Simionescu, Dan T.; Guan, Jianjun; To, Filip; Elder, Steve H.; Liao, Jun

2010-01-01

375

Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of mechanical stiffness propagation in myocardial tissue.  

PubMed

Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been shown to be capable of imaging local myocardial stiffness changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Expanding on these results, the authors present experiments using cardiac ARFI imaging to visualize and quantify the propagation of mechanical stiffness during ventricular systole. In vivo ARFI images of the left ventricular free wall of two exposed canine hearts were acquired. Images were formed while the heart was externally paced by one of two electrodes positioned on the epicardial surface and either side of the imaging plane. Two-line M-mode ARFI images were acquired at a sampling frequency of 120 Hz while the heart was paced from an external stimulating electrode. Two-dimensional ARFI images were also acquired, and an average propagation velocity across the lateral field of view was calculated. Directions and speeds of myocardial stiffness propagation were measured and compared with the propagations derived from the local electrocardiogram (ECG), strain, and tissue velocity measurements estimated during systole. In all ARFI images, the direction of myocardial stiffness propagation was seen to be away from the stimulating electrode and occurred with similar velocity magnitudes in either direction. When compared with the local epicardial ECG, the mechanical stiffness waves were observed to travel in the same direction as the propagating electrical wave and with similar propagation velocities. In a comparison between ARFI, strain, and tissue velocity imaging, the three methods also yielded similar propagation velocities. PMID:22972912

Hsu, Stephen J; Byram, Brett C; Bouchard, Richard R; Dumont, Douglas M; Wolf, Patrick D; Trahey, Gregg E

2012-07-01

376

Imaging Three-Dimensional Myocardial Mechanics Using Navigator-gated Volumetric Spiral Cine DENSE MRI  

PubMed Central

A navigator-gated 3D spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) pulse sequence for imaging 3D myocardial mechanics was developed. In addition, previously-described 2D post-processing algorithms including phase unwrapping, tissue tracking, and strain tensor calculation for the left ventricle (LV) were extended to 3D. These 3D methods were evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers, using 2D cine DENSE and historical 3D myocardial tagging as reference standards. With an average scan time of 20.5 ± 5.7 minutes, 3D data sets with a matrix size of 128 × 128 × 22, voxel size of 2.8 × 2.8 × 5.0 mm3, and temporal resolution of 32 ms were obtained with displacement encoding in three orthogonal directions. Mean values for end-systolic mid-ventricular mid-wall radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain were 0.33 ± 0.10, ?0.17 ± 0.02, and ?0.16 ± 0.02, respectively. Transmural strain gradients were detected in the radial and circumferential directions, reflecting high spatial resolution. Good agreement by linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis was achieved when comparing normal strains measured by 2D and 3D cine DENSE. Also, the 3D strains, twist, and torsion results obtained by 3D cine DENSE were in good agreement with historical values measured by 3D myocardial tagging. PMID:20574967

Zhong, Xiaodong; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Meyer, Craig H.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Epstein, Frederick H.

2010-01-01

377

Intracoronary and Retrograde Coronary Venous Myocardial Delivery of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Swine Infarction Lead to Transient Myocardial Trapping with Predominant Pulmonary Redistribution  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the comparative fate of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well as their impact on coronary microcirculation following either retrograde coronary venous or arterial delivery. Background Local delivery of ASCs to the heart has been proposed as a practical approach to limiting the extent of myocardial infarction. Mouse models of mesenchymal stem cell effects on the heart have also demonstrated significant benefits from systemic (intravenous) delivery, prompting a question about the advantage of local delivery. There has been no study addressing the extent of myocardial vs. systemic disposition of ASCs in large animal models following local delivery to the myocardium. Methods In an initial experiment, dose-dependent effects of ASC delivery on coronary circulation in normal swine were evaluated to establish a tolerable ASC dosing range for intracoronary delivery. In a set of subsequent experiments, an anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was created by balloon occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, followed by either intracoronary (IC) or retrograde coronary venous (RCV) infusion of 107 111Indium-labeled autologous ASCs 6 days following AMI. Indices of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were measured before sacrifices to collect tissues for analysis at 1 or 24 hours after cell delivery. Results IC delivery of porcine ASCs to normal myocardium was well-tolerated up to a cumulative dose of 14×106 cells (approximately 0.5×106 cells/kg). There was evidence suggesting microcirculatory trapping of ASC: at unit doses of 50×106 ASCs, IMR and CFR were found to be persistently altered in the target LAD distribution at 7 days following delivery, while at 10×106 ASCs, only CFR was altered. In the context of recent MI, a significantly higher percentage of ASCs was retained at 1 hour with IC delivery compared to RCV delivery (57.2 ± 12.7% vs. 17.9 ± 1.6%, p=0.037) but this initial difference was not apparent at 24 hours (22.6 ± 5.5% vs. 18.7 ± 8.6%; p= 0.722). In both approaches, most ASC redistributed to the pulmonary circulation by 24 hours post-delivery. There were no significant differences in CFR or IMR following ASC delivery to infarcted tissue by either route. Conclusions Selective intravascular delivery of ASC by coronary arterial and venous routes leads to similarly limited myocardial cell retention with predominant redistribution of cells to the lungs. Intracoronary arterial delivery of ASC leads to only transiently greater myocardial retention, which is accompanied by obstruction of normal regions of coronary microcirculation at higher doses. The predominant intrapulmonary localization of cells following local delivery via both methods prompts the notion that systemic delivery of ASC might provide similarly beneficial outcomes while avoiding risks of inadvertent microcirculatory compromise. PMID:22972685

Hong, Soon Jun; Hou, Dongming; Brinton, Todd J.; Johnstone, Brian; Feng, Dongni; Rogers, Pamela; Fearon, William F.; Yock, Paul; March, Keith L.

2012-01-01

378

MyocardialT1 mapping: Application to patients with acute and chronic myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

T 1 maps obtained with modified Look-Locker inversion recov- ery (MOLLI) can be used to measure myocardialT 1 . We aimed to evaluate the potential of MOLLIT 1 mapping for the assessment of acute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 24 patients with a first MI underwent MRI within 8 days and after 6 months.T 1 mapping was

Daniel R. Messroghli; Kevin Walters; Sven Plein; Patrick Sparrow; Matthias G. Friedrich; John P. Ridgway; Mohan U. Sivananthan

2007-01-01

379

Inducible myocardial ischaemia diagnosed using computed tomography dipyridamole stress myocardial perfusion technique.  

PubMed

Improved multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) temporal and spatial resolution allows for the assessment of coronary artery disease, left ventricular systolic function and resting myocardial perfusion defects with high sensitivity and specificity. Here we present a case using a novel combination technique of cardiac computed tomography scanning with dipyridamole stress for the detection of functionally significant coronary disease, and demonstrate that dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischaemia is both detectable and quantifiable by cardiac MDCT. PMID:22883653

Jabbour, Andrew; Boshell, David; Sesel, Kenneth; Silverstone, Elizabeth; Muller, David; Stirrup, James; Rubens, Michael; Hayward, Christopher S; Wright, Susan P

2012-08-01

380

Halogenation of microcapsule walls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

1972-01-01

381

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

382

Perioperative tissue Doppler echocardiography and bypass graft flowmetry in patients undergoing coronary revascularization: predictive power for late recovery of regional myocardial function.  

PubMed

To assess if recovery of regional myocardial function can be predicted by perioperative Doppler tissue echocariography, 20 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (mean 4.1 grafts) had serial transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Systolic velocities were lower in basal posterior and anterior segments, and higher in the midanterior septum, at intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography compared with preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (-45%, -30%, +18%, respectively), but comparable elsewhere. After bypass, velocities were increased in midposterior, basal lateral, basal anterior, and midanterior septal segments (+41%, 25%, 27%, 44%, respectively, P <.05). Increased velocities in circumflex segments at 6 weeks (midposterior, basal lateral, and midlateral +54%, 45%, 39%, respectively, P <.05) were not predicted by perioperative changes or related to graft flow (transit-time flowmetry; R -0.09, -0.14, and -0.32, respectively, not significant). Myocardial velocities measured by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are not comparable in segments with different angles of insonation. Perioperative changes in resting myocardial systolic velocity are highly variable and do not predict late recovery. PMID:12411906

Williams, R Ian; Haaverstad, Rune; Sianos, Georgios; Vourvouri, Eleni; Fraser, Alan G

2002-10-01

383

Occurrence of oxidative stress during myocardial reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reperfusion, without doubt, is the most effective way to treat the ischaemic myocardium. Late reperfusion may however cause further damage. Myocardial production of oxygen free radicals above the neutralizing capacity of the myocytes is an important cause of this reperfusion damage. There is evidence that prolonged ischaemia reduces the naturally occurring defence mechanisms of the heart against oxygen free radicals,

R. Ferrari; C. Ceconi; S. Curello; A. Cargnoni; F. Giuli; O. Visioli

1992-01-01

384

Aortic valve replacement with combined myocardial revascularisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early and late outcome was studied in 630 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement between 1974 and 1982. Group 1 (506 patients) did not have important coronary artery disease, group 2 (69 patients) had coronary artery disease and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, and group 3 (55 patients) had coronary artery disease but did not undergo myocardial revascularisation. Early mortality

M Jones; P M Schofield; N H Brooks; J F Dark; H Moussalli; A K Deiraniya; R A Lawson; A N Rahman

1989-01-01

385

Myocardial ischemic protection in natural mammalian hibernation.  

PubMed

Hibernating myocardium is an important clinical syndrome protecting the heart with chronic myocardial ischemia, named for its assumed resemblance to hibernating mammals in winter. However, the effects of myocardial ischemic protection have never been studied in true mammalian hibernation, which is a unique strategy for surviving extreme winter environmental stress. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that ischemic stress may also be protected in woodchucks as they hibernate in winter. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion in naturally hibernating woodchucks in winter with and without hibernation and in summer, when not hibernating. The ischemic area at risk was similar among groups. Myocardial infarction was significantly less in woodchucks in winter, whether hibernating or not, compared with summer, and was similar to that resulting after ischemic preconditioning. Whereas several genes were up or downregulated in both hibernating woodchuck and with ischemic preconditioning, one mechanism was unique to hibernation, i.e., activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). When CREB was upregulated in summer, it induced protection similar to that observed in the woodchuck heart in winter. The cardioprotection in hibernation was also mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, rather than inducible nitric oxide synthase. Thus, the hibernating woodchuck heart is a novel model to study cardioprotection for two major reasons: (1) powerful cardioprotection occurs naturally in winter months in the absence of any preconditioning stimuli, and (2) it resembles ischemic preconditioning, but with novel mechanisms, making this model potentially useful for clinical translation. PMID:25613166

Yan, Lin; Kudej, Raymond K; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F

2015-03-01

386

Circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism and function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Circadian rhythms in myocardial function and dysfunction are firmly established in both animal models and humans. For example, the incidence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death increases when organisms awaken. Such observations have classically been explained by circadian rhythms in neurohumoral...

387

Rehabilitation of Patients Following Myocardial Infarction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three behavioral strategies in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for formal treatment for physical and psychosocial sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI): exercise therapy, Type A modification, and nonspecific psychological therapies. Concludes CR improves the quality of life among post-MI patients, but does not prolong life or significantly…

Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.

1988-01-01

388

Myocardial hypertrophy in rats with renal insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial hypertrophy in rats with renal insufficiency. Increased defatted dry wt of the heart and increased heart calcium content were observed in subtotally nephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats compared with sham-operated pairfed controls. Increased heart wt contrasted with no change of the weight of viscera (liver, spleen) and markedly decreased weight of striated muscle. Heart wt was unchanged after 5 days

Michael Rambausek; Eberhard Ritz; Gerhard Mall; Otto Mehls; Hugo Katus

1985-01-01

389

Aldosterone and Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac fibroblasts are known to have high affinity corticoid receptors for aldosterone and account for the accumulation of collagen within the interstitium of the rat myocardium in acquired and genetic hypertension. This interstitial fibrosis is an important determinant of pathologic hypertrophy in chronic heart failure. To examine the relationship between aldosterone and myocardial fibrosis, collagen volume fraction of the left

Christian G. Brilla

2000-01-01

390

Acute myocardial infarction and Kounis syndrome.  

PubMed

Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell activation including allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction associated with an allergic reaction in a 73-year-old Italian woman with recent implantation of stents. PMID:18378025

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Chiofalo, Sebastiano; Currò, Alessio; Coglitore, Sebastiano

2009-05-15

391

Recurrent acute myocardial infarction and Kounis syndrome.  

PubMed

Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell activation including allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We present a case of recurrent acute myocardial infarction associated with an allergic reaction in an 83-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19144425

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Currò, Alessio; Cimino, Claudia

2010-07-01

392

Treatment seeking in women with myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined factors thought to influence illness-related treatment-seeking behaviors in women with Myocardial Infarction (MI). Early treatment for MI reduces morbidity and mortality but time to treatment has not decreased in the past fifteen years and remains longer for females than males. Much of the prior research on treatment seeking in MI has occurred with males, and knowledge

Elizabeth A Roe

2006-01-01

393

Illness perception and fatigue after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) has undergone major advances in recent years, including reductions in mortality and hospital stays. To optimize patients' recovery, secondary preventive strategies are important. However, many patients fail to attend to such programmes. It has been shown that illness perceptions may influence attendance to rehabilitation programmes as well as recovery. Other obstacles are post-MI fatigue and

Pia Alsén

2009-01-01

394

Estimating myocardial fiber orientations by template warping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial fiber orientations are an important element for ac- curate modeling of cardiac electromechanics. However it is extremely difficult to estimate these directly in vivo with cur- rent imaging techniques. Most current methods for cardiac modeling use synthetic models of fiber orientation which may fail to capture subtle variations of fiber orientations in differ- ent hearts. We present a method

Hari Sundar; Dinggang Shen; George Biros; Harold Litt; Christos Davatzikos

2006-01-01

395

Regional myocardial velocity imaged by magnetic resonance in patients with ischaemic heart disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the pattern of global and regional left ventricular long axis motion during early diastole in patients with ischaemic heart disease with and without myocardial infarction using magnetic resonance velocity mapping. DESIGN--Prospective study of 26 patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age 29-78, mean 55 years) and 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction (age range 39-71, mean 58 years). Values were compared with a control group (19 controls, age 35-76, mean 52 years) with a low likelihood of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Regional long axis velocity varied with time and position around the ventricle. All measurements were taken at the time of maximum early diastolic long axis velocity. Patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had lower values for maximum (mean (SD)) (99 (30) v 125 (33) mm/s, P < 0.05) and mean peak early diastolic wall motion (63 (13) v 82 (22) mm/s, P < 0.05) than controls. The coefficient of variation showed greater inhomogeneity of relaxation in patients than in controls (38 (18)% v 27 (10)%). All values were lower in patients with previous infarction than in patients with coronary artery disease without infarction and normal subjects. In patients with previous myocardial infarction the maximum (mean (SD)) early diastolic velocity was 80 (22) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls and P < 0.05 compared with patients without infarction) and the mean (SD) velocity was 47 (18) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls). The coefficient of variation was greater (52 (33)%) than for controls (P < 0.05) and patients with coronary artery disease without infarction. 18 of 26 patients with previous myocardial infarction and 13 of 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had regional abnormalities corresponding to areas of fixed or reversible ischaemia on exercise electrocardiography or thallium myocardial perfusion tomography. CONCLUSIONS--Magnetic resonance velocity mapping can be used to assess regional long axis myocardial velocity. Ischaemic heart disease causes alterations in the patterns of left ventricular long axis velocity during early diastole. Images PMID:7833190

Karwatowski, S P; Mohiaddin, R H; Yang, G Z; Firmin, D N; St John Sutton, M; Underwood, S R

1994-01-01

396

Anterior neck lipoma with anterior mediastinal extention - a rare case report.  

PubMed

Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumour. Thirteen percent of lipomas are seen in head and neck region. Anterior neck lipoma is a rare one. Anterior neck lipoma with mediastinal extension is extremely rare. We are presenting a case of 52 years old male reported to Central Referral Hospital, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim with complains of swelling in left side of neck for last 18 months along with occasional history of dyspnoea. Physical examination, ultrasound, computed tomography and fine needle aspiration cytology are in favor of lipoma. Due to its location up to the anterior mediastinum, the surgery could not be done in this hospital and patient was referred to higher center having cardiothoracic surgical back up. PMID:23774423

Sharma, B K; Khanna, S K; Bharati, M; Gupta, A

2013-01-01

397

[Prehospital thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

The extent of myocardial damage occurring during acute myocardial infarction is time dependent, and there is abundant evidence from most clinical trials that mortality reduction is greatest in patients treated early with thrombolytic agents, although beneficial effects have been shown with treatment initiated up to 12 h after onset of symptoms. All studies on prehospital thrombolysis have conclusively shown the practicability and safety of patient selection and administration of the thrombolytic agent. The accuracy of diagnosis in the prehospital setting was comparable to trials of in-hospital thrombolysis, e.g., in the Myocardial Infarction Triage and Intervention Project (MITI) 98% of the patients enrolled had subsequent evidence of acute myocardial infarction. With regard to time savings, all randomized studies showed positive results. The smallest time gain was observed in the MITI trial: prehospital-treated patients received thrombolytic therapy an average of 33 min earlier than those treated in hospital. In the European Myocardial Infarction Project (EMIP) the difference in time between prehospital and hospital treatment was a median of 55 min. However, none of these trials was able to show a significant short-term mortality difference between the two groups. Only a meta analysis of five randomized studies with a combined median time gain of about 60 min showed a significant 17% reduction in short-term mortality for patients who received thrombolytic therapy in the prehospital phase. In the Grampian Region Early Anistreplase Trial (GREAT), a study performed in a more rural area than other studies, the time gain by prehospital initiation of thrombolysis was a median of 130 min. GREAT was the only study to date reporting a significant mortality benefit for prehospital-treated patients after 3 months and 1 year. In conclusion, prehospital thrombolysis is feasible and safe. Patients with acute myocardial infarction can be correctly identified and treated with thrombolytic agents in the prehospital setting with the same rate of complications as expected for in-hospital thrombolysis, provided basic resuscitation equipment including a defibrillator is available. The results of randomized studies comparing the results of prehospital and in-hospital thrombolysis seem to justify the prehospital institution of thrombolytic therapy, especially in rural areas where transport times to the hospital are long and the expected time gain is largest. The choice of the thrombolytic agent seems to be of minor importance and should follow prehospital practicability (bolus injection) and costs. Aspirin should be given to all prehospital patients with suspected myocardial infarction regardless of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:9424965

Carlsson, J; Schuster, H P; Tebbe, U

1997-10-01

398

The Acellular Myocardial Flap: A Novel Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Enriched with Patent Microvascular Networks and Biocompatible Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

There is a great need for acellular, fully vascularized, and biocompatible myocardial scaffolds that provide agreeable biological, nutritional, and biomechanical niches for reseeded cells for in vitro and in vivo applications. We generated myocardial flap scaffolds comprising porcine left-anterior ventricular myocardium and its associated coronary arteries and veins and investigated the combinatorial effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) perfusion on both the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) and the vascular ECM. Results showed that all scaffolds displayed a fully intact and patent vasculature, with arterial burst pressures indistinguishable from native coronary arteries and perfusion to the level of capillaries. Scaffolds were free of cellular proteins and retained collagen and elastin ECM components, exhibited excellent mechanical properties, and were cytocompatible toward relevant seeded cells. SDS perfusion preserved collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin well, but only reduced DNA content by 33%; however, this was further improved by post-SDS nuclease treatments. By comparison, NaOH was very effective in removing cells and eliminated more than 95% of tissue DNA, but also significantly reduced levels of laminin and fibronectin. Such constructs can be readily trimmed to match the size of the infarct and might be able to functionally integrate within host myocardium and be nourished by direct anastomotic connection with the host's own vasculature; they might also be useful as physiologically accurate models for in vitro studies of cardiac physiology and pathology. PMID:23151037

Schulte, Jason B.; Simionescu, Agneta

2013-01-01

399

Time-Course of the Effects of QSYQ in Promoting Heart Function in Ameroid Constrictor-Induced Myocardial Ischemia Pigs  

PubMed Central

We aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of QSYQ on a pig myocardial ischemia (MI) model and to determine its mechanism of action. The MI model was induced by Ameroid constriction of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) in Ba-Ma miniature pigs. Four groups were created: model group, digoxin group, QSYQ group, and sham-operated group. Heart function, Ang II, CGMP, TXB2, BNP, and cTnT were evaluated before (3 weeks after operation: 0 weeks) and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after drug administration. After 8 weeks of administration, the pigs were sacrificed for cardiac injury measurements. Pigs with MI showed obvious histological changes, including BNP, cTnT, Ang II, CGRP, TXB2, and ET, deregulated heart function, and increased levels of apoptotic cells in myocardial tissue. Treatment with QSYQ improved cardiac remodeling by counteracting those events. The administration of QSYQ was accompanied by a restoration of heart function and of the levels of Ang II, CGRP, TXB2, ET BNP, and cTnT. In addition, QSYQ attenuated administration, reduced the apoptosis, and decreased the level of TNF-? and active caspase-3. In conclusion, administration of QSYQ could attenuate Ameroid constrictor induced myocardial ischemia, and TNF-? and active caspase-3 seemed to be the critical potential target of QSYQ. PMID:24817898

Qiu, Qi; Lin, Yang; Xiao, Cheng; Li, Chun; Wang, Yong; Yang, Kexu; Suo, Wei; Li, Yu; Chuo, Wenjing; Wei, Yongxiang; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

400