Science.gov

Sample records for anthracinus coleoptera carabidae

  1. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  2. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  3. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  4. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  5. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  6. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  7. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  8. Taxonomic review of Cratocerus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Grzymala, Traci L.; Will, Kipling W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A diagnosis of the South and Central American genus Cratocerus Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and a key to all species is provided. Eight species are recognized including six species that are newly described: Cratocerus sinesetosus sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; Cratocerus multisetosus sp. n. from Costa Rica and Panama; Cratocerus tanyae sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico; Cratocerus indupalmensis sp. n. a species widely distributed throughout Central and South America; Cratocerus kavanaughi sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; and Cratocerus culpepperi sp. n. from Peru. A lectotype for Cratocerus sulcatus Chaudoir is designated. Habitus images are provided along with illustrations and images of male genitalia, female genitalia, and diagnostic morphological characters. PMID:25061348

  9. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  10. Development and characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in Bembidion atrocaeruleum (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Matt J; Finn, Debra S; Williams, Mike; Sadler, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    We isolated seven polymorphic microsatellite loci from a ground beetle (Bembidion atrocaeruleum, Coleoptera, Carabidae (Stephens, 1826)) associated with naturally and regularly disturbed floodplain habitat in northwest Europe. Loci were tested on 157 individuals collected from five distinct habitat patches across two adjacent drainage basins in Wales, United Kingdom, to assess their potential for revealing population structure across a relatively short spatial extent. Alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12. For a central representative population, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 (mean: 0.63), and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.16 to 0.94 (mean: 0.56). Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant structure among populations, even when one locus potentially containing null alleles was removed. These loci have the potential to aid the study of dispersal mechanisms of this important riparian species along and between river corridors, a recurring question in floodplain conservation studies. In addition, given the diversity of the Bembidion genus, they may have utility in the study of sister species. PMID:25502039

  11. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  12. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. PMID:26314050

  13. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  14. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  15. A synopsis of the genus Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Anthiini) known to occur in the Republic of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are illustrated and information about the distribution of each species in the Republic of South Africa is summarized and mapped: Cypholoba alstoni (Péringuey), Cypholoba alveolata (Brême), Cypholoba amatonga Péringuey, Cypholoba fritschi (Chaudoir), Cypholoba gracilis gracilis (Dejean), Cypholoba gracilis scrobiculata (Bertoloni), Cypholoba gracilis zuluana Basilewsky, Cypholoba graphipteroides graphipteroides (Guérin-Méneville), Cypholoba leucospilota semilaevis (Chaudoir), Cypholoba macilenta (Olivier), Cypholoba notata (Perroud), Cypholoba oberthueri seruana Strohmeyer, Cypholoba opulenta (Boheman), Cypholoba rutata (Péringuey), and Cypholoba tenuicollis aenigma (Dohrn). PMID:22539909

  16. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  17. New morphological aspects and phylogenetic considerations of Cicindis Bruch (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindini).

    PubMed

    Roig-Juñent, S; Sallenave, S; Agrain, F A

    2011-01-01

    Cicindis Bruch is a monospecific genus of carabid beetles endemic to Argentina. In this contribution, Cicindis horni Bruch is re-described, with addition of new morphological features of male internal sac, female genital tract and elytral closure. New information on the species' habitat and distribution is also provided. The phylogenetic placement and relationships of Cicindis within the family Carabidae are discussed on the basis of a cladistic analysis. Terminal taxa included representatives of all subfamilies of Carabidae and supertribes of Carabinae, with a major sampling of those taxa considered to be closely related to Cicindini by previous authors. The phylogenetic analysis shows the basal position of Cicindis in a clade that includes Ozaeninae, Omophronini, Scaritinae and Conjuncta. A close relationship of Cicindis with Ozaenini + Metriini is supported by the particular closure of the procoxa and the ventral position of the oviduct with respect to the spermatheca. PMID:21710030

  18. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, and Dytiscidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Dineutus assimilis Kirby and Dineutus discolor Aubé of the Family Gyrinidae are newly reported from New Brunswick, Canada. Four species of Carabidae, Agonum (Agonum) piceolum (LeConte), Bembidion (Pseudoperyphus) rufotinctum Chaudoir, Harpalus (Harpalus) opacipennis (Haldeman), and Pterostichus (Melanius) castor Goulet & Bousquet are newly reported from New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces, and one species of Dytiscidae, Liodessus noviaffinis Miller, is newly recorded for the province. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for each species. PMID:22539881

  19. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems. PMID:23786053

  20. Seasonality of Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) and its host Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain.

    PubMed

    Zerm, Matthias; Adis, Joachim

    2004-05-01

    Terrestrial invertebrates in central Amazonian floodplains must cope with annual long-term inundation. Parasites should be affected mainly indirectly through the specific life-cycles of their hosts. We studied the temporal structure of a beetle-fungus system at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain (Rio Negro, Brazil). The host species Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) showed a seasonal, univoltine life-cycle triggered by the annual flood pulse. Infestation frequency of its fungal parasite, Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales), varied seasonally. However, the seasonality was opposed in host and parasite: the lowest infestation frequencies were observed during periods of highest beetle abundance and vice versa. Periods of lowest beetle abundance coincided with the end of the old generation, those with highest abundance with the appearance of new adults. The resulting annual patterns of a slow spread in the host population resembled the few records of temporal patterns from temperate regions. It is explicitly demonstrated that older adult female beetles are more frequently infested than younger ones. Future studies may reveal whether this is simply the result of specific host life-cycles (driven by a flood pulse, winter, or other factors), or might also be related to potentially easier infestation in older individuals. PMID:15230009

  1. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species. PMID:26959639

  2. Generalist predators (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) associated with millipede populations in sweet potato and carrot fields and implications for millipede management.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Bahlai, Christine A; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-08-01

    The predatory beetle assemblage of Ontario carrot and sweet potato fields was described and assessed to identify species of interest to the control of the emerging pest millipede Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus (Wood) (Diplopoda: Julidae). Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was identified as a dominant species, and seven other carabid species [Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer), Ophonus puncticeps (Stephens), H. erraticus Say, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum Say, Poecilus chalcites (Say), Scarites subterraneus Fabricius, and Pterostichus permundus (Say)] were identified as common species on the basis of activity density. Common species became more abundant as the growing season progressed. In laboratory bioassays, P. melanarius preyed on millipedes regardless of prey size, whereas H. erraticus never selected millipedes as prey. A significant positive spatiotemporal relationship was found between P. melanarius and C. caeruleocinctus in sweet potato fields. P. melanarius was found to be a natural enemy of C. caeruleocinctus, and other common carabid species warrant future study. The role of Staphylinidae in millipede control could not be elucidated, likely because of low trapping efficiency. Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, an introduced staphylinid from Europe, was newly recorded in Ontario, extending its North American range considerably westward from the province of Quebec. The results of this study are an important foundational step toward developing a successful integrated pest management strategy for controlling millipede damage in crops. PMID:19689889

  3. Resolution of taxonomic problems in Australian Harpalini, Abacetini, Pterostichini, and Oodini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Will, Kipling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Taxonomic changes are made for several problematic Australian Carabidae in the tribes Harpalini, Abacetini, Pterostichini, and Oodini. Examination of types resulted in the synonymy of Veradia Castelnau, 1867 with Leconomerus Chaudoir, 1850; Nelidus Chaudoir, 1878, Feronista Moore, 1965, and Australomasoreus Baehr, 2007 with Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and newly combining Fouquetius variabilis Straneo, 1960 in the genus Pediomorphus Chaudoir, 1878; Australomasoreus monteithi Baehr, 2007 in the genus Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and Anatrichis lilliputana W.J. Macleay, 1888 in the genus Nanodiodes Bousquet, 1996. Cuneipectus Sloane, 1907 is placed in Pterostichini Bonelli, 1810, which is a senior synonym of Cuneipectini Sloane, 1907. PMID:26798299

  4. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  5. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2015-01-01

    The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai'i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n

  6. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax

  7. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our

  8. An Unprecedented Role Reversal: Ground Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Lure Amphibians and Prey upon Them

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Amphibians often feed on beetle larvae, including those of ground beetles (Carabidae). Preliminary reports have detailed an unusual trophic interaction in which, in contrast, larvae of the ground beetle Epomis prey upon juvenile and adult amphibians. While it is known that these larvae feed exclusively on amphibians, how the predator-prey encounter occurs to the advantage of the beetle larvae had been unknown to date. Using laboratory observations and controlled experiments, we recorded the feeding behavior of Epomis larvae, as well as the behavior of their amphibian prey. Here we reveal that larvae of two species of Epomis (E. circumscriptus and E. dejeani) lure their potential predator, taking advantage of the amphibian's predation behavior. The Epomis larva combines a sit-and-wait strategy with unique movements of its antennae and mandibles to draw the attention of the amphibian to the presence of a potential prey. The intensity of this enticement increases with decreasing distance between the larva and the amphibian. When the amphibian attacks, the larva almost always manages to avoid the predator's protracted tongue, exploiting the opportunity to attach itself to the amphibian's body and initiate feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophic interaction between Epomis larvae and amphibians is one of the only natural cases of obligatory predator-prey role reversal. Moreover, this interaction involves a small insect larva that successfully lures and preys on a larger vertebrate. Such role reversal is exceptional in the animal world, extending our perspective of co-evolution in the arms race between predator and prey, and suggesting that counterattack defense behavior has evolved into predator-prey role reversal. PMID:21957480

  9. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  10. Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin

  11. Characterizing DNA preservation in degraded specimens of Amara alpina (Carabidae: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Heintzman, Peter D; Elias, Scott A; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Barnes, Ian

    2014-05-01

    DNA preserved in degraded beetle (Coleoptera) specimens, including those derived from dry-stored museum and ancient permafrost-preserved environments, could provide a valuable resource for researchers interested in species and population histories over timescales from decades to millenia. However, the potential of these samples as genetic resources is currently unassessed. Here, using Sanger and Illumina shotgun sequence data, we explored DNA preservation in specimens of the ground beetle Amara alpina, from both museum and ancient environments. Nearly all museum specimens had amplifiable DNA, with the maximum amplifiable fragment length decreasing with age. Amplification of DNA was only possible in 45% of ancient specimens. Preserved mitochondrial DNA fragments were significantly longer than those of nuclear DNA in both museum and ancient specimens. Metagenomic characterization of extracted DNA demonstrated that parasite-derived sequences, including Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, are recoverable from museum beetle specimens. Ancient DNA extracts contained beetle DNA in amounts comparable to museum specimens. Overall, our data demonstrate that there is great potential for both museum and ancient specimens of beetles in future genetic studies, and we see no reason why this would not be the case for other orders of insect. PMID:24266987

  12. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Wesley M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini) is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate) at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are. This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera) rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.). Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included. PMID:23653501

  13. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  14. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3–4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23–42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat “coiled” apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  15. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  16. Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lebia species number over 450 and the genus is cosmopolitan, with 47 in North America. Adults typically seek prey in plant canopies, and all known larvae are ectoparasitoids of chrysomelid beetle pupae, yet only 2 species’ hosts have been documented in North America. Lebia grandis is a predator an...

  17. Functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Nachappa, Punya; Braman, S K; Guillebeau, L P; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    The functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was determined on adult twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), and fourth instars of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in single-prey and two-prey systems. In the laboratory, M. carolina carolina demonstrated a type II functional response for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in both single- and two-prey systems. Search efficiency of M. carolina declined for both prey as the initial number of prey increased. Of the total prey consumed, M. carolina carolina killed significantly more S. frugiperda than P. bicincta in the single-prey system (8.0 and 4.5, respectively) and the two-prey system (5.0 and 2.0, respectively). Estimates of attack coefficient, a, were not significantly different for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in the single-prey (0.07 and 0.02) and two-prey systems (0.04 and 0.06), respectively. The handling time, T(h), was significantly greater for P. bicincta (5.02 and 10.64 h) than for S. frugiperda (2.66 and 4.41 h) in single- and two-prey systems, respectively. Estimations of attack coefficient and handling time in the single-prey system were used to predict prey preference of M. carolina carolina. No strong prey switching response was observed. M. carolina carolina showed no preference for either prey. However, in the presence of S. frugiperda, the functional response of the predator for P. bicincta was reduced. M. carolina carolina is a potential predator of one or more turfgrass pests and should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:17066786

  18. Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and α-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

  19. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  20. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. I. Select beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea excluding Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967

  1. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  2. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)

    PubMed Central

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  3. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini).

    PubMed

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  4. Catalogue and Bibliography of the Hong Kong Carabidae Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera: Adephaga), with notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong as related to zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Aston, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A complete list of Carabidae species historically collected in Hong Kong combined with more recent records and notes on their biology is given. Notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong through the colonial period are given, as this is an important element relating to our understanding of the origins of historic zoological collections made in the region. Likewise a list of collectors in Hong Kong up to the outbreak of hostilities in the Second World War is given. A full bibliography of Hong Kong Carabidae is included. PMID:27395221

  5. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  6. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  7. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  9. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  10. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  11. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Tahiti, Society Islands.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2013-01-01

    The 101 species of Mecyclothorax Sharp known to inhabit Tahiti Island, French Polynesia are taxonomically revised, including 28 species that are newly described: Mecyclothorax claridgeiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax jeanyvesi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poria sp. n., Mecyclothorax aano sp. n., Mecyclothorax papau sp. n., Mecyclothorax manina sp. n., Mecyclothorax everardi sp. n., Mecyclothorax ramagei sp. n., Mecyclothorax pitohitiensis sp. n., Mecyclothorax curtisi sp. n., Mecyclothorax hoeahiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax ninamu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kokone sp. n., Mecyclothorax paahonu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kayballae sp. n., Mecyclothorax ehu sp. n., Mecyclothorax papuhiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax tuea sp. n., Mecyclothorax taatitore sp. n., Mecyclothorax konemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax arboricola sp. n., Mecyclothorax rahimata sp. n., M. oaoa sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax hunapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax fefemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninamata sp. n., and Mecyclothorax niho sp. n. Mecyclothorax muriauxioides Perrault, 1984 is newly synonymized with Mecyclothorax muriauxi Perrault, 1978. Lectotypes are designated for: Thriscothorax altiusculus Britton, 1938; Thriscothorax bryobius Britton, 1938; Mecyclothorax globosus Britton, 1948: and Mecyclothorax sabulicola Britton, 1948. Dichotomous identification keys augmented by dorsal habitus and male aedeagal photographs are provided to the various species-groups and all included species. The spermatophore of Mecyclothorax papau sp. n. is described, with the ampulla and collar found to correspond dimensionally to the length of the internal sac flagellar plate. Variation among characters of the female reproductive tract is presented for all newly described plus other representative species comprising the radiation. Taxa are assigned to species groups, modified from the classification of G.G. Perrault, based on derived character states polarized using the Australian outgroup taxon Mecyclothorax punctipennis (MacLeay). Much of the species-level diversity on this small Pacific island is partitioned allopatrically over very small distributional ranges. No species is shared between Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, and nearly all species in Tahiti Nui are geographically restricted to one ridgelike massif of that volcano. Cladistically similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes. PMID:24003312

  12. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Tahiti, Society Islands

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The 101 species of Mecyclothorax Sharp known to inhabit Tahiti Island, French Polynesia are taxonomically revised, including 28 species that are newly described: Mecyclothorax claridgeiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax jeanyvesi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poria sp. n., Mecyclothorax aano sp. n., Mecyclothorax papau sp. n., Mecyclothorax manina sp. n., Mecyclothorax everardi sp. n., Mecyclothorax ramagei sp. n., Mecyclothorax pitohitiensis sp. n., Mecyclothorax curtisi sp. n., Mecyclothorax hoeahiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax ninamu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kokone sp. n., Mecyclothorax paahonu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kayballae sp. n., Mecyclothorax ehu sp. n., Mecyclothorax papuhiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax tuea sp. n., Mecyclothorax taatitore sp. n., Mecyclothorax konemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax arboricola sp. n., Mecyclothorax rahimata sp. n., M. oaoa sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax hunapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax fefemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninamata sp. n., and Mecyclothorax niho sp. n. Mecyclothorax muriauxioides Perrault, 1984 is newly synonymized with Mecyclothorax muriauxi Perrault, 1978. Lectotypes are designated for: Thriscothorax altiusculus Britton, 1938; Thriscothorax bryobius Britton, 1938; Mecyclothorax globosus Britton, 1948: and Mecyclothorax sabulicola Britton, 1948. Dichotomous identification keys augmented by dorsal habitus and male aedeagal photographs are provided to the various species-groups and all included species. The spermatophore of Mecyclothorax papau sp. n. is described, with the ampulla and collar found to correspond dimensionally to the length of the internal sac flagellar plate. Variation among characters of the female reproductive tract is presented for all newly described plus other representative species comprising the radiation. Taxa are assigned to species groups, modified from the classification of G.G. Perrault, based on derived character states polarized using the Australian outgroup taxon Mecyclothorax punctipennis (MacLeay). Much of the species-level diversity on this small Pacific island is partitioned allopatrically over very small distributional ranges. No species is shared between Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, and nearly all species in Tahiti Nui are geographically restricted to one ridgelike massif of that volcano. Cladistically similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes. PMID:24003312

  13. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): The Prodigal Son Returns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Louisiana, beneficial arthropods provide a significant proportion of the season long control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Frabricius). However, most of that control comes from predation by the red imported fire ant, Solinopsis invicta Buren. The balance of bio-control comes from ...

  14. Lectotype designations and nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Gómez, Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Lawrence, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We designate lectotypes and propose nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) based on type specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (USA), Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the Natural History Museum (UK), Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Genève (Switzerland), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (France), Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Sweden) and Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Austria). We designate lectotypes for the following species: Cis fultoni Broun, 1886, Xylographus anthracinus Mellié, 1849, X. bicolor Pic, 1916, X. brasiliensis Pic, 1916, X. ceylonicus Ancey, 1876, X. contractus Mellié, 1849, X. corpulentus Mellié, 1849, X. dentatus Pic, 1922, X. gibbus Mellié, 1849, X. hypocritus Mellié, 1849, X. javanus Pic, 1937, X. lemoulti Pic, 1916, X. longicollis Pic, 1922, X. madagascariensis Mellié, 1849, X. nitidissimus Pic, 1916, X. perforatus Gerstaecker, 1871, X. porcus Gorham, 1886, X. punctatus Mellié, 1849, X. ritsemai Pic, 1921, X. rufescens Pic, 1921, X. rufipennis Pic, 1934, X. rufipes Pic, 1930, X. seychellensis Scott, 1926, X. subopacus Pic, 1929, X. subsinuatus Pic, 1916, X. suillus Gorham, 1886, X. testaceitarsis Pic, 1916 and X. tomicoides Reitter, 1902. We propose the following syn. n. (senior synonym listed first): X. anthracinus = X. testaceitarsis, X. brasiliensis = X. lucasi Lopes-Andrade & Zacaro, X. corpulentus = X. lemoulti and X. richardi Mellié, X. madagascariensis = X. eichelbaumi Reitter, X. rufipennis, X. seychellensis Scott and X. tarsalis Fåhraeus, X. nitidissimus = X. longicollis, X. subsinuatus = X. rufescens. We exclude three species from Xylographus: Cis renominatus, nom. n. (for X. dentatus Pic, 1922, not C. dentatus Mellié, 1849), Paratrichapus fultoni (Broun, 1886), comb. n. and P. javanus (Pic, 1937), comb. n. PMID:24493963

  15. Kuznetsovia, a new generic replacement name for Aenigma Kuznetsova, 1957 (Ostracoda) non Newman, 1836 (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Aenigma was proposed by Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) for a new fossil ostracod genus from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia). However, this name is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Besides this earliest generic name, a few homonyms were also known: Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martin & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. PMID:27395148

  16. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  17. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Lawrence, John F; Lyal, Chris H C; Newton, Alfred F; Reid, Chris A M; Schmitt, Michael; Slipiński, S Adam; Smith, Andrew B T

    2011-01-01

    We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification.New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856

  18. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  19. Phylogeny of Bembidion and related ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidiina).

    PubMed

    Maddison, David R

    2012-06-01

    The phylogeny of the large genus Bembidion and related genera is inferred from four nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD, wingless, arginine kinase, and topoisomerase I), ribosomal DNA (28S and 18S), and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). 230 of the more than 1200 species of Bembidion are sampled, as well as 26 species of five related genera, and 14 outgroups. Nuclear copies (numts) of COI were found sparsely scattered through sampled species. The resulting phylogeny, based upon individual gene analyses and combined analyses using maximum likelihood and parsimony, is very well supported at most nodes. Additional analyses explored the evidence, and corroborate the phylogeny. Seven analyses, each with one of the seven genes removed from the combined matrix, were also conducted, and yielded maximum likelihood bootstrap trees sharing over 92% of their nodes with the original, well-resolved bootstrap trees based on the complete set of seven genes. All key nodes were present in all seven analyses missing a single gene, indicating that support for these nodes comes from at least two genes. In addition, the inferred maximum likelihood tree based on the combined matrix is well-behaved and self-predicting, in that simulated evolution of sequences on the inferred tree under the inferred model of evolution yields a matrix from which all but one of the model tree's clades are recovered with bootstrap value >50, suggesting that internal branches in the tree may be of a length to yield sequences sufficient to allow their inference. All likelihood analyses were conducted under both a proportion-invariable plus gamma site-to-site rate variation model, as well as a simpler gamma model. The choice of model did not have a major effect on inferred phylogenies or their bootstrap values. The inferred phylogeny shows that Bembidarenas is not closely related to Bembidiina, and Phrypeus is likely distant as well; the remaining genera of Bembidiina form a monophyletic group. Lionepha, formerly considered a subgenus of Bembidion, is shown to be outside of the clade of Asaphidion+Bembidion, and is separated as its own genus. B. (Phyla) obtusum is quite isolated within Bembidion, and there is some evidence that the remaining Bembidion form a clade. Within Bembidion, there are three large clades that are well-supported, the Bembidion, Odontium, and Ocydromus Series. The Bembidion Series contains Bembidion (s. str.), Notaphus, Furcacampa, Emphanes, Trepanedoris, Diplocampa, and related Holarctic species; all species from South America, Australia, New Zealand; and most species from southern Africa and Madagascar. All species in South America, except for members of Notaphus and Nothocys, form a clade, the Antiperyphanes Complex, which has independently radiated into body forms and niches occupied by multiple, independent Northern-Hemisphere forms. All species from New Zealand, including Zecillenus, and Australian species formerly placed in Ananotaphus together form a clade. Bembidion (s. str.) and Cyclolopha are in a clade with the Old World, Southern Hemisphere lineages Notaphocampa, Sloanephila, and Omotaphus. The large subgenus Notaphus appears to have originated in South America, with all Northern Hemisphere Notaphus arising from within a south-temperate grade. All major variation in frontal furrows on the head is contained within the Bembidion Series. The Odontium Series contains subgenera Hirmoplataphus and Hydriomicrus, which together are the sister clade of Odontium, Bracteon, Ochthedromus, Pseudoperyphus, and Microserrullula. The very large Ocydromus Series, dominant in the Holarctic region, includes the Ocydromus Complex, with many subgenera, including Hypsipezum and Leuchydrium; the phylogeny within this group is notably at odds with the current classification. Also included in the Ocydromus Series are Nepha and Bembidionetolitzkya, as well as the Princidium Complex, in which the intertidal B. (Cillenus) laterale falls. Outside these three series are a number of smaller groups, including the Plataphus Complex (containing Blepha

  20. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion)

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex. PMID:25061349

  1. An indigenous gut bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), increases seed consumption by Harpalus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harpalus pensylvanicus is a beneficial beetle contributing to insect control and seed predation in North American cropland. The bacterial endosymbiont Enterococcus faecalis is found in the intestinal tract of H. pensylvanicus and is thought to contribute to the digestion of the insect's seed diet. W...

  2. A new species of tiger beetle from southeastern Arizona and Mexico (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelini)

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Daniel P.; Roman, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidia melissa Duran & Roman, sp. n., of the tribe Cicindelini, is described from high elevation montane forests of southeastern Arizona and Mexico. It appears to be most closely related to Cicindelidia nebuligera (Bates) but is distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and geographic range. The new species is also superficially similar to the widespread Cicindelidia sedecimpunctata (Klug), but distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and habitat. Habitus, male and female reproductive structures, and known distribution map are presented. PMID:25589868

  3. A comparative phylogeographic study reveals discordant evolutionary histories of alpine ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with three major mountain ranges, provides an ideal topography to study mountain-island effect on organisms that would be diversified in the isolation areas. Glaciations, however, might drive these organisms to lower elevations, causing gene flow among previously isolated populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to depict the possible refugia for alpine organisms during glaciations. Nunatak hypothesis suggests that alpine species might have stayed in situ in high mountain areas during glaciations. Massif de refuge, on the other hand, proposes that alpine species might have migrated to lower ice-free areas. By sampling five sympatric carabid species of Nebria and Leistus, and using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes, we evaluated the mountain-island effect on alpine carabids and tested the two proposed hypotheses with comparative phylogeographic method. Results from the phylogenetic relationships, network analysis, lineage calibration, and genetic structure indicate that the deep divergence among populations in all L. smetanai, N. formosana, and N. niitakana was subjected to long-term isolation, a phenomenon in agreement with the nunatak hypothesis. However, genetic admixture among populations of N. uenoiana and some populations of L. nokoensis complex suggests that gene flow occurred during glaciations, as a massif de refuge depicts. The speciation event in N. niitakana is estimated to have occurred before 1.89 million years ago (Mya), while differentiation among isolated populations in N. niitakana, N. formosana, L. smetanai, and L. nokoensis complex might have taken place during 0.65-1.65 Mya. While each of the alpine carabids arriving in Taiwan during different glaciation events acquired its evolutionary history, all of them had confronted the existing mountain ranges. PMID:27066226

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  5. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koivula, Matti J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse, taxonomically and ecologically well-known, efficiently reflect biotic and abiotic conditions, are relevant at multiple spatial scales, and are easy to collect in sufficiently large numbers to allow statistical analyses. The assumption that carabid responses would reflect rare environmental conditions or the responses of rare and threatened species ‒ crucial information for conservationists and managers ‒ has not yet been critically evaluated. Even if it holds, the usefulness will be context dependent: species and their populations vary, conditions vary, questions put forward vary, and assessment goals vary. PMID:21738418

  6. Predation of Notiophilus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Collembola as a Predator-Prey Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The carabid beetle (Notiophilus) preys readily on an easily-cultured collembolan in simple experimental conditions. Some features of this predator-prey system are outlined to emphasize its use in biology instruction. Experiments with another potential collembolan are described in the context of developing the method for more advanced studies.…

  7. Effects of Bt maize-fed prey on the generalist predator Poecilus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Meissle, Michael; Vojtech, Eva; Poppy, Guy M

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the effects of transgenic maize (Zea mays) expressing Bacillus thuringienses toxin (Bt maize) on larval and adult Poecilus cupreus carabid beetles in laboratory studies. In no-choice trials, neonate P. cupreus larvae were fed exclusively with Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars, which had been raised on Bt maize. S. littoralis raised on conventional maize or "high quality" Calliphora sp. pupae were fed to the beetle larvae in two control treatments. Bt-maize-fed caterpillar prey increased mortality to 100% within 40 days. The experiment was repeated with 10-day-old beetle larvae. Bt treatment resulted in fewer pupae than in both controls, and in a higher mortality than in the Calliphora control. S. littoralis was suitable as exclusive prey in no-choice tests, at least for 40 days, although prey quality seemed to be low compared to Calliphora pupae. The observed effects are most likely indirect effects due to further reduced nutritional prey quality. However, direct effects cannot be excluded. In the second part of the study, exposure of P. cupreus to Bt intoxicated prey was examined in paired-choice tests. Adult beetles were offered a choice between different prey conditions (frozen and thawed, freshly killed or living), prey types (S. littoralis caterpillars, Calliphora sp. pupae, cereal aphids) and prey treatments (raised on Bt or conventional maize). Living prey was preferred to frozen and dead prey. Caterpillars were only preferred to fly pupae and aphids when living. Prey treatment seemed to be least important for prey selection. The tests showed that P. cupreus ingested caterpillars readily and there was no evidence of them avoiding Bt containing prey, which means exposure in the field could occur. The presented protocols are a first step towards ecological risk assessment for carabid beetles. PMID:16022384

  8. Carabidae diversity along an altitudinal gradient in a Peruvian cloud forest (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Maveety, Sarah A; Browne, Robert A; Erwin, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetles were sampled at five sites, ranging from 1500 m to 3400 m, along a 15 km transect in the cloud forest of Manu National Park, Perú. Seasonal collections during a one year period yielded 77 morphospecies, of which 60% are projected to be undescribed species. There was a significant negative correlation between species richness and altitude, with the number of carabid species declining at the rate of one species for each 100 m increase in altitude. The majority of species (70.1 %) were restricted to only one altitudinal site and no species was found at more than three of the five altitudinal sites. Only one genus, Pelmatellus (Tribe Harpalini), was found at all five sites. Active (hand) collections yielded approximately twice as many species per individuals collected than passive (pitfall trap) collections. This study is the first systematic sampling ofcarabid beetles of a high altitude gradient in the cloud forests of southeastern Perú and supports the need to conserve the zone of extremely high biodiversity present on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes. PMID:22371680

  9. Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as Indicatorsof Hydrological Site Conditions in Floodplain Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerisch, Michael; Schanowski, Arno; Figura, Wolfgang; Gerken, Bernd; Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    The relationship of carabid beetle species occurrence patterns and environmental variables characterising the hydrological regime has been studied at the River Elbe in Central Germany. Both flood duration and groundwater depth had major influence on species assemblages as the ordination of study plots mainly followed a gradient along these two variables. The simultaneous ordination of the plots according to species occurrence and environmental parameters showed a highly significant joint structure with the first two axes of a co-inertia analysis, explaining >98% of the variance. A total of 27 species out of 129 caught fulfilled criteria of fidelity and specificity to the plots of the five clusters revealed by their abiotic conditions and were sufficiently abundant to be suitable indicators for one or a combination of clusters of plots.

  10. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  11. Patterns in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gábor L.

    2007-07-01

    The responses of ground beetles to an urbanisation gradient (forest-suburban area-urban park) were studied in and near Sorø, South Zealand, Denmark, during April-October 2004. The average number of species per trap did not differ significantly among the three urbanisation stages. The average number of forest species was significantly higher in the forest area (6.2 species/trap) than in either the suburban (4.12 spp/trap) or the urban (3.7 spp/trap) areas. Both the number of open-habitat species (1.8 spp/trap), and the generalist species (2.3 spp/trap) were highest in the urban area. The number of predaceous species was highest in the forest area (8.1 spp/trap), while the number of omnivorous species was highest in the urban area (0.9 spp/trap). Multivariate statistical procedures (NMDS, Sorensen similarity index) also confirmed that species composition changed remarkably along the forest-suburban-urban gradient. The highest number of species (S = 37) was found at the urban area, deviating from trends at other northern hemisphere sites (Canada, Finland) where the overall species richness was highest at the forest habitats. Urban green areas, including forest patches contribute to the quality of urban life and thus should be conserved. Apart from their recreational value, which is widely appreciated and enjoyed by human inhabitants, such green urban spaces provide seemingly adequate habitat for numerous species of ground beetles found in less developed forest areas some distance from the city core.

  12. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  13. Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel, 1927 from Ecuador (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Giachino, Pier Mauro; Allegro, Gianni; Baviera, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel 1927 are described from the páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes in Pichincha province (Ecuador: Northern Sierra): O. osellai n. sp. from Cangahua at 3375 m a.s.l. and O. belloi n. sp. from Paso de la Virgen at 3515 m a.s.l. PMID:25543561

  14. Redescription of Stenolophus thoracicus Casey (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini), a valid species

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Messer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stenolophus thoracicus Casey is revalidated. The species is redescribed based on a study of the syntypes and of several conspecific specimens from eastern North America. The species differs from the other eastern species of the subgenus Agonoleptus in having the metasternum shorter and the wings reduced to tiny stubs. The dorsal habitus and median lobe of the aedeagus, along with the structures of the internal sac, are illustrated. PMID:21594130

  15. First cavernicolous trechine beetle discovered in Guilin karst, northeastern Guangxi (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Tian, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus and new species of anophthalmic trechine beetles, Oodinotrechus (Pingleotrechus) yinae subgen. n., sp. n., is described and illustrated from a limestone cave called Chaotianyan in southern part of Guilin karst, northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The new taxon is very different from the Maolan-Mulun congeners belonging to the nominate subgenus Oodinotrechus (s. str.) Uéno, 1998, in several important character states including pronotal structure, elytral chaetotaxy and male genitalia. It is the first record of a cavernicolous trechine beetle in Guilin karst, and in the eastern part of Guangxi. In addition, a distribution map for the genus Oodinotrechus Uéno, 1998, is provided. PMID:26798298

  16. Re-establishment of Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai Escalera, 1944 as a separate valid species (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ghittino, Claudio; Busato, Enrico; Casale, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai was described as a separate species by Escalera in 1944 but since the 1950–60s it has been considered as a subspecies of Carabus (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. This downgrading was adopted after examining only a few specimens, due to their rarity in collections. In recent years, an important population of this taxon was rediscovered in the Tan-Tan area in southern Morocco. By combining field observations with laboratory breeding experiments including hybridization trials, and through the morphological examination of a representative number of individuals, it is confirmed that Carabus aliai is indeed a valid species. Despite close geographic distribution, the morphological and biological characteristics of Carabus aliai and Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis Zarco, 1941, its northern substitutive taxon, are very different. Carabus aliai adults are characterized by a smaller size, a slender silhouette, a more brilliant aspect, a narrower pronotum, a coarser elytral sculpture, longer legs, and a wider and a little more curved apex of the median lobe of the aedeagus. Carabus aliai larvae are also characterized by a much smaller size and the Carabus aliai pupa has a narrower thoracic area and a different chaetotaxy compared to that of Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis. Contrary to this, Carabus aliai has a life cycle belonging to the annual univoltine winter semelparous type. Moreover, the duration of its development cycle is shorter. Carabus aliai is a sabulicolous steppe-wandering species with an intensive running activity, while Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis is a more sedentary taxon. Crossbreeding experiments showed a marked reproductive isolation between Carabus aliai and Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis. When F1 hybrids were crossed with one another, a very high mortality rate during embryonic, larval and pupal development was evident and no vital F2 neo-adults were obtained. Morphological and biological differences, together with the reproductive failure in Carabus aliai × Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis hybrids, clearly indicate that Carabus aliai is a separate Cathoplius species that is distributed in an area south of the Anti-Atlas chain, from Plage Blanche (Guelmim) to Lemsid and Bou Kra (south of Laâyoune). Carabus aliai is therefore both a Saharan desert endemic and an Atlantic resident. Moreover, it is the southernmost Carabus species of the western Palaearctic region. PMID:25941447

  17. Carabid beetle diversity and distribution in Boston Harbor Islands national park area (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola—the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. PMID:22371673

  18. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie and Hopp) may represent a distinct species within this species group, whereas removal of Brasiella wickhami (W. Horn) from this species group seems warranted based on evidence presented. A general overview of species relationships for the Brasiella on Hispaniola are discussed, along with the current and ancestral geographic distributions of the Brasiella viridicollis species group in the West Indies. PMID:22371664

  19. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae)

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, David R.; Ober, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus); the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini. Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data. PMID:22379388

  20. Integration of conflict into integrative taxonomy: fitting hybridization in species delimitation of Mesocarabus (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Andújar, C; Arribas, P; Ruiz, C; Serrano, J; Gómez-Zurita, J

    2014-09-01

    In species differentiation, characters may not diverge synchronously, and there are also processes that shuffle character states in lineages descendant from a common ancestor. Species are thus expected to show some degree of incongruence among characters; therefore, taxonomic delimitation can benefit from integrative approaches and objective strategies that account for character conflict. We illustrate the potential of exploiting conflict for species delimitation in a study case of ground beetles of the subgenus Carabus (Mesocarabus), where traditional taxonomy does not accurately delimit species. The molecular phylogenies of four mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, cladistic analysis of the aedeagus, ecological niche divergence and morphometry of pronotal shape in more than 500 specimens of Mesocarabus show that these characters are not fully congruent. For these data, a three-step operational strategy is proposed for species delimitation by (i) delineating candidate species based on the integration of incongruence among conclusive lines of evidence, (ii) corroborating candidate species with inconclusive lines of evidence and (iii) refining a final species proposal based on an integrated characterization of candidate species based on the evolutionary analysis of incongruence. This procedure provided a general understanding of the reticulate process of hybridization and introgression acting on Mesocarabus and generated the hypothesis of seven Mesocarabus species, including two putative hybrid lineages. Our work emphasizes the importance of incorporating critical analyses of character and phylogenetic conflict to infer both the evolutionary history and species boundaries through an integrative taxonomic approach. PMID:24828576

  1. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  2. Carabidae diversity along an altitudinal gradient in a Peruvian cloud forest (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Maveety, Sarah A.; Browne, Robert A.; Erwin, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Carabid beetles were sampled at five sites, ranging from 1500 m to 3400 m, along a 15 km transect in the cloud forest of Manu National Park, Perú. Seasonal collections during a one year period yielded 77 morphospecies, of which 60% are projected to be undescribed species. There was a significant negative correlation between species richness and altitude, with the number of carabid species declining at the rate of one species for each 100 m increase in altitude. The majority of species (70.1 %) were restricted to only one altitudinal site and no species was found at more than three of the five altitudinal sites. Only one genus, Pelmatellus (Tribe Harpalini), was found at all five sites. Active (hand) collections yielded approximately twice as many species per individuals collected than passive (pitfall trap) collections. This study is the first systematic sampling ofcarabid beetles of a high altitude gradient in the cloud forests of southeastern Perú and supports the need to conserve the zone of extremely high biodiversity present on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes. PMID:22371680

  3. On the identity of the tiger beetle Cicindela philippinensis Mandl, 1956 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae).

    PubMed

    Zettel, Herbert; Pangantihon, Clister V

    2015-01-01

    In the course of preparing a key to the Philippine tiger beetle genera (Pangantihon & Zettel, in prep.) it became necessary to examine the holotype of Cicindela philippinensis Mandl, 1956, the only specimen from the Philippines that has been tentatively assigned to the genus Myriochila Motschulsky, 1857. PMID:25947531

  4. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  5. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  6. Pygidial secretions ofPasimachus subsulcatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) deter predation byEumeces inexpectatus (Squamata: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Witz, B W; Mushinsky, H R

    1989-03-01

    The carabid beetlePasimachus subsulcatus is an abundant ground-dwelling insect in west central Florida that exudes a powerful mucous membrane irritant when disturbed. This secretion can be sprayed over 10 cm from the abdominal tip. The southeastern five-lined skink,Eumeces inexpectatus, is an abundant insectivorous lizard sympatric withPasimachus. We assessed the availability ofPasimachus toEumeces and found it to be within the foraging microenvironment of the lizard. Analysis ofEumeces gut contents and field feeding trials indicate thatPasimachus are not ingested by the lizard, yet arthropods of comparable size and exoskeletal thickness are ingested. The movement response ofEumeces to isolatedPasimachus secretion constituents, conducted in a modified Y-maze laboratory experiment, was used to assess the repellent capabilities of the secretion.Eumeces are consistently repelled byPasimachus secretion constituents, indicating that the beetle is protected chemically from the lizard. PMID:24271904

  7. Description of two new species of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini) from southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Skelley, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Clivina Latreille are described. One, Clivina choatei Bousquet & Skelley, belongs to the nominotypical subgenus and is known from six specimens collected in northern Florida. The species is structurally similar to Clivina myops Bousquet, known only from the holotype found in North Carolina, but differs among others by its smaller size and wider elytral striae. The second species, Clivina alabama Bousquet, belongs to the subgenus Antroforceps Barr and is known from two specimens collected in north-central Alabama. The species is structurally most similar to Clivina sasajii Ball, known only from Latimer County in Oklahoma, but differs among others in the absence of eyes and in having the pronotum and elytra proportionally wider. PMID:22539878

  8. Poleward range expansion without a southern contraction in the ground beetle Agonum viridicupreum (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Drees, Claudia; Brandmayr, Pietro; Buse, Jörn; Dieker, Petra; Gürlich, Stephan; Habel, Jan; Harry, Ingmar; Härdtle, Werner; Matern, Andrea; Meyer, Hartmut; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Quante, Markus; Schäfer, Katharina; Schuldt, Andreas; Taboada, Angela; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extent of poleward shifts in the distribution range of Agonum viridicupreum due to climate change in the western Palaearctic. Species' records were obtained from extensive literature sources as well as from collections, and consistent amateur entomologists' recordings. Within the general geographic range of the species, we analyzed in detail two parts of both, the northern and southern distribution range boundaries: (1 and 2) north-western Germany (leading or high-latitude edge), (3) Israel and (4) southern Italy (rear or low-latitude edge). Temporal changes in the occurrence data of the species indicated a northward shift of the leading edge of a minimum of 100 km within the last 50 to 100 years. In contrast, according to the data gathered, the rear edge has not changed during the last decades. Further studies are needed in order to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of the different behaviour of leading and rear range edges of Agonum viridicupreum in the current context of global change. Despite our incomplete understanding, chronosequences of the occurrence of the given species have the potential to optimize climate niche modelling to predict trends in the distribution range in the future. PMID:21738420

  9. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Midwestern United States: a review and synthesis of recent research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carabid beetles comprise a diverse and ubiquitous family of insects. Carabids are important in conservation biology and often have close associations with particular habitat types, making them useful biomonitoring organisms. Many carabids are also important biological control agents due to their pre...

  10. Re-establishment of Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai Escalera, 1944 as a separate valid species (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Ghittino, Claudio; Busato, Enrico; Casale, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai was described as a separate species by Escalera in 1944 but since the 1950-60s it has been considered as a subspecies of Carabus (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. This downgrading was adopted after examining only a few specimens, due to their rarity in collections. In recent years, an important population of this taxon was rediscovered in the Tan-Tan area in southern Morocco. By combining field observations with laboratory breeding experiments including hybridization trials, and through the morphological examination of a representative number of individuals, it is confirmed that Carabusaliai is indeed a valid species. Despite close geographic distribution, the morphological and biological characteristics of Carabusaliai and Carabusstenocephalusifniensis Zarco, 1941, its northern substitutive taxon, are very different. Carabusaliai adults are characterized by a smaller size, a slender silhouette, a more brilliant aspect, a narrower pronotum, a coarser elytral sculpture, longer legs, and a wider and a little more curved apex of the median lobe of the aedeagus. Carabusaliai larvae are also characterized by a much smaller size and the Carabusaliai pupa has a narrower thoracic area and a different chaetotaxy compared to that of Carabusstenocephalusifniensis. Contrary to this, Carabusaliai has a life cycle belonging to the annual univoltine winter semelparous type. Moreover, the duration of its development cycle is shorter. Carabusaliai is a sabulicolous steppe-wandering species with an intensive running activity, while Carabusstenocephalusifniensis is a more sedentary taxon. Crossbreeding experiments showed a marked reproductive isolation between Carabusaliai and Carabusstenocephalusifniensis. When F1 hybrids were crossed with one another, a very high mortality rate during embryonic, larval and pupal development was evident and no vital F2 neo-adults were obtained. Morphological and biological differences, together with the reproductive failure in Carabusaliai × Carabusstenocephalusifniensis hybrids, clearly indicate that Carabusaliai is a separate Cathoplius species that is distributed in an area south of the Anti-Atlas chain, from Plage Blanche (Guelmim) to Lemsid and Bou Kra (south of Laâyoune). Carabusaliai is therefore both a Saharan desert endemic and an Atlantic resident. Moreover, it is the southernmost Carabus species of the western Palaearctic region. PMID:25941447

  11. The diversity and biogeography of the Coleoptera of Churchill: insights from DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the

  12. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  13. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed. PMID:2593912

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American ground beetle subgenus Chilioperyphus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidion Latreille).

    PubMed

    Maddison, David R; Toledano, Luca; Sallenave, Soledad; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries and relationships of the ground beetle group Chilioperyphus Jeannel (a subgenus of the cosmopolitan genus Bembidion Latreille) are examined using DNA and morphological data. DNA sequence data from seven genes (six nuclear and one mitochondrial) indicates that Chiliopeiyphus (as newly defined) is monophyletic, and is related to the subgenera Antipetyphanes Jeannel and Plocanoperyphus Jeannel, within the South American Antiperyphanes Complex. Chilioperyphus includes two described species, B. iendocinum Jensen-Haarup and B. orregoi Germain. Beinbidion cassinense Roig-Juñent and Gianuca as well as Bembidion cuyanum Roig-Juñent and Scheibler, formerly placed in subgenus Chilioperyphus, are transferred to subgenus Antipetyphanes. Bembidion cuyanum is considered a junior synonym of B. hirtipes Jeannel. The male genitalia of Chilioperyphus is unique in having a very long flagellum that is folded twice, allowing it to fit much of its length within the walls of the median lobe. However, the brush sclerite and basal part of the flagellum are not contained within the median lobe, as they extend anterior to its base. PMID:26042310

  15. A new species of alpine Apenetretus Kurnakov from Taiwan: evidences from DNA barcodes and morphological characteristics (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Patrobini)

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Yeh, Wen-Bin; Yang, Man-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are three isolated mountain ranges in Taiwan including Hsueshan Range, Central Mountain Range, and Yushan Range. The rise of these mountains has resulted in the isolation of some species and caused allopatric distribution resulting in divergence and speciation events of high mountain carabids, especially the flightless carabids such as Epaphiopsis, Apenetretus, and partial Nebria. Genus Apenetretus Kurnakov (1960) is typically distributed in high mountain areas of Taiwan. Three of the currently known Apenetretus species have been described from different mountain ranges. These species include Apenetretus yushanensis Habu, Apenetretus nanhutanus Habu, and Apenetretus smetanai Zamotajlov and Sciaky. In this study, a new species is described from Hsueshan, a mountain separated from the ranges of the previous known species, Apenetretus hsueshanensis sp. n. A key to the Taiwanese Apenetretus is included. A reconstructed phylogeny of the Taiwanese Apenetretus is introduced with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Molecular data and geographical distribution of Apenetretus support the morphological characteristics observed among those mountain-isolated species and confirms the new species as being distinctly different. Moreover, lineage calibration suggests that the southern Apenetretus yushanensis is the most distant one compared to the other three northern Apenetretus at ca. 1.81 million years ago (mya), while the divergence time of Apenetretus hsueshanensis to its sister group was dated to 0.94 mya. PMID:27199599

  16. Relationships beetween the regional distribution of carabid beetles ( Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemain, Matthieu; Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy

    We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered. On the other had, litter thickness was strongly associated with the composition and structure of the whole carabid community: an increase in litter thickness was accompanied by a decrease in both total carabid abundance and carabid species richnes, and by an increase in the proportion of forest species. The relationship between the regional distributions of abundance of carabid beetles and their potential prev was very different for soil-dwelling and litter-dwelling prey. There was a significant pattern of association between low soil prey abundance and low carabid abundance, which suggests that carabid abundance is partly controlled by prey numbers in the soil. On the other hand, there was a significant pattern of association between high prey density per volume of litter and low Abax ater abundance, thus showing a negative relationship between the abundance of this species and prey density in the litter. We propose two complementary hypotheses to explain this pattern: prey depletion by predation in the litter, and biased sampling of carabids due to differential mobility. The prey depletion hypothesis considers that soil acts as a refuge from predation, so that prey numbers in the soil control carabid abundance, while dominant carabids in turn deplete prey and control their abundance in the litter. This hypothesis suggests a complex relationship between the abundances of carabids and their prey.

  17. A new genus and species of troglobitic ground beetle from eastern Guizhou, Southwest China (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyang; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Tianzhuaphaenops jinshanensis n. gen., n. sp. is described from a limestone cave called Jinshan Rongdong in the easternmost Guizhou Province of Southwest China. This troglobitic trechine genus is related to Guizhaphaenops- Qianotrechus- Qianaphaenops complex but its precise position remains undetermined. PMID:27394558

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of the Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus Kurnakov, 1962, species complex in Abkhazia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)

    PubMed Central

    Solodovnikov, Igor A.; Zamotajlov, Alexandr S.; Fominykh, Dmitriy D.; Titarenko, Andrey Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study is based on a comparative analysis of extensive material of Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus Kurnakov, 1962, its various forms and related taxa recently collected by the authors and some other collectors in Abkhazia. The status or specific affiliations of several subspecies are changed and a subspecies is described. Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus Kurnakov, 1972, stat. n. is treated as a separate species housing six hitherto established subspecies in addition to the nominal type: Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus mtsaranus Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus duripshensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus napraensis Belousov & Zamotajlov, 1993, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus dsychvensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus adzinbai Retezár, 2013, and Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus resheviensis subsp. n. Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus is treated as monotypical while the specific status of Carabus (Archiplectes) pseudopshuensis Zamotajlov, 1991, earlier proposed by Fominykh and Zamotajlov (2012), is confirmed based on the morphological and morphometric data. PMID:25589861

  19. Western Hemisphere Zuphiini: descriptions of Coarazuphium whiteheadi, new species, and Zuphioides, new genus, and classification of the genera (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Shpeley, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on small samples (exemplars) analyzed with morphological methods, including detailed descriptions and illustrations, this study treats primarily the Zuphium genus-group in the Western Hemisphere, which comprises two precinctive genera: Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy, 1998 (type species Parazuphium tessai Godoy & Vanin, 1990) and Zuphioides gen. n. (type species Zuphium mexicanum Chaudoir, 1863). The genus Coarazuphium includes six troglobitic species from Brazilian caves, and one probably hypogaeic (troglophilic) species from the mountains of Oaxaca, in Mexico (Coarazuphium whiteheadi, sp. n., type locality, ridge top, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W). The epigaeic genus Zuphioides includes 23 species, with its geographical range extended from Neotropical temperate Argentina in southern South America, northward through the tropics to north temperate southeastern Canada, in the Nearctic Region. Keys are provided to the species of Coarazuphium and to thegenera of Western Hemisphere Zuphiini. PMID:23878508

  20. Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with species revisions of eight genera

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedlička, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedlička, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedlička, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedlička, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedlička, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedlička, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedlička, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank. PMID:23794843

  1. Distribution and excretion of Cd, Hg, methyl-Hg and ZS in the predatory beetle Pterostichus niger (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.; Tjaelve, H.

    1995-07-01

    Excretion and distribution of cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), methylmercury (methyl-Hg), and zinc (Zn) were studied in the predatory beetle, Pterostichus niger. Specimens of P. niger were fed with insect larvae containing {sup 109}Cd, {sup 203}Hg, methyl-{sup 203}Hg, or {sup 65}Zn. After ingestion of the larvae, the metal contents in the beetles were measured daily for 30 d by {gamma}-spectrometry. Additional beetles were used for autoradiography 5, 15, and 19 d after ingestion of the metals. Excretion of the metals was fast during an initial interval but occurred thereafter at a slow rate. After 2 weeks, the contents of Cd and inorganic Hg had decreased to approximately 1% of the ingested amounts. For Zn and methyl-Hg, higher levels were retained in the beetles. Thus after 30 d, Zn content was 20% of the ingested amount, whereas for methyl-Hg 60% was retained in the body. Autoradiography showed high levels of all metals in the gut. For methyl-Hg, in contrast to inorganic Hg, there was also an evenly distributed labelling in most body tissues. This labelling was also seen for Zn, although at a lower lever than for methyl-Hg. Cadmium showed a localization in the integument, which was not seen for the other metals. The results show that patterns of uptake and excretion of the examined metals in P. niger vary considerably and that the distribution picture show specific features for the individual metals.

  2. Description of a new species of Platynus Bonelli from the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Platynus Bonelli, Platynus daviesi, is described from specimens collected in the Appalachian Mountains. The species is structurally most similar to Platynus parmarginatus Hamilton but differs in having the coloration of the body dorsally darker on average, the elytra proportionally longer and wider, the vertex and disc of pronotum with well impressed microsculpture, the elytral interval 3 with four or five discal setae in most specimens, and the median lobe of aedeagus less curved overall. DNA barcoding was performed on several species of eastern North American Platynus species and Platynus daviesi was found to be genetically distinct from Platynus parmarginatus. A key to the 12 species of Platynus found east of the Mississippi River is provided. PMID:22303130

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tribes Within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as Inferred from 28S Ribosomal DNA and the Wingless Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Karen A.; Maddison, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Harpalinae is a large, monophyletic subfamily of carabid ground beetles containing more than 19,000 species in approximately 40 tribes. The higher level phylogenetic relationships within harpalines were investigated based on nucleotide data from two nuclear genes, wingless and 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses of combined data indicate that many harpaline tribes are monophyletic, however the reconstructed trees showed little support for deeper nodes. In addition, our results suggest that the Lebiomorph Assemblage (tribes Lebiini, Cyclosomini, Graphipterini, Perigonini, Odacanthini, Lachnophorini, Pentagonicini, Catapiesini and Calophaenini), which is united by a morphological synapomorphy, is not monophyletic, and the tribe Lebiini is paraphyletic with respect to members of Cyclosomini. Two unexpected clades of tribes were supported: the Zuphiitae, comprised of Anthiini, Zuphiini, Helluonini, Dryptini, Galeritini, and Physocrotaphini; and a clade comprised of Orthogoniini, Pseudomorphini, and Graphipterini. The data presented in this study represent a dense sample of taxa to examine the molecular phylogeny of Harpalinae and provide a useful framework to examine the origin and evolution of morphological and ecological diversity in this group. PMID:20302528

  4. The Maghreb – one more important biodiversity hot spot for tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) in the Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The tiger beetle fauna of the Maghreb region is one of the richest in the Palaearctic, including 22 species and 5 subspecies and 19% of all Palaearctic species of Cicindelinae. Assembled to their chorotypes, the Maghreb tiger beetles fall into eight different groups that include Maghreb endemics (26% of fauna), Mediterranean (7%), West Mediterranean (40%), North African (4%), Mediterranean-Westturanian (4%), West Palaearctic (4%), Afrotropico-Indo-Mediterranean (4%), and Saharian (11%) species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and Atlas Steppe are the Maghreb biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Sahara Desert has the lowest Cicindelinae diversity. Twenty-five cicindelid species and subspecies (93% of Maghreb fauna) are restricted to only one or two habitat types in lowland areas. Only Calomera littoralis littoralis and Lophyra flexuosa flexuosa are recognized as eurytopic species and occur in three types of habitat. The highest tiger beetle diversity characterizes salt marshes and river banks (in both cases 11 species and subspecies or 41% of Maghreb fauna). Approximately 85% of all Maghreb tiger beetle species and subspecies are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity. PMID:25709529

  5. A review of myrmecophily in ant nest beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae): linking early observations with recent findings.

    PubMed

    Geiselhardt, Stefanie F; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as "bombardier beetles" is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production. PMID:17563864

  6. A taxonomic review, new species and a key to species of Platycoelus Blanchard, 1843 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichini).

    PubMed

    Will, Kipling

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of type material for species of Platycoelus Blanchard, 1843 significant changes to the current taxonomy of species included in this genus is required. Psegmatopterus politissimus (White 1846) from New Zealand is found to be congeneric with Platycoelus species and so is a new combination. Platycoelus irideomicans (Tschitschérine 1890) status novum; P. caledonicus (Tschitschérine 1901) status novum; P. sulcatulus (MacLeay 1888) status novum; and P. planipennis (MacLeay 1871) status novum; each previously considered synonyms of P. poeciloides are each recognized as a distinct species. Five new species are described, four from Queensland, Australia: P. chongheeae sp. nov., type locality Iron Range National Park; P. orion sp. nov., type locality Normanton; P. brigalowphilus sp. nov., type locality Southwood National Park; and P. politus sp. nov., type locality Cooloola National Park. The fifth species described is P. hermes sp. nov., type locality Aitape, Papua New Guinea. These changes and additions bring the total number of species in the genus to 19. A key and habitus images for all species is provided as are illustrations of the male genitalia for species where male specimens were available. PMID:26624442

  7. The evolution and age of populations of Scaphinotus petersi Roeschke on Arizona Sky Islands (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cychrini)

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Karen; Matthews, Brian; Ferrieri, Abigail; Kuhn, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Populations of the ground beetle Scaphinotus petersi are isolated in subalpine conifer forest habitats on mountain ranges or Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona. Previous work on this species has suggested these populations have been isolated since the last post-glacial maximum times as warming caused this cool adapted species to retreat to high elevations. To test this hypothesis, we inferred the phylogeny from mitochondrial DNA sequence data from several Arizona Sky Island populations of Scaphinotus petersi and estimated the divergence time of the currently isolated populations. We found two major clades of Scaphinotus petersi, an eastern clade and a western group. Our results indicated most mountain ranges form clades except the Huachucas, which are polyphyletic and the Santa Catalinas, which are paraphyletic. We estimated the Pinaleño population is much older than the last glacial maximum, but the Huachuca and Pinal populations may have been fragmented from the Santa Catalina population since the post-glacial maximum times. PMID:22371665

  8. Volatile compounds released by disturbed and undisturbed adults of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini) and structure of the pygidial gland

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto, Tullia; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Guarino, Salvatore; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Volatile compounds produced by adults of Anchomenus dorsalis under undisturbed and disturbed conditions were investigated with an all-glass aeration apparatus. GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts from undisturbed and disturbed adults highlighted four major volatile compounds, undecane, heneicosane, Z-9 tricosene and tricosane, of which significantly more undecane was released by disturbed adults compared to undisturbed beetles. The pygidial glands of adults of Anchomenus dorsalis were investigated using light and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Each gland showed dense aggregates of secretory cells organized into visually distinct lobes; a long collecting canal that drains the secretion towards the reservoir, a bean-shaped double lobed muscular reservoir in which secretion is stored and a short duct (efferent duct) through which the secretion is discharged. The function of the pygidial glands and the possible role played by undecane as a defensive allomone and/or chemical signalling molecule are discussed. PMID:21594158

  9. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet] and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini)

    PubMed Central

    Kataev, Boris M.; Liang, Hongbin; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: Chydaeus fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province), Chydaeus gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province), and Chydaeus baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province). Taxonomic and faunistic notes on eleven other species occurring in Xizang and Yunnan are also provided. Chydaeus shunichii Ito, 2006 is re-described, based on specimens from Lushui County, Yunnan. Chydaeus kumei Ito, 1992 is treated as a subspecies of Chydaeus andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 [NEW STATUS]. The taxonomic status of Chydaeus guangxiensis Ito, 2006 is discussed. The following taxa are recorded from China for the first time: Chydaeus obtusicollis Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus malaisei Kataev & Schmidt, 2006 (Yunnan), Chydaeus semenowi (Tschitschérine, 1899) (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi andrewesi Schauberger, 1932 (Xizang and Yunnan), Chydaeus andrewesi kumei Ito (Yunnan), Chydaeus bedeli interjectus Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Xizang), and Chydaeus bedeli vietnamensis Kataev & Schmidt, 2002 (Yunnan). PMID:22423195

  10. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  11. A review of myrmecophily in ant nest beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae): linking early observations with recent findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiselhardt, Stefanie F.; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as “bombardier beetles” is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production.

  12. Impact of Land Management Practices on Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Other Arthropods on the Western High Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work was done in plots that had been subjected to three successive years of an agronomic experiment that evaluated the effects of a wheat cover crop or no cover crop on weed and water management. After the third growing season, pitfall traps were installed and arthropods were collected and iden...

  13. A review of the sarawakensis species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided. PMID:27408560

  14. Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion) ruruy sp. n., a new brachypterous ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from Kunashir Island, Kuriles, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Kirill V.; Sundukov, Yuri N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion) ruruy sp. n., is described from the foot of Ruruy Volcano, Kunashir Island, Kuril Archipelago, Russia. It is only the second consubgener, being characterized by the reduced wings, the rounded elytral shoulders, and the backward position of the posterior supra-orbital pore. In this connection, the subgenus Nipponobembidion Habu & Baba, 1968 is rediagnosed and both of its species are keyed. It might have originated from Plataphodes Ganglbauer, 1891, possibly in relation to volcanic activities in the region. PMID:25589863

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, M; Soković, M; Glamočlija, J; Ćirić, A; Perić-Mataruga, V; Tešević, V; Vujisić, L; Todosijević, M; Vesović, N; Ćurčić, S

    2016-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion released by adult individuals of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828), applying microdilution method with the aim to detect minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration, has been investigated. In addition, morphology of the pygidial glands is observed. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens - eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples have showed antimicrobial properties against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Micrococcus flavus proved to be more resistant compared with other bacterial strains. More significant antimicrobial properties of the secretion are observed against Escherichia coli, which proved to be the most sensitive bacteria. Aspergillus fumigatus proved to be the most resistant, while Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium the most sensitive micromycetes. Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and antimycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as positive controls, showed higher antibacterial properties for all bacterial and fungal strains, except for P. ochrochloron, which proved to be more resistant on Ketoconazole compared with the pygidial gland secretion of L. (P.) punctatus. Apart from the role in ecological aspects, the antimicrobial properties of the tested secretion possibly might have medical significance in the future. PMID:27018928

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus Kurnakov, 1962, species complex in Abkhazia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini).

    PubMed

    Solodovnikov, Igor A; Zamotajlov, Alexandr S; Fominykh, Dmitriy D; Titarenko, Andrey Y

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on a comparative analysis of extensive material of Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus Kurnakov, 1962, its various forms and related taxa recently collected by the authors and some other collectors in Abkhazia. The status or specific affiliations of several subspecies are changed and a subspecies is described. Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus Kurnakov, 1972, stat. n. is treated as a separate species housing six hitherto established subspecies in addition to the nominal type: Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusmtsaranus Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusduripshensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusnapraensis Belousov & Zamotajlov, 1993, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusdsychvensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusadzinbai Retezár, 2013, and Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticusresheviensissubsp. n.Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus is treated as monotypical while the specific status of Carabus (Archiplectes) pseudopshuensis Zamotajlov, 1991, earlier proposed by Fominykh and Zamotajlov (2012), is confirmed based on the morphological and morphometric data. PMID:25589861

  17. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 of Africa (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini). Part IV.

    PubMed

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Nine new species of the genus Singilis from Africa are described: Singilis (s.str.) shavrini sp. n. (Kenya, Tanzania), S. (s.str.) africaorientalis sp. n. (Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Kenya, RSA, Zambia, Zimbabwe), S. (s.str.) burtoni sp. n. (Zambia, Zimbabwe), S. (s.str.) paganeli sp. n. (RSA), S. (s.str.) somalicus sp. n. (Somalia), S. (s.str.) haekeli sp. n. (Zambia), S. (s.str.) crypticus sp. n. (Cameroon), S. (s.str.) pallens sp. n. (Namibia) and S. (s.str.) parvulus sp. n. (Zimbabwe). One new subspecies from Kenya, S. (s.str.) africaorientalis kenyacus ssp. n., is described too. Differential diagnosis of the related species Singilis (s.str.) allardi (Basilewsky, 1963), S. (s.str.) ambulans (Peringuey, 1896), S. (s.str.) cribricollis (Peringuey, 1904), S. (s.str.) pusillus (Peringuey, 1898) and S. (s.str.) zonata Chaudoir, 1878 is also proposed. Illustrations of habitus and aedeagus for every species is provided, and new country records are given. PMID:27615879

  18. New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp precinctive to Mont Mauru, Tahiti, Society Islands are newly described: Mecyclothorax tutei sp. n., Mecyclothorax tihotii sp. n., Mecyclothorax putaputa sp. n., Mecyclothorax toretore sp. n., Mecyclothorax anaana sp. n., Mecyclothorax pirihao sp. n., and Mecyclothorax poro sp. n. These seven constitute the first representative Mecyclothorax species recorded from Mauru, and their geographic restriction to this isolated massif defines it as a distinct area of endemism along the highly dissected eastern versant of the Tahiti Nui volcano. Each of the new species has a closest relative on another massif of Tahiti Nui, supporting speciation associated with vicariance caused by extensive erosional valley formation, especially the development of Papenoo Valley. Comparison of the known elevational distributions of the new discoveries on Mont Mauru to the elevational diversity profile of the comparatively well-sampled Mont Marau, northwest Tahiti Nui, suggests that numerous Mecyclothorax species remain to be discovered in higher-elevation habitats of Mont Mauru. PMID:23166465

  19. The first precinctive Carabidae from Moorea, Society Islands: new Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera) from the summit of Mont Tohiea

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp from Moorea, Society Islands are newly described; Mecyclothorax perraulti sp. n., Mecyclothorax pahere sp. n., Mecyclothorax menemene sp. n., Mecyclothorax mahatahi sp. n., Mecyclothorax popotioaoa sp. n., Mecyclothorax mapo sp. n., and Mecyclothorax fatata sp. n. These constitute the first Mecyclothorax species described from Moorea, and the first carabid beetle species shown to be geographically restricted to that island. Each of the newly described species is most similar to a different species on the island of Tahiti, suggesting that none of the seven Moorean taxa are evolutionary end-products of autochthonous speciation within Moorea. The occurrence of precinctive Mecyclothorax species on both Moorea and Tahiti demonstrates that radiation of Mecyclothorax in the Society Islands has been facilitated by speciation events implicating both islands. Whether this speciation has been preceded by vicariance or dispersal is discussed, with the generality of a dispersal hypothesis tested using information from Society Island Nabidae (Hemiptera). Salient morphological characters for taxa in the Society and Hawaiian Islands are compared to those representing a broad survey of southwest Pacific Mecyclothorax spp. This comparison supports the independent founding of each radiation in the Societies and Hawaii from an Australian ancestral propagule, likely drawn from the ecologically general, geographically widespread Mecyclothorax punctipennis (Macleay). PMID:23129989

  20. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013). PMID:27615918

  1. New Fijian Callidiopini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on examination of material collected as part of the NSF – Fiji Terrestrial Arthropod Survey, two new species of Callidiopini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are described from Fiji: Ceresium tuberculatum Waqa and Lingafelter (type locality: Fiji, Gau Island, 17.98ºS, 179.27ºE) and Lan...

  2. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus. PMID:23275755

  3. Revision of Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...

  4. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland).

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    During a period of three years (2006-2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid) and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB), species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990) for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna. PMID:21738426

  5. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    PubMed

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control. PMID:26786247

  6. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  7. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact

    PubMed Central

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years. PMID:21738422

  8. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801): Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Terry L.; White, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius), the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval Leptotrachelus dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of Leptotrachelus dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates), provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini. PMID:22679382

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the Trechus brucki group, with description of two new species from the Pyreneo-Cantabrian area (France, Spain) (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Faille, Arnaud; Bourdeau, Charles; Fresneda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A molecular phylogeny of the species from the Trechus brucki clade (previously Trechus uhagoni group)based on fragments of four mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene is given. We describe Trechus (Trechus) bouilloni sp. n. from the western pre–Pyrenees: Sierras de Urbasa–Andía, Navarra, Spain. The species was collected in mesovoid shallow substratum (mss), a subterranean environment. Molecular as well as morphological evidences demonstrate that the new species belongs to the Trechus brucki clade. A narrow endemic species of high altitude in western French Pyrenees merged with Trechus brucki Fairmaire, 1862a, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., is described. A lectotype is designated for Trechus brucki and Trechus planiusculus Fairmaire, 1862b (junior synonym of Trechus brucki). The species group is redefined based on molecular and morphological characters, and renamed as the brucki group, as Trechus brucki was the first described species of the clade. A unique synapomorphy of the male genitalia, a characteristic secondary sclerotization of the sperm duct, which is shared by all the species of the brucki group sensu novo, is described and illustrated. The Trechus brucki group sensu novo is composed of Trechus beusti (Schaufuss, 1863), Trechus bouilloni sp. n., Trechus brucki, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., Trechus grenieri Pandellé, 1867, T. uhagoni uhagoni Crotch, 1869, T. uhagoni ruteri Colas, 1935 and Trechus pieltaini Jeannel, 1920. We discuss the taxonomy of the group and provide illustrations of structures showing the differences between the species, along with distribution data and biogeographical comments. PMID:22977341

  10. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and springtails (Collembola) in a polder habitat

    PubMed Central

    Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design. PMID:21738425

  11. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact.

    PubMed

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years. PMID:21738422

  12. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  13. Evolution of Scaphinotus petersi (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and the role of climate and geography in the Madrean sky islands of southeastern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Sara Gran; Ober, Karen A.

    2013-03-01

    Geographically isolated environments such as the conifer forests atop the Madrean "sky islands" in southeastern Arizona provide natural laboratories for studying factors involved in speciation and origins of biodiversity. Using molecular and geospatial analyses, we examine beetle population phylogeny, regional climate records, and the Quaternary paleobiogeography of forests to evaluate four hypothetical scenarios regarding the current geographic and population genetic patterns of Scaphinotus petersi. Scaphinotus petersi is a large, flightless beetle that resides in the Madrean conifer forests above ~ 1900 m asl. Our results do not support the current hypothesis that S. petersi populations found on seven separate mountain ranges are genetically distinct and separated as temperatures warmed after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Rather, we show that only some of the ranges hold genetically distinct populations, and the timing of separation among the populations does not appear to coincide with specific climatic events such as warming trends. In addition, we show that predicted changes to the climate of the Madrean sky islands may result in the disappearance of S. petersi from some of the lower ranges by the end of this century.

  14. Belowground carabid beetle diversity in the western Palaearctic – effects of history and climate on range-restricted taxa (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Andreas; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Broad-scale patterns of subterranean diversity are a fascinating but neglected part of biodiversity research. Carabid beetles adapted to belowground habitats form a particularly species-rich part of the subterranean fauna. We studied large-scale diversity patterns of these belowground carabids across the western Palaearctic and evaluated potential impacts of historical and contemporary environmental conditions on the distribution of these taxa, using available species richness and environmental data at country level. Regression modelling and variation partitioning showed a strong relationship between species richness and range in elevation. Potential effects of climatic variables, mainly those related to ambient energy input, were much weaker. We discuss the implications of this combination of effects, which suggests, concordant with the absence of subterranean carabids in northern and highest richness in southern Europe, a strong prevailing influence of historical processes on current richness distributions of these taxa. Previous studies did not provide clear indications for such an influence. In contrast to more mobile and widespread carabid beetles, dispersal limitation due to high adaptation of belowground carabids to subterranean habitats has probably hindered their re-colonization of former permafrost and glaciated regions. Hotspots of highest belowground diversity are located in regions with an assumed long-term stability of environmental conditions, correlating with patterns of other dispersal-limited taxa such as many endemic plants. Our study provides important new information in the discussion of potential determinants of the distinct geographic patterns of belowground diversity. Moreover, it contributes to a better understanding of range size related differences previously found in the distribution of diversity and environmental dependencies of widespread and range-restricted species within the highly diverse carabid beetles. PMID:21738427

  15. A synopsis of the tribe Lachnophorini, with a new genus of Neotropical distribution and a revision of the Neotropical genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: ( geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; ( hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; ( pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l'Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided. PMID:25152663

  16. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, James C.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho. PMID:21852918

  17. Two new species of the ground beetle subgenus Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebria) from Japan and first description of larvae of the subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 is one of the more diverse subgenera of the genus Nebria Latreille, 1802 in East Asia, and its taxonomy remains unrevised at the subgeneric and specific levels. In this paper, two new species of this subgenus are described from Japan. Nebria quinquelobata sp. n. is described from Mt. Myôkô and is externally similar to Nebria saeviens Bates, 1883, to which specimens of this new species previously had been assigned. Nebria yatsugatakensis sp. n. is described from the Yatsugatake Mountains and is externally similar to locally adjacent species that had been recognized as Nebria sadona Bates, 1883 and were recently revealed as separate species. Both new species are distinguished by morphological (the shape of the endophallus) and morphometric (geometric morphometrics of the pronotum and aedeagus) features. For Nebria yatsugatakensis, the morphology of all larval instars is described based on specimens reared from eggs laid by collected adults. These results, together with previous studies of the species-level taxonomy of Sadonebria and larval morphology of other Nebria subgenera, suggest (i) the utility of geometric morphometrics in species-level taxonomy; (ii) the importance of larval secondary setae in the subgeneric taxonomy of the genus Nebria; and (iii) the presence of further cryptic species in Sadonebria. PMID:27110197

  18. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801): Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius), live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf shea...

  19. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  20. A synopsis of the tribe Lachnophorini, with a new genus of Neotropical distribution and a revision of the Neotropical genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Terry L.; Zamorano, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: (geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; (hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; (pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l’Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided. PMID:25152663

  1. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and springtails (Collembola) in a polder habitat.

    PubMed

    Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder "Ingelheim" to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder "Ingelheim". These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design. PMID:21738425

  2. A new species of Bembidion ( Ecuadion) from Ecuador (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini), with a key to members of the georgeballi species group

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, David R.; Toledano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of ground beetle, Bembidion ricei, is described from the Andes mountains of Ecuador east of Quito. It belongs to the georgeballi species group of subgenus Ecuadion, and is most similar to Bembidion georgeballi. A key to the species of the group is provided. PMID:23378801

  3. A new species of Amara (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zabrini) from Sichuan Province, China, with additional records for other Amara species from the region

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Fritz; Kavanaugh, David H.; Liang, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Amara (Bradytulus) shalulishanica Hieke & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Haizishan Yakou, 29.47366°N, 100.21921°E, 4623 m, Shalulishan, Zhuosang Township, Litang County, Sichuan Province, China) is described and diagnosed. Additional records are provided for 16 other Amara species, each of which represents one of five different geographical distribution types, which are discussed. PMID:23378815

  4. Description of the immature stages of Pentacomia (Mesochila) smaragdula Dejean 1825) (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae), with notes on the species distribution.

    PubMed

    Roza, André Silva; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest is one of the most threatened biomes of the world, with only 11-12 % of its original cover. The Cicindelinae are present in this biome with a relatively high diversity, but data of their immature forms are few. On the basis of six larvae and four pupae of Pentacomia (Mesochila) smaragdula we describe and illustrate the third larval instar of the larva and the pupa of this species. Notes on the species distribution are also given. PMID:26701489

  5. A new species of the genus Duvalius sg. Neoduvalius from Montenegro with taxonomical remarks on the genus Duvalius (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini)

    PubMed Central

    Lohaj, Roman; Čeplík, Dávid; Lakota, Ján

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Duvalius (sg. Neoduvalius) gejzadunayi sp. n. from Pećina u Dubokom potoku cave ( Donje Biševo village near Rožaje, Montenegro), the first known representative of this subgenus from the territory of Montenegro is described, illustrated and compared with the related species of the subgenus Neoduvalius Müller, 1913. This new species is characterised by depigmented, medium sized body, totally reduced eyes, deep and complete frontal furrows, 3–4 pairs of discal setae in third elytral stria, as well as by the shape of aedeagus. Data on the distribution and the ecology of this remarkable species, as well as a check-list of the subgenus Neoduvalius are also provided. Recently described genera Serboduvalius Ćurčić, S. B. Pavićević & Ćurčić, B.P.M., 2001, Rascioduvalius Ćurčić, S. B. Brajković, Mitić & Ćurčić, B.P.M., 2003, Javorella Ćurčić, S. B. Brajković, Ćurčić, B.P.M. & Mitić, 2003 and Curcicia Ćurčić, S. B. & Brajković, 2003 are regarded as junior synonyms of the genus Duvalius Delarouzée. PMID:23794830

  6. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    PubMed Central

    Matern, Andrea; Drees, Claudia; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form Carabus violaceus s. str. and the subspecies Carabus violaceus purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. Carabus violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property. PMID:21738433

  7. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Israel, with a key to the larval stages

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between twoground beetlesspecies Epomis dejeani (Dejean, 1831) and Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, 1812). We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. An identification key is given for the three larval instars of the two Epomis species. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults’ length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females. PMID:21998516

  8. A re-consideration of the taxonomic status of Nebria lacustris Casey (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini) based on multiple datasets – a single species or a species complex?

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Ledford, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study gathered evidence from principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric data and molecular analyses of nucleotide sequence data for four nuclear genes (28S, TpI, CAD1, and Wg) and two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S), using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. This evidence was combined with morphological and chorological data to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of Nebria lacustris Casey sensu lato. PCA demonstrated that both body size and one conspicuous aspect of pronotal shape vary simultaneously with elevation, latitude, and longitude and served to distinguish populations from the southern Appalachian highlands, south of the French Broad, from all other populations. Molecular analyses revealed surprisingly low overall genetic diversity within Nebria lacustris sensu lato, with only 0.39% of 4605 bp varied in the concatenated dataset. Evaluation of patterns observed in morphological and genetic variation and distribution led to the following taxonomic conclusions: (1) Nebria lacustris Casey and Nebria bellorum Kavanaugh should be considered distinct species, which is a NEW STATUS for Nebria bellorum. (2) No other distinct taxonomic subunits could be distinguished with the evidence at hand, but samples from northeastern Iowa, in part of the region known as the “Driftless Zone”, have unique genetic markers for two genes that hint at descent from a local population surviving at least the last glacial advance. (3) No morphometric or molecular evidence supports taxonomic distinction between lowland populations on the shores of Lake Champlain and upland populations in the adjacent Green Mountains of Vermont, despite evident size and pronotal shape differences between many of their members. PMID:22379387

  9. [Behavioral mechanisms of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and ground beetles (Carabidae)].

    PubMed

    Dorosheva, E A; Reznikova, Zh I

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral aspects of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and six mass species of Carabidae were studied in field and laboratory experiments. We showed that red wood ants essentially influence spatial distribution of ground beetles on their common territories. Transplantation experiments suggest that in newly established ants' settlements stronger forms of interrelations arise than in old stable colony. To examine the ability of beetles to avoid collisions with ants we used two experimental techniques. In laboratory, we tested carabids ability to avoid a clash in a Y-shaped labyrinth containing an active tethered ant in one section. In field experiments we compared quantitative characteristics of movements (such as crookedness of individual trajectories, speed of movement, the time spent on stops) for beetles placed close to ants foraging routes and on ant-free plots. All beetles studied displayed a clear tendency to learn, that is, to modity their behavior in order to avoid collisions with ants. Species that exhibited best parameters of learning were closer to ants by their size and characteristic movement, namely, Pterostichus oblogopunctatus and P. magus. Beetles' stereotyped behavioral tactics can be considered universal for avoiding collisions with any subject (for instance, with an ant) of a certain size and speed of movements. A set of tactics in the labyrinth included: (1) attempts to round the ant; (2) turns away after touching the ant with antennae; (3) turns away without a contact; (4) avoidances of a dangerous section; (5) stops near the ant with the antennae hidden. Comparing pairwise difference between four species shows that beetles use species-specific preference for definite combinations of tactics. Effective learning allows carabids to penetrate into ant foraging territory and partly avoide interference competition. It seems that red wood ants are not inclined to learn to avoid collisions with competing carabid species

  10. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  11. The genus Leptostylopsis of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...

  12. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  13. Tumidusternus, a new genus of Aspidimerini from China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lizhi; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumidusternus gen. n., along with Tumidusternus fujianensis sp. n. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Aspidimerini) from China is described and illustrated. A key to the tribe Aspidimerini is given. PMID:26257552

  14. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  15. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  16. The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Yu, Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We report the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The 16,919 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a partial control region. A phylogenetic tree has been built using the 13 protein-coding genes of 11 related species from Coleoptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Coleoptera. PMID:26094987

  17. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson. PMID:27615864

  18. Coleoptera of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an annotated checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.P.; Barr, W.F.; Johnson, J.B.

    1986-04-30

    An insect survey was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the summers of 1981-1983. This site is on the Snake River Plains in southeastern Idaho. Presented here is an annotated checklist of the Coleoptera collected. Successful collecting methods, dates of adult occurrence, and relative abundance are given for each species. Relevant biological information is also presented for some species.

  19. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  20. Temperature-dependent development of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...

  1. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  2. Checklist of the Coleoptera of New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174

  3. Diet based fitness variability of Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata (Herbst) is a species of North American native lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) that has come under great ecological duress over the past 30 years and is experiencing a significant decline throughout its native range. This species once was widely distributed across mos...

  4. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  5. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  6. Simulated climate-warming increases Coleoptera activity-densities and reduces community diversity in a cereal crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess one likely effect of global warming, we experimentally increased the temperature and precipitation of a coleopteran community (mainly Carabidae) of an agro-ecosystem. We simulated climate change on a field of spring wheat by experimentally increasing the temperature by 2°C using infrared h...

  7. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  8. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  9. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia. PMID:26701426

  10. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  11. Effects of a novel microsporidium on the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  12. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  13. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  14. A new species of Phymatodes Mulsant (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575

  15. Effects of a Novel Microsporidium on the Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  16. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  17. Similarities in pheromonal communication of flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and Ph. vittula Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...

  18. Primary types of Chinese longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...

  19. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  20. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  1. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  2. Revision of the East Mediterranean Orthomus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini), with description of Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. from Socotra Island and key to the Old World genera of subtribe Euchroina.

    PubMed

    Guéorguiev, Borislav; Wrase, David W; Farkač, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The East Mediterranean species of Orthomus Chaudoir, 1838 are revised. The type series of Feronia longula Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. berytensis Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873, O. sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, and O. berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955 were studied and lectotypes for the first four are designated. Also, the following nomenclatural acts are proposed: Feronia proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Feronia elongata Chaudoir, 1859, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Orthomus sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, syn. n. of Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873; Orthomus velocissimus andalusiacus Mateu, 1957, syn. n. of Orthomus velocissimus akbensis Mateu, 1955, new assignment for Orthomus berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955. As a result, three species of the genus inhabit the East Mediterranean biogeographical region: O. berytensis, O. longior, and O. longulus. A key to these three species is given. O. longior is recorded for Turkey and Syria for the first time. In addition, a new synonymy of two West Mediterranean taxa is proposed: O. szekessyi (Jedlička, 1956), syn. n. of O. balearicus (Piochard de la Brûlerie, 1868), and a new genus and a species are described: Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. (type locality: Republic of Yemen, Socotra Archipelago, Socotra Island, Fimihin env., 530 m.a.s.l.). Illustrations of the species dealt with here are provided including external characters, habitus, mentum and submentum, and genitalia are provided. Nine genera of the "African Series" of subtribe Euchroina Chaudoir, 1874 are keyed for the first time. Checklists of the species of Orthomus and of the Old World euchroine genera are given. PMID:25147463

  3. Revision of the East Mediterranean Orthomus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini), with description of Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. from Socotra Island and key to the Old World genera of subtribe Euchroina

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav; Wrase, David W.; Farkač, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The East Mediterranean species of Orthomus Chaudoir, 1838 are revised. The type series of Feronia longula Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. berytensis Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873, O. sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, and O. berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955 were studied and lectotypes for the first four are designated. Also, the following nomenclatural acts are proposed: Feronia proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Feronia elongata Chaudoir, 1859, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Orthomus sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, syn. n. of Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873; Orthomus velocissimus andalusiacus Mateu, 1957, syn. n. of Orthomus velocissimus akbensis Mateu, 1955, new assignment for Orthomus berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955. As a result, three species of the genus inhabit the East Mediterranean biogeographical region: O. berytensis, O. longior, and O. longulus. A key to these three species is given. O. longior is recorded for Turkey and Syria for the first time. In addition, a new synonymy of two West Mediterranean taxa is proposed: O. szekessyi (Jedlička, 1956), syn. n. of O. balearicus (Piochard de la Brûlerie, 1868), and a new genus and a species are described: Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. (type locality: Republic of Yemen, Socotra Archipelago, Socotra Island, Fimihin env., 530 m.a.s.l.). Illustrations of the species dealt with here are provided including external characters, habitus, mentum and submentum, and genitalia are provided. Nine genera of the “African Series” of subtribe Euchroina Chaudoir, 1874 are keyed for the first time. Checklists of the species of Orthomus and of the Old World euchroine genera are given. PMID:25147463

  4. Halocoryza Alluaud 1919, sea-side beetles of the Indian, Atlantic (sensu lato), and Pacific Oceans: a generic synopsis and description of a remarkable new species from Baja California Sur, México (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritini, Clivinina).

    PubMed

    Erwin, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Information on the three previously described species of Halocoryza Alluaud is updated and a new species for the genus from Isla Carmen, Sea of Cortés, Baja California Sur, México is described. Halocoryza whiteheadianasp. n. was found at UV light on a beach of that island. This species does not fit the profile of the other three species, i.e., living on coralline beach sands, or in the Mangrove intertidal zone. Two alternative possibilities as to why this is so are suggested and a study plan for testing these possibilities is proposed. PMID:21998544

  5. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes-Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892-are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand's initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea. PMID:22371667

  6. Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini): new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor M.; Reddell, James R.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues), 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel), 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel), 1963) and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas); A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas). A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region. PMID:25061356

  7. Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes–Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892–are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand’s initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea. PMID:22371667

  8. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles. PMID:26248935

  9. New taxa, notes and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2014-01-01

    New taxa, notes, and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) are given. New taxa are described from Ecuador: Compsibidion inflatum sp. nov., Bezarkia gen. nov. and B. suturalis sp. nov., Corimbion antennatum sp. nov. and Neocompsa muira sp. nov.; from México: Neocompsa chiapensis sp. nov., and from French Guyana: Kunaibidion giesberti sp. nov. Pygmodeon maculatum Martins & Galileo, 2012 is considered a new synonym of Heterachthes xyleus Martins, 1974 which is transferred to the genus Pygmodeon as a new combination. Notes on variability and new records of Asynapteron equatorianum (Martins, 1960) are presented. PMID:24869549

  10. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species. PMID:26250020

  11. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  12. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590

  13. Likelihood of multiple mating in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungkoo; Krupke, Christian H

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the mating ability of male western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), for 20 d after initial mating, using a series of laboratory experiments. Males mated an average of 2.24 times within 10 d after their first mating and averaged 0.15 matings between days 11 and 20 after their first mating. Because estimating the mating frequency in Bt/refuge cornfields is critical to developing robust and reliable models predicting Bt resistance development in this pest, we discuss how these laboratory findings may influence development and evaluation of current and future insect resistance management plans. PMID:20069837

  14. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in floor traps: the effect of previous captures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian Yi; Li, Lei; Xin, Tianrong; Wang, Yayu; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (GenBank accession number KT182067) by the long PCR and primer walking method. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 511 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a A + T-rich region (D-loop). The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The base composition of the genome is A (39.17%), T (37.24%), C (14.22%), and G (9.37%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codon and terminate with the stop codon T (AA) or TAG. The A + T-rich region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ile). In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of Coleoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Coleoptera species. PMID:26330111

  16. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes pusillus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Guanghua; Sun, Tanyi; Xin, Tianrong; Li, Meiyun; Zou, Zhiwen; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes pusillus (GenBank accession number KT070713) was sequenced by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15 502 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a A + T-rich region. The base composition of the genome is A (39.04%), T (37.07%), C (23.4%), and G (14.6%). Except for COI and ATP8 with TCC and ATC as start codon, respectively, the remaining protein-coding genes initiated with the three orthodox start codons. Two complete stop codons (TAA and TAG) and two incomplete stop codons (COIII stop with T and ND5 stop with TA) were used in the protein-coding genes. The A + T-rich region is located between 12s rRNA and tRNA(Ile) with the length of 859 bp. The phylogenetic relationships of Coleoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes of mitogenome using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogenetic analysis supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Coleoptera species. PMID:26329895

  18. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair. PMID:27375029

  19. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  20. Stevewoodia minutum, a new genus and species of Scolytidae (Coleoptera) from the West Indies. Studies on West Indian Scolytidae (Coleoptera) 6

    PubMed Central

    E. Bright, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of Scolytidae (Coleoptera), Stevewoodia, from St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles, is herein named and described. The type species, Stevewoodia minutum sp. n. is also named. The genus is named in honor of the late Steven L. Wood for his many contributions to the systematics of the Scolytidae. PMID:21594171

  1. A study on the Neotropical Anthaxiini (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907

  2. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  3. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, I; Beutel, R G; Balke, M; Vogler, A P

    2002-01-01

    The six extant aquatic families of Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) known so far represent a diverse group of beetles morphologically highly modified for life in the water. We report the discovery of a new genus with two species from South Africa and China, which differ greatly from all extant families, but resemble the Jurassic-Cretaceous dagger Liadytidae (the dagger symbol indicates that the taxa are known only as fossils). Based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data we erect a new family, Aspidytidae, which is the sister group of Dytiscidae plus Hygrobiidae. We propose a new scenario for the evolution of swimming behaviour in adephagan beetles, in which the transition into the aquatic environment is followed by complex and repeated changes in lifestyles, including the secondary complete loss of swimming ability in Aspidytidae. PMID:12495503

  4. Biology and Management of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Turfgrass

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080

  5. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  6. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  7. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  8. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines) recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated. One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838), one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911) for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911), Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919), are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5) are established. The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1), a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2), a list of Geadephaga species

  9. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  10. Host plant oviposition preference of Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera:Apionidae), a potential biological control agent of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  12. Non-constant thermal regimes enhance overwintering success and accelerate diapause development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....

  13. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  14. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies on the life history, behavior and ecology of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to determine if it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs ...

  15. A new species of Hypoaspis Canestrini (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) associated with Oryctes sp. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Omid; Shahedi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Hypoaspis Canestrini, Hypoaspis surenai sp. n., is described based on adult female specimens collected in association with Oryctes sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Taft, Yazd province, Iran. PMID:27110181

  16. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  17. Utility of morphological and molecular techniques for determination of paternity in two subspecies of Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the paternity of F1 progeny using morphological and molecular methods in Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) subspecies: Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, also known as spotted cucumber beetle and D. undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, als...

  18. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) response to soybean variety and organic-compliant treatments in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to concerns from certified organic producers who were experiencing significant market losses due to seed staining of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated alternative ways to manage bean leaf beetles [Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a known vector for...

  19. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  20. Chemical Control of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...

  1. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...

  2. ACOUSTIC ESTIMATION OF INFESTATIONS AND POPULATION DENSITIES OF WHITE GRUBS (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidental sounds produced by Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs were acoustically monitored in turf fields and golf course fairways. A one-sensor acoustic system was used to assess the likelihood of infestation and a four-sensor array was used to facilitate localization ...

  3. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  4. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  5. Rhyzodiastes (Temoana) xii sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Rhysodidae: Clinidiini),
    a new species from Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Rhyzodiastes (Temoana) xii sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Rhysodidae: Clinidiini) is described from Hainan Island, China. Important morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. An updated key to nine species of of the R. (T.) singularis species-group is compiled so as to include the new species. PMID:27395589

  6. An Annotated Checklist of the Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An annotated list of 80 species of lady beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) that occur in the state of Iowa, U.S.A., is presented based on literature searches and a review of over 3500 specimens from institutional and private collections. The list includes new state records for Scymnus tenebrosus M...

  7. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  8. THE PRESENCE OF TIBIAL SPURS AS A MALE SEXUAL CHARACTER FOR GALERUCELLA CALMARIENIS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Close examination (20-30X) of tibia of Galerucella calmariensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) showed that some of these leaf beetles had a single black-colored spur at the distal end of the tibia. These spurs were only observed on the meso- and metatibia and were clearly contrasted against the l...

  9. Diversity of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attracted to avocado, lychee, and essential oil lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...

  10. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  11. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  12. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  13. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

  14. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  15. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  16. Impact of corn variety on potential predators of larval corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.) are serious pests of maize around the world. Larvae feed on corn roots, which reduces uptake of water and nutrients and lowers plant yield. Current control practices rely on soil insecticides or genetically modified corn varieties. Although some researche...

  17. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  18. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models. PMID:27497607

  19. Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Buckley, Thomas R

    2007-02-01

    The dominance of angiosperms has played a direct role in the diversification of insects, especially Coleoptera. The shift to angiosperm feeding from other diets is likely to have increased the rate of speciation in Phytophaga. However, Phytophaga is only one of many hyperdiverse lineages of beetles and studies of host-shift proliferation have been somewhat limited to groups that primitively feed on plants. We have studied the diet-diverse beetle family Erotylidae (Cucujoidea) to determine if diet is correlated with high diversification rates and morphological evolution by first reconstructing ancestral diets and then testing for associations between diet and species number and diet and ovipositor type. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of morphological data that was previously published in Leschen (2003, Pages 1-108 in Fauna of New Zealand, 47; 53 terminal taxa and 1 outgroup, 120 adult characters and 1 diet character) yielded results that are similar to the parsimony analyses of Leschen (2003). Ancestral state reconstructions based on Bayesian and parsimony inference were largely congruent and both reconstructed microfungal feeding (the diet of the outgroup Biphyllidae) at the root of the Erotylidae tree. Shifts among microfungal, saprophagous, and phytophagous diets were most frequent. The largest numbers of species are contained in lineages that are macrofungal feeders (subfamily Erotylinae) and phytophagous (derived Languriinae), although the Bayesian posterior predictive tests of character state correlation were unable to detect any significant associations. Ovipositor morphology correlated with diet (i.e., acute forms were associated with phytophagy and unspecialized forms were associated with a mixture of diets). Although there is a general trend to increased species number associated with the shift from microfungal feeding to phytophagy (based on character mapping and mainly restricted to shifts in Languriinae), there is a large radiation of taxa feeding on

  20. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. PMID:26487745

  1. Bacteria from Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their biocontrol potential.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Ali; Gökçe, Cihan; Erbaş, Zeynep; Ozkan, Filiz

    2012-12-01

    Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the spruce trees in Europe. In this study, we have isolated and characterized culturable bacteria from I. sexdentatus and tested their insecticidal activity against the last instar larvae of the pest as a possible biocontrol agent. A total of eight bacterial isolates was determined and four of them were identified at species level, and the others were identified at genus level. Isolates were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Is1), Rahnella sp. (Is2), Pseudomonas sp. (Is3), Bacillus sp. (Is4), Alcaligenes faecalis (Is5), Panteoea agglomerans (Is6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) and Serratia sp. (Is8) based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Insecticidal effects of bacterial isolates were performed on the last instar larvae of the pest. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from P. fluorescens (Is7) with 73% mortality within 10 days after inoculation (p < 0.05). Mortality values of the other isolates ranged from 20 to 53%. This study suggests that Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) seems to be a good candidate as a possible biocontrol agent against I. sexdentatus, and provides suitable strains that can be modified to express insecticidal toxins and/or other detrimental substances to develop new control methods for I. sexdentatus. PMID:22581609

  2. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given. PMID:27615867

  3. The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated. PMID:27394368

  4. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xy(p) and XY(p) clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  5. A chromosomal analysis of eleven species of Gyrinidae (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347

  6. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) *

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  7. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  8. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  9. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Han, Haibin; Pang, Baoping; Zhang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    Abstracts Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of important pests in the Inner Mongolia grasslands. The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The genome is 16 615 bp long, with an AT content of 78.1%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. All 13 PCGs share the start codon ATN, and the usual termination codons (TAA and TAG) are found from 13 protein-coding genes, except for COI, COII, and ND4 (T). All the 22 typical animal tRNA genes are found in G. daurica mt-genome, and most of the tRNAs could be folded into the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA-Ser (AGN), which lacks the dihydrouracil (DHU) stem. The sizes of the large ribosomal RNA genes are 1276 bp long and small ribosomal RNA genes are 747 bp long. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 79.0%. Phylogenetic analysis supports that the coleopteran insects from the same family cluster in the same group, and Chrysomelidae and Tenebrionidae are basal to the Cerambycidae. Galeruca daurica has a closest relationship with Diabrotica barberi and Diabrotica virgifera. PMID:26122336

  11. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  12. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C

    2013-04-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D

  13. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361

  14. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided. PMID:27470742

  15. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  16. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided.  PMID:25283110

  17. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  18. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  19. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  20. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-01-01

    Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m.), and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m.) phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P < 0.05) with different prey, predator and volume combinations, revealed through univariate ANOVA. The field study revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in larval density of different species of mosquitoes after 30 days from the introduction of A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in larval density was noted indicating the efficacy of A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito

  1. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  2. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    PubMed

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer. PMID:26476555

  3. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced. PMID:26743218

  4. Recent Records of Adalia Bipunctata (L.), Coccinella Transversoguttata Richardsoni Brown and, Coccinella Novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from South Dakota and Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and C. novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were previously common throughout much of North America, but their numbers have declined drastically over the last few decades. This paper reports on recent findings of thes...

  5. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  6. Seven New Species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic with Taxonomic Notes, New Country Records, and a Key to Elaphidion Audinet-Serville from Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new species, two new combinations, two new synonyms, and four new country records of Elaphidiini longhorned woodborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic are presented. Elaphidion compressipenne Fisher is transferred to Ceresium Newman as C. compressipenne (Fisher), new c...

  7. SEMIOCHEMICAL-MEDIATED FLIGHT RESPONSES OF SAP BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:NITDULIDAE) VECTORS OF OAK WILT, CERATOCYSTIS FAGACEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sap beetle, Colopterus truncatus (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), is one of the primary vectors of the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, in the north central United States. Male beetles emit an aggregation pheromone that attracts both sexes. Field behavioral assays utilizing various release...

  8. Olfactory and visual responses of the long-legged chafer hoplia spectabilis medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Qinghai province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-legged chafer, Hoplia spectabilis Medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has recently been recorded in outbreak numbers in pastureland of Qinghai province, China. It is causing significant damage to several species of woody shrubs, especially Hippophae neurocarpa Liu and Ho (Elaeagnaceae), D...

  9. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  10. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  11. Quantitative relationship between potato tuber damage and counts of Pacific Coast wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in baits: seasonal effects.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plots were baited with rolled oats in spring to assess the relationship between counts of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and damage to potato tubers. Baiting was done at 7 intervals beginning before planting of potatoes and ending following germination. Injury (per...

  12. Responses of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), to Relative Humidity: Oviposition, Hatch and Immature Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a predator of whiteflies. It is tropical in origin. Whiteflies are agricultural problems in environments ranging from humid to arid conditions. A study was conducted to determine if there were any humidity effects on oviposition, hatching...

  13. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  14. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  15. Catalog of the coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Family: Curculionidae. Subfamily: Polydrosinae. Tribe: Tanymecini. Agriculture handbook (Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).

  16. Introduction and Recovery of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...

  17. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  18. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  19. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...

  20. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  1. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  2. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  3. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  4. Redescription of the Hispaniolan ladybird genus Bura Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and justification for its transfer from Coccidulinae to Sticholotidinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the current work, we discuss the features of Bura (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) that justify its transfer from Coccidulinae to Sticholotidinae, speculate on circumstances that led to its prior misclassification, and highlight current problems in the delineation of the afforementioned lady beetle su...

  5. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  6. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) nematodes in a morphologically aberrant adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...

  7. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  8. The effects of temperature, diet, and other factors on development, survivorship, and oviposition of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental rate and survivorship of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), life stages were measured across different temperatures (21, 25, 28, 32 and 35ºC) and diets, which included natural and artiÞcial pollen, honey, and bee pupae. Temperature affected hatch su...

  9. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  10. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  11. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  12. Influence of environmental and physical factors on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) trap captures in a flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental and physical variables in food processing facilities can influence both the distribution of stored-product pests and the effectiveness of traps at capturing them. Data from a long-term Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) monitoring program was used to evaluate spat...

  13. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  14. An effective trap and bait combination for monitoring the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is a pest of European honeybees Apis mellifera mellifera (L.) in the United States. This paper reports field tests of an effective trap and bait combination for monitoring flying SHB. The bait consisted of pollen dough (...

  15. Identification of feeding stimulants for Pacific coast wireworm by use of a filter paper assay (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...

  16. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), flea beetles imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...

  18. Efficacy of layer treatment with methoprene for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice, and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect growth regulators are promising alternatives to traditional pesticides in stored grain. The efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene was evaluated as a layer treatment in a laboratory experiment for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat, rice and...

  19. Susceptibility of Persea spp. and other Lauraceae to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...

  20. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde. PMID

  1. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde

  2. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  3. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  4. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  5. On the family- and genus-series nomina in Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (Coleoptera, Adephaga).

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2013-01-01

    All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851. PMID:25277555

  6. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  7. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap-catch and seed predation by ground beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on non-target organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species composition a...

  8. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We determined the number and identity of bacterial populations occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalc...

  9. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  10. Abundance, diversity and community characterization of aquatic Coleoptera in a rice field of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A

    2015-09-01

    Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna. PMID:26666120

  11. Adaptation of the egg of the desert beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  12. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits. PMID:22245358

  13. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  14. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  15. Immediate and delayed mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults exposed to spinosad-treated commodities.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Anna Iversen; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests was conducted to characterize differences in the mortality of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to three commodities treated with a liquid and dry spinosad formulation. In laboratory bioassays, adults of the two insect species were exposed to untreated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., and to commodities treated with 1 mg (AI)/kg of liquid and dry spinosad formulations. Mortality was assessed from independent samples examined at specific time intervals to determine immediate mortality and after 24 h of recovery on untreated grain at 28 degrees C and 65% RH to determine delayed mortality. Comparison of the time required for 50% (LT50) and 95% (LT95) mortality indicated that R. dominica adults were consistently and significantly more susceptible (died quickly) than S. oryzae adults when exposed to spinosad-treated commodities. In general, the toxicity of liquid and dry spinosad formulations was similar against R. dominica or S. oryzae. The toxicity of spinosad to each species varied slightly among the three commodities, and there were no consistent trends to suggest that spinosad was more effective on one commodity versus another. LT50 values based on immediate mortality for R. dominica on all commodities ranged from 0.45 to 0.74 d; corresponding values based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.04 to 0.23 d, suggesting delayed toxic action of spinosad in R. dominica. LT50 values based on immediate and delayed mortality for S. oryzae on all three commodities treated with the two spinosad formulations were essentially similar and ranged from 2.75 to 4.56 d. LT95 values for R. dominica based on immediate mortality on spinosad-treated commodities ranged from 1.75 to 3.36 d, and those based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.49 to 1.88 d. There were no significant differences in

  16. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured. PMID:27615939

  17. Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited. PMID:24295919

  18. A new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 from Amazonian Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lycidae) with an updated key to the species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2016-01-01

    While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America. PMID:27394794

  19. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  20. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  1. A new brachypterous scarab species, Orphnus longicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), from the East African Rift.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below. PMID:26624632

  2. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  3. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB-endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  4. Development of a Nondestructive Method for Sexing Live Adult Sternoplax souvorowiana (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang

    2015-01-01

    The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924

  5. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body. PMID:12729271

  6. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  7. The investigation of heavy element accumulation in some Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Zeynep; Gürol, Ali; İncekara, Ümit

    2016-04-01

    First of all, this study aimed to find out the measures of some heavy elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb) as heavy element pollution in Erzurum Province, and secondly to observe whether some hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species can be used as a biomonitor. Insect samples were collected from five different localities of Erzurum in June, July, and August 2014. Heavy element levels in sediment, water, and insect samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer device. According to the results of analysis derived through EDXRF spectrometry, heavy element concentrations display differences between stations and also species. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and water; therefore, some hydrophilidae species accumulate higher concentration of elements than their environment. Results for levels in water were compared to national water quality guidelines. The values of some heavy elements found at higher concentration than acceptable limits. PMID:26935735

  8. The first complete mitochondrial genome of stag beetle from China, Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group. PMID:26024142

  9. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  10. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  11. Adaptation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bt maize: inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Cibils-Stewart, Ximena; French, B Wade; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-08-01

    We examined inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs for a laboratory-selected strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with resistance to maize (Zea maize L.) producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1. The resistant strain developed faster and had increased survival on Bt maize relative to a susceptible strain. Results from reciprocal crosses of the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that inheritance of resistance was nonrecessive. No fitness costs were associated with resistance alleles in the presence of two entomopathogenic nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar. Larval feeding studies indicated that the susceptible and resistant strains did not differ in preference for Bt and non-Bt root tissue in choice assays. PMID:22928323

  12. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  13. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  14. Taxonomy of Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): new species and a status change.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Carmen T; Scholtz, Clarke H; Strümpher, Werner P

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the Cape high-mountain stag beetle genus, Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), from South Africa are described. They are C. deschodti new species, C. switalae new species, and C. struempheri new species. The new taxa fall within a species complex of geographically disjunct entities related to Colophon stokoei Barnard. Furthermore, the mitochondrial COI gene shows a high degree of sequence divergence, with pairwise genetic distances between the species ranging between 7.4-10.7%. The new species are illustrated by photographs. Colophon eastmani nagaii Mizukami is raised to species level on the basis of geographic range and molecular differences between it and the nominate subspecies. This brings the total number of described species in the genus to 21. An updated checklist of the South African species of Colophon is also provided. PMID:26701471

  15. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  16. New synonyms, combinations and faunistic records in the genus Denierella Kaszab (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed. PMID:26623605

  17. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  18. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  19. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to female-produced macrocyclic lactone and to ash bark volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive beetle species from Asia that has caused extensive mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since arriving in the U.S. in 2002. Especially hard hit are green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), a...

  20. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a brief history of the collection.

    PubMed

    Monné, Miguel A; Monné, Marcela L

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is given. There are 1,044 primary types. Lectotype designation for Megacyllene castroi (Prosen, 1947) is proposed. A brief history of the collection of Cerambycidae of the Museu Nacional is presented. PMID:27394892

  1. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  2. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  3. Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...

  4. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  5. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  6. Brood production by Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and growth of its fungal symbiont on artificial diet based on sawdust of different species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blanford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US. It attacks a wide range of hosts and is difficult to control using conventional insecticides. As part of our studies on the biology and cont...

  7. Effects of combined thiamethoxam and diatomaceous earth on mortality and progeny production of four Pakistani populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...

  8. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  9. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  10. The host range and impact of Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising candidate agent for biological control of Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...

  11. Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Reproductive Biology and Diapause of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  12. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  13. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the USA, reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  14. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona czwalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a flea beetle imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). A black beetle,Aphthona czwalinae, was one of the first species to be released in the late ...

  16. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  17. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  18. Coleoptera and microbe biomass in Antarctic Dry Valley paleosols adjacent to the Inland Ice: Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.

  19. New replacement name for the species Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, 2015 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)--not an American pest.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian L V; Stals, Riaan; Deschodt, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    In their review of the subgenus Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) Balthasar, 1965 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Deschodt et al. (2015) described seven new species from Africa. One of these was Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, known by only twelve specimens from Botswana. This new name is preoccupied by Scarabaeus nitidus Linnaeus, 1758, a fact that was overlooked. The latter species has been known as Cotinis nitida (Linnaeus) since Burmeister (1842) placed the species in his new genus Cotinis. It belongs to the subfamily Cetoniinae of Scarabaeidae, is called the Green June Beetle, and is a common pest species throughout most of the eastern United States (Goodrich 1966; Woodruff 2008). PMID:26701500

  20. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  1. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  2. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458

  3. Convergent evolution of cucurbitacin feeding in spatially isolated rootworm taxa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae, Luperini).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Kjer, Karl M; Duckett, Catherine N; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2003-10-01

    Historically, chemical ecologists assumed that cucurbitacin feeding and sequestration in rootworm leaf beetles is a remnant of an ancient association between the Luperini (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae) and Cucurbitaceae (ancestral host hypothesis). Under this premise, rootworms that do not develop on cucurbits but undergo pharmacophagous forays for cucurbitacins are thought to do so to supplement novel host diets that lack these bitter compounds. The ancestral host hypothesis is supported from studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloid pharmacophagy in Lepidoptera but has not been subjected to phylogenetic analysis within the Luperini. New evidence that this feeding behavior is better correlated with an adult affinity for pollen than with larval host offers the possibility that Old and New World rootworm species with an affinity for cucurbitacins converged on this behavior through apomorphic taste receptor modifications (loose receptor hypothesis). Here we test the monophyly of cucurbitacin feeding within the Luperini by using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 49 taxa representing tribes of the Galerucinae and subtribes of the Luperini. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is mostly concordant with existing tribal and subtribal delineations within the Subfamily Galerucinae sensu stricto (Galerucinae not including the flea beetles). The establishment of ancestry among the subtribes of the Luperini refutes the monophyly of cucurbitacin feeding and cucurbit specialization, with the New World Diabroticina being paraphyletic to the Old World Aulacophorina and cosmopolitan Luperina. These data unambiguously support the convergent evolution of cucurbitacin feeding in rootworms and are inconsistent with the ancestral host hypothesis. PMID:12967617

  4. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  5. Molecular identification of Epitrix potato flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Germain, Jean-François; Chatot, Catherine; Meusnier, Isabelle; Artige, Emmanuelle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Epitrix species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed mostly on plants from the family Solanaceae and some of them are major pests of potato crops. All Epitrix species are morphologically highly similar, which makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. Identification of species is mostly based on the observation of the genitalia and requires a high level of expertise. Here, we propose a tool to reliably identify all developmental stages of the most economically important Epitrix species feeding on potato in Europe and North America (Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix similaris, Epitrix tuberis, Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix hirtipennis). We first sequenced two DNA markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) to test their effectiveness in differentiating among six Epitrix species (126 specimens). Morphospecies of Epitrix were well-differentiated by both DNA barcodes and no mitochondrial introgression was detected. Then, we developed an RFLP-based diagnostic method and showed that unambiguous species discrimination can be achieved by using the sole restriction enzyme TaqI on COI polymerase chain reaction products. The tool proposed here should improve our knowledge about Epitrix species biology, distribution and host range, three capacities that are particularly important in the detection and management of these pest species. Specifically, this tool should help prevent the introduction of E. tuberis and E. subcrinita in Europe and limit the spread of the recently introduced E. cucumeris and E. similaris, with minimal disruption to Solanaceae trade. PMID:23448201

  6. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. PMID:26470205

  7. Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) collected during the long term ecological research in a Hungarian oak forest.

    PubMed

    Balog, Adalbert; Marko, Viktor; Adam, Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    Along term ecological research was carried out in a Hungarian oak forest, in "Bükk" National Park starting with 1972. During the faunistical studies 3,602 insect species and more than 200,000 individuals were collected. The dominant orders were Coleoptera (1,051 species), Lepidoptera (803 species), Hymenoptera (470 species) and Diptera (400 species). The relative species abundance (RSA) for all insects collected in all years of sampling period suggests a rather J shape curve than a not clear scaling property. This means that we were able to identify almost three quarters of the insect species from one ha European oak forest during the survey (from 1987 to 2003), and two third of the staphylinides expected. Considering the staphylinid fauna a total number of 160 species and 4,022 individuals were collected. The most widely occurring species in dominance order were: Ocypus biharicus, Pseudocypus mus, Atheta gagatina, Philonthus quisquiliarius, Oxypoda acuminate, Platydracus chalcocephalus, Atheta crassicomis, Latrimaeum atrocephalum, Haploglossa puncticollis, Philonthus succicola and Anotylus mutator. The pooled value of alpha diversity was 1.51. The Shannon-Weiner Index (H') was relatively high (3.29) in comparison with other studies. PMID:18831387

  8. Evaluating light attraction to increase trap efficiency for Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Duehl, A J; Cohnstaedt, L W; Arbogast, R T; Teal, P E A

    2011-08-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a major coleopteran pest in flour mills and storage facilities. An aggregation pheromone has been identified for this pest; however, the pheromone is of limited value for population monitoring. To develop more efficient methods to monitor this pest, experiments were conducted to determine whether light functioned as an attractant for the red flour beetle. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of various wavelengths were examined as light sources because they produce bright, narrow light spectra. A comparison of responses to light spectra across the visible and UV regions of the electromagnetic spectrum indicated that the beetle was most attracted to near UV LED at a 390 nm dominant wavelength. The use of LEDs in competitive laboratory experiments resulted in a 20% capture of released beetles, compared with a 1% capture with the aggregation pheromone alone. Even more beetles were captured with a combination of LEDs and commercially available chemical lures in traps. LEDs can easily be added onto existing trap designs or new traps can be designed to take full advantage of positive phototaxis. PMID:21882713

  9. Pathogenicity of Isolates of Serratia Marcescens towards Larvae of the Scarab Phyllophaga Blanchardi (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910

  10. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mycetophagidae, Tetratomidae, and Melandryidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895

  11. [Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in agroecological system].

    PubMed

    Lixa, Alice T; Campos, Juliana M; Resende, André L S; Silva, Joice C; Almeida, Maxwell M T B; Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their efficiency as biological control agents. Among the predatory insects, Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) on many different species both as larvae and adults, complementing their diet with pollen and/or nectar. This study aimed to determine the diversity and relative abundance of Coccinellidae species visiting plants of Anethum graveolens (dill), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel) (all Apiaceae), particularly in their blooming seasons, and to evaluate the potential of these aromatic species for providing the resources for survivorship and reproduction of coccinelids. Coccinellids were collected by removal of samplings from September to October, 2007. Besides one unidentified species of Chilocorinae, five species of Coccinellinae were collected: Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Meneville. Dill provided a significant increase in the abundance of coccinellids as compared to coriander and sweet fennel. These aromatic species were used by coccinellids as survival and reproduction sites, providing food resources (pollen and/or prey), shelter for larvae, pupae and adults, and mating and oviposition sites as well. PMID:20676507

  12. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms. PMID:18392795

  13. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550

  14. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  15. The potential of irradiation as a postharvest disinfestation treatment against Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Duvenhage, A J; Johnson, S A

    2014-02-01

    Phlyctinus callosus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of major phytosanitary concern for some of South Africa's biggest export markets such as the United States and Europe because this pest does not occur there. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the only postharvest disinfestation treatment against this pest; therefore, sustainable alternatives are needed. One such alternative is irradiation treatment of whole pallets of packed fruit to sterilize insects that may be present within the cartons. Wild adult P. callosus weevils were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Gy of gamma-irradiation and then cross mated to breed with either treated or nontreated adults of the opposite sex. Fecundity and fertility were monitored and recorded. Trials were conducted during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 fruit harvesting seasons. The results from both seasons indicated that irradiation did not affect fecundity but fertility was significantly affected, decreasing as irradiation doses increased. Egg hatch was zero for mating crosses that involved females weevils treated with a dose of 80 Gy gamma-irradiation. Probit analysis indicated that in the first season, the estimated LD95 for crosses involving treated males and treated females was 30 Gy, while in the second season it was 49.5 Gy. Respective estimated LD99S were 47.9 and 169.4 Gy. Ultimately, a dose lower than the current generic dose of 400 Gy, approved for irradiation disinfestation treatments, would control P. callosus should they occur in packed export fruit. PMID:24665697

  16. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  17. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  18. Cold hardiness of Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in different populations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuqian; Xu, Lili; Tian, Bing; Tao, Jing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2014-10-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is distributed widely in China, where it causes severe damage to forests, and is a quarantine pest in Europe, the United States, and Canada. A. glabripennis overwinters as dormant larvae to avoid adverse environmental conditions. To elucidate the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae, the supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and cold hardiness-related compounds were examined in overwintering larva from five populations in China (Yili, Yanchi, Wulateqianqi, Beijing, and Dezhou). The results showed that the SCP and FP differed significantly among populations, where the SCP of larvae in the Wulateqianqi population was the lowest and highest in the Beijing population. The water, fat, and glycogen contents also differed significantly among the five populations. The SCPs of larvae from all five populations were proportional to glycogen contents, but had no association with water contents and fat contents. The total contents of seven low-molecular weight compounds (glycerol, galactose, glucose, mannose, sorbitol, inositol, and trehalose) differed significantly among populations. Thus, A. glabripennis larvae from different geographical populations contained different sugars or sugar alcohols (especially glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, and trehalose), which helped them to resist cold temperatures. This study provides basic information about that may facilitate the prediction of distribution range expansions and ensure proper implementation of the integrated management of A. glabripennis populations. PMID:25202887

  19. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  20. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  1. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  2. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis. PMID:23949856

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  5. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  6. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest's life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  7. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Mu, Feng-Juan; Ao, Liang; Zhao, Hua-Bin; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), is an aquatic firefly species, whose larvae inhabit ponds or lakes. Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the firefly (GenBank accession number KP313820) and provide its annotation. This circular genome is 16,248 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Similar to other firefly species, the base composition of this mitochondrial genome is also biased toward A and T (44.09% A, 34.00% T, 12.89% C, and 9.01% G). All 13 protein-coding genes start with a typical mitochondrial start codon, and terminate with a usual stop codon TAA, or TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region (1636 bp in length) include one (A)20, and two (T)15 tandem repeats, and one (AAT)5 element. This mitochondrial genome sequence will promote a better understanding for firefly evolution in the future. PMID:25714154

  8. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A

    2011-04-01

    Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control. PMID:21510190

  9. Predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) larvae avoid cannibalism by recognizing prey.

    PubMed

    Inoda, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism. PMID:22943777

  10. Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Noriko; Sunairi, Michio; Anzai, Hirosi; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Yamane, Akiomi; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae), are an example of a saprophage insect. Generally, Scarabaeid larvae, such as T. dichotomus, eat dead plant matter that has been broken down by fungi, such as Basidiomycota. It is thought that β-1,3-glucan, a constituent polysaccharide in microbes, is abundant in decayed plant matter. Studies of the degradation mechanism of β-1,3-glucan under these circumstances are lacking. In the current study, we sought to clarify the relationship between the capacity to degrade polysaccharides and the food habits of the larvae. The total activities and optimum pH levels of several polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from the larvae were investigated. The foregut, midgut and hindgut of final instar larvae were used. Enzymatic activities were detected against five polysaccharides (soluble starch, β-1,4-xylan, β-1,3-glucan, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose) and four glycosides (p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-β-N-acetylglucosaminide, PNP-β-mannoside, PNP-β-glucoside and PNP-β-xyloside). Our results indicate that the digestive tract of the larvae is equipped with a full enzymatic system for degrading β-1,3-glucan and β-1,4-xylan to monomers. This finding elucidates the role of the polysaccharide-digesting enzymes in the larvae, and it is suggested that the larvae use these enzymes to enact their decomposition ability in the forest environment. PMID:26462688

  11. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors' experience. PMID:25977817

  12. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  13. Instability of copronecrophagous beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in a mountainous tropical landscape of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Halffter, Gonzalo; Pineda, Eduardo; Arellano, Lucrecia; Escobar, Federico

    2007-12-01

    We analyzed changes over time in species composition and functional guild structure (temporal beta diversity) for natural assemblages and those modified by humans in a fragmented, tropical mountain landscape. The assemblages belong to cloud forests (the original vegetation type), secondary forests, traditional shaded coffee plantations, commercial shaded coffee plantations, and a cattle pasture. Copronecrophagous beetles, subfamily Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were used as the indicator group. This group has been used in previous studies and other tropical forests and has been found to be a good indicator of the effects of anthropogenic change. For each assemblage, we compared samples that were collected several years apart. Changes were found in species composition, order of abundance, and in the proportion that a given species is present in the different functional groups. The changes that occurred between samplings affected the less abundant species in the cloud forest and in the pasture. In the other vegetation types, both abundant and less abundant species were affected. Their order of abundance and proportion in the different guilds also changed. This study shows that, although landscape richness remains relatively constant, richness at the local level (alpha diversity) changes notably even over short lapses of time. This could be a characteristic of landscapes with intermediate degrees of disturbance (such as those that have been partially modified for human use), where assemblage composition is very fluid. PMID:18284767

  14. First transcriptional survey of the Malpighian tubules of giant mealworm, Zophobas morio (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Prado, R A; Amaral, D T; Viviani, V R

    2015-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules play a key role in insect osmoregulation. Although a transcriptional analysis has been done for the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), no functional genomics analysis has yet been carried out for any Coleoptera species. Recently, we constructed a cDNA library from Malpighian tubules of larval Zophobas morio, a close relative of Tribolium castaneum, and cloned the cDNA for an AMP/CoA-ligase with luciferase-like enzyme properties. Using this cDNA library, we randomly isolated, partially sequenced and analyzed ca. 540 clones, obtaining the first transcriptional profile of the most representative expressed genes, and associated them with their possible biological functions. A high percentage of mitochondrial genes was found, which is consistent with the high metabolic activity required by this organ during the formation of primary urine. Common transcripts included those for enzymes involved in osmoregulation, such as solute transporters and ATPases, and in detoxification and excretion, such as cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, alcohol dehydrogenase. The presence of AMP/CoA-ligases, which activate exogenous carboxylic acids such as firefly D-luciferin suggests their participation in important new xenobiotic excretion/detoxification roles in Malpighian tubule physiology. PMID:25729980

  15. Heated-controlled atmosphere postharvest treatments for Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, S A; Neven, L G

    2011-04-01

    Nonchemical, environmentally friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated to determine the potential of such treatments for quarantine security. Field-collected, aestivating M. diplopterus adults and P. callosus adults were treated using a controlled atmosphere waterbath system. This system simulates the controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system (CATTS) used to control a number of phytosanitary pests in the United States and allows for a rapid assessment of pest response to treatment. Insects were treated under regular air conditions and a controlled atmosphere of 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide in nitrogen, at two ramping heat rates, 12 and 24 degrees C/h. Treatment of both species was more effective under both heating rates when the controlled atmosphere condition was applied. Under these conditions of controlled atmospheres, mortality of P. callosus was greater when the faster heating rate was used, but the opposite was true for M. diplopterus. This could be due to the physiological condition of aestivation contributing to metabolic arrest in response to the stresses being applied during treatment. Results indicate that the potential for the development of CATTS treatments for these phytosanitary pests, particularly P. callosus, is promising. PMID:21510185

  16. Culturable bacterial microbiota of Plagiodera versicolora (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and virulence of the isolated strains.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Meryem; Sevim, Elif; Demir, İsmail; Sevim, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important forest pest which damages many trees such as willow, poplar, and hazelnut. In order to find new microbes that can be utilized as a possible microbial control agent against this pest, we investigated the culturable bacterial flora of it and tested the isolated bacteria against P. versicolora larvae and adults. We were able to isolate nine bacteria from larvae and adults. The isolates were characterized using a combination of morphological, biochemical, and physiological methods. Additionally, we sequenced the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to verify conventional identification results. Based on characterization studies, the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus sp. Pv1, Rahnella sp. Pv2, Rahnella sp. Pv3, Rahnella sp. Pv4, Rahnella sp. Pv5, Pantoea agglomerans Pv6, Staphylococcus sp. Pv7, Micrococcus luteus Pv8, and Rahnella sp. Pv9. The highest insecticidal activity against larvae and adults was obtained from M. luteus Pv8 with 50 and 40 % mortalities within 10 days after treatment, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activity of the bacterial isolates such as amylase, proteinase, lipase, cellulose, and chitinase was also determined. Consequently, our results show that M. luteus Pv8 might be a good candidate as a possible microbial control agent against P. versicolora and were discussed with respect to biocontrol potential of the bacterial isolates. PMID:23054688

  17. A novel method for controlling multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Glemser, Erik J; Dowling, Lisa; Inglis, Debra; Pickering, Gary J; McFadden-Smith, Wendy; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-10-01

    The introduced biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has attained pest status in North America as its presence in vineyards during harvest may compromise the quality of the resulting wine. Control of H. axyridis in vineyards is difficult as their populations may fluctuate daily, and there are few products registered to control this pest. Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulfite (KMS), is commonly used in wine as both an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In this study, the effectiveness of KMS as a repellent against H. axyridis was measured. In a Y-tube olfactometer, H. axyridis spent significantly less time in the treatment arm (KMS 2.5, 5, and 10 g/liter) than in the control arm during a 10-min period. When sprayed in a vineyard, KMS significantly reduced the number of H. axyridis on grape vines. KMS is an effective repellent against H. axyridis and may be suitable for use in vineyards to control this pest. KMS (5 g/liter) applied to Riesling grapes at 2 wk, 1 wk, 3 d, or 1 d before harvest did not affect free sulfur dioxide in either freshly processed or settled juice. This study lays the foundation for the development of a pest management strategy incorporating repellents for H. axyridis in vineyards. PMID:23068174

  18. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  19. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  20. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tourtois, Joseph; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. PMID:26463077

  1. Karyotype differentiation patterns in species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Sárah Gomes; Ramos, Ituza Celeste; de Moura, Rita de Cássia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the karyotype of species belonging to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and to compile the conventional cytogenetic data available in the literature for this group. The karyotypes of ten species belonging to the tribes Canthonini, Coprini, Onthophagini and Phanaeini were analyzed by conventional staining. Eight of these species were described for the first time (Canthon aff carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Coprophanaeus dardanus, Deltochilum aff amazonicum, Dichotomius geminatus, Oxysternon silenus, Phanaeus chalcomelas and Malagoniella aff astyanax) and two were redescribed (Diabroctis mimas and Digitonthophagus gazella) since their karyotypes differed from those previously published in the literature. Four species studied showed a diploid number of 2n=20 and a parachute type sex determining system and the karyotype was 2n=20,Xy in two species and 2n=18,Xy(p), 2n=19,X0, 2n=12,XY and 2n=14,neoXY in one each. The chromosome morphology of the different species varied, with the observation of metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was predominantly meta or submetacentric in the species analyzed, whereas the y chromosome presented two arms or was punctiform. In conclusion, the subfamily Scarabaeinae comprises 120 species analyzed cytogenetically, and are observed the occurrence of five chromosome rearrangements (autosome-autosome and X-autosome fusions, pericentric inversions, fissions and loss of the y chromosome) that are related to the chromosome variability and evolution in the group. PMID:18495484

  2. Influence of Constant Temperature on Reproductive Parameters of Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major pest both in field crops and forests because the larvae could eat the roots of most crops in the field, and the adults damage the leaves of trees and field crops. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on H. oblita reproductive parameters. The results indicated H. oblita female adults at 25°C could lay more eggs (84.0 eggs per female) and have the shortest preoviposition period (19.1 d), the greatest oviposition rate (2.8 eggs per female per 3 d), and largest percentage of life span spent in oviposition (59.5%). The longevity and the time to 50% egg laying decreased with increasing temperature, and female longevity was always longer than male longevity. The preoviposition and postoviposition period decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25°C and then increased when the temperature increased from 25 to 30°C. These results show that 25°C is the optimal temperature for reproduction of H. oblita. PMID:26160804

  3. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  4. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains. PMID:26285912

  5. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mendoza, Joel; Campbell, James F; Throne, James E

    2014-02-01

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera-Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum movement are not fully understood. We investigated the impact of photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, and relative humidity on flight initiation. The percentage of adults initiating flight reached a maximum at 30 -35 degrees C, and then fell to zero at 22.5 and 45 degrees C. Only 2% of beetles flew in complete darkness, and the number of beetles initiating flight increased to 41% under 18 h of light and then decreased slightly to 37% under 24 h of light. Rates of flight initiation did not vary with light intensities from 1,784 to 4,356 lux or relative humidities from 25 to 85%. Thus, temperature and photoperiod are the main abiotic factors tested that impact flight initiation in T castaneum, which have broad ranges of temperatures and photoperiods over which they can fly. The current results should be useful in helping to interpret trap catches based on abiotic conditions during the trapping period, and the results should be useful in helping to understand T. castaneum movement outside grain storages and processing facilities and their potential to infest structures. PMID:24665734

  6. Development and evaluation of a trapping system for Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nehme, M E; Trotter, R T; Keena, M A; McFarland, C; Coop, J; Hull-Sanders, H M; Meng, P; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C; Hoover, K

    2014-08-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as the Asian longhorned beetle, is an invasive wood-boring pest that infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, several countries in Europe, and in its native range in Asia. The success of eradication efforts may depend on early detection of introduced populations; however, detection has been limited to identification of tree damage (oviposition pits and exit holes), and the serendipitous collection of adults, often by members of the public. Here we describe the development, deployment, and evaluation of semiochemical-baited traps in the greater Worcester area in Massachusetts. Over 4 yr of trap evaluation (2009-2012), 1013 intercept panel traps were deployed, 876 of which were baited with three different families of lures. The families included lures exhibiting different rates of release of the male-produced A. glabripennis pheromone, lures with various combinations of plant volatiles, and lures with both the pheromone and plant volatiles combined. Overall, 45 individual beetles were captured in 40 different traps. Beetles were found only in traps with lures. In several cases, trap catches led to the more rapid discovery and management of previously unknown areas of infestation in the Worcester county regulated area. Analysis of the spatial distribution of traps and the known infested trees within the regulated area provides an estimate of the relationship between trap catch and beetle pressure exerted on the traps. Studies continue to optimize lure composition and trap placement. PMID:24960252

  7. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  8. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  9. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  10. Evolution of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporini, Bidessini) in the arid zone of Australia.

    PubMed

    Leys, Remko; Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steve J B; Humphreys, William F

    2003-12-01

    Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification. PMID:14761060

  11. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Bian, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Li, Zhen-Xing; Ge, Bao-Ming; Xuan, Fu-Jun; Yang, Li; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was determined to be 15,883 bp (GenBank accession No. KM009121), which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes and a major non-coding A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from ancestral insects. The nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (71.72%) and the AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive. All of the 22 tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). Thirteen PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by AAT. Eight of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T or TA. The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 1237 bp in length and the A + T content was 82.30%. PMID:25162515

  13. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia. PMID:26707213

  15. Pathology of Yersinia entomophaga MH96 towards Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Mark Robin Holmes; van Koten, Chikako; Jackson, Trevor Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Yersinia entomophaga was isolated from larvae of the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), found in soil. Following ingestion of a lethal dose of bacteria, larvae of C. zealandica reduced feeding activity and movement. After approximately 4h infected larvae convulsed and regurgitated dark digestive fluid and expelled frass pellets leaving the midgut empty and the larva amber in appearance. In the initial stages of infection, ingested bacteria were mostly contained within the peritrophic membrane and expelled with the gut fluid or transferred into the hind gut. While few Y. entomophaga were associated with the midgut epithelial cells, by 24h cells were swelling and bursting with vesicles being expelled into the midgut lumen. By 48h, bacteria had entered the haemocoel and the midgut cells had further deteriorated. After 72h, the cellular remnants were totally detached from the basal membrane the infected insects were filled with bacteria and moribund or dead with septicaemia. Mortality was directly proportional to dose and time after infection. By applying a range of doses, the LD50 was determined as 2.9×10(4)Y. entomophaga per C. zealandica larva, with an LT50 of 2.94days for doses of>1×10(5) per larva. Ingestion of low doses of bacteria did not inhibit feeding activity but led more slowly to death. By time of death, Y. entomophaga had multiplied, approximately 500 fold, in the cadavers of the infected larvae. PMID:24291403

  16. Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) using geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005

  17. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  18. Ribosomal protein genes of holometabolan insects reject the Halteria, instead revealing a close affinity of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Longhorn, Stuart J; Pohl, Hans W; Vogler, Alfried P

    2010-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insect orders remain poorly known, despite a wealth of previous studies. In particular, past attempts to clarify the sister-group of the enigmatic order Strepsiptera with rRNA genes have led to intense debate about long-branch attraction (the 'Strepsiptera problem'), without resolving the taxonomic question at hand. Here, we appealed to alternative nuclear sequences of 27 ribosomal proteins (RPs) to generate a data matrix of 10,731 nucleotides for 22 holometabolan taxa, including two strepsipteran species. Phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insects were analyzed under several nucleotide-coding schemes to explore differences in signal and systematic biases. Saturation and compositional bias particularly affected third positions, which greatly differed in AT content (18-72%). Such confounding factors were best reduced by R-Y coding and removal of third codon positions, resulting in more strongly supported topologies, whereas amino acid coding gave poor resolution. The placement of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera (the Coleopterida) was recovered under most coding schemes and analytical methods, if often with modest support and ambiguity. In contrast, an alternative sister-group with Diptera (the Halteria) was only found in one analysis using parsimony, and weakly supported. The topologies here generally support a Coleoptera+Strepsiptera as sister-group to Mecopterida (Siphonaptera+Mecoptera+Diptera+Lepidoptera+Trichoptera), while Hymenoptera were always recovered as sister-group to the remaining Holometabola. PMID:20348001

  19. Partial life tables from three generations of Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Haavik, Laurel J; Crook, Damon J; Fierke, Melissa K; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2012-12-01

    We used life table analyses to investigate age specific mortality and to better understand the population dynamics of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We continually sampled populations within 177 trees at primarily two sites in the Ozark National Forest in Arkansas throughout three (2-yr) generations. The first cohort (adults emerged in 2003) was sampled during a severe population outbreak, whereas the second and third (2005 and 2007) were sampled during the population crash that followed. Generation mortality was 94% in 2003 and 99% in both 2005 and 2007. Estimates of apparent mortality indicated that the E. rufulus population crash likely occurred during or before the first overwintering period (2003-2004) of the generation that emerged as adults in 2005. We found limited evidence for density dependent mortality, which suggest that intraspecific competition after the first active feeding period was apparently not an important mortality factor during E. rufulus development. Life tables revealed that E. rufulus larvae generally experienced the greatest apparent mortality during the second summer of active feeding (80-94%) when larvae were feeding in, and moving between phloem and sapwood. The least apparent mortality was incurred during the following spring and early summer (26-67%) when late stage larvae and pupae were deepest and most protected within sapwood or heartwood tunnels. We found very little evidence for mortality from associated species. Scarring of vascular tissue in response to E. rufulus feeding occurred during early life stages and may be an important tree resistance mechanism and E. rufulus mortality factor. PMID:23321078

  20. Bioactivity of six plant extracts on adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  1. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities

  2. Displacement of Tetropium cinnamopterum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) by Its Invasive Congener Tetropium fuscum.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Kenneth W; Heard, Stephen B; Sweeney, Jon; Pureswaran, Deepa S

    2016-08-01

    We examined the native community of insects interacting with an invasive species, Tetropium fuscum (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in its new range to explore reasons for the invader's relatively slow spread. Tetropium fuscum is a European spruce borer established in Nova Scotia since at least 1990, but it has spread only about 125 km from its site of introduction. We compared the densities of Tetropium spp., their known parasitoids, and the community of wood-boring insects at sites located within the invasion zone in Nova Scotia versus well outside this zone, in New Brunswick, Canada. Using red spruce trees stressed by girdling or felling, we tested whether: 1) T. fuscum had altered the native wood-boring community; 2) T. fuscum displaced a native congener, Tetropium cinnamopterum (Kirby); and 3) parasitism rates of Tetropium spp. differed between the invaded and noninvaded zones. Both Tetropium spp. and their parasitoid wasps emerged exclusively from felled trees as opposed to girdled trees. We found no difference in community diversity inside versus outside the invasion zone. The combined densities of both Tetropium spp. and their overall parasitism rates also did not differ between zones, but T. cinnamopterum density was significantly greater outside the invasion zone, suggesting T. fuscum may displace the native congener where they are sympatric. Our results suggest that the native and invasive Tetropium spp. act as a single functional species in the invasion zone. We speculate that natural control agents (predators, parasitoids, and competitors) might be limiting the rate of spread of T. fuscum. PMID:27247305

  3. Global Transcriptome Profiling of the Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest. PMID:22384206

  4. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  5. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  6. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  7. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium. PMID:26612893

  8. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 10(4)-10(6) living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  9. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

  10. Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides.

    PubMed

    Van Herk, W G; Vernon, R S; Tolman, J H; Saavedra, H Ortiz

    2008-04-01

    Ten insecticides representing seven chemical groups were applied at various concentrations topically by using a Potter Spray Tower to evaluate their relative toxicities on the European wireworm Agriotes obscurus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Wireworms were stored at 15 degrees C after exposure to organophosphate (OP) (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), pyrethroid (tefluthrin), thianicotinoid (thiamethoxam, clothianidin), chloronicotinoid (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), organochlorine (lindane), and spinosyn (spinosad) insecticides, and their postapplication health was evaluated weekly for up to 301 d. LC50, LC90, LT50, and LT90 values were calculated for each chemical except acetamiprid, and compared with those of lindane, clothianidin, and chlorpyrifos. Wireworms exposed to OPs died or recovered more quickly (LT50 < 20 d, LT90 < 50 d), than those exposed to all other insecticides tested except tefluthrin (LT50 = 25.5 d, LT90 = 66.5 d). Wireworms exposed to sublethal concentrations of all neonicotinoids quickly became moribund after application but made a full recovery. Wireworms exposed to fipronil at concentrations near the LC90 value showed no intoxication symptoms for up to 35 d, and they did not recover after symptoms developed. For each chemical, increasing the concentration increased the time required for wireworms to recover but decreased the time required to kill wireworms. Fipronil was highly toxic to wireworms (LC50 = 0.0001%), but acetamiprid (LC50 = 1.82%), imidacloprid (LC50 = 0.83%), tefluthrin (LC50 = 0.23%), diazinon (LC50 = 0.54%), and spinosad (LC50 = 0.51%) were not. The toxicity of both clothianidin (LC50 = 0.07%) and thiamethoxam (LC50 = 0.17%) were similar to those oflindane (LC50 = 0.06%) and chlorpyrifos (LC50 = 0.10%). PMID:18459401

  11. Attack Pattern and Reproductive Ecology of Tomicus brevipilosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Pinus yunnanensis in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631

  12. Diel Patterns of Colaspis brunnea and Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-12-01

    A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making. PMID:26314034

  13. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  14. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions. PMID:16022292

  15. Organization and comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of bioluminescent Elateroidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Danilo T; Mitani, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-07-25

    Mitochondrial genome organization in the Elateroidea superfamily (Coleoptera), which include the main families of bioluminescent beetles, has been poorly studied and lacking information about Phengodidae family. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Neotropical Lampyridae (Bicellonycha lividipennis), Phengodidae (Brasilocerus sp.2 and Phrixothrix hirtus) and Elateridae (Pyrearinus termitilluminans, Hapsodrilus ignifer and Teslasena femoralis). All species had a typical insect mitochondrial genome except for the following: in the elaterid T. femoralis genome there is a non-coding region between NADH2 and tRNA-Trp; in the phengodids Brasilocerus sp.2 and P. hirtus genomes we did not find the tRNA-Ile and tRNA-Gln. The P. hirtus genome showed a ~1.6kb non-coding region, the rearrangement of tRNA-Tyr, a new tRNA-Leu copy, and several regions with higher AT contents. Phylogenetics analysis using Bayesian and ML models indicated that the Phengodidae+Rhagophthalmidae are closely related to Lampyridae family, and included Drilus flavescens (Drilidae) as an internal clade within Elateridae. This is the first report that compares the mitochondrial genomes organization of the three main families of bioluminescent Elateroidea, including the first Neotropical Lampyridae and Phengodidae. The losses of tRNAs, and translocation and duplication events found in Phengodidae mt genomes, mainly in P. hirtus, may indicate different evolutionary rates in these mitochondrial genomes. The mitophylogenomics analysis indicates the monophyly of the three bioluminescent families and a closer relationship between Lampyridae and Phengodidae/Rhagophthalmidae, in contrast with previous molecular analysis. PMID:27060405

  16. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  17. Ozone toxicity and walking response of populations of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, A H; Faroni, L R A; Silva, G N; Guedes, R N C

    2012-12-01

    Ozone is a recognized alternative to the fumigants methyl bromide and phosphine for the control of stored product insects. However, as with fumigants in general, the potential sublethal effects of ozone on targeted insect species may compromise its efficacy and has yet to be investigated. Here, we determined ozone toxicity of 30 field-collected populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and assessed the walking response of adult insects from these populations to sublethal ozone exposure. Time-mortality toxicity to ozone at 50 ppm concentration in a continuous 2 liter/min flow indicated uniform susceptibility among the populations studied without any indication of ozone resistance (toxicity ratios [at LT50] > two-fold). In contrast, there was significant variation in walking activity among the maize weevil populations, which was not correlated with ozone susceptibility. This was not surprising because of the relatively uniform susceptibility to ozone among the maize weevil populations. Respiration rate affected ozone toxicity but not walking activity, whereas body mass was negatively correlated with walking activity but was not correlated with ozone toxicity. Based on our data, lower respiration rates may potentially lead to reduced ozone uptake whereas larger body mass limits walking activity. Ozone seems a promising alternative fumigant with low short-term risk of resistance development because of the high susceptibility and low variability of response to this compound. Furthermore, ozone reduces walking activity of S. zeamais that implies it likely reduces the chances of insects escaping exposure at the early stages of fumigation. PMID:23356086

  18. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  19. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum. Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella. Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 104–106 living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  20. Late Miocene diversification of the genus Hydrochus (Coleoptera, Hydrochidae) in the west Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Ribera, Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:21354316

  1. Chemosensory Gene Families in Adult Antennae of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Wencai; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaojing; Hu, Jingjing; Qu, Mingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background The metallic green beetle, Anomala corpulenta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), is a destructive pest in agriculture and horticulture throughout Asia, including China. Olfaction plays a crucial role in the survival and reproduction of A. corpulenta. As a non-model species, A. corpulenta is poorly understood, and information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in A. corpulenta and other scarab species is scant. Methodology/Principle Findings We assembled separate antennal transcriptome for male and female A. corpulenta using Illumina sequencing technology. The relative abundance of transcripts with gene ontology annotations, including those related to olfaction in males and females was highly similar. Transcripts encoding 15 putative odorant binding proteins, five chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 43 odorant receptors, eight gustatory receptors, and five ionotropic receptors were identified. The sequences of all of these chemosensory-related transcripts were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and direct DNA sequencing. The expression patterns of 54 putative chemosensory genes were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Antenna-specific expression was detected for many of these genes, suggesting that they may have important functions in semiochemical detection. Conclusions The identification of a large number of chemosensory proteins provides a major resource for the study of the molecular mechanism of odorant detection in A. corpulenta and its chemical ecology. The genes identified, especially those that were expressed at high levels in the antennae may represent novel molecular targets for the development of population control strategies based on the manipulation of chemoreception-driven behaviors. PMID:25856077

  2. A Bacillus thuringiensis S-Layer Protein Involved in Toxicity against Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Guadalupe; Miranda-Rios, Juan; de la Riva, Gustavo; Pardo-López, Liliana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    The use of Bacillus thuringiensis as a biopesticide is a viable alternative for insect control since the insecticidal Cry proteins produced by these bacteria are highly specific; harmless to humans, vertebrates, and plants; and completely biodegradable. In addition to Cry proteins, B. thuringiensis produces a number of extracellular compounds, including S-layer proteins (SLP), that contribute to virulence. The S layer is an ordered structure representing a proteinaceous paracrystalline array which completely covers the surfaces of many pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we report the identification of an S-layer protein by the screening of B. thuringiensis strains for activity against the coleopteran pest Epilachna varivestis (Mexican bean beetle; Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We screened two B. thuringiensis strain collections containing unidentified Cry proteins and also strains isolated from dead insects. Some of the B. thuringiensis strains assayed against E. varivestis showed moderate toxicity. However, a B. thuringiensis strain (GP1) that was isolated from a dead insect showed a remarkably high insecticidal activity. The parasporal crystal produced by the GP1 strain was purified and shown to have insecticidal activity against E. varivestis but not against the lepidopteran Manduca sexta or Spodoptera frugiperda or against the dipteran Aedes aegypti. The gene encoding this protein was cloned and sequenced. It corresponded to an S-layer protein highly similar to previously described SLP in Bacillus anthracis (EA1) and Bacillus licheniformis (OlpA). The phylogenetic relationships among SLP from different bacteria showed that these proteins from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, B. anthracis, B. licheniformis, and B. thuringiensis are arranged in the same main group, suggesting similar origins. This is the first report that demonstrates that an S-layer protein is directly involved in toxicity to a coleopteran pest. PMID:16391064

  3. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

  4. Effect of irradiation on dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Norikuni; Kohama, Tsuguo; Ohno, Suguru

    2007-06-01

    We used the mark-and-recapture method in the field to test the effect of gamma radiation on the dispersal ability of the male sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), a serious sweetpotato pest in Japan. To evaluate the dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevil, we released 27,218 males (13,302 males irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy and 13,916 nonirradiated males) in two replications (September and October 2005). Each replication lasted 5 d from the release of weevils to the removal of traps, and male weevils were released twice (1 and 3 d before trap setting). Forty pheromone traps were placed in lines corresponding to eight compass directions and five distance classes (20, 50,100, 200, and 500 m) in each replication. We captured 2,263 irradiated males (17.0%) and 2,007 nonirradiated males (14.4%) in the two replications. Six irradiated and eight nonirradiated males were captured in the traps 500 m far from the release point. All parameters to evaluate the dispersal ability of irradiated male sweetpotato weevil (recapture rate, dispersal distance, and dispersal direction) were similar to nonirradiated males in three of the four trials. However, parameters were different between irradiated males and nonirradiated males in one trial. Because the majority of parameters consistently show that the similarity of the dispersal ability, we considered that male sweetpotato weevil irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy possessed equal dispersal ability to that of nonirradiated males in the field. PMID:17598532

  5. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    PubMed

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors. PMID:21510220

  6. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    H.W. Biedermann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungalfeeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera), and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC). These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries. PMID:21594184

  7. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  8. Influence of preceding crop on wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) abundance in the coastal plain of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rebecca B; Abney, Mark R; Holmes, Gerald J; Schultheis, Jonathan R; Kennedy, George G

    2010-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine the effect of preceding crop on wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) abundance in the coastal plain of North Carolina. In all three studies, samples of wireworm populations were taken from the soil by using oat, Avena sativa L., baits. Treatments were defined by the previous year's crop and were chosen to reflect common crop rotations in the region. Across all three studies, eight wireworm species were recovered from the baits: Conoderus amplicollis (Gyllenhal), Conoderus bellus (Say), Conoderus falli (Lane), Conoderus lividus (Degeer), Conoderus scissus (Schaeffer), Conoderus vespertinus (F.), Glyphonyx bimarginatus (Schaeffer), and Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal). The effect of corn, Zea mays L.; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.; fallow; soybean, Clycine max (L.) Merr.; sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.; and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) was evaluated in a small-plot replicated study. M. communis was the most frequently collected species in the small-plot study and was found in significantly higher numbers following soybean and corn. The mean total number of wireworms per bait (all species) was highest following soybean. A second study conducted in late fall and early spring assessed the abundance of overwintering wireworm populations in commercial fields planted to corn, cotton, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), soybean, sweet potato, and tobacco in the most recent previous growing season. C. lividus was the most abundant species, and the mean total number of wireworms was highest following corn and soybean. A survey was conducted in commercial sweet potato in late spring and early summer in fields that had been planted to corn, cotton, cucurbit (Cucurbita pepo L.), peanut, soybean, sweet potato, or tobacco in the most recent previous growing season. C. vespertinus was the most abundant species, and the mean total number of wireworms per bait was highest following corn. PMID:21309229

  9. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  10. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  11. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured. PMID:22812119

  12. Effects of Periodically Repeated Heat Events on Reproduction and Ovary Development of Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Ting; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Wang, Ren; Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Insect development occurs within a specific temperature range. Constant temperature studies may produce misleading information on the eco-physiological impacts of temperature on the population dynamics of an insect species, as in most natural environments, temperature usually undergoes daily variation. In China, field surveys showed that the decline in the Agasicles hygrophila (Selman & Vogt) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population from early August to late September in summer resulted in difficulties in effectively controlling the population of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb (Amaranthaceae). Previous studies have largely ignored more natural, fluctuating conditions. In our study, we first investigated the impacts of different temperature conditions (25°C constant temperature for 20 h with a 4-h period of a high temperature of either 30°C, 33°C, 36°C, or 39°C) on adult reproduction and longevity, egg development time, egg hatch rate, female ovarian development, and oogenesis of A. hygrophila. Our results indicated that high temperatures of 30°C and 33°C did not affect the female ovarian development and oogenesis of A. hygrophila Contrarily, high temperatures of 36°C and 39°C negatively affected the population development of A. hygrophila. At 36°C and 39°C, the egg hatch rates were very low, and the egg development times significantly lengthened. The frequency of abnormal ovaries significantly rose at 39°C. We concluded that the decline in the A. hygrophila population during August and September may be related to the extreme high temperatures that frequently occur in summer. These results help provide a better understanding of A. hygrophila population dynamics under natural conditions. PMID:27270575

  13. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. PMID:25614965

  14. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. PMID:25308181

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2014-07-01

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest. PMID:24944009

  16. Descriptions and key to the larvae of the Tasmanian endemic genus Hoplogonus Parry (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), and comparison with the sympatric Lissotes rudis Lea.

    PubMed

    Richards, Karen; Spencer, Chris P

    2014-01-01

    The stag beetle (Coleoptera: Lucaindae) genus Hoplogonus Parry is endemic to northeastern Tasmania and contains three recognised species. Descriptions of the imagines have been published previously, but not the larvae. Descriptions of the larvae of the three Hoplogonus species and the sympatric Lissotes rudis Lea (also Lucanidae) are presented and discussed, and a key to aid identification of Hoplogonus larvae is included. The classification of Hoplogonus within the tribe Platycerini is proposed, alongside Lissotes. PMID:25543792

  17. Genetic differentiation among populations of the beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in a fragmented and a continuous landscape.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, H; Rukke, B A; Jorde, P E; Ims, R A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic differentiation among local populations of the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied in two contrasting landscapes: one heavily fragmented with forest fragments of variable size surrounded by inhabitable agricultural fields, the other an old forest providing a continuous habitat. The genetic structure of the beetle within each of the two contrasting areas was investigated by means of protein electrophoresis, screening four polymorphic loci in 20 populations from each area. In both areas there were significant genetic differences among local populations, but on average differentiation in the fragmented area was three times greater than in the continuous one, strongly indicating a genetic isolation effect of habitat fragmentation. These genetic results are in accordance with previous studies on dispersal in this species. PMID:10886382

  18. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys. PMID:26249940

  19. Comparison of three types of traps baited with sexual pheromones for ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) in poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; González Audino, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that only attacks standing live trees and is a serious problem for commercial poplar (Populus L.; Salicaceae) plantations in Argentina. The development of traps baited with synthetic pheromones that can be used for monitoring M. mutatus in infested poplar plantations is an important goal in preventive programs. Pioneer male M. mutatus emit a pheromone composed mainly by (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. In the current study, we tested their release rates from several polymeric reservoir systems, to develop and manufacture a pheromone-releasing device. The efficacy of three different types of traps was evaluated in the field. Single funnel traps equipped with cross-vanes (CIPEIN-CV) captured significantly more insects than multiple funnel traps (LINDGREN) and simple funnel traps (CIPEIN-F). PMID:19736767

  20. Maturation feeding and transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inoculated with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Maehara, Noritoshi; He, Xueyou; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d postinoculation and inoculated beetles ceased to feed for several days before their death. In inoculated beetles carrying >1,000 nematodes, some beetles died before nematode departure. The remaining heavily nematode-infested beetles lived until the beginning of nematode departure, but they had stopped feeding, preventing the nematodes from entering pine twigs. We suggest that microbial control of pine sawyer adults by B. bassiana may be effective in preventing transmission of pine wilt disease to healthy pine trees. PMID:17370808

  1. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  2. A new species of Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al., a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from Thailand (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Damaška, Albert; Konstantinov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Moss cushions represent an interesting, but poorly understood habitat, which hosts many species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). However, the diversity of moss-inhabiting flea beetles is not well studied, and collecting in tropical and subtropical locations that were not sampled in the past led to the discovery of many new species (Konstantinov et al. 2013). Here, a new species of a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from the genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. 2013 is described and illustrated. This genus is one of the recently described moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera and before this study, only one species was known (Konstantinov et al., 2013). This publication raises the number of flea beetle species that are known to occur in moss cushions around the world to 30, distributed among 15 genera. PMID:27394809

  3. Position specificity in Chitonomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) on Laccophilus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae): a molecular approach resolves a century-old debate.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Laboulbeniomycete species consistently on a precise portion of beetle integument was investigated in 13 species of Chitonomyces ectoparasitic on the aquatic diving beetle Laccophilus maculosus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). The phenomenon was called "position specificity" by Roland Thaxter in 1896, yet the mechanism has remained unknown. By using molecular analysis of the nucSSU rRNA gene and the 5.8S and partial ITS1 rRNA regions, 13 species of Chitonomyces reported to exhibit position specificity on Laccophilus maculosus were placed neatly into pairs of morphotypes, resulting in synonomies and recognition of six phylogenetic species (one species is a triplet). Each phylogenetic species was located at corresponding positions on male and female beetles that make contact during mating. In addition, ecological data and video footage of the mating behaviors of Laccophilus confirmed that sexual transmission is the mechanism behind this enigmatic phenomenon. PMID:22684291

  4. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  5. Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of Flightless Beetles Belonging to the Genus Mesechthistatus Breuning, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Gene Sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamine, Hiroshi; Takeda, Makio

    2008-01-01

    The longicorn beetles belonging to the genus MesechthistatusBreuning., 1950 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) cannot fly since their hindwings are atrophied. This slows down gene flow between local populations. Currently, it is considered that the genus contains four endemic species from the eastern Honshu Is., Japan, M. binodosus, M. furciferus, M. taniguchii and M. fujisanus, that are distributed parapatrically. Sequence analyses of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene suggests that lineages of mitochondrial haplotypes split approximately in the same era. However, this result is not consistent with the monophyly of morphological species. The estimated evolutionary rate of the COI gene in other insects suggests that mitochondrial haplotypes of Mesechthistatus differentiated at the end of the Pliocene epoch during the Tertiary era.

  6. Prionic Acid: An Effective Sex Attractant for an Important Pest of Sugarcane, Dorysthenes granulosus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Jin, Tao; Peng, Zhengqiang; Guo, Dongfeng; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Chen, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Male Dorysthenes granulosus (Thomson, 1860) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) were caught in traps baited with racemic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid (prionic acid) during field screening trials in China that tested known cerambycid pheromones. This species is an important pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). In follow-up dose-response trials, plastic sachets loaded with 1 or 0.1 mg of prionic acid were equally attractive to male beetles, whereas lower doses were no better than controls. Two commercial prionic acid lures also were attractive, suggesting that traps baited with prionic acid can be rapidly incorporated into integrated pest management programs targeting this major pest. It is likely that this compound is a major component of the female-produced sex pheromone of D. granulosus because this species is in the same subfamily as Prionus californicus Motschulsky, 1845, the species from which prionic acid was originally identified. PMID:26362990

  7. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  8. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941).  PMID:25661778

  9. Taxonomy of the genus Diochus Erichson, 1839 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Diochini) in China with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Lingzi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the taxonomy of the genus Diochus Erichson, 1839 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Diochini) from China. Four new species are described: Diochus bicornutus sp. nov. from Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Guangxi and Yunnan, D. ampullaceus sp. nov. from Guangxi, D. bisegmentatus sp. nov. from Hainan and Yunnan, and D. membranaceus sp. nov. from Fujian. All other species previously reported from China are redescribed based on the examination of the holotypes, except the holotype of D. antennatus (Motschulsky, 1858), which was missing. Line drawings of the now missing holotype of D. antennatus (Motschulsky, 1858) are provided. A lectotype is designated for D. conicollis (Motschulsky, 1858). The Chinese fauna of the genus Diochus is now represented by eight species (four doubtfully recorded) and a key to all the Chinese species is provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZ-CAS). PMID:27395610

  10. Obrieniolus, a new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from the Peruvian Andes and its phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    del Río, M. Guadalupe; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Obrieniolus del Río is described based on the new species Obrieniolus robustus del Río, endemic to Peru. This genus is easily recognized by the black, denuded and shiny integument, with imbricate microsculpture and the rounded body, with short, cordiform and moderately convex elytra. According to a cladistic analysis based on 69 continuous and discrete morphological characters, the new genus is the sister taxon of a group formed by Amitrus Schoenherr, Trichocyphus Heller, Amphideritus Schoenherr, Asymmathetes Wibmer & O’Brien and Galapaganus Lanteri. The paper includes habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, mouthparts, and other external features of taxonomic value, and a dichotomous key to the genera of Naupactini distributed in the South American Transition Zone. PMID:21747674

  11. Rhopalomma stefaniae gen. et sp. n., the first ommatid beetle from the Upper Jurassic in Australia (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Ommatidae).

    PubMed

    Ashman, Lauren G; Oberprieler, Rolf G; Ślipiński, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The first Upper Jurassic fossil of the family Ommatidae (Coleoptera: Archostemata) from Australia is described and illustrated from a single specimen discovered at the Talbragar Fish Bed. Rhopalomma stefaniae gen. et sp. n. is classified in Ommatidae based on the length and insertion of the antennae, the tuberculate cuticle, the pattern of elytral striae, the complete epipleura and the presence of scutellary strioles. Due to the lack of preservation of crucial characters, Rhopalomma cannot be assigned to a subfamily and is therefore classified as Ommatidae incertae sedis. Rhopalomma fills an important gap in the fossil record of the family, indicating that Ommatidae occurred in Australia from the Lower Jurassic to the present day. Australia is the only place in the world where this family is found in both the fossil record and the living fauna. PMID:26249943

  12. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  13. Effect of photoperiod on developmental fitness in Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Luo, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important biological control agent of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., in China. Development and fecundity of O. communa, and hatch rate of progeny eggs were studied at five photoperiods (8:16, 10:14, 12:12, 14:10, and 16:8 [L:D] h). The highest survival rate of eggs was 92% at the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h, and those of both larvae and pupae were observed at the photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h (85 and 96%). The shortest developmental durations of larvae and pupae were observed at photoperiods of 14:10 and 16:8 (L:D) h. Fecundity was 1,159-1,976 eggs per female from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h. The hatch rates of progeny eggs were 67-92% from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h, and photoperiods did not affect developmental duration of progeny eggs. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (r0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 16:8 (L:D) h (0.2219 d(-1), 721 hatched eggs and 1.2484 d(-1), respectively) and 14:10 (L:D) h (0.2133 d(-1), 605.6 hatched eggs and 1.2378 d(-1), respectively). Their minimum values were observed at the photoperiod of 8:16 (L:D) h, which were 0.1731 d(-1), 212.2 hatched eggs and 0.1890 d(-1), respectively. The shortest T value was 29.7 d at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and the longest was 31.4 d at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. Our study shows that O. communa could survive and reproduce successfully at different photoperiods, thus may expand its distribution to regions with different photoperiods. PMID:25203359

  14. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50) were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C), fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida), Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective) females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60% when field

  15. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A

  16. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites

  17. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houping; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-08-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisoplae. Significant time-mortality response was found for each isolates. Isolate B. bassiana GHA killed A. planipennis adults at a faster rate compared with other isolates tested, with the lowest average time-to-death values. The LC50 values estimated under direct immersion method ranged from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.9 x 10(7), 3.5 x 10(4) to 5.3 x 10(5), and 4.1 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) conidia/ml for B. basissiana and from 3.2 x 10(6) to 1.1 x 10(7), 4.5 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(5), and 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.2 x 10(5) conidia/ml for M. anisopliae at 4, 5, and 6 d after treatment, respectively. By days 5 and 6, B. bassiana GHA outperformed all other isolates tested except ARSEF 7234, followed by ARSEF 7152, 6393, and 7180. Significant concentration-mortality response was also observed for two B. bassiana GHA formulations, BotaniGard ES and Mycotrol O, and M. anisopliae F52 when insects were treated through foliar exposure. The LC50 values ranged from 114.5 to 309.6, 18.4 to 797.3, and 345.3 to 362.0 conidia/cm2 for BotaniGard, Mycotrol, and M. anisopliae F52, respectively. Based on the results of these bioassays, the efficacy of both B. bassiana GHA formulations and M. anisopliae F52 were similar against adult A. planipennis. The potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for management of A. planipennis in North America is discussed. PMID:16937660

  18. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence

  19. The gut microbiota of larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the major pests of palms. The larvae bore into the palm trunk and feed on the palm tender tissues and sap, leading the host tree to death. The gut microbiota of insects plays a remarkable role in the host life and understanding the relationship dynamics between insects and their microbiota may improve the biological control of insect pests. The purpose of this study was to analyse the diversity of the gut microbiota of field-caught RPW larvae sampled in Sicily (Italy). Results The 16S rRNA gene-based Temporal Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) of the gut microbiota of RPW field-trapped larvae revealed low bacterial diversity and stability of the community over seasons and among pools of larvae from different host trees. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region confirmed low complexity and assigned 98% of the 75,564 reads to only three phyla: Proteobacteria (64.7%) Bacteroidetes (23.6%) and Firmicutes (9.6%) and three main families [Enterobacteriaceae (61.5%), Porphyromonadaceae (22.1%) and Streptococcaceae (8.9%)]. More than half of the reads could be classified at the genus level and eight bacterial genera were detected in the larval RPW gut at an abundance ≥1%: Dysgonomonas (21.8%), Lactococcus (8.9%), Salmonella (6.8%), Enterobacter (3.8%), Budvicia (2.8%), Entomoplasma (1.4%), Bacteroides (1.3%) and Comamonas (1%). High abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was also detected by culturing under aerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), that are known to establish symbiotic associations with insects relying on sugar-based diets, were not detected. Conclusions The RPW gut microbiota is composed mainly of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria with a fermentative metabolism. These bacteria are supposedly responsible for palm tissue fermentation in the tunnels where RPW larvae thrive and might have a key role in the insect

  20. Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-10-01

    The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with < or = 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates -8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over

  1. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  2. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22

  3. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fossen, Erlend I.; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular

  4. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in Peregrina Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Jones, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps) within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%), Eumolpinae (3.6%), Cryptocephalinae (2.2%), Chrysomelinae (2.2%), and finally Criocerinae (1.3%). The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%), Cryptocephalinae (9.7%), Eumolpinae (9.7%), Chrysomelinae (6.5%) and Criocerinae (5.2%). The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals), Centralaphthona diversa (Baly) (248), Margaridisa sp.1 (219), Acallepitrix sp.1 (134), Longitarsus sp.1 (104), Heterispa vinula (Erichson) (91), Epitrix sp.1 (84) and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72). Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance) and 52 were singletons (2.33%). The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site

  5. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  6. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  7. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-01-01

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania. PMID:26249097

  8. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...

  9. Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of systemic insecticides for Control of Anoplophora glabripennis and Plectrodera scalator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Miller, Deborah L; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is one of the most serious nonnative invasive forest insects discovered in North America in recent years. A. glabripennis is regulated by federal quarantines in the United States and Canada and is the subject of eradication programs that involve locating, cutting, and chipping all infested trees. Other control methods are needed to aid in eradication and to form an integrated management program in the event eradication fails. We conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the toxicity of two systemic insecticides, azadirachtin and imidacloprid, for potential control of A. glabripennis and the cottonwood borer, Plectrodera scalator (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a closely related native cerambycid. Larvae of both cerambycid species were fed artificial diet with dilutions of azadirachtin or imidacloprid for 14 wk. Both insecticides exhibited strong antifeedant effects and some toxicity against A. glabripennis and P. scalator larvae. For A. glabripennis, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 60% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (1.6 ppm). For P. scalator, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 100% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (160 ppm). At 14 wk, the LC50 values for P. scalator were 1.58 and 1.78 ppm for azadirachtin and imidacloprid, respectively. Larvae of both species gained weight when fed diet treated with formulation blanks (inert ingredients) or the water control but lost weight when fed diet treated with increasing concentrations of either azadirachtin or imidacloprid. In a separate experiment, A. glabripennis adults were fed maple twigs treated with high and low concentrations of imidacloprid. A. glabripennis adult mortality reached 100% after 13 d on twigs treated with 150 ppm imidacloprid and after 20 d on twigs treated with 15 ppm imidacloprid

  10. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    PubMed Central

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L.; Kress, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleia kuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and Pitcairnia brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleia kuprewiczae from Cephaloleia histrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  11. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of a highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha gen. n.) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria sp. n.) and provisionally assigned to Tillomorphini. Three other new species of ant mimic longhorned beetles are described and illustrated: Calliclytus macoris sp. n. (Tillomorphini), Tilloclytus baoruco sp. n., and Tilloclytus neiba sp. n. (Anaglyptini). An identification key and distribution map to all known Hispaniolan species of these two tribes are presented. PMID:21852922

  12. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae), Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Warren E

    2014-01-01

    THIS STUDY DESCRIBES AND ILLUSTRATES THE LARVAE AND PUPAE OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN DARKLING BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae) in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species. PMID:25009432

  13. Prosthetops wolybergensis sp. nov.--a giant amongst the 'minute moss beetles', with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Western and Northern Cape regions of South Africa; the new species, at up to 4.2 mm total length, apparently being the longest 'minute moss beetle' described to date. Prosthetops species are characteristic inhabitants of temporary rainwater pools and seepages on exposed plateau in the Cape fold mountains, and on rock outcrops beside streams and rivers. New collection records and ecological data are given for members of the genus, and the female of Prosthetops pronotus Perkins & Balfour-Browne, 1994 is described and illustrated for the first time. PMID:26217855

  14. A review of the primary types of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae), with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Hawks, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are reviewed following an examination of all primary types. Although the continued existence of the species is unknown and some possibly are extinct there are five recently extant species, including one species that is described here as new. The holotypes for all available names are pictured, and synonymies discussed and updated. Lectotypes are designated for Apterocyclus honoluluensis Waterhouse and A. munroi Sharp. A key to species and a revised catalog for the genus are provided. PMID:25152674

  15. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets.

    PubMed

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleiakuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairniaarcuata and Pitcairniabrittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleiakuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleiahistrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleiakuprewiczae from Cephaloleiahistrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Diabrotica beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inferred from analysis of combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Clark, T L; Meinke, L J; Foster, J E

    2001-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of thirteen Diabrotica (representing virgifera and fucata species groups) and two outgroup Acalymma beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were inferred from the phylogenetic analysis of a combined data set of 1323 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and the entire second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of 362 characters. Species investigated were D. adelpha, D. balteata, D. barberi, D. cristata, D. lemniscata, D. longicornis, D. porracea, D. speciosa, D. undecimpunctata howardi, D. u. undecimpunctata, D. virgifera virgifera, D. v. zeae, D. viridula, and outgroup A. blandulum and A. vittatum. Maximum parsimony (MP), minimum evolution (ME), and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of combined COI and ITS-2 sequences clearly place species into their traditional morphological species groups with MP and ME analyses resulting in identical topologies. Results generally confer with a prior work based on allozyme data, but within the virgifera species group, D. barberi and D. longicornis strongly resolve as sister taxa as well as monophyletic with the neotropical species, D. viridula, D. cristata and D. lemniscata also resolve as sister taxa. Both relationships are not in congruence with the prior allozyme-based hypothesis. Within the fucata species group, D. speciosa and D. balteata resolve as sister taxa. Results also strongly supported the D. virgifera and D. undecimpunctata subspecies complexes. Our proposed phylogeny provides some insight into current hypotheses regarding distribution status and evolution of various life history traits for Diabrotica. PMID:11520353

  17. Developmental Biology and Effects of Adult Diet on Consumption, Longevity, and Fecundity of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J.

    2015-01-01

    The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090

  18. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  19. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  20. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897