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Sample records for anthrax disinfection procedures

  1. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  3. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  6. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    Woolsorter's disease; Ragpicker's disease; Cutaneous anthrax; Gastrointestinal anthrax ... Anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats. Humans who come into contact with ...

  7. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    ... worried about anthrax germs being grown as a weapon. The issue of laboratory-grown B. anthracis received ... technologically difficult to use anthrax effectively as a weapon on a large scale. Types of Anthrax The ...

  8. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Anthrax Information for adults A A A In cutaneous ... Scientists studying B. anthracis Signs and Symptoms Cutaneous Anthrax Characteristic rash* *The characteristic rash of anthrax looks ...

  9. [A study of the efficacy of disinfectants against anthrax spores].

    PubMed

    Lensing, H H; Oei, H L

    1984-07-01

    The activity of disinfectants with regard to spores of Bacillus anthracis was determined in a suspension test. Creoline (10%) and also several other disinfectants for veterinary use showed no activity against spores of B. anthracis. Natriumdichloorisocyanuraat-dihydrate (2400 ppm active chlorine) and peracetic acid 0,25% demonstrated after 30 minutes of exposures at 20 degrees C in the presence of 4% horse serum a significant sporicidal effect. Under the same conditions formaldehyde 4% and glutaraldehyde 2% were also found to be sporicidal but only after 2 hours of exposure. PMID:6431631

  10. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil. Many people know ... bioterror attacks. In the attacks, someone purposely spread anthrax through the U.S. mail. This killed five people ...

  11. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    ... made 22 sick. Anthrax is rare. It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people. People can get anthrax from contact with infected animals, wool, meat, or hides. It can cause three ...

  12. Anthrax.

    PubMed

    Datta, K K; Singh, Jagvir

    2002-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, an encapulated and spore-forming bacillus. The disease is usually contracted through uptake of spores that remain viable in the contaminated soil for many years. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivorous animals and is uncommon in humans who may get the infection through contact with contaminated animals or their products. Anthrax spores germinate after entering the body through skin abrasions (cutaneous anthrax) or by inhalation (inhalation anthrax) or ingestion (gastrointestinal anthrax) and multiply to produce two exotoxins which determine the virulence along with capsule. Although most cases occur within 48 hours of exposure, germination of spores may occur upto 60 days later. While inhalation anthrax is almost always fatal, intestinal anthrax results in death in 25% to 60% of cases. Upto 20% of cases having cutaneous anthrax may die. Antibiotics are effective if the disease is recognised early and treated appropriately. Penicillin is the drug of choice when disease occurs in natural setting. Ciprofloxacin is recommended when aerosols of anthrax spores are used as bioweapon, prophylactic antibiotics should not be prescribed until risk of exposure is considered real by experts. PMID:11876121

  13. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be prescribed include penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Inhalation anthrax is treated with a combination of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin plus another medicine. They are given by IV ( ...

  14. ANTHRAX PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Stanley H.

    1920-01-01

    Federal regulations do not prevent importation of anthrax infected material. This author suggests anthrax surveys in countries of origin of materials, quarantine of all hides, wool and hair from suspected areas, disinfection of these at places of origin and sanitary care here of wastes from hide and wool industrial establishments. Imagesp665-a PMID:18010353

  15. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Anthrax Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Anthrax Basic Information Types of Anthrax Cutaneous Anthrax Inhalation ...

  16. Anthrax Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is anthrax?Anthrax is a serious disease that can affect both animals and humans. It is caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. People can get anthrax from contact with infected animals, wool, meat, or ...

  17. Disinfection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. P.; Haas, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater disinfection for 1978. This review covers areas such as: (1) mechanisms of inactivation of negative microorganisms by chlorine and ozone; and (2) the effects of various treatment on over-all water quality. A list of 61 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the disinfection process in drinking water treatment is the inactivation of microbial pathogens. These pathogens comprise a diverse group of organisms which serve as the etiological agents of waterborne disease. Included in this group are bacterial, viral and ...

  19. Investigations into the efficacy of different procedures for surgical hand disinfection between consecutive operations.

    PubMed

    Rehork, B; Rüden, H

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine whether thorough surgical hand disinfection (handwashing plus hand disinfection) between consecutive operations is necessary, tests were carried out simulating normal clinical conditions. The tests were performed according to the guidelines for the evaluation of disinfection procedures of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology. Surgical hand disinfection was as follows: handwashing with soap without antimicrobial additives and subsequent 5-min disinfection with 60% n-propanol. This was followed by simulated operations of 30 or 120 min duration with a 30-min break between operations, during which half of the test group kept on the surgical gloves, while the other half removed them. The second surgical hand disinfection was done without prior handwashing by 50% of the test group. The disinfection time was reduced from 5 to 1 min by 50% of the test group. The results were evaluated by means of explorative data analysis and inductive statistical methods. Removing the surgical gloves during the interoperative break did not result in significantly higher numbers of colony forming units (cfu) compared with retaining the gloves. This was also the case after a subsequent handwashing. At the second surgical hand disinfection, after a simulated operation of 60 min duration (including break), there was no significant difference in the numbers of cfus between the test group who had washed their hands and those who had not. Reducing the disinfection time from 5 min to 1 min was not associated with a significant increase in the number of cfus. However, after a simulated operating time of 150 min (including the break), the second surgical hand disinfection with handwashing resulted in a significantly lower number of microorganisms than disinfection alone. In half the tests, the numbers of cfu were significantly lower when the test group disinfected their hands for 5 min rather than 1 min. PMID:1684604

  20. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  1. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of maxillofacial prosthetic elastomers: the effect of different disinfecting aging procedures.

    PubMed

    Eleni, Panagiota N; Krokida, Magdalini K; Polyzois, Gregory L; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    In this study, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was used to evaluate the changes that occurred in maxillofacial elastomers subjected to different disinfecting regimens. A commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and an experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) were treated with different disinfection procedures for a period that simulates 1 year of clinical service: microwave exposure (D1), hypochlorite solution (D2), neutral soap (D3), and a commercial disinfecting solution (D4). A fifth group was kept in dark storage as control. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis tests operated in a fixed frequency (1 Hz) over a range of temperatures (-130°C to 20°C for PDMS, -60°C to 120°C for CPE). Loss modulus (G″), storage modulus (G'), and loss factor (tanδ) were recorded as a function of temperature. The obtained glass transition temperature (Tg) values were subjected to statistical analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis revealed changes in Tg values for both materials, which reflect the possible changes in their chemical and physical structure, after different disinfection procedures. The PDMS and CPE samples seem to have less dense structure maybe because of chain scission reaction that probably occurred during the disinfection procedures. According to statistical analysis, Tg values presented significant changes from the control samples among the different materials and disinfecting procedures. Microwave exposure and hypochlorite solution affect CPE significantly, whereas PDMS exhibited significant changes after being treated with a commercial antimicrobial agent, concerning changes that occurred in Tg. In all cases, Tg values were decreased compared with the untreated samples, which were stiffer, presenting higher Tg and G' values. PMID:24799103

  2. Effect of different disinfecting procedures on the hardness and color stability of two maxillofacial elastomers over time

    PubMed Central

    ELENI, Panagiota N.; KROKIDA, Magdalini K.; POLYZOIS, Gregory L.; GETTLEMAN, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disinfection procedures often cause deterioration in a maxillofacial prosthesis. Color and hardness alterations could lead to a replacement of the prosthesis. Material and Methods: An experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and a commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sample were treated with four different disinfection procedures for a period which simulates 1 year of clinical service. The applied disinfection procedures included microwave exposure and immersion in three solutions, sodium hypochlorite, neutral soap and a commercial disinfecting soap. Shore A hardness (ΔΗ) and color differences (ΔΕ) were determined before and after each procedure. All data were analyzed by Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests at a level of α=0.05. Results: The samples presented significant alterations in color and hardness after the different disinfection treatments. The color differences (ΔΕ) were at least eye detectable in all cases and clinically unacceptable in most of the cases, with values ranging from 1.51 to 4.15 and from 1.54 to 5.92 for the PDMS and CPE material, respectively. Hardness was decreased after all the disinfection procedures in the PDMS, while for the CPE, a decrement was observed after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and neutral soap and an increment after microwave exposure and the disinfection with a commercial antimicrobial agent. The PDMS samples presented greater alterations in color and hardness after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution, while the microwave exposure caused negligible effects. The CPE samples were affected most after disinfection when treated with neutral soap, and more slightly when disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution. Conclusions: The disinfection procedures caused alterations in color and hardness of the examined materials. The most suitable disinfection procedure for the PDMS material is microwave exposure, while disinfection with sodium hypochlorite

  3. A test procedure for evaluating surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Babb, J R; Davies, J G; Ayliffe, G A

    1991-06-01

    A technique for assessing the immediate and prolonged efficacy of surgical scrubs and alcoholic hand rubs is described. A mean baseline count is obtained from all volunteers and logarithmic reductions in resident skin flora immediately after one or more applications, and after wearing gloves for 3 h, are measured. Loose-fitting surgical gloves are used for sampling resident flora. Preparations were applied using a standard technique for 2 min, apart from one test with 70% isopropanol (IPA) in which the application time was 30 s. Two studies are described, one of which compared four chlorhexidine scrubs, and the second 70% IPA, 7.5% povidone-iodine scrub, 2% triclosan cleanser and unmedicated bar soap. In spite of their constituent similarity, the four chlorhexidine scrubs varied considerably in efficacy and user acceptability. A 2 min application of 70% IPA was the most effective treatment, and gave log10 reductions of 1.65 for immediate and 1.58 for prolonged effect. This was marginally more effective than a 30 s application, but the difference was not significant. 'Hibiscrub' was the most effective aqueous formulation and gave reductions of 1.01 for immediate effect and 1.16 for prolonged effect. The test described could be used by reference centres and manufacturers to assess the efficacy of new and existing surgical hand disinfection formulations. PMID:1679446

  4. Anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  5. Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  6. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil. PMID:27119057

  7. Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks following Various Disinfection Procedures.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Isabella; Ferranti, Greta; Mansi, Antonella; Marcelloni, Anna M; Proietto, Anna R; Saini, Navneet; Borella, Paola; Bargellini, Annalisa

    2016-05-15

    Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed. In order to study the possible effects on the water pipes, we verified the extent of corrosion on experimental coupons after applying each method for 6 months. The percentage of positive points was at its lowest after treatment with monochloramine, followed by chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hyperthermia. Different selections of Legionella spp. were observed, as networks treated with chlorine-based disinfectants were contaminated mainly by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, hyperthermia was associated with serogroups 2 to 14, and hydrogen peroxide treatment was associated mainly with non-pneumophila species. NC cells were detected only in heat-treated waters, and also when the temperature was approximately 60°C. The corrosion rates of the coupons were within a satisfactory limit for water networks, but the morphologies differed. We confirm here that chemical disinfection controls Legionella colonization more effectively than hyperthermia does. Monochloramine was the most effective treatment, while hydrogen peroxide may be a promising alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants due to its ability to select for other, less virulent or nonpathogenic species. PMID:26969696

  8. Anthrax Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... it like the cold or flu. How do animals get infected with anthrax? Domestic and wild animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and deer ... soil, plants, or water. In areas where domestic animals have had anthrax in the past, routine vaccination ...

  9. Evaluation of a new disinfection procedure for ultrasound probes using ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Kac, G; Gueneret, M; Rodi, A; Abergel, E; Grataloup, C; Denarié, N; Peyrard, S; Chatellier, G; Emmerich, J; Meyer, G; Podglajen, I

    2007-02-01

    Following 183 ultrasound examinations, a randomized trial was conducted to compare three procedures for disinfection of probes under routine conditions: dry wiping with a soft, dry, non-sterile paper towel, antiseptic wiping with a towel impregnated with disinfectant spray and dry wiping followed by a 10 min ultraviolet C (UVC) cycle in a disinfection chamber. After ultrasonography, swabs were taken from transducer heads before and after cleaning and streaked onto plates that were then cultured. The number of colonies per plate was counted and organisms identified. The median microbial reduction was 100% for UVC, 98.4% for antiseptic wiping and 87.5% for dry wiping (P<0.001). The percentage of negative specimens was 88% for UVC, 16% for antiseptic wiping and 4% for dry wiping (P<0.0001). Microbial flora was isolated from 12 probes (6.6%) before cleaning, whereas specimens obtained after cleaning contained no pathogens except in one case after antiseptic wiping. UVC disinfection of ultrasound probe may provide a useful method for reducing the bacterial load under routine conditions. PMID:17174448

  10. Persistence of Microbial Contamination on Transvaginal Ultrasound Probes despite Low-Level Disinfection Procedure

    PubMed Central

    M'Zali, Fatima; Bounizra, Carole; Leroy, Sandrine; Mekki, Yahia; Quentin-Noury, Claudine; Kann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study In many countries, Low Level Disinfection (LLD) of covered transvaginal ultrasound probes is recommended between patients' examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LLD under routine conditions on a range of microorganisms. Materials and Methods Samples were taken over a six month period in a private French Radiology Center. 300 specimens derived from endovaginal ultrasound probes were analyzed after disinfection of the probe with wipes impregnated with a quaternary ammonium compound and chlorhexidine. Human papillomavirus (HPV) was sought in the first set of s100 samples, Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas were searched in the second set of 100 samples, bacteria and fungi in the third 100 set samples. HPV, C. trachomatis and mycoplasmas were detected by PCR amplification. PCR positive samples were subjected to a nuclease treatment before an additional PCR assay to assess the likely viable microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi were investigated by conventional methods. Results A substantial persistence of microorganisms was observed on the disinfected probes: HPV DNA was found on 13% of the samples and 7% in nuclease-resistant form. C. trachomatis DNA was detected on 20% of the probes by primary PCR but only 2% after nuclease treatment, while mycoplasma DNA was amplified in 8% and 4%, respectively. Commensal and/or environmental bacterial flora was present on 86% of the probes, occasionally in mixed culture, and at various levels (10->3000 CFU/probe); Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 4% of the probes (10-560 CFU/probe). No fungi were isolated. Conclusion Our findings raise concerns about the efficacy of impregnated towels as a sole mean for disinfection of ultrasound probes. Although the ultrasound probes are used with disposable covers, our results highlight the potential risk of cross contamination between patients during ultrasound examination and emphasize the need for reviewing the disinfection

  11. Cutaneous anthrax (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Anthrax is caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis . While anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats, humans may get sick from anthrax, too. The most common type of anthrax infection ...

  12. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Exner, Martin; Simon, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC) using Octeniderm® (spraying and wiping technique) vs. Descoderm® pads (wiping technique). The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >105 CFU K. pneumoniae or S. epidermidis. The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in 100 g solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log) against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with S. epidermidis. Our investigation underlines that (i) in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii) details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity. PMID:26693394

  13. Evaluation of routine depopulation, cleaning, and disinfection procedures in the live bird markets, New York.

    PubMed

    Trock, Susan C; Gaeta, Michelle; Gonzalez, Annette; Pederson, Janice C; Senne, Dennis A

    2008-03-01

    During the past years surveillance for avian influenza has been conducted in the live bird markets (LBMs) in New York as well as other states along the east coast. Repeated attempts to eradicate H5 and H7 influenza from the New York markets have focused efforts on the LBMs themselves. Despite repeated mandatory market closures accompanied by cleaning and disinfecting (C/D) procedures, avian influenza virus continued to be isolated. In an effort to assess the adequacy of the C/D procedure, samples were collected in temporal proximity to the depopulation and C/D. Comparison of the pre-C/D (83% virus positive), at C/D approval (1.6% positive) and post-C/D testing (33% positive) indicate that the current procedures of C/D can be effective at eliminating these influenza viruses. However, reinfection via introduction of influenza-virus-positive birds can occur shortly after the market reopens. PMID:18459316

  14. Anthrax Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H; Vrentas, Catherine; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Liu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The bacterium's major virulence factors are (a) the anthrax toxins and (b) an antiphagocytic polyglutamic capsule. These are encoded by two large plasmids, the former by pXO1 and the latter by pXO2. The expression of both is controlled by the bicarbonate-responsive transcriptional regulator, AtxA. The anthrax toxins are three polypeptides-protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF)-that come together in binary combinations to form lethal toxin and edema toxin. PA binds to cellular receptors to translocate LF (a protease) and EF (an adenylate cyclase) into cells. The toxins alter cell signaling pathways in the host to interfere with innate immune responses in early stages of infection and to induce vascular collapse at late stages. This review focuses on the role of anthrax toxins in pathogenesis. Other virulence determinants, as well as vaccines and therapeutics, are briefly discussed. PMID:26195305

  15. Anthrax Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... products some military personnel, as determined by the Department of Defense These people should get five doses of vaccine ( ... cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/vaccination/. Contact the U.S Department of Defense (DoD): call 1-877-438-8222 or visit ...

  16. Anthrax blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis ... A normal result means no antibodies to the anthrax bacteria were seen in your blood sample. However, during the early stages of infection, your body may only ...

  17. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment. PMID:25851429

  18. Development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The microbial ecology facility in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is tasked with anticipation of potential microbial problems (and opportunities to exploit microorganisms) which may occur in partially closed systems such as space station/vehicles habitats and in water reclamation systems therein, with particular emphasis on the degradation of materials. Within this context, procedures for microbial biofilm research are being developed. Reported here is the development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species. Preliminary investigations have been completed. As procedures are refined, it will be possible to focus more closely on the elucidation of biofilm phenomena.

  19. ANTHRAX TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Anthrax TAD was developed as an Interim Draft Final technical resource in November 2003. It is specifically for response to an actual or suspected terrorist release of anthrax (i.e., it is not intended for response to anthrax in agricultural settings.). The TAD was provided ...

  20. [Are disinfectant residues remained after cleaning hemodialysis machine procedure safe for patients?].

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Małgorzata; Grzeszczuk, Karolina; Walski, Tomasz; Suder, Marek; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The dialysis machine shall be cleaned and disinfected after each patient treatment or after every 72 hours break in working. An acceptable disinfectants such as Puristeril plus or Puristeril 340, Citrosteril, Diasteril and Sporotal are used for decontamination. Puristeril 340 is designed for cold disinfection and due to the low pH value, the necessary decalcification of hemodialysis machines is easily achieved. It can be used for all haemodialysis systems like hemodialysis machines, water treatment devices and circuit pipes. Diluted Puristeril decomposes in a non-toxic way. Degradation products of peracetic acid, which is main component of Puristeril are: hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Peracetic acid is widely used for disinfection due to its exceptionally broad spectrum of microbiocidal activity at low concentrations and short exposure times. After use Puristeril is easily removable by rinsing with water. This paper deals with the effect of the Puristeril toxicity on blood as a function of its concentration and incubation time. Concentration range of 3.5-70 ppm was used, with particular emphasis on concentrations close to 5 ppm, a value is the limit of sensitivity of strips of starch potassium iodide, the tests for detection of peracetic acid. There was a strong increase in autohaemolysis and malondialdehyde concentrations with increasing concentration of Puristeril. There were also changes in dependence on the parameters of the incubation time, with the greatest effects obtained after 2 hours incubation with Puristeril. The detection limit of peracetic acid used strips of starch potassium iodide does not guarantee the safety of a patient undergoing hemodialysis. Even the residual concentration of Puristeril plus cause increased lipid peroxidation of membrane, and therefore suggest the routine use of stripes on the lower limit of detection of peracetic acid or implement measurement of hydrogen peroxide residues performed with sensitivity 1 ppm. PMID:24003659

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine A.; Wright, Mary E.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Bradley, John S.; Morrow, Meredith G.; Pavia, Andy T.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Holty, Jon-Erik C.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Smith, Theresa L.; Pesik, Nicki; Treadwell, Tracee A.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax. This article updates antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis and antimicrobial and antitoxin treatment options and describes potentially beneficial critical care measures for persons with anthrax, including clinical procedures for infected nonpregnant adults. Changes from previous guidelines include an expanded discussion of critical care and clinical procedures and additional antimicrobial choices, including preferred antimicrobial drug treatment for possible anthrax meningitis. PMID:24447897

  2. Disinfection Processes.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Naoko; Kuo, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to disinfection processes is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: disinfection methods, disinfection byproducts, and microbiology and microbial communities. PMID:27620087

  3. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from surfaces of poultry slaughterhouses after cleaning and disinfection procedures: analysis of a potential source of carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-05-31

    Campylobacters are a primary cause of human bacterial enteritis worldwide. They are usually considered susceptible to the disinfectant molecules used in the food industry. The purpose of this study was to see if campylobacters could survive cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses and whether the strains recovered could contaminate carcasses during processing. Samples obtained from the environment before and after cleaning and disinfection (transport crates, processing equipment surfaces, scald tank water) and from birds (fresh droppings, neck skins) were collected during 7 investigations in 4 different slaughterhouses. Out of 41 samples collected, 30 Campylobacter jejuni strains were recovered from the surfaces of processing equipment before cleaning and disinfection procedures in three slaughterhouses and 9 C. jejuni out of 51 samples collected were found after cleaning. The study was then focused on one slaughterhouse to trace passage of the pathogen on poultry carcasses. The antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (P) (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) of the C. jejuni isolates collected in this slaughterhouse were determined. Nine phenotypes could be distinguished. Three of these were of interest as they were found in isolates recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures. The genotypes (G) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of isolates with one of the three phenotypes of interest. Clusters constructed by combining the phenotype and genotyping observations (PG type) were compared between isolates obtained after cleaning and disinfection, and isolates from droppings, neck skin and transport crate samples of slaughtered poultry flocks. Only one PG type of strain was recovered from surfaces after cleaning and disinfection and from neck skin samples but was also recovered from transport crates. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni is able to survive overnight on food processing

  4. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

  5. Anthrax-associated shock.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Recent events have brought attention to the potential of Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism. The shock like state of anthrax is invariably associated with high mortality, despite anti-microbial and supportive therapy. Multi-system dysfunction is typical, including: enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and inflammation. Important questions concerning the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock remain unanswered, including the effects of B. anthracis infection on cardiac function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock. PMID:18508494

  6. Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, K; Dewulf, J; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Zoons, J; Vervaet, E; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2015-04-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of the broiler stable environment is an essential part of farm hygiene management. Adequate cleaning and disinfection is essential for prevention and control of animal diseases and zoonoses. The goal of this study was to shed light on the dynamics of microbiological and non-microbiological parameters during the successive steps of cleaning and disinfection and to select the most suitable sampling methods and parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols was measured in six broiler houses on two farms through visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate hygiene monitoring and microbiological analyses. Samples were taken at three time points: 1) before cleaning, 2) after cleaning, and 3) after disinfection. Before cleaning and after disinfection, air samples were taken in addition to agar contact plates and swab samples taken from various sampling points for enumeration of total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and the detection of E. coli and Salmonella. After cleaning, air samples, swab samples, and adenosine triphosphate swabs were taken and a visual score was also assigned for each sampling point. The mean total aerobic flora determined by swab samples decreased from 7.7±1.4 to 5.7±1.2 log CFU/625 cm2 after cleaning and to 4.2±1.6 log CFU/625 cm2 after disinfection. Agar contact plates were used as the standard for evaluating cleaning and disinfection, but in this study they were found to be less suitable than swabs for enumeration. In addition to measuring total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp. seemed to be a better hygiene indicator to evaluate cleaning and disinfection protocols than E. coli. All stables were Salmonella negative, but the detection of its indicator organism E. coli provided additional information for evaluating cleaning and disinfection protocols. Adenosine triphosphate analyses gave additional information about the

  7. ANTHRAX REMEDIATION RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a research program to respond to the immediate needs arising from the recent Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism events. Although the program has a strong emphasis on anthrax, other pathogens and chemical agents, including toxic indu...

  8. Anthrax blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis ... Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 57. Martin GJ, ...

  9. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune response but are hampered by shortcomings that make their widespread use undesirable or infeasible. Efforts to gain U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for licensure of a second generation recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccine are ongoing. However, this vaccine's reliance on the generation of a humoral immune response against a single virulence factor has led a number of scientists to conclude that the vaccine is likely not the final solution to optimal anthrax vaccine design. Other vaccine approaches, which seek a more comprehensive immune response targeted at multiple components of the B. anthracis organism, are under active investigation. This review seeks to summarize work that has been done to build on the current PA-based vaccine methodology and to evaluate the search for future anthrax prophylaxis strategies. PMID:19729034

  10. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sirisanthana, Thira; Brown, Arthur E

    2002-07-01

    When swallowed, anthrax spores may cause lesions from the oral cavity to the cecum. Gastrointestinal anthrax is greatly underreported in rural disease-endemic areas of the world. The apparent paucity of this form of anthrax reflects the lack of facilities able to make the diagnosis in these areas. The spectrum of disease, ranging from subclinical infection to death, has not been fully recognized. In some community-based studies, cases of gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbered those of cutaneous anthrax. The oropharyngeal variant, in particular, is unfamiliar to most physicians. The clinical features of oropharyngeal anthrax include fever and toxemia, inflammatory lesion(s) in the oral cavity or oropharynx, enlargement of cervical lymph nodes associated with edema of the soft tissue of the cervical area, and a high case-fatality rate. Awareness of gastrointestinal anthrax in a differential diagnosis remains important in anthrax-endemic areas but now also in settings of possible bioterrorism. PMID:12095428

  11. Possible Overestimation of Surface Disinfection Efficiency by Assessment Methods Based on Liquid Sampling Procedures as Demonstrated by In Situ Quantification of Spore Viability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Grand, I.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Herry, J.-M.; Hilaire, D.; Moriconi, F.-X.; Naïtali, M.

    2011-01-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the “damaged/undamaged” status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures. PMID:21742922

  12. Application of automated thermal disinfection instead of sterilisation procedures for treatment of rotating dental instruments: efficacy against viruses?

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Nentwig, G H; Doerr, H W

    1997-08-01

    In dentistry it is of primary importance to take into consideration microbial transfer due to the nature of the construction of rotating dental instruments. This aspect was the starting point for our research with the question whether or not sterilisation is fundamentally necessary for slow and high speed hand pieces to make them "safe" out of a virological point of view, or whether a thermal disinfection could also possibly be adequate for this purpose. In this context, we tested the efficiency of the cleaning and disinfection capacity of an automated steam disinfection and sterilisation unit (Sirona Hygiene Center, Siemens, AG, Bensheim) intended to the hygienic treatment of dental instruments with respect to viruses. In model tests the corresponding instruments were experimentally infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) and simian vacuoling virus (SV40). As indicator systems we used for both cell cultures (measurement of the degree of infectiosity) and (for HSV) polymerase chain reactions (PCR; determination of viral nucleic acids). In the tests for (residual) infectiosity after thermal disinfection (as an isolated step of the Hygienic Centre) and also for a combination of cleaning and subsequent thermal disinfection (also after protein application), no infectious virus could be found in the interior of the slow handpieces and turbines tested. In opposite to this, infectious HSV and SV40 could be found after completion of every isolated cleaning program in the turbine (in all three ducts) and in the slow handpiece (only in the gearbox duct in the case of HSV, and in the case of SV40 also in the water and air ducts in very small amounts). The PCR analyses showed that no nucleic acids could be found in both instruments (in the air and water ducts) following a practice-relevant combination of cleaning and disinfection, but that PCR-positive signals were obtained for the larger-volume gearbox and drive and return air ducts in 1 or 2 of 3 test samples. The

  13. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  14. Pediatric Anthrax Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John S.; Peacock, Georgina; Krug, Steven E.; Bower, William A.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Pavia, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which has multiple routes of infection in humans, manifesting in different initial presentations of disease. Because B anthracis has the potential to be used as a biological weapon and can rapidly progress to systemic anthrax with high mortality in those who are exposed and untreated, clinical guidance that can be quickly implemented must be in place before any intentional release of the agent. This document provides clinical guidance for the prophylaxis and treatment of neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21 (referred to as “children”) in the event of a deliberate B anthracis release and offers guidance in areas where the unique characteristics of children dictate a different clinical recommendation from adults. PMID:24777226

  15. Anthrax Spores under a microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Anthrax spores are inactive forms of Bacillus anthracis. They can survive for decades inside a spore's tough protective coating; they become active when inhaled by humans. A result of NASA- and industry-sponsored research to develop small greenhouses for space research is the unique AiroCide TiO2 system that kills anthrax spores and other pathogens.

  16. Choosing disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Fraise, A P

    1999-12-01

    Disinfectant choice is an important part of the role of the infection control team. Its importance has increased due to concern over transmission of blood-borne viruses and the need to identify alternatives to gluteraldehyde. Factors to be taken into account when choosing disinfectants include compliance with COSHH regulations, user acceptability, instrument compatibility and antimicrobial activity. Compounds vary in their suitability for different uses and an agent's properties must be fully evaluated before adopting it for a particular purpose. This review outlines the main properties that need to be established and covers the major characteristics of main classes of disinfectants. PMID:10658801

  17. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  18. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  2. Anthrax in the Gambia: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, B; Ropp, M E; Voos, U G; Meinel, H I; Darlow, H M

    1975-01-01

    Epidemiological data on 448 cases of human cutaneous anthrax from the Gambia showed that this particular strain of anthrax bacillus causes widespread morbidity and some mortality with, at the same time, subclinical infection. Analysis also showed that anthrax is not an occupationally related disease in the Gambia. The possibility of human-to-human spread, affecting all age groups and both sexes, by means of a communal toilet article was also shown. The fact that the strain is a good toxin producer but contains a weak antigen may have accounted for the repeated clinical infection and the fact that antibody titres were generally transient. Subclinical infection in animals was also found, particularly in sheep and goats, and also, with an unusually low mortality, in cows. Insect vectors were not excluded, but were unlikely. Vultures may spread the disease from village to village. Some possible public health and immunization procedures are discussed, with a view to containing this difficult problem in this part of west Africa. PMID:810213

  3. Agar-Gel Precipitin Technique in Anthrax Antibody Determinations1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, John G.; Kadull, Paul J.

    1964-01-01

    A modification of the agar-gel precipitation inhibition technique of Thorne and Belton for detecting anthrax antibodies reduces inconsistency of visually determined end points on the same sera observed by different technicians. Determination of the minimal reacting concentrations of the anthrax antigen and antibody reagents, modifications of the visualization apparatus, methods for combining reagents, and length of incubation periods contribute to the ease of the end-point determinations and the uniformity of results. When compared with the previous technique, the modified procedure is less time-consuming while retaining satisfactory reproducibility, simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:14201088

  4. Investigations on the efficacy of surface disinfection and surface cleaning procedures. 3. Evaluation of the results of in-use and laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Borneff, J; Werner, H P; Duppré, M

    1975-08-01

    3 disinfectants and 3 disinfectant cleaning agents were subjected to comparative tests as to their germicidal activity. These were (a) laboratory tests with germ carriers and (b) in-use tests with Sarcina-contaminated floor surfaces in a medical institute. The results, details of which are given in the two preceding publications, were assessed under the following angles: Validity of the test methods, requisite changes of the test procedures and practical usefulness of the different types of preparations. This assessment led to the following conclusions: New preparations should first be tested for their bacteriostatic activity according to DGHM and the neutralising agents should be determined. The suspensions tests - which remain to be standardised- provide information on the sensitivity to protein, hard water and detergent surface active substances. The germ carrier tests with operating-theatre tiles, carried out with at least 5 test germs, must result in a germ count reduction of more than 5 powers of ten (regardless of the elimination rate due to drying). In-use tests should stand at the end of the test series. Regular epidemiological studies are hardly feasible in all individual cases. An assessment on the basis of the behaviour of normal bacterial spores is likewise impracticable. The use of test germs cannot be dispensed with. Sarcina is a suitable species provided germ-carrier tests have first been carried out and have shown that Staphylococci, Klebsiellae and other high-risk germs are more sensitive to the preparation than Sarcina lutea. In the in-use tests, we consider a reduction by 2 to 3 powers of ten to be sufficient. PMID:1106070

  5. Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anthrax URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/anthrax.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  6. Dental unit waterlines disinfection using hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, D; Srikanth, Padma; Narayana, L Lakshmi; Selvarajan, R

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a new disinfectant to disinfect the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: New dental unit waterlines were installed in 13 dental chairs, and biofilm was allowed to grow for 10 days. Disinfection treatment procedure was carried out in the 12 units, and one unit was left untreated. The dental unit waterlines were removed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Result: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in any of the 12 cut sections obtained from the treated dental waterlines which mean that there was no evident of biofilm formation. Untreated dental unit waterlines showed a microbial colonization with continuous filamentous organic matrix. There was significant biofilm formation in the control tube relative to the samples. Conclusion: The tested disinfectant was found to be effective in the removal of biofilm from the dental unit waterlines. PMID:27563184

  7. Anthrax Vaccine and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin Meyer; Weiss, Peter D.; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, as a category A potential bioterrorism agent. There are critical shortcomings in the US anthrax vaccine program. Rather than depending on the private sector, the government must assume direct production of anthrax vaccine. The development of a capacity capable of preemptive immunization of the public against anthrax should be considered. PMID:17901434

  8. Anthrax: A Guide for Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents facts about anthrax so that biology teachers can communicate them to others. Defines anthrax and the nature of bacterial spores. Discusses transmission and clinical presentation as well as prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Explores the use of anthrax as a biological warfare agent. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  9. Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anthrax URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/anthrax.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Anthrax - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Airing Out Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  11. Disinfection and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Corn, J L; Nettles, V F

    1995-06-01

    Capture, handling or transport of wildlife for purposes such as research, disease monitoring, wildlife damage control, relocation, and collection of zoological specimens can create risks of disease spread. Cleaning and disinfection procedures for equipment used in these activities must be routine and designed to eliminate the spread of pathogens to either animals or humans. General methods and materials for cleaning and disinfection apply to wildlife studies. Concepts involved in preparing a protocol specific to a wildlife investigation are discussed. The control of the spread of livestock and poultry pathogens via free-ranging mammals and birds prior to disinfection of contaminated premises is approached through an accurate assessment of the problem and, where necessary, the selection of appropriate wildlife control measures. The authors discuss the development of a problem assessment, and review potential methods for use in the control of wildlife. For an accurate problem assessment, information is needed on the presence of wild mammals and birds at the site, exposure of wild mammals and birds to the pathogen, and the potential for further transmission. When wildlife control is deemed necessary, techniques may be selected to disperse or exclude animals from premises or to depopulate the site. Dispersal or exclusion from premises is appropriate when movement of animals within or away from the contaminated premises would not result in further transmission of the pathogen. Depopulation is necessary when the continued presence or dispersal of wild mammals or birds would potentially result in further spread of the disease. PMID:7579643

  12. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  13. Impact of surface disinfection and sterile draping of furniture on room air quality in a cardiac procedure room with a ventilation and air-conditioning system (extrusion airflow, cleanroom class 1b (DIN 1946-4))

    PubMed Central

    Below, Harald; Ryll, Sylvia; Empen, Klaus; Dornquast, Tina; Felix, Stefan; Rosenau, Heike; Kramer, Sebastian; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    In a cardiac procedure room, ventilated by a ventilation and air-conditioning system with turbulent mixed airflow, a protection zone in the operating area could be defined through visualization of airflows. Within this protection zone, no turbulence was detectable in the room air. Under the given conditions, disinfection of all surfaces including all furniture and equipment after the last operation and subsequent draping of furniture and all equipment that could not be removed from the room with sterile surgical drapes improved the indoor room air quality from cleanroom class C to cleanroom class B. This also allows procedures with elevated requirements to be performed in room class 1b. PMID:20941336

  14. Review of water disinfection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Throughout the history of manned space flight the supply of potable water to the astronauts has presented unique problems. Of particular concern has been the microbiological quality of the potable water. This has required the development of both preflight water system servicing procedures to disinfect the systems and inflight disinfectant addition and monitoring devices to ensure continuing microbiological control. The disinfectants successfully used to date have been aqueous chlorine or iodine. Because of special system limitations the use of iodine has been the most successful for inflight use and promises to be the agent most likely to be used in the future. Future spacecraft potable, hygiene, and experiment water systems will utilize recycled water. This will present special problems for water quality control. NASA is currently conducting research and development to solve these problems.

  15. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  16. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  17. Application of disinfectants in poultry hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Samberg, Y; Meroz, M

    1995-06-01

    Veterinary control and routine sanitary procedures in commercial poultry hatcheries should include the following: choice of a suitable geographical location to ensure an isolated site; proper hatchery design with separation of major operations; one-way flow of work within the hatchery; adequate ventilation of each room; routine cleaning and disinfection; formaldehyde fumigation or alternative method for disinfection of eggs, equipment and incubators; a routine programme for monitoring microbial contamination levels within the hatchery. PMID:7579636

  18. Disinfection practices in intravenous drug administration.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Ista, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a feedback intervention on adherence to disinfection procedures during intravenous medication preparation and administration. We found that full adherence to the protocols significantly improved from 7.3% to 21.5% (P < .001) regarding medication preparation and from 7.9% to 15.5% (P = .012) regarding medication administration. However, disinfection practices still need improvement. PMID:26899528

  19. Spatiotemporal Clustering Analysis and Risk Assessments of Human Cutaneous Anthrax in China, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Quan; Haque, Ubydul; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Li, Shen-Long; Tong, Shi-Lu; Li, Cheng-Yi; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic characteristics of human cutaneous anthrax (CA) in China, detect the spatiotemporal clusters at the county level for preemptive public health interventions, and evaluate the differences in the epidemiological characteristics within and outside clusters. Methods CA cases reported during 2005–2012 from the national surveillance system were evaluated at the county level using space-time scan statistic. Comparative analysis of the epidemic characteristics within and outside identified clusters was performed using using the χ2 test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Results The group of 30–39 years had the highest incidence of CA, and the fatality rate increased with age, with persons ≥70 years showing a fatality rate of 4.04%. Seasonality analysis showed that most of CA cases occurred between May/June and September/October of each year. The primary spatiotemporal cluster contained 19 counties from June 2006 to May 2010, and it was mainly located straddling the borders of Sichuan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces. In these high-risk areas, CA cases were predominantly found among younger, local, males, shepherds, who were living on agriculture and stockbreeding and characterized with high morbidity, low mortality and a shorter period from illness onset to diagnosis. Conclusion CA was geographically and persistently clustered in the Southwestern China during 2005–2012, with notable differences in the epidemic characteristics within and outside spatiotemporal clusters; this demonstrates the necessity for CA interventions such as enhanced surveillance, health education, mandatory and standard decontamination or disinfection procedures to be geographically targeted to the areas identified in this study. PMID:26208355

  20. Effectiveness of various chemical disinfectants versus cleaning combined with heat disinfection on Pseudomonas biofilm in hemodialysis machines.

    PubMed

    Holmes, C J; Degremont, A; Kubey, W; Straka, P; Man, N K

    2004-01-01

    The development of bacterial biofilms in the hydraulic circuit of hemodialysis machines is routinely prevented by frequent use of a variety of chemical and heat disinfection strategies. This study compared the effectiveness of several chemical disinfectants, commonly used either alone or in combination with a treatment regimen that involved cleaning plus heat disinfection using an in vitro Pseudomonas biofilm model. Effectiveness of these procedures was evaluated using total and viable biomass quantitation and polysaccharide and endotoxin determination. The chemical disinfection procedures were only partially successful in removing all biofilm components. Heat disinfection alone killed viable biofilm bacteria, but did not remove all the biomass components, including endotoxin. The combination of cleaning with citric acid followed by heat disinfection was the most effective in eliminating all biofilm components from the hydraulic circuit of the in vitro model. PMID:15359105

  1. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation. PMID:27131128

  2. Advances in Anthrax Detection: Overview of Bioprobes and Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungmok; Gedi, Vinayakumar; Lee, Sang-Choon; Cho, Jun-Haeng; Moon, Ji-Young; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2015-06-01

    Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Although anthrax commonly affects domestic and wild animals, it causes a rare but lethal infection in humans. A variety of techniques have been introduced and evaluated to detect anthrax using cultures, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoassays to address the potential threat of anthrax being used as a bioweapon. The high-potential harm of anthrax in bioterrorism requires sensitive and specific detection systems that are rapid, field-ready, and real-time monitoring. Here, we provide a systematic overview of anthrax detection probes with their potential applications in various ultra-sensitive diagnostic systems. PMID:25987133

  3. List of Contractors to Support Anthrax Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.

  4. [Bacillus anthracis: causative agent of anthrax].

    PubMed

    Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, I; Ben Redjeb, S

    2001-12-01

    Anthrax, an acute infectious disease of historical importance, is once again regaining interest with its use as a biological weapon. It is caused by B. anthracis, a Gram positive spore forming rod usually surrounded by a capsule and producing toxin. It occurs most frequently as an epizootic or enzootic disease of herbivores that acquire spores form direct contact with contaminated soil. Spores can survive for many years in soil. Animal vaccination programs have reduced drastically the disease in developed countries. In humans, the disease is acquired following contact with anthrax infected animals or their products. 3 types of anthrax infection can occur: cutaneous, inhalational and gastro intestinal. Cutaneous anthrax is the most common observed form. When germination occurs, replicating bacteria release toxin leading to hemorrhage, edema, necrosis and death. Full virulence of B. anthracis requires the presence of both antiphagocytic capsule and 3 toxin components (protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor). Most naturally occurring anthrax strains are sensitive to penicillin but resistant to third generation cephalosporins. Post exposure prophylaxis is indicated to prevent inhalational anthrax. PMID:11892436

  5. The Ins and Outs of Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Sarah; van der Goot, F. Gisou; Bürgi, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a severe, although rather rare, infectious disease that is caused by the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The infectious form is the spore and the major virulence factors of the bacterium are its poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and the tripartite anthrax toxin. The discovery of the anthrax toxin receptors in the early 2000s has allowed in-depth studies on the mechanisms of anthrax toxin cellular entry and translocation from the endocytic compartment to the cytoplasm. The toxin generally hijacks the endocytic pathway of CMG2 and TEM8, the two anthrax toxin receptors, in order to reach the endosomes. From there, the pore-forming subunit of the toxin inserts into endosomal membranes and enables translocation of the two catalytic subunits. Insertion of the pore-forming unit preferentially occurs in intraluminal vesicles rather than the limiting membrane of the endosome, leading to the translocation of the enzymatic subunits in the lumen of these vesicles. This has important consequences that will be discussed. Ultimately, the toxins reach the cytosol where they act on their respective targets. Target modification has severe consequences on cell behavior, in particular on cells of the immune system, allowing the spread of the bacterium, in severe cases leading to host death. Here we will review the literature on anthrax disease with a focus on the structure of the toxin, how it enters cells and its immunological effects. PMID:26978402

  6. The Ins and Outs of Anthrax Toxin.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Sarah; van der Goot, F Gisou; Bürgi, Jérôme

    2016-03-01

    Anthrax is a severe, although rather rare, infectious disease that is caused by the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The infectious form is the spore and the major virulence factors of the bacterium are its poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and the tripartite anthrax toxin. The discovery of the anthrax toxin receptors in the early 2000s has allowed in-depth studies on the mechanisms of anthrax toxin cellular entry and translocation from the endocytic compartment to the cytoplasm. The toxin generally hijacks the endocytic pathway of CMG2 and TEM8, the two anthrax toxin receptors, in order to reach the endosomes. From there, the pore-forming subunit of the toxin inserts into endosomal membranes and enables translocation of the two catalytic subunits. Insertion of the pore-forming unit preferentially occurs in intraluminal vesicles rather than the limiting membrane of the endosome, leading to the translocation of the enzymatic subunits in the lumen of these vesicles. This has important consequences that will be discussed. Ultimately, the toxins reach the cytosol where they act on their respective targets. Target modification has severe consequences on cell behavior, in particular on cells of the immune system, allowing the spread of the bacterium, in severe cases leading to host death. Here we will review the literature on anthrax disease with a focus on the structure of the toxin, how it enters cells and its immunological effects. PMID:26978402

  7. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  8. [Evaluation of surface disinfectants utilized in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves e; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Surface disinfection is a procedure carried out on the external parts of the dental equipment as well as on other items of the dental office. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of 4 surface disinfectants utilized in dentistry: 77 degrees GL alcohol, phenolic compound (Duplofen), iodophor (PVP-I) and 77 degrees GL alcohol with 5% of chlorhexidine. Four surfaces of the equipment were analyzed in the study (the carter, the washbasin for hand-washing, the headrest of the chair and the external surface of the reflector), and the spray-wipe-spray procedure was carried out. From each surface, samples were collected by means of surface plates containing Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar, Sabouraud Dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, MacConkey agar and blood agar, for counting mutans streptococci, Candida yeasts, gram-negative bacteria and total microorganisms, respectively (ufc/plate). The results were statistically analyzed by means of the Student's t test in order to compare the mean ufc/plate values. The most effective disinfectant was 77 degrees GL alcohol with 5% of chlorhexidine, mainly against gram-positive bacteria. Iodophor and phenolic compound were also effective in microbial reduction. 77 degrees GL alcohol was the least effective product - however, although it is not considered as a surface disinfectant, it produced, in this study, statistically significant microbial reduction after the disinfecting procedure. PMID:12131982

  9. Laboratories Face Crackdown in Wake of Anthrax Scare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Explores the after-effects on college laboratories of the anthrax mail scare; scientists say the anthrax scare justifies tougher rules on biological agents, but some fear that Congress may go too far. (EV)

  10. Anthrax

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis , which lives in soil. The bacterial cell lives as a hardy spore ... Bacillus anthracis is a bacterium that lives in soil and has developed a survival tactic that allows ...

  11. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases. PMID:26720232

  12. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Nablo, Brian J; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E; Robertson, Joseph W F; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M; Kasianowicz, John J

    2013-08-14

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

  13. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  14. When bioterrorism strikes: diagnosis and management of inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Shafazand, Shirin

    2003-09-01

    In October and November, 2001, reports of patients with inhalational anthrax reacquainted the public with this ancient disease and introduced the harsh reality of a bioterrorist act. Bacillus anthracis, a rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, primarily infects herbivores. Humans traditionally have acquired the disease from occupational or agricultural exposure to infected animals and animal products. Recent events saw the intentional release of anthrax spores, using the U.S. postal system as an unlikely and unwilling agent. Cutaneous disease, pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal anthrax are the known clinical manifestations of anthrax. Inhalational anthrax has the highest mortality and is the main focus of this report. PMID:14505276

  15. [Selected research problems of anthrax vaccine development].

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Dorota; Kocik, Janusz; Bartoszcze, Michał

    2009-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with B. anthracis against civilian population is one of major concern. After successful bioterroristic attack in 2001 in US renewed research interest has prompted in the development of new and more effective vaccine against anthrax. There are two licensed vaccines against anthrax--AVA-Bio-Thrax US and UK--sterile culture filtrate prepared by alum precipitation. Both vaccines are based on PA antigen. There are several concerns regarding PA based vaccines. They require six sc injections and yearly booster, high rates of local reaction after vaccination is observed, the immunity is not long lasting, vaccination do not protect animals against different strains of B. anthracis. New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines have been presented (recombinant PA, subunits vaccine, mutants, conjugated). Using proteomic approaches new antigens have been also identified as candidates for future vaccines. More effective and easy to perform methods of vaccination have been reviewed. PMID:20120948

  16. Anthrax as the cause of preseptal cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Celebi, S; Celebi, H; Celiker, U O; Kandemir, B; Alagöz, G; Esmerligil, S

    1997-08-01

    Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. It is primarily a disease of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, and sheep; but humans can rarely be infected by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Our case is a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as preseptal cellulitis, but later he showed the characteristic anthrax lesions with a black necrotic eschar. Scrapings from the necrotic tissue showed gram positive rods and culture grew Bacillus anthracis. The patient responded to intravenous administration of penicillin G, and the lesions resolved, leaving a scar on the right upper eyelid. Eyelid involvement of anthrax is rarely seen in clinical practice, but should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:9374261

  17. Anthrax attack at the United States Capitol. Front line thoughts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrea; Eisold, John F

    2002-04-01

    One great fear was realized on October 15, 2001 when United States citizens witnessed firsthand the unprecedented release of anthrax into a community. Although the office of the Attending Physician to Congress had been preparing for such an unthinkable act, lessons were learned as the events unfolded. The following is a summary of the findings: Preparation, planning, and frequent review of bioterrorism response procedures are essential. Effective communication remains the key to successful team performance. Briefings conducted daily and on an as needed basis shape the progress and performance of the team members. Electronic mail may not necessarily be the most effective way to disseminate critical information because not everyone can access the Internet outside of the work environment. Setting up a call center for answering client's questions is crucial. Clients potentially exposed to anthrax should be evacuated from the immediate area. Testing is not indicated for everyone, only those in the immediate areas. Allow health care personnel to decide whom should be tested. Such health care decisions must not be made based on anxiety or expediency. A data collection template should be set up in advance. This template should include, at least, the following: name, date of birth, social security number, the physical location of where the client might have been exposed, antibiotics administered and dosage, test results, and home and work phone number. This should be networked so a group can access and update data in real time. If the occupational health clinic has its own pharmacy, have a pill counter available to help with antibiotic distribution. The team should meet several times daily to ensure dissemination of a reliable and consistent message to the clients. Team members should be prepared to review the medical aspects of anthrax with clients on a frequent basis. A website with updated information might prove helpful for those with Internet access. This experience

  18. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. PMID:25555560

  19. Humidifier disinfectants, unfinished stories.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeyong; Paek, Domyung

    2016-01-01

    Once released into the air, humidifier disinfectants became tiny nano-size particles, and resulted in chemical bronchoalveolitis. Families had lost their most beloved members, and even some of them became broken. Based on an estimate of two million potential victims who had experienced adverse effects from the use of humidifier disinfectants, we can say that what we have observed was only the tip of the iceberg. Problems of entire airways, as well as other systemic effects, should be examined, as we know these nano-size particles can irritate cell membranes and migrate into systemic circulation. The story of humidifier disinfectant is not finished yet. PMID:26987713

  20. Humidifier disinfectants, unfinished stories

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeyong

    2016-01-01

    Once released into the air, humidifier disinfectants became tiny nano-size particles, and resulted in chemical bronchoalveolitis. Families had lost their most beloved members, and even some of them became broken. Based on an estimate of two million potential victims who had experienced adverse effects from the use of humidifier disinfectants, we can say that what we have observed was only the tip of the iceberg. Problems of entire airways, as well as other systemic effects, should be examined, as we know these nano-size particles can irritate cell membranes and migrate into systemic circulation. The story of humidifier disinfectant is not finished yet. PMID:26987713

  1. Indigenous human cutaneous anthrax in Texas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J P; Dimmitt, D C; Ezzell, J W; Whitford, H

    1993-01-01

    In December 1988 an indigenous case of cutaneous anthrax was identified in Texas. The patient, a 63-year-old male Hispanic from southwest Texas, was a sheep shearer and had a recent history of dissecting sheep that had died suddenly. He experienced an illness characterized by left arm pain and edema. A necrotic lesion developed on his left forearm, with cellulitis and lymphadenopathy. After treatment with oral and intravenous penicillins, the patient fully recovered. Western blot testing revealed a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and lethal factor. This represents the first case of indigenous anthrax in Texas in more than 20 years. PMID:8420007

  2. Sterilization and disinfection in the physician's office.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, D C; Skidmore, A G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the principles and practice of sterilization and disinfection of medical instruments in the office setting. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE for articles published from 1980 to 1990 on disinfection, sterilization, cross infection, surgical instruments and iatrogenic disease, bibliographies, standard texts and reference material located in a central processing department. STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed surveys of decontamination practices in physicians' offices, reviews of current recommendations for office decontamination procedures, case reports of cross infection in offices and much of the standard reference material on decontamination theory and practice. DATA SYNTHESIS: There have been few surveys of physicians' decontamination practices and few case reports of cross infection. Office practitioners have little access to practical information on sterilization and disinfection. CONCLUSION: The increasing threat of cross infection from medical instruments calls for greater knowledge about decontamination. We have adapted material from various sources and offer a primer on the subject. PMID:1913427

  3. Roles of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 in Anthrax Toxin Membrane Insertion and Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianjun; Jacquez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of the host-pathogen interaction. Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) binds to the cell surface receptor, enters the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and forms a pore on the endosomal membrane that translocates toxin enzymes into the cytosol of the host cell. As the major receptor for anthrax toxin in vivo, anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) plays an essential role in anthrax toxin action by providing the toxin with a high-affinity binding anchor on the cell membrane and a path of entry into the host cell. ANTXR2 also acts as a molecular clamp by shifting the pH threshold of PA pore formation to a more acidic pH range, which prevents premature pore formation at neutral pH before the toxin reaches the designated intracellular location. Most recent studies have suggested that the disulfide bond in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of ANTXR2 plays an essential role in anthrax toxin action. Here we will review the roles of ANTXR2 in anthrax toxin action, with an emphasis on newly updated knowledge. PMID:26805886

  4. Roles of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 in Anthrax Toxin Membrane Insertion and Pore Formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianjun; Jacquez, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of the host-pathogen interaction. Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) binds to the cell surface receptor, enters the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and forms a pore on the endosomal membrane that translocates toxin enzymes into the cytosol of the host cell. As the major receptor for anthrax toxin in vivo, anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) plays an essential role in anthrax toxin action by providing the toxin with a high-affinity binding anchor on the cell membrane and a path of entry into the host cell. ANTXR2 also acts as a molecular clamp by shifting the pH threshold of PA pore formation to a more acidic pH range, which prevents premature pore formation at neutral pH before the toxin reaches the designated intracellular location. Most recent studies have suggested that the disulfide bond in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of ANTXR2 plays an essential role in anthrax toxin action. Here we will review the roles of ANTXR2 in anthrax toxin action, with an emphasis on newly updated knowledge. PMID:26805886

  5. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  6. Periorbital cellulitis due to cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Grant; Starks, Victoria; Vrcek, Ivan; Gilliland, Connor

    2015-12-01

    Virgil's plague of the ancient world, Bacillus anthracis, is rare in developed nations. Unfortunately rural communities across the globe continue to be exposed to this potentially lethal bacterium. Herein we report a case of periorbital cutaneous anthrax infection in a 3-year-old girl from the rural area surrounding Harare, Zimbabwe with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25763844

  7. Anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, E. Diane; Dyson, Edward Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a serious, potentially fatal disease that can present in four distinct clinical patterns depending on the route of infection (cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pneumonic, or injectional); effective strategies for prophylaxis and therapy are therefore required. This review addresses the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis employed by the bacterium and describes how, as understanding of these has developed over many years, so too have current strategies for vaccination and therapy. It covers the clinical and veterinary use of live attenuated strains of anthrax and the subsequent identification of protein sub-units for incorporation into vaccines, as well as combinations of protein sub-units with spore or other components. It also addresses the application of these vaccines for conventional prophylactic use, as well as post-exposure use in conjunction with antibiotics. It describes the licensed acellular vaccines AVA and AVP and discusses the prospects for a next generation of recombinant sub-unit vaccines for anthrax, balancing the regulatory requirement and current drive for highly defined vaccines, against the risk of losing the “danger” signals required to induce protective immunity in the vaccinee. It considers novel approaches to reduce time to immunity by means of combining, for example, dendritic cell vaccination with conventional approaches and considers current opportunities for the immunotherapy of anthrax. PMID:26441934

  8. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allison B; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LFinhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and highthroughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection. PMID:27072692

  9. Anthrax Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Anthrax Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ vis Hojas de información s obre v acunas están disponibles en e spañol y en muchos otros ...

  10. Anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E Diane; Dyson, Edward Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a serious, potentially fatal disease that can present in four distinct clinical patterns depending on the route of infection (cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pneumonic, or injectional); effective strategies for prophylaxis and therapy are therefore required. This review addresses the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis employed by the bacterium and describes how, as understanding of these has developed over many years, so too have current strategies for vaccination and therapy. It covers the clinical and veterinary use of live attenuated strains of anthrax and the subsequent identification of protein sub-units for incorporation into vaccines, as well as combinations of protein sub-units with spore or other components. It also addresses the application of these vaccines for conventional prophylactic use, as well as post-exposure use in conjunction with antibiotics. It describes the licensed acellular vaccines AVA and AVP and discusses the prospects for a next generation of recombinant sub-unit vaccines for anthrax, balancing the regulatory requirement and current drive for highly defined vaccines, against the risk of losing the "danger" signals required to induce protective immunity in the vaccinee. It considers novel approaches to reduce time to immunity by means of combining, for example, dendritic cell vaccination with conventional approaches and considers current opportunities for the immunotherapy of anthrax. PMID:26441934

  11. Molecular determinants for a cardiovascular collapse in anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Brojatsch, Jurgen; Casadevall, Arturo; Goldman, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis releases two bipartite proteins, lethal toxin and edema factor, that contribute significantly to the progression of anthrax-associated shock. As blocking the anthrax toxins prevents disease, the toxins are considered the main virulence factors of the bacterium. The anthrax bacterium and the anthrax toxins trigger multiorgan failure associated with enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and cardiac dysfunction in animal challenge models. A recent study using mice that either lacked the anthrax toxin receptor in specific cells and corresponding mice expressing the receptor in specific cell types demonstrated that cardiovascular cells are critical for disease mediated by anthrax lethal toxin. These studies are consistent with involvement of the cardiovascular system, and with an increase of cardiac failure markers observed in human anthrax and in animal models using B. anthracis and anthrax toxins. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax and tries to provide a mechanistic model and molecular determinants for the circulatory shock in anthrax. PMID:24389148

  12. Molecular determinants for a cardiovascular collapse in anthrax.

    PubMed

    Brojatsch, Jurgen; Casadevall, Arturo; Goldman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis releases two bipartite proteins, lethal toxin and edema factor, that contribute significantly to the progression of anthrax-associated shock. As blocking the anthrax toxins prevents disease, the toxins are considered the main virulence factors of the bacterium. The anthrax bacterium and the anthrax toxins trigger multi-organ failure associated with enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and cardiac dysfunction in animal challenge models. A recent study using mice that either lacked the anthrax toxin receptor in specific cells and corresponding mice expressing the receptor in specific cell types demonstrated that cardiovascular cells are critical for disease mediated by anthrax lethal toxin. These studies are consistent with involvement of the cardiovascular system, and with an increase of cardiac failure markers observed in human anthrax and in animal models using B. anthracis and anthrax toxins. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax and tries to provide a mechanistic model and molecular determinants for the circulatory shock in anthrax. PMID:24389148

  13. Antibiotics Cure Anthrax in Animal Models▿

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Pass, Avi; Ophir, Yakir; Rothschild, Nili; Tal, Arnon; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline, ofloxacin, imipenem, and gentamicin conferred protection. However, upon termination of treatment, the animals died from respiratory anthrax. Combined treatment with antibiotics and active vaccination with a protective antigen-based vaccine leads to full protection even after cessation of treatment. Delaying the initiation of antibiotic administration to over 24 h p.i. resulted in treatment of animals with anthrax exhibiting various degrees of bacteremia and toxemia. Treatment with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin cured sick guinea pigs and rabbits exhibiting bacteremia levels up to 105 CFU/ml. Addition of anti-protective antigen (PA) antibodies augmented the efficiency of protection, allowing the cure of guinea pigs and rabbits with 10- to 20-fold-higher bacteremia levels, up to 7 × 105 CFU/ml and 2 × 106 CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin and a monoclonal anti-PA antibody rescued rabbits with bacteremia levels up to 4 × 106 CFU/ml. During antibiotic administration, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response against development of a fatal disease and subcutaneous challenge with Vollum spores. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that antibiotic treatment can prevent the development of fatal disease in respiratory-anthrax-infected animals and can cure animals after disease establishment. A therapeutic time window of 40 h to 48 h from infection to initiation of efficient antibiotic-mediated cure was observed. PMID:21263056

  14. Anthrax Susceptibility: Human Genetic Polymorphisms Modulating ANTXR2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Minglei; Ye, Bingyu; Shen, Wenlong; Li, Ping; Xing, Lingyue; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Lihua; Xu, Junjie; Zhao, Zhihu; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin causes anthrax pathogenesis and expression levels of ANTXR2 (anthrax toxin receptor 2) are strongly correlated with anthrax toxin susceptibility. Previous studies found that ANTXR2 transcript abundance varies considerably in individuals of different ethnic/geographical groups, but no eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) have been identified. By using 3C (chromatin conformation capture), CRISPR-mediated genomic deletion and dual-luciferase reporter assay, gene loci containing cis-regulatory elements of ANTXR2 were localized. Two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the conserved CREB-binding motif, rs13140055 and rs80314910 in the promoter region of the gene, modulating ANTXR2 promoter activity were identified. Combining these two regulatory SNPs with a previously reported SNP, rs12647691, for the first time, a statistically significant correlation between human genetic variations and anthrax toxin sensitivity was observed. These findings further our understanding of human variability in ANTXR2 expression and anthrax toxin susceptibility. PMID:26703731

  15. Media exposure to bioterrorism: stress and the anthrax attacks.

    PubMed

    Dougall, Angela Liegey; Hayward, Michele C; Baum, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study examined media exposure and adjustment to anthrax bioterrorism attacks and the terrorist attacks on 9/11 in a sample of 300 people who lived distant from the attacks. Measures of direct and indirect exposure to terrorism, perceived risk of anthrax exposure, psychological distress, and outlook were assessed at 2 to 3 months and at 8 months after the first reported anthrax attack. Initial anthrax media exposure was a powerful predictor of distress, whereas subsequent anthrax media exposure only predicted negative changes in outlook over time. Perceived risk of anthrax exposure predicted distress and outlook but did not appear to mediate the effects of media exposure. Determining the nature and consequences of media exposure to threatening and frightening events like terrorism will help predict and manage response to future bioterrorism. PMID:15899708

  16. Anthrax Susceptibility: Human Genetic Polymorphisms Modulating ANTXR2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Minglei; Ye, Bingyu; Shen, Wenlong; Li, Ping; Xing, Lingyue; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Lihua; Xu, Junjie; Zhao, Zhihu; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin causes anthrax pathogenesis and expression levels of ANTXR2 (anthrax toxin receptor 2) are strongly correlated with anthrax toxin susceptibility. Previous studies found that ANTXR2 transcript abundance varies considerably in individuals of different ethnic/geographical groups, but no eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) have been identified. By using 3C (chromatin conformation capture), CRISPR-mediated genomic deletion and dual-luciferase reporter assay, gene loci containing cis-regulatory elements of ANTXR2 were localized. Two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the conserved CREB-binding motif, rs13140055 and rs80314910 in the promoter region of the gene, modulating ANTXR2 promoter activity were identified. Combining these two regulatory SNPs with a previously reported SNP, rs12647691, for the first time, a statistically significant correlation between human genetic variations and anthrax toxin sensitivity was observed. These findings further our understanding of human variability in ANTXR2 expression and anthrax toxin susceptibility. PMID:26703731

  17. In-office microwave disinfection of soft contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.G.; Rechberger, J.; Grant, T.; Holden, B.A. )

    1990-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an in-office microwave disinfection procedure which allowed for the disinfection of up to 40 soft contact lenses at one time. Ciba AOSept cases filled with sterile unpreserved saline were contaminated with one of six FDA test challenge microorganisms at a concentration of approximately 10(3) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). Twenty cases were placed on the rotating plate of a standard 2450 MHz 650 W microwave oven in a 10-cm diameter circle. The cases were exposed to high intensity microwave irradiation for periods of 0 to 15 min. None of the 6 microorganisms evaluated survived 2 min or longer of microwave exposure. Our findings indicated that microwave irradiation can be a convenient, rapid, and effective method of disinfecting a number of soft contact lenses at one time and thus adaptable as an in-office soft contact lens disinfection procedure.

  18. DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

  19. Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, a potentially fatal infection, is a virulent and highly contagious disease. It is caused by a gram-positive, toxigenic, spore-forming bacillus: Bacillus anthracis. For centuries, anthrax has caused disease in animals and, although uncommonly, in humans throughout the world. Descriptions of this naturally occurring disease begin in antiquity. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, which are infected by ingestion of spores from the soil. With the advent of modern microbiology, Pasteur developed the first successful anthrax vaccine in 1881. The incidence of the disease has continually decreased since the late 19th century, and animal vaccination programs drastically reduced the animal mortality from the disease. However, anthrax spores continue to be documented in soil samples from throughout the world. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more than 80 years ago, and today at least 17 nations are believed to have offensive biological weapons programs that include anthrax. Recent events in the USA have shown how society is affected by both hoax and real threats of anthrax bioweapons. This fourth article in the series on weapons of biowarfare/bioterrorism summarizes the historical background of anthrax as well as clinical and laboratory information useful for bioterrorism preparedness. PMID:16200179

  20. Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly contagious and potentially fatal human disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with worldwide distribution as a zoonotic infection in herbivore animals. Bioterrorist attacks with inhalational anthrax have prompted the development of more effective treatments. Antibodies against anthrax toxin have been shown to decrease mortality in animal studies. Raxibacumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody developed against inhalational anthrax. The drug received approval after human studies showed its safety and animal studies demonstrated its efficacy for treatment as well as prophylaxis against inhalational anthrax. It works by preventing binding of the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxin to its receptors in host cells, thereby blocking the toxin’s deleterious effects. Recently updated therapy guidelines for Bacillus anthracis recommend the use of antitoxin treatment. Raxibacumab is the first monoclonal antitoxin antibody made available that can be used with the antibiotics recommended for treatment of the disease. When exposure is suspected, raxibacumab should be given with anthrax vaccination to augment immunity. Raxibacumab provides additional protection against inhalational anthrax via a mechanism different from that of either antibiotics or active immunization. In combination with currently available and recommended therapies, raxibacumab should reduce the morbidity and mortality of inhalational anthrax. PMID:24812521

  1. Anthrax as an example of the One Health concept.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G; Frean, J

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax is a peracute, acute or subacute multispecies bacterial infection that occurs on many continents. It is one of the oldest infectious diseases known; the biblical fifth and sixth plagues (Exodus chapters 7 to 9) that affected first livestock and then humans were probably anthrax. From the earliest historical records until development of an effective vaccine midway through the 20th Century, anthrax was one of the foremost causes of uncontrolled mortality in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, with 'spill over' into humans, worldwide. With the development of the Sterne spore vaccine, a sharp decline in anthrax outbreaks in livestock occurred during the 1930-1980 era. There were successful national vaccination programmes in many countries during this period, complemented by the liberal use of antibiotics and the implementation of quarantine regulations and carcass disposal. However, a resurgence of this disease in livestock has been reported recently in some regions, where complacency and a false sense of security have hindered vaccination programmes. The epidemiology of anthrax involves an environmental component, as well as livestock, wildlife and human components. This makes anthrax an ideal example for discussion in the One Health context. Many outbreaks of anthrax in wildlife are undetected or unreported, owing to surveillance inadequacies and difficulties. Human disease is generally acquired accidentally during outbreaks of anthrax in domestic livestock and wildlife. The exception is deliberate targeting of humans with anthrax in the course of biowarfare or bioterrorism. PMID:25707186

  2. Challenges in disposing of anthrax waste.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, Ann M; Stein, Steve; Upton, Jaki F; Toomey, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration's (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist in the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material would require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussions was the identification of 3 primary topical areas that must be addressed: planning, unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues. PMID:21882972

  3. New Insights into Gastrointestinal Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Tao; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are the primary cause of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in both developing and developed countries, and are particularly dangerous for infants and children. Bacillus anthracis is the “archetype zoonotic” pathogen; no other infectious disease affects such a broad range of species, including humans. Importantly, there are more case reports of GI anthrax infection in children than inhalational disease. Early diagnosis is difficult and widespread systemic disease develops rapidly. This review highlights new findings concerning the roles of the gut epithelia, commensal microbiota, and innate lymphoid cells in initiation of disease and systemic dissemination in animal models of GI anthrax, the understanding of which is crucial to designing alternative therapies that target establishment of infection. PMID:25577136

  4. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  5. Increased membrane turnover in the brain in cutaneous anthrax without central nervous system disorder: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Yasar; Firat, Ahmet K; Kayabas, Uner; Alkan, Alpay; Yetkin, Funda; Karakas, Hakki M; Yologlu, Saim

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis contacting the skin, is the most common form of human anthrax. Recent studies implicate the presence of additional, possibly toxin-related subtle changes, even in patients without neurological or radiological findings. In this study, the presence of subtle changes in cutaneous anthrax was investigated at the metabolite level using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Study subjects were consisted of 10 patients with cutaneous anthrax without co-morbid disease and/or neurological findings, and 13 healthy controls. There were no statistical differences in age and gender between two groups. The diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax was based on medical history, presence of a typical cutaneous lesion, large gram positive bacilli on gram staining and/or positive culture for B. anthracis from cutaneous samples. Brain magnetic resonance imaging examination consisted of conventional imaging and single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed by using point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (TR: 2000ms, TE: 136ms, 128 averages). Voxels of 20mm×20mm×20mm were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter to detect metabolite levels. Cerebral metabolite peaks were measured in normal appearing parietal white matter. N-acetyl aspartate/creatine and choline/creatine ratios were calculated using standard analytical procedures. Patients and controls were not statistically different regarding parietal white matter N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios (p=0.902), a finding that implicates the conservation of neuronal and axonal integrity and neuronal functions. However, choline/creatine ratios were significantly higher in patient groups (p=0.001), a finding implicating an increased membrane turnover. In conclusion, these two findings point to a possibly anthrax toxins-related subtle inflammatory reaction of the central nervous system at the cellular level. PMID:22543072

  6. On the role of macrophages in anthrax.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, P C; Acosta, D; Collier, R J

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces systemic shock and death in susceptible animals, primarily through the action of its lethal toxin. This toxin, at high concentrations, induces lysis of macrophages in vitro but shows little or no effect on other cells. We found that when mice were specifically depleted of macrophages by silica injections, they became resistant to the toxin. Sensitivity could be restored by coinjection of toxin-sensitive cultured macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) but not by coinjection of other cell lines tested. These results implied that macrophages mediate the action of lethal toxin in vivo and led us to investigate their role in death of the mammalian host. Sublytic concentrations of lethal toxin, orders of magnitude lower than those required to induce lysis of RAW 264.7 cells, were found to induce these cells to express interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor in vitro. Passive immunization against IL-1 or injection of an IL-1 receptor antagonist protected mice from toxin challenge, whereas anti-tumor necrosis factor provided little, if any, protection. These results imply that systemic shock and death from anthrax result primarily from the effects of high levels of cytokines, principally IL-1, produced by macrophages that have been stimulated by the anthrax lethal toxin. PMID:8234277

  7. Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

  8. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  9. Disinfection of bedpans

    PubMed Central

    Darmady, E. M.; Hughes, K. E. A.; Jones, J. D.; Prince, D.; Verdon, Patricia

    1961-01-01

    A standard dish-washing machine fitted with an automatic cycle has been used to clean and disinfect bedpans. Visual and bacteriological examinations have shown that the machine produces superior and more reliable results than in trials of bedpans submitted to previously described methods. PMID:13719783

  10. Recent Developments in Anti-dotes Against Anthrax.

    PubMed

    Dhasmana, Neha; Singh, Lalit K; Bhaduri, Asani; Misra, Richa; Singh, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    The etiologic agent of disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, causes recurrent outbreaks among the livestock and intermittent infections in humans across the world. Controlling animal infections by vaccination can minimize the incidence of disease in humans. Prevention of anthrax in occupationally exposed personnel is achieved through vaccination with either live spores or precipitates of culture supernatants from attenuated strains of B. anthracis. However, anthrax vaccination of the large human population is impractical as well as inappropriate. Broad-range antibiotics like amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, streptomycin, and penicillin G are recommended for the treatment of human anthrax infections, but the threat of antibiotic resistant strains always remains. Moreover, in the absence of any specific symptom (s) during early infection, the diagnosis of anthrax is delayed causing elevated levels of anthrax toxin component which could be fatal. For these reasons, there is a need to develop new antimicrobial agents against virulent B. anthracis to effectively combat this fatal pathogen. Over the last two decades, extensive studies have been carried out to develop specific inhibitors against virulence factors of B. anthracis such as capsule, protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor. Research has also been focused in developing inhibitors of anthrax toxin receptors (including the use of receptor decoys) and host furin endoproteases which are required for activation of toxin. This review highlights the recent progress made in developing the diverse countermeasures for anthrax infections targeting B. anthracis virulence factors and their counterparts in host. PMID:25174439

  11. Anthrax in transit; practical experience and intellectual exchange.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan D; Teigen, Philip M

    2008-09-01

    Focusing on three Anglo-American outbreaks of industrial anthrax, this essay engages the question of how local circumstances influenced the transmission of scientific knowledge in the late nineteenth century. Walpole (Massachusetts), Glasgow, and Bradford (Yorkshire) served as important nodes of transnational investigation into anthrax. Knowledge about the morphology and behavior of Bacillus anthracis changed little while in transit between these nodes, even during complex debates about the nature of bacterial morphology, disease causation, and spontaneous generation. Working independently of their more famous counterparts (Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur), Anglo-American anthrax investigators used visual representations of anthrax bacilli to persuade their peers that a specific, identifiable cause produced all forms of anthrax-malignant pustule (cutaneous anthrax), intestinal anthrax, and woolsorter's disease (pneumonic anthrax). By the late 1870s, this point of view also supported what we would today call an ecological notion of the disease's origins in the interactions of people, animals, and microorganisms in the context of global commerce. PMID:18959192

  12. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential. PMID:24653973

  13. [Microbiological assesssment of efficiency chemothermal disinfection of blood contaminated hospital textiles].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Podgórska, Marta; Chojecka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Thermal disinfection should be applied to laundering procedures of hospital textiles contaminated with blood. Currently, there is an increasing number of hospital textiles composed of cotton-polyester blends that cannot endure high temperatures of thermal disinfection. Besides, decreasing the temperature of chemothermal disinfection enhances the possibility of micro-organisms to survive the laundering procedure. The aim of this study was to prepare a new method for the microbiological evaluation of disinfecting laundering procedures for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. The bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection was determined by simulating a laundering procedure for hospital textiles in the laboratory according to procedure of National Institute of Hygiene - DF/05/03. Bioindicators cotton carriers inoculated with Enterococcus faecium were used for determinating the antibacterial effects for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. High concentrations of bovine albumin and/or sheep erythrocytes were used as substrate for simulating human blood. The results showed that the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection hospital textiles in the event of massive organic contamination--heavily soiled with blood, shall be evaluated using carrier test in following conditions: test organism- Enterococcus faecium, interfering substances--6 g/l bovine albumin solution added to preparation. PMID:21365871

  14. Anthrax threat: a review of clinical and diagnostic measures.

    PubMed

    Alqurashi, Abdelrahman Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Anthrax is the plague of the ancient world and its existence is confirmed by the Roman poet Virgil. Also it is a threat in the modern world as it can be used in biological wars and bioterrorism. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis an unmovable, aerobic, gram-positive rod. It forms spores, which can survive for years in the environment. Three clinical forms result after exposure to anthrax spores: cutaneous, respiratory, and gastro- intestinal. The cutaneous anthrax commonly prevails among humans. The respiratory form occurs most likely due to inhalation of the bacterial spores, whereas the gastrointestinal form happens after spores' ingestion. Prophylactic, early diagnosis and proper treatment will reduce mortalities of anthrax. Thus, the physicians, senior nurses and individuals at risk should be aware of the danger of this disease. PMID:23697023

  15. Transcriptional Stimulation of Anthrax Toxin Receptors by Anthrax Edema Toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingfu; Hesek, Eric D.; Zeng, Mingtao

    2007-01-01

    We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to not only investigate the mRNA levels of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) and 2 (ANTXR2) in the murine J774A.1 macrophage cells and different tissues of mice, but also evaluate the effect of anthrax edema toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores on the expression of mRNA of these receptors. The mRNA transcripts of both receptors was detected in J774A.1 cells and mouse tissues such as the lung, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, jejunum, brain, skeleton muscle, and skin. The ANTXR2 mRNA level was significantly higher than that of ANTXR1 in J774A.1 cells and all tissues examined. The mRNA expression of both receptors in the lung was the highest among the tissues evaluated. Interestingly, the mRNA expression of both receptors in J774A.1 cells was up-regulated by edema toxin. In addition, ANTXR mRNA expression in the lung was down-regulated after subcutaneous inoculation of B. anthracis Sterne spores as well as after intranasal administration of anthrax toxin-based vaccine BioThrax™. These results suggest that anthrax edema toxin and B. anthracis Sterne spore are involved in the ANTXR mRNA regulation in host cells. PMID:17459655

  16. A Comparison of the Adaptive Immune Response between Recovered Anthrax Patients and Individuals Receiving Three Different Anthrax Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Laws, Thomas R; Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Chitadze, Nazibriola; Little, Stephen F; Webster, Wendy M; Debes, Amanda K; Saginadze, Salome; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Chubinidze, Mariam; Rivard, Robert G; Tsanava, Shota; Dyson, Edward H; Simpson, Andrew J H; Hepburn, Matthew J; Trapaidze, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Several different human vaccines are available to protect against anthrax. We compared the human adaptive immune responses generated by three different anthrax vaccines or by previous exposure to cutaneous anthrax. Adaptive immunity was measured by ELISPOT to count cells that produce interferon (IFN)-γ in response to restimulation ex vivo with the anthrax toxin components PA, LF and EF and by measuring circulating IgG specific to these antigens. Neutralising activity of antisera against anthrax toxin was also assayed. We found that the different exposures to anthrax antigens promoted varying immune responses. Cutaneous anthrax promoted strong IFN-γ responses to all three antigens and antibody responses to PA and LF. The American AVA and Russian LAAV vaccines induced antibody responses to PA only. The British AVP vaccine produced IFN-γ responses to EF and antibody responses to all three antigens. Anti-PA (in AVA and LAAV vaccinees) or anti-LF (in AVP vaccinees) antibody titres correlated with toxin neutralisation activities. Our study is the first to compare all three vaccines in humans and show the diversity of responses against anthrax antigens. PMID:27007118

  17. A Comparison of the Adaptive Immune Response between Recovered Anthrax Patients and Individuals Receiving Three Different Anthrax Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Thomas R.; Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Chitadze, Nazibriola; Little, Stephen F.; Webster, Wendy M.; Debes, Amanda K.; Saginadze, Salome; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Chubinidze, Mariam; Rivard, Robert G.; Tsanava, Shota; Dyson, Edward H.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Trapaidze, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Several different human vaccines are available to protect against anthrax. We compared the human adaptive immune responses generated by three different anthrax vaccines or by previous exposure to cutaneous anthrax. Adaptive immunity was measured by ELISPOT to count cells that produce interferon (IFN)-γ in response to restimulation ex vivo with the anthrax toxin components PA, LF and EF and by measuring circulating IgG specific to these antigens. Neutralising activity of antisera against anthrax toxin was also assayed. We found that the different exposures to anthrax antigens promoted varying immune responses. Cutaneous anthrax promoted strong IFN-γ responses to all three antigens and antibody responses to PA and LF. The American AVA and Russian LAAV vaccines induced antibody responses to PA only. The British AVP vaccine produced IFN-γ responses to EF and antibody responses to all three antigens. Anti-PA (in AVA and LAAV vaccinees) or anti-LF (in AVP vaccinees) antibody titres correlated with toxin neutralisation activities. Our study is the first to compare all three vaccines in humans and show the diversity of responses against anthrax antigens. PMID:27007118

  18. The anthrax vaccine: no new tricks for an old dog.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Loomis, Lawrence J; Biagini, Raymond E

    2009-03-01

    The original license for production of the anthrax vaccine, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), was issued in 1970. Since that time, over 8 million AVA immunizations have been administered to 2+ million individuals. In 2002, the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, reviewed the safety and efficacy of AVA. They concluded that the vaccine is acceptably safe and effective in protecting humans against anthrax. The vaccine should protect people against all known strains of anthrax bacteria, as well as against any strains that might be created by potential terrorists or others. Although the Institute of Medicine concluded that AVA was reasonably safe, they noted that it is fairly common for people to experience local reactions (e.g., redness and swelling at the injection site) and for a smaller number to experience systemic reactions such as fever and malaise, within hours or days of vaccination. Results of animal studies done previously and subsequent to this report are generally in agreement. For instance, AVA vaccination increases the level of anthrax anti-protective antigen IgG (anti-PA IgG), which is thought to be one possible correlate of protection (although absolute protective concentrations have not been identified in humans). Anthrax lethal factor neutralization has also been identified as possibly being an important additional correlate of immunity. Future vaccine research efforts include developing a recombinant anthrax vaccine and anthrax monoclonal antibodies to block the anthrax toxin(s). It is projected that the next-generation vaccine will elicit a markedly increased anti-anthrax immune response within a shorter time period and consequently, will enable the easier inoculations of individuals working within high-risk areas. PMID:19270504

  19. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes. PMID:27070796

  20. Thermal disinfection of hotels, hospitals, and athletic venues hot water distribution systems contaminated by Legionella species.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Varvara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-11-01

    Legionella spp. (> or = 500 cfu liter(-1)) were detected in 92 of 497 water distribution systems (WDS) examined. Thermal disinfection was applied at 33 WDS. After the first and second application of the disinfection procedure, 15 (45.4%) and 3 (9%) positive for remedial actions WDS were found, respectively. Legionella pneumophila was more resistant to thermal disinfection than Legionella non-pneumophila spp. (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1-35). WDS of hotels with oil heater were more easily disinfected than those with electrical or solar heater (RR=0.4 95% CI=0.2-0.8). Thermal disinfection seems not to be efficient enough to eliminate legionellae, unless repeatedly applied and in combination with extended heat flushing, and faucets chlorine disinfection. PMID:17980243

  1. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  2. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  3. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  4. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  5. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  6. Ultrasensitive detection of protease activity of anthrax and botulinum toxins by a new PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Kozyr, Arina V; Ryabko, Alyona K; Shemyakin, Igor G

    2016-02-01

    Anthrax and botulism are dangerous infectious diseases that can be fatal unless detected and treated quickly. Fatalities from these diseases are primarily due to endopeptidase toxins secreted by the pathogens. Rapid and sensitive detection of the presence of active toxins is the key element for protection from natural outbreaks of anthrax and botulism, as well as from the threat of bioterrorism. We describe an ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for detecting proteolytic activity of anthrax and botulinum toxins using composite probes consisting of covalent peptide-DNA conjugate for the detection of anthrax, and noncovalent protein-aptamer assembly to assay botulinum toxin activity. Probes immobilized on the solid-phase support are cleaved by toxins to release DNA, which is detected by real-time PCR. Both assays can detect subpicogram quantities of active toxins isolated from composite matrices. Special procedures were developed to isolate intact toxins from the matrices under mild conditions. The assay is rapid, uses proven technologies, and can be modified to detect other proteolytic and biopolymer-degrading enzymes. PMID:26620058

  7. A case of fatal gastrointestinal anthrax in north eastern iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad; Azimian, Amir; Nojumi, Sara; Garivani, Tahereh; Safamanesh, Saghar; Ghafouri, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bacillus species are aerobic or facultative anaerobic, gram-positive, or gram-variable spore-forming rods. They are ubiquitous in the environmental sources. Bacillus anthracis may usually cause three forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous. The gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax develops after eating contaminated meat. In this paper we report septic intestinal anthrax. Case Presentation. We report an isolation of Bacillus anthracis from blood culture of patient with intestinal anthrax. Bacillus anthracis was isolated from a blood culture of a 34-year-old man who had a history of severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, sweating, and lethargy within 4 to 5 days after eating the meat of domestic goat. He had evidence of severe infection and septic shock and did not respond to treatments and subsequently expired 9 hours after hospitalization. Conclusion. Gastrointestinal anthrax is characterized by rapid onset, fever, and septicemia. Rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy can help in survival. Most of previous cases of septicemic anthrax were related to injection drug users but, in our case, septicemia occurred after gastrointestinal anthrax. PMID:25918652

  8. A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gokhan; Alp, Emine

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is still an endemic disease in some countries in the world and has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with recent intentional outbreak. The aim of this study was to review our clinical experience with cutaneous anthrax cases. From the patient's files, transmission of the diseases, clinical findings and severity of infection, treatment and outcome of patients were recorded. Twenty-two cases were diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax in the last 7 years. Of these cases, 10 cases were severe form of cutaneous anthrax, 10 cases were mild form and 2 cases were toxemic shock due to cutaneous anthrax. The incubation period was between 1 and 17 days. The main clinical characteristics of the cases with severe cutaneous anthrax were fever, hemorrhagic bullous lesions surrounded by an extensive erythema and edema, and leukocytosis. Two cases with toxemic shock had low systolic blood pressure, apathy and toxemic appearance, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia & hyponatremia. Penicillin G was given in 15 cases, amoxicillin in 4 and other antibiotics in 3 cases for 3-10 days. Skin lesion left deep tissue scar in 4 cases and were grafted. Physicians working in endemic areas and also in western countries should be aware of all clinical forms of anthrax. PMID:20869669

  9. SAFER STERILE COMPOUNDING: Choosing and Using Disinfectants for the Cleanroom.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S; Douglass, Kate; Patel, Kedar; Givehchi, Babak; Brister, Paul; Postlewaite, Jay; Taraban, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Compounders worldwide are responsible for ensuring that the sterile preparations they dispense are pure, potent, and safe. To achieve that result, proper cleaning and disinfection of International Organization for Standardization controlled environments must occur. Because those tasks must be performed according to established standards, the compounding pharmacist must research regulatory requirements and appropriate products for use. In this report, we focus on U.S. regulations, guiding entities, and effective products that enable compliance with the increasingly stringent procedures required for pharmaceutical compounding. We also review cleaning and disinfecting processes, discuss the importance of correctly choosing and using disinfectants and/ or sporicidal disinfectants with surface claims in the cleanroom, and provide answers to questions frequently asked by staff who use those agents. In addition, we profile specific disinfectants that are compliant with UnitedStates Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> and current good manufacturing practice standards. Biological safety cabinets and compounding aseptic containment isolators must undergo an additional process that deactivates hazardous drug residues and removes them from the interior surfaces of those devices before they are cleaned and disinfected, but that discussion is beyond the scope of this article. PMID:26625562

  10. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS: THE NEXT GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of drinking water is rightly hailed as a major public health triumph of the 20th Century. Before widespread disinfection of drinking water in the U.S. and Europe, millions of people died from infectious waterborne diseases, such as typhoid and cholera. The microbia...

  11. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic chemicals in…

  12. [Principles of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, María-Jesús; Celorrio-Pascual, José-Miguel; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Solano Bernad, Victor-Manuel

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to provide a brief review of the main concepts on which the prevention and control of infection are based. Antisepsis comprises a set of techniques aimed at the total sterilization, or at most, disinfection, removing germs that contaminate an environment. Both procedures must be preceded by an environmental cleanup in the location in which they intend to be applied. The disinfection is carried out using biocides or germicides. Antimicrobial chemicals, that have mechanisms of action and resistances very similar to antibiotics, are generating concern due to the possibility of crossing genetic information that aggravates the problem of bacterial resistance. Most biocides can act as antiseptics, and applied to skin tissue, or disinfectants on inanimate materials. The spectrum of action of germicides depends on the product itself and external controllable factors: temperature, concentration, exposure time, etc. Sterilization techniques are primarily physical, by exposing the material to steam, or sterilizing gas, using autoclaves. Major advances are the use of low temperatures with shorter exposure times, in parallel with technological advances in instrumentation in order to avoid high temperatures and high use rotations due to workload. PMID:25023372

  13. Evaluation of Intravenous Anthrax Immune Globulin for Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Mytle, Nutan; Hopkins, Robert J.; Malkevich, Nina V.; Basu, Subhendu; Meister, Gabriel T.; Sanford, Daniel C.; Comer, Jason E.; Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Al-Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kramer, William G.; Howard, Cris; Daczkowski, Nancy; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C.; Ionin, Boris; Nabors, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis toxins can be neutralized by antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. Anthrivig (human anthrax immunoglobulin), also known as AIGIV, derived from plasma of humans immunized with BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed), is under development for the treatment of toxemia following exposure to anthrax spores. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of AIGIV was assessed in naive animals and healthy human volunteers, and the efficacy of AIGIV was assessed in animals exposed via inhalation to aerosolized B. anthracis spores. In the clinical study, safety, tolerability, and PK were evaluated in three dose cohorts (3.5, 7.1, and 14.2 mg/kg of body weight of anti-PA IgG) with 30 volunteers per cohort. The elimination half-life of AIGIV in rabbits, nonhuman primates (NHPs), and humans following intravenous infusion was estimated to be approximately 4, 12, and 24 days, respectively, and dose proportionality was observed. In a time-based treatment study, AIGIV protected 89 to 100% of animals when administered 12 h postexposure; however, a lower survival rate of 39% was observed when animals were treated 24 h postexposure, underscoring the need for early intervention. In a separate set of studies, animals were treated on an individual basis upon detection of a clinical sign or biomarker of disease, namely, a significant increase in body temperature (SIBT) in rabbits and presence of PA in the serum of NHPs. In these trigger-based intervention studies, AIGIV induced up to 75% survival in rabbits depending on the dose and severity of toxemia at the time of treatment. In NHPs, up to 33% survival was observed in AIGIV-treated animals. (The clinical study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00845650.) PMID:23979731

  14. Identification of anthrax-specific signature sequence from Bacillus anthracis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Cheng, Tu-chen

    2001-08-01

    The primary objective was to identify and clone novel chromosomal DNA fragments for use as B. anthracis-specific markers. Towards this goal, 300 random primers (RAPD technology, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) were screened to identify polymorphic loci on the anthrax chromosome. Five such DNA fragments uniquely amplifying from anthrax chromosome were identified and isolated. These fragments were cloned in pCR vector and sequenced. Database (genebank) analysis of one of the cloned probe, VRTC899, revealed the presence of specific chromosomal DNA probe, Ba813 from anthrax. This prove also contains flanking DNA with no homology to known sequences. Availability of signature DNA probes for detection of antrax-causing agent in environmental samples is critical for field application of DNA-based sensor technologies. In conclusion, we have demonstrated application of RAPD technology for identification of anthrax-specific signature sequences. This strategy can be extended to identify signature sequences from other BW agents.

  15. Cutaneous anthrax in an unusual location: case report.

    PubMed

    Sari, Tugba; Koruk, Suda Tekin

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous anthrax is well known, unlike anthrax of the lumbar region, which is not reported elsewhere. We present a case of anthrax of the lumbar region in a 50-year-old man. The infection was characterised by a wide, black eschar and oedema on an erythematous ground. After isolation of the Gram-positive bacilli from the skin lesions, prompt antibiotic treatment (intravenous sulbactam-ampicillin 1.5 g every six hours) was initiated. Following eradication of the bacilli after 14 days of antibiotic treatment, a split-thickness skin graft was applied. A diagnosis of anthrax depends on clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis, antibiotic and surgical treatment can facilitate the treatment and prevent development of complications. PMID:26700091

  16. Human anthrax outbreak associated with livestock exposure: Georgia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Navdarashvili, A; Doker, T J; Geleishvili, M; Haberling, D L; Kharod, G A; Rush, T H; Maes, E; Zakhashvili, K; Imnadze, P; Bower, W A; Walke, H T; Shadomy, S V

    2016-01-01

    Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-18·1, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education. PMID:26088361

  17. Occurrence and exposures to disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, R.B.; Jolley, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Disinfection by-products are associated with all chemical disinfectants. The concentration and toxic nature of the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a direct function of the chemical nature of the disinfectant itself and/or of the chemical reactions of the disinfectant with reaction substrates in the water, especially organic constituents. A principal advantage of biological and physical water treatment processes, such as filtration, is the lack of chemical reactions producing disinfectant-related DBPs. The use of the highest quality source water available is important for minimization of DBP formation. In lieu of such high quality water, improvement of water quality by removal of DBP precursors through filtration or other means before application of chemical disinfectants is important. Most, if not all, water treatment experts are aware of these simplistic axioms. In view of the increasing knowledge being developed concerning DBPs including the identification of ``new`` DBPs, prudence dictates minimization of DBP formation. Wholesome drinking water is perhaps the biggest economic bargain available to consumers. The cost-effectiveness of water quality improvement should be evaluated with that in mind.

  18. Occurrence and exposures to disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, R.B.; Jolley, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Disinfection by-products are associated with all chemical disinfectants. The concentration and toxic nature of the disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a direct function of the chemical nature of the disinfectant itself and/or of the chemical reactions of the disinfectant with reaction substrates in the water, especially organic constituents. A principal advantage of biological and physical water treatment processes, such as filtration, is the lack of chemical reactions producing disinfectant-related DBPs. The use of the highest quality source water available is important for minimization of DBP formation. In lieu of such high quality water, improvement of water quality by removal of DBP precursors through filtration or other means before application of chemical disinfectants is important. Most, if not all, water treatment experts are aware of these simplistic axioms. In view of the increasing knowledge being developed concerning DBPs including the identification of new'' DBPs, prudence dictates minimization of DBP formation. Wholesome drinking water is perhaps the biggest economic bargain available to consumers. The cost-effectiveness of water quality improvement should be evaluated with that in mind.

  19. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case report and review of Turkish literature].

    PubMed

    Metan, Gökhan; Uysal, Burcu; Coşkun, Ramazan; Perçin, Duygu; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    The incidence of anthrax is decreasing in Turkey, however, it is still endemic in some regions of the country. Although central nervous system involvement is rare in cases with anthrax, high mortality rates are significant. Here, we report a 46-years old woman who was anthrax meningoencephalitis. The patient was from Yozgat located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Her history revealed that following peeling the skin of sheeps and consuming their meat a week ago, a lesion developed in her left forearm and she had been treated with penicilin G with the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in a local health center. The patient was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital due to increased headache and loss of conciousness and diagnosed as anthrax meningitis. Crytallized penicilin G (24 MU/day IV) and vancomycin (2 g/day IV) were initiated. The macroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was haemorrhagic, white blood cell count was 40/mm3 (80% of neutrophil) and Gram staining of CSF yielded abundant gram-positive bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Bacillus anthracis from CSF culture. Although the isolate was susceptible to penicillin and dexamethasone was added to the treatment, the patient died. Review of the Turkish literature revealed seven cases of anthrax with central nervous system involvement between 1980-2008. One of the patients was an 11-years old boy and the others were adults aged between 19 and 64 years. The source of the infection was skin in four patients and inhalation in one patient. The most common findings in all of the patients were inhabitance in rural area, haemorrhagic CSF and loss of all patients despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, anthrax meningitis and meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic meningitis in areas where anthrax is endemic and high rate of mortality despite appropriate therapy should always be kept in mind. PMID:20084923

  20. [Standardization of the seeding material in producing live anthrax vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gladus, M A; Nikolaenko, Iu P; Lazareva, E S; Fatkhinurova, T I; Mashilova, G M

    1978-09-01

    Technology of obtaining dry concentrated seeding material of the anthrax bacillus STI-1 vaccine strain was worked out. The use of dry seeding material for making dry anthrax vaccine rendered the preparations obtained more standard, reduced the time required for their production, led to increase of AKM-SH productivity, and to greater profitability of the vaccine production. The vaccine preparations obtained with the use of dry seeding material did not differ from control by immunogenicity. PMID:106609

  1. Antitoxin Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eileen; Pillai, Satish K; Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine A; Guarnizo, Julie T; Hoyle, Jamechia D; Gorman, Susan E; Boyer, Anne E; Quinn, Conrad P; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Concern about use of anthrax as a bioweapon prompted development of novel anthrax antitoxins for treatment. Clinical guidelines for the treatment of anthrax recommend antitoxin therapy in combination with intravenous antimicrobials; however, a large-scale or mass anthrax incident may exceed antitoxin availability and create a need for judicious antitoxin use. We conducted a systematic review of antitoxin treatment of inhalation anthrax in humans and experimental animals to inform antitoxin recommendations during a large-scale or mass anthrax incident. A comprehensive search of 11 databases and the FDA website was conducted to identify relevant animal studies and human reports: 28 animal studies and 3 human cases were identified. Antitoxin monotherapy at or shortly after symptom onset demonstrates increased survival compared to no treatment in animals. With early treatment, survival did not differ between antimicrobial monotherapy and antimicrobial-antitoxin therapy in nonhuman primates and rabbits. With delayed treatment, antitoxin-antimicrobial treatment increased rabbit survival. Among human cases, addition of antitoxin to combination antimicrobial treatment was associated with survival in 2 of the 3 cases treated. Despite the paucity of human data, limited animal data suggest that adjunctive antitoxin therapy may improve survival. Delayed treatment studies suggest improved survival with combined antitoxin-antimicrobial therapy, although a survival difference compared with antimicrobial therapy alone was not demonstrated statistically. In a mass anthrax incident with limited antitoxin supplies, antitoxin treatment of individuals who have not demonstrated a clinical benefit from antimicrobials, or those who present with more severe illness, may be warranted. Additional pathophysiology studies are needed, and a point-of-care assay correlating toxin levels with clinical status may provide important information to guide antitoxin use during a large-scale anthrax

  2. Phenotypes and genotypes of campylobacter strains isolated after cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-04-30

    Campylobacter is responsible for human bacterial enteritis and poultry meat is recognised as a primary source of infection. In slaughterhouses, cleaning and disinfection procedures are performed daily, and it has been suggested that disinfectant molecules might select for antibiotic resistant strains if shared targets or combined resistance mechanisms were involved. The aim of the study was to investigate if cleaning and disinfection procedures in poultry slaughterhouses select for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and to determine the genotypes of isolates collected after cleaning and disinfection. Nine sampling visits were made to four French slaughterhouses. Samples were collected from transport crates and equipment surfaces, before and after cleaning and disinfection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the recovered C. jejuni and C. coli isolates to six antibiotics and two disinfectants were measured. The C. jejuni isolates collected from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection were subjected to PCR-RFLP typing. Twenty-five C. jejuni isolates and 1 C. coli were recovered from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection during five visits to three different slaughterhouses. Those isolates did not show an increased resistance to the tested antibiotics compared to isolates collected before cleaning and disinfection. Only one or two genotypes were recovered after cleaning and disinfection during single visits to each slaughterhouse. This observation suggests that such genotypes may be particularly adapted to survive cleaning and disinfection stress. Understanding the survival mechanisms of Campylobacter should facilitate the implementation of better-targeted strategies and reduce the public health burden associated with Campylobacter infection. PMID:18077112

  3. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  4. [Anthrax--continuous threat to humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Mizak, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis is an etiological agent of anthrax a disease very dangerous to humans and all warm-blooded animals. The spore forms are markedly resistant to unfavourable environmental extremes of heat, cold, desiccation, chemicals, irradiation etc. The vegetative forms characterised virulence factors: the antiphagocytic poly-gamma-D-polipeptide capsule and three proteins, edema factor (EF), lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA). Anthrax is mainly transmitted from animals to man through food of animal origin, animal products and contamination of the environment with B. anthracis and its spores. There are three types of this disease: cutaneous, intestinal and inhalation anthrax. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more then 80 years ago. Depending on the target chosen and the scale of the attack the anthrax spores may by used to contaminate of foodstuffs or liquids and water. The aerosolised release of anthrax spore can cause illness with a high fatality rate. PMID:15517814

  5. EFFECT OF WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS ON SURVIVAL OF R-FACTOR COLIFORM BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of antibiotic resistance among coliform bacteria in a secondary waste-water treatment facility and to determine whether various alternative disinfection procedures would select for or against antibiotic resistant colifor...

  6. Evaluation of 5 cleaning and disinfection methods for nets used to collect zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Porelli, Gina; Lieggi, Christine; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-11-01

    Few standardized methods of cleaning and disinfecting equipment in zebrafish facilities have been published, even though the effectiveness of these procedures is vital to preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Four chemical disinfectants and rinsing with municipal tap water were evaluated for their ability to disinfect nets used to capture zebrafish. The disinfectants included benzalkonium chloride+methylene blue, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for a soak time of 5 or 30 min. Disinfection effectiveness was evaluated by using an ATP-based system that measured the reduction in absolute number and percentage of relative light units. In addition, nets were cultured aerobically on blood and MacConkey agar plates to determine the number of bacteria remaining after disinfection procedures. Soaking nets in sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and in potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for 5 or 30 min were effective means of disinfection, according to at least 90% reduction in the number of relative light units and no bacterial growth after cleaning. These results will aid facility managers, veterinarians and investigators in selecting net cleaning and disinfection protocols. PMID:25650972

  7. Evaluation of 5 Cleaning and Disinfection Methods for Nets Used to Collect Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Porelli, Gina; Lieggi, Christine; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Few standardized methods of cleaning and disinfecting equipment in zebrafish facilities have been published, even though the effectiveness of these procedures is vital to preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Four chemical disinfectants and rinsing with municipal tap water were evaluated for their ability to disinfect nets used to capture zebrafish. The disinfectants included benzalkonium chloride+methylene blue, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for a soak time of 5 or 30 min. Disinfection effectiveness was evaluated by using an ATP-based system that measured the reduction in absolute number and percentage of relative light units. In addition, nets were cultured aerobically on blood and MacConkey agar plates to determine the number of bacteria remaining after disinfection procedures. Soaking nets in sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and in potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for 5 or 30 min were effective means of disinfection, according to at least 90% reduction in the number of relative light units and no bacterial growth after cleaning. These results will aid facility managers, veterinarians and investigators in selecting net cleaning and disinfection protocols. PMID:25650972

  8. Deletion modification enhances anthrax specific immunity and protective efficacy of a hepatitis B core particle-based anthrax epitope vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Cai, Chenguang; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Dayong; Guo, Qiang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is one of the major virulence factors of anthrax and is also the major constituent of the current anthrax vaccine. Previously, we found that the 2β2-2β3 loop of PA contains a dominant neutralizing epitope, the SFFD. We successfully inserted the 2β2-2β3 loop of PA into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The resulting fusion protein, termed HBc-N144-PA-loop2 (HBcL2), can effectively produce anthrax specific protective antibodies in an animal model. However, the protective immunity caused by HBcL2 could still be improved. In this research, we removed amino acids 79-81 from the HBc MIR of the HBcL2. This region was previously reported to be the major B cell epitope of HBc, and in keeping with this finding, we observed that the short deletion in the MIR not only diminished the intrinsic immunogenicity of HBc but also stimulated a higher titer of anthrax specific immunity. Most importantly, this deletion led to the full protection of the immunized mice against a lethal dose anthrax toxin challenge. We supposed that the conformational changes which occurred after the short deletion and foreign insertion in the MIR of HBc were the most likely reasons for the improvement in the immunogenicity of the HBc-based anthrax epitope vaccine. PMID:24054942

  9. Efficacy testing of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has the responsibility for regulating antimicrobial products, including sporicides, used to treat and decontaminate inanimate surfaces. In response to the anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) attacks of 2001 and the associated need for verifying the performance of chemicals for building decontamination, the EPA initiated research in late 2003 to evaluate and improve efficacy test methods for sporicides. The OPP Microbiology Laboratory located at the Environmental Science Center, Ft. Meade, MD is the lead laboratory. Through funding provided by EPA's Office of Research and Development (Safe Buildings Program), a collaborative research plan has been established to address several key issues. Research is currently being conducted on 2 fronts: (1) the evaluation of quantitative methodology for assessing the efficacy of sporicides, and (2) the development and comparative testing of selected modifications to improve the AOAC Sporicidal Activity Test (AOAC Method 966.04). Future studies will include the evaluation of candidate surrogates of B. anthracis using a quantitative method, and a multilaboratory validation study of a quantitative method-surrogate combination. The General Referee is serving as the Principal Investigator for all research described in this report, and has the overall responsibility for the technical conduct of the projects. In cases where the General Referee has oversight of projects that involve official collaborative studies and validation support from AOAC INTERNATIONAL, AOAC officials and the Committee Chair will determine the appropriate mechanism for formal study review. The 2003 General Referee report provides the background on the development and direction of the research projects. The preliminary data, general conclusions, next steps, and recommendations are provided in this report. PMID:15759761

  10. DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides a comprehensive source of information to be used in the design of disinfection facilities for municipal wastewater treatment plants. he manual includes design information on halogenation/dehalogenation, ozonation, and ultraviolet radiation. he manual presents...

  11. RISK ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment data base is presented for several waste-water disinfection alternatives, including chlorination, ozonation, chlorination/dechlorination, and ultraviolet radiation. The data base covers hazards and consequences related to onsite use and transportation of the dis...

  12. Clinical findings in children with cutaneous anthrax in eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Akgün, Cihangir; Peker, Erdal; Bektaş, M Selçuk; Kaya, Avni; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings, therapy, and outcome in children with cutaneous anthrax (CA). Data on age, gender, occupation, clinical symptoms and findings, location and type of lesions, clinical history, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome were recorded from patients' medical records, retrospectively. The study included 65 patients between 1 month and 18 years old (9.0±4.0 years), 37 patients (56.9%) were male and 28 (43.1%) were female. Most of the patients (89.1%) were admitted in summer and autumn (p<0.001). Of the 65 patients, 20 patients (30.8%) had received antibiotherapy before admission to our hospital. All patients except one had a contact history with infected animals. A 1-month-old patient had a contact history with his mother who had CA. On clinical examination, anthrax edema was noted in 36 (55.3%) patients, anthrax pustule in 27 (41.5%), and anthrax edema and anthrax pustule in two (3%) patients. Gram staining and culture was positive for B. anthracis in 35 (53.8%) patients, and only Gram staining was positive in 10 (15.4%) patients. In the remaining 20 (30.8%) patients, the diagnosis was made by clinical findings. Because the anthrax outbreak in Turkey was associated with slaughtering or milking of ill cows, sheep, or goats, and handling raw meat without taking any protective measures, persons in the community must be educated about using personal protective equipment during slaughtering of animals and handling of meat and skins. PMID:21083757

  13. The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible.

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, D C; Rennie, R P

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a serious and often fatal disease of wild and domestic animals. Central to the persistence of anthrax in an area is the ability of B. anthracis to form long-lasting, highly resistant spores. Understanding the ecology of anthrax spores is essential if one hopes to control epidemics. Studies on the ecology of anthrax have found a correlation between the disease and specific soil factors, such as alkaline pH, high moisture, and high organic content. Researchers initially suggested that these factors influenced vegetative anthrax bacilli. However, subsequent research has shown that vegetative cells of B. anthracis have very specific nutrient and physiological requirements and are unlikely to survive outside a host. Review of the properties of spores of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species suggests that the specific soil factors linked to epidemic areas reflect important environmental conditions that aid the anthrax spores in causing epidemics. Specifically, high levels of calcium in the soil may help to maintain spore vitality for prolonged periods, thereby increasing the chance of spores encountering and infecting a new host. Cycles of runoff and evaporation may collect spores dispersed from previous epidemics into storage areas, thereby concentrating them. Uptake of large doses of viable spores from storage areas by susceptible animals, via altered feeding or breeding behavior, may then allow the bacterium to establish infection and cause a new epidemic. Literature search for this review was done by scanning the Life Sciences Collection 1982-1994 using the keywords "anthrax" and "calcium and spore." Images Figure 1. PMID:7773917

  14. Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Auty, Harriet; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Beesley, Cari A.; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Metzger, Kristine L.; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Roberts, Keith; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Anthrax is endemic throughout Africa, causing considerable livestock and wildlife losses and severe, sometimes fatal, infection in humans. Predicting the risk of infection is therefore important for public health, wildlife conservation and livestock economies. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of anthrax outbreaks, associated environmental and climatic conditions, and diversity of species affected, the ecology of this multihost pathogen is poorly understood. We explored records of anthrax from the Serengeti ecosystem in north-west Tanzania where the disease has been documented in humans, domestic animals and a range of wildlife. Using spatial and temporal case-detection and seroprevalence data from wild and domestic animals, we investigated spatial, environmental, climatic and species-specific associations in exposure and disease. Anthrax was detected annually in numerous species, but large outbreaks were spatially localized, mostly affecting a few focal herbivores. Soil alkalinity and cumulative weather extremes were identified as useful spatial and temporal predictors of exposure and infection risk, and for triggering the onset of large outbreaks. Interacting ecological and behavioural factors, specifically functional groups and spatiotemporal overlap, helped to explain the variable patterns of infection and exposure among species. Synthesis and applications. Our results shed light on ecological drivers of anthrax infection and suggest that soil alkalinity and prolonged droughts or rains are useful predictors of disease occurrence that could guide risk-based surveillance. These insights should inform strategies for managing anthrax including prophylactic livestock vaccination, timing of public health warnings and antibiotic provision in high-risk areas. However, this research highlights the need for greater surveillance (environmental, serological and case-detection-orientated) to determine the mechanisms underlying anthrax dynamics

  15. An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Sweeney, Daniel A.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal. Two recent outbreaks related to contaminated mail in the USA and heroin in the UK and Europe and its potential as a bioterrorist weapon have greatly increased concerns over anthrax in the developed world. Methods This review summarizes the microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of anthrax. Results and conclusions Anthrax, a gram-positive bacterium, has typically been associated with three forms of infection: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational. However, the anthrax outbreak among injection drug users has emphasized the importance of what is now considered a fourth disease form (i.e., injectional anthrax) that is characterized by severe soft tissue infection. While cutaneous anthrax is most common, its early stages are distinct and prompt appropriate treatment commonly produces a good outcome. However, early symptoms with the other three disease forms can be nonspecific and mistaken for less lethal conditions. As a result, patients with gastrointestinal, inhalational, or injectional anthrax may have advanced infection at presentation that can be highly lethal. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with gram stain and culture from blood or tissue followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR). While antibiotics are the mainstay of anthrax treatment, use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists are a consideration. Prompt surgical therapy appears to be important for successful management of injectional anthrax. PMID:22527064

  16. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the... children from anthrax. The meeting will be from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ET. ADDRESSES: Washington Plaza Hotel,...

  17. Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Bachran, Christopher; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is a potent tripartite protein toxin from Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the two virulence factors and causes the disease anthrax. The receptor-binding component of the toxin, protective antigen, needs to be cleaved by furin-like proteases to be activated and to deliver the enzymatic moieties lethal factor and edema factor to the cytosol of cells. Alteration of the protease cleavage site allows the activation of the toxin selectively in response to the presence of tumor-associated proteases. This initial idea of re-targeting anthrax toxin to tumor cells was further elaborated in recent years and resulted in the design of many modifications of anthrax toxin, which resulted in successful tumor therapy in animal models. These modifications include the combination of different toxin variants that require activation by two different tumor-associated proteases for increased specificity of toxin activation. The anthrax toxin system has proved to be a versatile system for drug delivery of several enzymatic moieties into cells. This highly efficient delivery system has recently been further modified by introducing ubiquitin as a cytosolic cleavage site into lethal factor fusion proteins. This review article describes the latest developments in this field of tumor targeting and drug delivery. PMID:27376328

  18. Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin.

    PubMed

    Bachran, Christopher; Leppla, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is a potent tripartite protein toxin from Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the two virulence factors and causes the disease anthrax. The receptor-binding component of the toxin, protective antigen, needs to be cleaved by furin-like proteases to be activated and to deliver the enzymatic moieties lethal factor and edema factor to the cytosol of cells. Alteration of the protease cleavage site allows the activation of the toxin selectively in response to the presence of tumor-associated proteases. This initial idea of re-targeting anthrax toxin to tumor cells was further elaborated in recent years and resulted in the design of many modifications of anthrax toxin, which resulted in successful tumor therapy in animal models. These modifications include the combination of different toxin variants that require activation by two different tumor-associated proteases for increased specificity of toxin activation. The anthrax toxin system has proved to be a versatile system for drug delivery of several enzymatic moieties into cells. This highly efficient delivery system has recently been further modified by introducing ubiquitin as a cytosolic cleavage site into lethal factor fusion proteins. This review article describes the latest developments in this field of tumor targeting and drug delivery. PMID:27376328

  19. Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, C.A.

    1996-07-01

    The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

  20. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

    PubMed

    Marston, Chung K; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. PMID:27257909

  1. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Chung K.; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E.; Boyer, Anne E.; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R.; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. PMID:27257909

  2. Wanted, an Anthrax vaccine: Dead or Alive?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kendall A

    2005-01-01

    It has been more than 100 years since the realization that microbes are capable of causing disease. In that time, we have learned a great deal as to how each organism has adapted to the immune system so as to avoid elimination. As well, we have also learned an immense amount since Louis Pasteur first proposed that the solution to infectious diseases was to culture the microbes and attenuate their virulence, so as to use them as vaccines. From the optimism and promise of the 19th century and immunization as the ultimate answer to the invasion by the microbial world, to the scientific realities of the 21st century, it is of interest to retrace the steps of the earliest microbiologists cum immunologists, to realize how far we've come, as well as how far we yet have to go. This editorial focuses on the history of anthrax as a microbial disease, and the earliest efforts at producing a vaccine for its prevention. PMID:15836780

  3. Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak: An Educational Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, S. J.; van der Vink, G.

    2002-05-01

    In April and May of 1979 an Anthrax epidemic broke out in the city of Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg) in the former Soviet Union. Sixty-four people were reported to have died from the outbreak, although there is still debate concerning the actual number of victims. While Soviet officials initially attributed this outbreak to contaminated meat, the US Government maintained that the outbreak was due to a leakage from a biological weapons facility. We have created and implemented an undergraduate educational exercise based on the forensic analysis of this event. Students were provided case data of the victims, area satellite images and meteorological data. One goal of the exercise was for students to reconstruct the most probable scenario of events through valid inference based on the limited information and uncertainties associated with the data set. Another goal was to make students sensitive to issues of biological weapons and bioterrorism. The exercise was highly rated by students even before the events of September 11. There is a clear need to educate students, particularly in the sciences, to be aware of the signatures of terrorist activities. Evidence of terrorist activities is more likely to appear from unintended discoveries than from active intelligence gathering. We believe our national security can be enhanced by sensitizing those that monitor the natural environment to the signatures of terrorist activities through the types of educational exercises that we have developed.

  4. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigations, 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michael E; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Brachman, Philip S; Kaufmann, Arnold F; Klatsky, Peter C; Ashford, David A

    2002-10-01

    We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings. PMID:12396934

  5. Antimicrobial Postexposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax: Adverse Events and Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Gabarro, Montse; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Hayslett, James; Lukacs, Susan; Goldstein, Susan; Factor, Stephanie; Jones, Joshua; Ridzon, Renee; Williams, Ian; Rosenstein, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    We collected data during postexposure antimicrobial prophylaxis campaigns and from a prophylaxis program evaluation 60 days after start of antimicrobial prophylaxis involving persons from six U.S. sites where Bacillus anthracis exposures occurred. Adverse events associated with antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent anthrax were commonly reported, but hospitalizations and serious adverse events as defined by Food and Drug Administration criteria were rare. Overall adherence during 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis was poor (44%), ranging from 21% of persons exposed in the Morgan postal facility in New York City to 64% of persons exposed at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C. Adherence was highest among participants in an investigational new drug protocol to receive additional antibiotics with or without anthrax vaccine—a likely surrogate for anthrax risk perception. Adherence of <60 days was not consistently associated with adverse events. PMID:12396927

  6. Simulation modeling of anthrax spore dispersion in a bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Reshetin, Vladimir P; Regens, James L

    2003-12-01

    Recent events have increased awareness of the risk posed by terrorist attacks. Bacillus anthracis has resurfaced in the 21st century as a deadly agent of bioterrorism because of its potential for causing massive civilian casualties. This analysis presents the results of a computer simulation of the dispersion of anthrax spores in a typical 50-story, high-rise building after an intentional release during a bioterrorist incident. The model simulates aerosol dispersion in the case of intensive, small-scale convection, which equalizes the concentration of anthrax spores over the building volume. The model can be used to predict the time interval required for spore dispersion throughout a building after a terrorist attack in a high-rise building. The analysis reveals that an aerosol release of even a relatively small volume of anthrax spores during a terrorist incident has the potential to quickly distribute concentrations that are infectious throughout the building. PMID:14641889

  7. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  8. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  9. [Disinfection problems in food hygiene].

    PubMed

    Shandala, M G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the main tasks of hygienic support of balanced diet of the population, we consider different issues of disinfection contribution in:food safety, prevention of the emergence and dissemination of relevant infectious and noninfectious diseases, quality disruption of foodstuffs under various biological pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, arthropods, rodents), which are the causative agents of human disease vectors or natural reservoirs of pathogens. The need to involve the disinfection competence in ensuring the safety and security of canned food, as well as the products long-term storage is stressed. Paper deals with factors, key for effectiveness of disinfection and, therefore, epidemiological and hygienic safety of the equipment and facilities, food industries and food service. We consider the need to take into account advantageous properties and shortcomings of some groups of disinfectants in terms both of microbicidal effectiveness and of their toxic safety, compatibility with the materials of processed objects, ease of use, etc. The focus is made on the need to select some disinfection technology in terms of the primary objective and current conditions taking the type and attributes of the relevant biological pathogens into account. PMID:24000699

  10. Coordinated response to reports of possible anthrax contamination, Idaho, 2001.

    PubMed

    Tengelsen, Leslie; Hudson, Richard; Barnes, Shana; Hahn, Christine

    2002-10-01

    In 2001, the intentional release of anthrax spores in the eastern United States increased concern about exposure to anthrax nationwide, and residents of Idaho sought assistance. Response from state and local agencies was required, increasing the strain on epidemiologists, laboratorians, and communications personnel. In late 2001, Idaho's public health communications system handled 133 calls about suspicious powders. For each call, a multiagency bridge call was established, and participants (public health officials, epidemiologists, police, Federal Bureau of Investigation personnel, hazardous materials officials, and others) determined which samples would be tested by the state public health laboratory. A triage system for calls helped relieve the burden on public safety and health systems. PMID:12396922

  11. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats. PMID:25622851

  12. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  13. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  14. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms. PMID:23478969

  15. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  17. Portable Anthrax Testing with Lab-in-a-Pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, Melissa; Koskelo, Markku; Edwards, Thayne; Kadner, Steve; Beckes-Talcot, Judy; Harper, Jason; Shawwa, Luay

    2014-10-24

    BaDx (Bacillus anthracis Diagnostics) is a lab-in-a-pocket device to sample, sense, and diagnose bacteria that cause anthrax. It accomplishes these tasks in environments with no power, refrigerated storage, or laboratory equipment. BaDx was designed to be used with minimal or no training, and to keep handlers safe.

  18. Growth medium for the rapid isolation and identification of anthrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Grubbs, Teri R.; Alls, John L.

    2000-07-01

    Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live' anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, other microbes and even animal and human cells can be grown in it and labeled (including viruses grown in the animal or human cells).

  19. Space Technology to Device that Destroys Pathogens Such As Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of a technician at KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, assembling the AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing device about the size of a small coffee table. The anthrax-killing air scrubber, AiroCide Ti02, is a tabletop-size metal box that bolts to office ceilings or walls. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax, a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin's (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in this anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the International Space Station. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. 9 CFR 113.66 - Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory... serial or first subserial shall be tested for safety in sheep or goats by the methods described in 9 CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax Spore...

  1. 9 CFR 113.66 - Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory... serial or first subserial shall be tested for safety in sheep or goats by the methods described in 9 CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anthrax Spore...

  2. 9 CFR 113.66 - Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory... serial or first subserial shall be tested for safety in sheep or goats by the methods described in 9 CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anthrax Spore...

  3. 9 CFR 113.66 - Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory... serial or first subserial shall be tested for safety in sheep or goats by the methods described in 9 CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anthrax Spore...

  4. 9 CFR 113.66 - Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found unsatisfactory... serial or first subserial shall be tested for safety in sheep or goats by the methods described in 9 CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anthrax Spore...

  5. Postoutbreak disinfection of mobile equipment.

    PubMed

    Alphin, R L; Ciaverelli, C D; Hougentogler, D P; Johnson, K J; Rankin, M K; Benson, E R

    2010-03-01

    Current control strategies for avian influenza virus, exotic Newcastle disease, and other highly contagious poultry diseases include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and decontamination. Skid steer loaders and other mobile equipment are extensively used during depopulation and disposal. Movement of contaminated equipment has been implicated in the spread of disease in previous outbreaks. One approach to equipment decontamination is to power wash the equipment, treat with a liquid disinfectant, change any removable filters, and let it sit idle for several days. In this project, multiple disinfectant strategies were individually evaluated for their effectiveness at inactivating Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on mechanical equipment seeded with the virus. A small gasoline engine was used to simulate typical mechanical equipment. A high titer of LaSota strain, NDV was applied and dried onto a series of metal coupons. The coupons were then placed on both interior and exterior surfaces of the engine. Liquid disinfectants that had been effective in the laboratory were not as effective at disinfecting the engine under field conditions. Indirect thermal fog showed a decrease in overall virus titer or strength. Direct thermal fog was more effective than liquid spray application or indirect thermal fog application. PMID:20521731

  6. Recycled Water Poses Disinfectant Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible health hazards resulting from released nucleic acid of inactivated viruses, chlorinated nonliving organic molecules, and overestimated reliability of waste treatment standards. Suggests the recycle system use a dual disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone in water treatment. (CC)

  7. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Parvaneh; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Aslani, Narges; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn) is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep's spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks), gentamicin (1.5-2 mg/kg/day), terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month), and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks) two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection. PMID:26451148

  8. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Parvaneh; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Aslani, Narges; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn) is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep's spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks), gentamicin (1.5–2 mg/kg/day), terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month), and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks) two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection. PMID:26451148

  9. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Materials and Methods: Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. Results: E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P < 0.05); no other statistically significant differences were found between hand- and auto-mixed materials. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences were found between the disinfection procedures (Z > 2.394). Conclusion: The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface. PMID:24966729

  10. [The return of anthrax. From bioterrorism to the zoonotic cluster of Sciacca district].

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Francesco; Colletti, Pietro; Bonura, Silvia; Trizzino, Marcello; Giordano, Salvatore; Titone, Lucina

    2010-06-01

    Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis which affects herbivorous animals. Humans acquire the disease incidentally by exposure to infected animals, animal products or spores on soil. The infection is still endemic in many regions in developing countries. In Italy animal clusters are very rare and human cases are exceptional. Bacillus anthrax is also a potential source for acts of bioterrorism. In the natural human infection, cutaneous anthrax is the most widespread, while the other two, pulmonary and gastrointestinal anthrax, are very rare forms. We describe the first case of human anthrax occurring in western Sicily in the last twenty years. The cutaneous lesion healed without significant scarring after antibiotic treatment with tigecycline, rifampin and ciprofloxacin. Following our diagnosis, a cluster of bovine anthrax was detected in the district of Sciacca, causing the death of 13 animals. A larger outbreak was avoided by the vaccination of over 5000 herbivores. PMID:20610930

  11. Polyvalent Recognition of Biopolymers:The Design of Potent Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Ravi

    2007-03-01

    Polyvalency -- the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another -- is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in nature. We are using a biomimetic approach, inspired by polyvalency, to design potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Since the major symptoms and death from anthrax are due primarily to the action of anthrax toxin, the toxin is a prime target for therapeutic intervention. We describe the design of potent polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors, and will discuss the role of pattern matching in polyvalent recognition. Pattern-matched polyvalent inhibitors can neutralize anthrax toxin in vivo, and may enable the successful treatment of anthrax during the later stages of the disease, when antibiotic treatment is ineffective.

  12. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  13. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  14. Confirmation of Bacillus anthracis from flesh-eating flies collected during a West Texas anthrax season.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Curtis, Andrew; Hadfield, Ted L; O'Shea, Bob; Mitchell, Mark A; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2010-07-01

    This case study confirms the interaction between necrophilic flies and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, during an anthrax outbreak in West Texas (summer 2005). Bacillus anthracis was identified by culture and PCR from one of eight pooled fly collections from deer carcasses on a deer ranch with a well-documented history of anthrax. These results provide the first known isolation of B. anthracis from flesh-eating flies associated with a wildlife anthrax outbreak in North America and are discussed in the context of wildlife ecology and anthrax epizootics. PMID:20688697

  15. Integrated MOSFET-Embedded-Cantilever-Based Biosensor Characteristic for Detection of Anthrax Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, Salwa; Lee, Ida; Islam, Syed K; Eliza, Sazia A.; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Tulip, Fahmida S

    2011-01-01

    In this work, MOSFET-embedded cantilevers are configured as microbial sensors for detection of anthrax simulants, Bacillus thuringiensis. Anthrax simulants attached to the chemically treated gold-coated cantilever cause changes in the MOSFET drain current due to the bending of the cantilever which indicates the detection of anthrax simulant. Electrical properties of the anthrax simulant are also responsible for the change in the drain current. The test results suggest a detection range of 10 L of stimulant test solution (a suspension population of 1.3 107 colony-forming units/mL diluted in 40% ethanol and 60% deionized water) with a linear response of 31 A/ L.

  16. DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

  17. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  18. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPS) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacentonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along with ...

  19. Status report on analytical methods to support the disinfectant/disinfection by-products regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The U.S. EPA is developng national regulations to control disinfectants and disinfection by-products in public drinking water supplies. Twelve disinfectants and disinfection by-products are identified for possible regulation under this rule. The document summarizes the analytical methods that EPA intends to propose as compliance monitoring methods. A discussion of surrogate measurements that are being considered for inclusion in the regulation is also provided.

  20. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  1. Role of Clinical Endoscopy in Emphasizing Endoscope Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju

    2015-01-01

    Based on the unexpected Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea, it was established that the virus can spread easily, MERS exposure in hospitals carries an extreme risk for infection as well as mortality, and the sharing of information was essential for infection control. Although the incidence of exogenous infections related to contaminated endoscopes is very low, the majority of published outbreaks have been caused by various shortcomings in reprocessing procedures, including insufficient training or awareness. Ever since the inauguration of "Clinical Endoscopy" as an English-language journal of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2011, it has published several articles on disinfection of the endoscope and its accessories. Many Science Citation Index journals have also emphasized high-level disinfection of the gastrointestinal endoscope. Many papers have been produced specifically, since the outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in 2013. The recent review papers concluded that quality control is the most important issue among all the aspects of procedural care, including the efficiency of the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit and reprocessing room. Thorough reprocessing of endoscopes using high-level disinfection and sterilization methods may be essential for reducing the risk of infection. PMID:26473114

  2. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  3. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.11 Cresylic disinfectant as permitted...

  4. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications. 71.11 Section 71.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.11 Cresylic disinfectant as permitted...

  5. Disinfection Addition and Disinfection Changes: What It Means to the LCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation’s general points are: Many protective pipe scales are vey dependent on ORP, and hence, state of disinfection. Adding disinfection to anoxic systems will likely cause big chemistry changes in DS and corrosion. Changing disinfectants could cause major l...

  6. Disinfecting endoscopes: how not to transmit Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bronchoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Leers, W D

    1980-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the bronchial washings of two patients who underwent bronchoscopy consecutively with the same bronchoscope. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was later confirmed in the first patient, whereas the second patient had clinical and serologic evidence of infection with respiratory syncytial virus. The bronchoscope had been cleaned with an iodophor disinfectant, which had not destroyed the tubercle bacilli. The agent recommended for chemical disinfection of fibreoptic bronchoscopes is 2% glutaraldehyde solution; the instrument should be immersed in it for 10 to 30 minutes. Five hours' exposure to ethylene oxide is recommended for sterilization of instruments. These procedures must be preceded by adequate mechanical cleaning. Then transmission of pathogenic organisms during endoscopy, which can result in nosocomial disease, misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment, will be avoided. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6790150

  7. Advances in the development of next-generation anthrax vaccines.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur M; Little, Stephen F

    2009-11-01

    Anthrax, a disease of herbivores, only rarely infects humans. However, the threat of using Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent, to intentionally produce disease has been the impetus for development of next-generation vaccines. Two licensed vaccines have been available for human use for several decades. These are composed of acellular culture supernatants containing the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins. In this review we summarize the various approaches used to develop improved vaccines. These efforts have included the use of PA with newer adjuvants and delivery systems, including bacterial and viral vectors and DNA vaccines. Attempts to broaden the protection afforded by PA-based vaccines have focused on adding other B. anthracis components, including spore and capsule antigens. PMID:19837282

  8. Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Kenneth A.; Mogridge, Jeremy; Mourez, Michael; Collier, R. John; Young, John A. T.

    2001-11-01

    The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection. Two components of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of mammalian cells: oedema factor (OF) is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defences through a variety of mechanisms including inhibiting phagocytosis; lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent protease that cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and causes lysis of macrophages. Protective antigen (PA), the third component, binds to a cellular receptor and mediates delivery of the enzymatic components to the cytosol. Here we describe the cloning of the human PA receptor using a genetic complementation approach. The receptor, termed ATR (anthrax toxin receptor), is a type I membrane protein with an extracellular von Willebrand factor A domain that binds directly to PA. In addition, a soluble version of this domain can protect cells from the action of the toxin.

  9. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  10. Inactivation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Herbert S.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-four chemical disinfectants considered to be viricidal were tested. Ten disinfectants were not viricidal for vesicular stomatitis virus within 10 min at 20 C when an LD50 titer of 108.5 virus units per 0.1 ml were to be inactivated. Quantitative inactivation experiments were done with acid, alkaline, and a substituted phenolic disinfectant to determine the kinetics of the virus inactivation. Substituted phenolic disinfectants, halogens, and cresylic and hydrochloric acids were viricidal. Basic compounds such as lye and sodium metasilicate were not viricidal. PMID:4313317

  11. Public response to an anthrax attack: a multiethnic perspective.

    PubMed

    Steelfisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Brulé, Amanda S; Ben-Porath, Eran N; Ross, Laura J; Atkins, Bret M

    2012-12-01

    The 2001 anthrax attacks emphasized the need to develop outreach that would more effectively support racial/ethnic minority populations during a bioterrorism incident. Given the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis in a future anthrax attack, it should be a priority to better support racial/ethnic minorities in mass dispensing programs. To examine the needs and perspectives of racial/ethnic minorities, this study used a nationally representative poll of 1,852 adults, including 1,240 whites, 261 African Americans, and 282 Hispanics. The poll examined public reactions to a ''worst-case scenario'' in which cases of inhalation anthrax are discovered without an identified source and the entire population of a city or town is asked to receive antibiotic prophylaxis within 48 hours. Findings suggest willingness across all racial/ethnic groups to comply with recommendations to seek prophylaxis at dispensing sites. However, findings also indicate possible barriers for racial/ethnic minorities, including greater concern about pill safety and multiple attacks as well as lesser knowledge about inhalation anthrax. Across all racial/ethnic groups, roughly half would prefer to receive antibiotics at mass dispensing sites rather than through the US Postal Service. People in racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to say this preference stems from a desire to speak with staff or to exchange medication formulation or type. Findings suggest the need for tailored outreach to racial/ethnic minorities through, for example, emphasis on key messages and enhanced understandability in communications, increased staff for answering questions in relevant dispensing sites, and long-term trust building with racial/ethnic minority communities. PMID:23244501

  12. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  13. Public Response to an Anthrax Attack: A Multiethnic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K.; Blendon, Robert J.; Brulé, Amanda S.; Ben-Porath, Eran N.; Ross, Laura J.; Atkins, Bret M.

    2016-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax attacks emphasized the need to develop outreach that would more effectively support racial/ethnic minority populations during a bioterrorism incident. Given the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis in a future anthrax attack, it should be a priority to better support racial/ethnic minorities in mass dispensing programs. To examine the needs and perspectives of racial/ethnic minorities, this study used a nationally representative poll of 1,852 adults, including 1,240 whites, 261 African Americans, and 282 Hispanics. The poll examined public reactions to a “worst-case scenario” in which cases of inhalation anthrax are discovered without an identified source and the entire population of a city or town is asked to receive antibiotic prophylaxis within 48 hours. Findings suggest willingness across all racial/ethnic groups to comply with recommendations to seek prophylaxis at dispensing sites. However, findings also indicate possible barriers for racial/ethnic minorities, including greater concern about pill safety and multiple attacks as well as lesser knowledge about inhalation anthrax. Across all racial/ethnic groups, roughly half would prefer to receive antibiotics at mass dispensing sites rather than through the US Postal Service. People in racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to say this preference stems from a desire to speak with staff or to exchange medication formulation or type. Findings suggest the need for tailored outreach to racial/ethnic minorities through, for example, emphasis on key messages and enhanced understandability in communications, increased staff for answering questions in relevant dispensing sites, and long-term trust building with racial/ethnic minority communities. PMID:23244501

  14. Testing disinfectants in the food factory: phenol coefficient method.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of foods by the environment has direct public health and keeping quality significance. The food factory environment (with raw materials and processing) governs the numbers and types of microorganisms in finished products. Use of the appropriate sampling procedures permits us to discover the magnitude and type of contamination. Microbiological sampling allows objective evaluation of the disinfectants and the sanitation practices and procedures used in the food factory.Disinfectants are antimicrobial pesticides that are primarily used on inanimate surfaces (such as floors, walls, and countertops) to kill infectious bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Antimicrobial pesticides are substances used to kill or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms on inanimate objects and surfaces. Products intended for the control of microorganisms in or on people or animals are considered drugs, not pesticides, and are therefore regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Antimicrobial pesticides are divided into two broad use categories: 1. Non-public health products include those used to control the growth of algae, odor-causing bacteria, and microorganisms causing spoilage, deterioration, and fouling of materials. Examples include antimicrobials used in cooling towers, paints, and paper products. 2. Public health products are intended to control microorganisms infectious to people. Examples include sterilants, which are used to destroy or eliminate all forms of microbial life including fungi, viruses, and all forms of bacteria and their spores; disinfectants, which are used to destroy or irreversibly inactivate infectious fungi and bacteria, but not necessarily their spores; and sanitizers, which are used to reduce, but not necessarily eliminate microorganisms. Examples range from sterilants used to treat surgical instruments to disinfectants applied to hospital floors, walls, and bed linens and sanitizers used on carpets or in laundry additives. PMID

  15. Human Anthrax Transmission at the Urban-Rural Interface, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kracalik, Ian; Malania, Lile; Imnadze, Paata; Blackburn, Jason K

    2015-12-01

    Human anthrax has increased dramatically in Georgia and was recently linked to the sale of meat in an urban market. We assessed epidemiological trends and risk factors for human anthrax at the urban-rural interface. We reviewed epidemiologic records (2000-2012) that included the place of residence (classified as urban, peri-urban, or rural), age, gender, and self-reported source of infection (handling or processing animal by-products and slaughtering or butchering livestock). To estimate risk, we used a negative binomial regression. The average incidence per 1 million population in peri-urban areas (24.5 cases) was > 2-fold higher compared with rural areas and > 3-fold higher compared with urban area. Risk from handling or purchasing meat was nearly 2-fold higher in urban areas and > 4-fold higher in peri-urban areas compared with rural area. Our findings suggest a high risk of anthrax in urban and peri-urban areas likely as a result of spillover from contaminated meat and animal by-products. Consumers should be warned to purchase meat only from licensed merchants. PMID:26438026

  16. HEPA/vaccine plan for indoor anthrax remediation.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Liu, Yifan; Leighton, Terrance J

    2005-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to compare 2 indoor remediation strategies in the aftermath of an outdoor release of 1.5 kg of anthrax spores in lower Manhattan. The 2 strategies are the fumigation approach used after the 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoccupants. The HEPA/vaccine approach leads to few anthrax cases among reoccupants if applied to all but the most heavily contaminated buildings, and recovery is much faster than under the decades-long fumigation plan. Only modest environmental sampling is needed. A surge capacity of 10,000 to 20,000 Hazmat workers is required to perform remediation within 6 to 12 months and to avoid permanent mass relocation. Because of the possibility of a campaign of terrorist attacks, serious consideration should be given to allowing or encouraging voluntary self-service cleaning of lightly contaminated rooms by age-appropriate, vaccinated, partially protected (through masks or hoods) reoccupants or owners. PMID:15705325

  17. Human Anthrax Transmission at the Urban–Rural Interface, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian; Malania, Lile; Imnadze, Paata; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Human anthrax has increased dramatically in Georgia and was recently linked to the sale of meat in an urban market. We assessed epidemiological trends and risk factors for human anthrax at the urban–rural interface. We reviewed epidemiologic records (2000–2012) that included the place of residence (classified as urban, peri-urban, or rural), age, gender, and self-reported source of infection (handling or processing animal by-products and slaughtering or butchering livestock). To estimate risk, we used a negative binomial regression. The average incidence per 1 million population in peri-urban areas (24.5 cases) was > 2-fold higher compared with rural areas and > 3-fold higher compared with urban area. Risk from handling or purchasing meat was nearly 2-fold higher in urban areas and > 4-fold higher in peri-urban areas compared with rural area. Our findings suggest a high risk of anthrax in urban and peri-urban areas likely as a result of spillover from contaminated meat and animal by-products. Consumers should be warned to purchase meat only from licensed merchants. PMID:26438026

  18. HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yifan; Leighton, Terrance J.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to compare 2 indoor remediation strategies in the aftermath of an outdoor release of 1.5 kg of anthrax spores in lower Manhattan. The 2 strategies are the fumigation approach used after the 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoccupants. The HEPA/vaccine approach leads to few anthrax cases among reoccupants if applied to all but the most heavily contaminated buildings, and recovery is much faster than under the decades-long fumigation plan. Only modest environmental sampling is needed. A surge capacity of 10,000 to 20,000 Hazmat workers is required to perform remediation within 6 to 12 months and to avoid permanent mass relocation. Because of the possibility of a campaign of terrorist attacks, serious consideration should be given to allowing or encouraging voluntary self-service cleaning of lightly contaminated rooms by age-appropriate, vaccinated, partially protected (through masks or hoods) reoccupants or owners. PMID:15705325

  19. Space Technology to Device That Destroys Pathogens Such as Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing air scrubber manufactured by KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, looks like a square metal box when it is installed on an office wall. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax-a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in the anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the ISS. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Interactions between Bacillus anthracis and Plants May Promote Anthrax Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Holly H.; Turner, Wendy C.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Kusters, Martina; Shi, Ying; Sibanda, Heniritha; Torok, Tamas; Getz, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental reservoirs are essential in the maintenance and transmission of anthrax but are poorly characterized. The anthrax agent, Bacillus anthracis was long considered an obligate pathogen that is dormant and passively transmitted in the environment. However, a growing number of laboratory studies indicate that, like some of its close relatives, B. anthracis has some activity outside of its vertebrate hosts. Here we show in the field that B. anthracis has significant interactions with a grass that could promote anthrax spore transmission to grazing hosts. Using a local, virulent strain of B. anthracis, we performed a field experiment in an enclosure within a grassland savanna. We found that B. anthracis increased the rate of establishment of a native grass (Enneapogon desvauxii) by 50% and that grass seeds exposed to blood reached heights that were 45% taller than controls. Further we detected significant effects of E. desvauxii, B. anthracis, and their interaction on soil bacterial taxa richness and community composition. We did not find any evidence for multiplication or increased longevity of B. anthracis in bulk soil associated with grass compared to controls. Instead interactions between B. anthracis and plants may result in increased host grazing and subsequently increased transmission to hosts. PMID:24901846

  1. Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2005-12-01

    Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article. PMID:16337558

  2. Bond strength of disinfected metal and ceramic brackets: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Speer, Cornelia; Zimny, Dorothee; Hopfenmueller, Werner; Holtgrave, Eva Andrea

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to test whether disinfecting with Chlorhexamed fluid had an influence on the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. Metal and ceramic brackets were fixed by the composite adhesives Transbond XT (light curing) and Concise (chemical curing) to 224 bovine permanent mandibular incisors. Bovine teeth were divided into eight groups of 28 each as group 1: metal bracket/Transbond XT, group 2: disinfected metal bracket/Transbond XT, group 3: metal bracket/Concise, group 4: disinfected metal bracket/Concise, group 5: ceramic bracket/Transbond XT, group 6: disinfected ceramic bracket/Transbond XT, group 7: ceramic bracket/Concise, and group 8: disinfected ceramic bracket/Concise. Adhesive bonding was done according to the manufacturers' instructions. As shown by group comparison (Kruskal-Wallis test, univariate analysis of variance, P < .001), the disinfection of metal brackets had no statistically relevant influence on shear bond strength (P = .454). However, disinfecting ceramic brackets with either adhesive led to a significant reduction in shear bond strength compared with the untreated ceramic bracket group (P < .001). The Fisher's exact test of the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores showed a significant difference within the metal group bonded with different adhesives (P = .0003). The ARI scores 1 and 2 were not reached by the ceramic bracket groups. The disinfection of the ceramic brackets is a suitable procedure for clinical use because the measured shear bond strength values were higher than 6-8 MPa required in orthodontics. PMID:16279832

  3. Anthrax protective antigen delivered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a protects mice from a lethal anthrax spore challenge.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Manuel; Wu, Yanping; Singh, Sunil; Merkel, Tod J; Bhattacharyya, Siba; Blake, Milan S; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2009-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been associated with adverse effects. In this study, we modified the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) gene for optimal expression and stability, linked it to an inducible promoter for maximal expression in the host, and fused it to the secretion signal of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin protein (HlyA) on a low-copy-number plasmid. This plasmid was introduced into the licensed typhoid vaccine strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, and was found to be genetically stable. Immunization of mice with three vaccine doses elicited a strong PA-specific serum immunoglobulin G response with a geometric mean titer of 30,000 (range, 5,800 to 157,000) and lethal-toxin-neutralizing titers greater than 16,000. Vaccinated mice demonstrated 100% protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with aerosolized spores of B. anthracis 7702. The ultimate goal is a temperature-stable, safe, oral human vaccine against anthrax infection that can be self-administered in a few doses over a short period of time. PMID:19179420

  4. A survey of the methods of disinfection of dental impressions used in dental hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Blair, F M; Wassell, R W

    1996-05-25

    The potential for cross-infection from microbial contaminated dental impressions has long been recognised. This study set out to investigate impression decontamination procedures currently used in UK dental hospitals (1995) and to see how these may have changed since a previous survey, carried out in 1988. A variety of disinfection solutions and regimes were highlighted both within and between dental hospitals. Several of the disinfecting solutions currently being used have not been specifically tested for efficacy with impression materials. The laboratories were asked to highlight any adverse reactions. Five laboratories reported that some alginates resulted in casts with poor surface properties when immersed in hypochlorite (0.1 and 1%), sodium dichloroisocyanurate, and 2% glutaraldehyde solutions. This paper highlights that there is no universally recognised impression disinfection/sterilisation protocol. It is recommended that all impressions should at least undergo a disinfecting procedure by immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite for a minimum of 10 minutes. PMID:8652299

  5. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  6. Case Report of an Anthrax Presentation Relevant to Special Operations Medicine.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Stephen; Enzenauer, Robert W; Karesh, James W; Pasteur, Nshimyimana; Eisnor, Derek L; Painter, Rex B; Calvano, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel function worldwide in environments where endemic anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis infection) may present in one of three forms: cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal. This report presents a rare periocular anthrax case from Haiti to emphasize the need for heightened diagnostic suspicion of unusual lesions likely to be encountered in SOF theaters. PMID:27450596

  7. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  8. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system...) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, as specified in § 141.74 (a)(2) and (b)(6), cannot be...

  9. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  10. CHLORINE DISINFECTION STUDIES OF ENCEPHALITOZOON (SEPTATA) INTESTINALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reproducible standardized assay was designed to determine two infective doses for E.intestinalis, the TCID50 and the MID. These doses can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of chlorine disinfection and can also be used to assess other disinfection parameters and ant...

  11. Disinfection: is it time to reconsider Spaulding?

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G; Burke, P

    2011-07-01

    The Spaulding classification, originally proposed in 1957, is a widely used system for matching the disinfection and sterilization of surfaces, particularly those of re-usable medical/surgical devices, with available processes. It presents a ranking, from simple disinfection through to sterilization, that should be considered in the reprocessing of devices, based on the risks associated with their use, ranging from 'critical' (presenting a high risk), through 'semi-critical' to 'non-critical' (presenting a low risk). The different levels of disinfection are based on demonstrating antimicrobial activity against established marker micro-organisms representing a range of pathogens. Although this classification system is probably as valid today as it was in 1957, the understanding of microbiology and micro-organisms has changed. This article discusses some examples of disinfection studies with viruses, bacteria, protozoa and prions that challenge the current definitions and expectations of high-, intermediate- and low-level disinfection. In many of these examples, the test micro-organisms demonstrate atypical tolerance or resistance profiles to disinfection processes. In addition to laboratory-based studies, there is now clinical evidence for at least some of these micro-organisms that biocide resistance can lead to infection outbreaks due to unexpected disinfection failure. These reports should encourage the reader to challenge current dogma, and reconsider the expectations of disinfection and sterilization practices. PMID:21664533

  12. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  13. ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION STUDIES WITH CCL LISTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resistance to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. The U.S. drinking water industry is interested in including UV light treatment as an amendment to conventional treatment for disinfecting water supplies. UV disi...

  14. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  15. Disinfection of Bacillus spores with acidified nitrite.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Adcock, Noreen J; Rice, Eugene W

    2014-10-01

    Disinfecting water generated from a bioterrorism contamination event will require large amounts of disinfectant since the volume of water flushed from a drinking water distribution system or wash water collected from a contaminated outdoor area can accumulate quickly. Commonly used disinfectants may be unavailable in the necessary amounts, so evaluation of alternative disinfectants is needed. This study focuses on disinfection of Bacillus spores in water using acidified nitrite. The effect of varying pH (2 or 3), temperature (5°C or 24°C), nitrite concentration (0.01 or 0.1M), buffer (Butterfields or Phosphate Buffered Saline, PBS) and Bacillus species (B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne) was evaluated. B. globigii was more resistant to disinfection under all water quality conditions. Disinfection was more effective for B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne at 0.1M nitrite, pH 2, and 24°C. Disinfection of B. anthracis Sterne was enhanced in low ionic strength Butterfields buffer compared to PBS. PMID:25065806

  16. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in... general use, may be used for the purpose of this part in accordance with directions on the labels...

  17. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in... general use, may be used for the purpose of this part in accordance with directions on the labels...

  18. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in... general use, may be used for the purpose of this part in accordance with directions on the labels...

  19. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in... general use, may be used for the purpose of this part in accordance with directions on the labels...

  20. 9 CFR 71.10 - Permitted disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 71.10 Permitted disinfectants. (a) Disinfectants permitted for use on cars, boats, and other vehicles... least 4 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (2) Liquefied phenol (U.S.P. strength 87 percent phenol) in... general use, may be used for the purpose of this part in accordance with directions on the labels...

  1. Synthesis of potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Saraph, Arundhati; Poon, Vincent; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2006-01-01

    We report the synthesis of biodegradable polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA). These biocompatible polyvalent inhibitors are at least 4 orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent peptides in vitro and are comparable in potency to polyacrylamide-based inhibitors of anthrax toxin assembly. We have elucidated the influence of peptide density on inhibitory potency and demonstrated that these inhibitory potencies are limited by kinetics, with even higher activities seen when the inhibitors are preincubated with the heptameric receptor-binding subunit of anthrax toxin prior to exposure to cells. These polyvalent inhibitors are also effective at neutralizing anthrax toxin in vivo and represent attractive leads for designing biocompatible anthrax therapeutics. PMID:16984137

  2. Protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a Bacillus anthracis capsule conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Donald J; Ribot, Wilson J; Joyce, Joseph; Cook, James; Hepler, Robert; Nahas, Debbie; Chua, Jennifer; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2016-07-25

    The efficacy of currently licensed anthrax vaccines is largely attributable to a single Bacillus anthracis immunogen, protective antigen. To broaden protection against possible strains resistant to protective antigen-based vaccines, we previously developed a vaccine in which the anthrax polyglutamic acid capsule was covalently conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B and demonstrated that two doses of 2.5μg of this vaccine conferred partial protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax . Here, we demonstrate complete protection of rhesus macaques against inhalational anthrax with a higher 50μg dose of the same capsule conjugate vaccine. These results indicate that B. anthracis capsule is a highly effective vaccine component that should be considered for incorporation in future generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:27329184

  3. Comparative analysis of existing disinfection models.

    PubMed

    Andrianarison, T; Jupsin, H; Ouali, A; Vasel, J-L

    2010-01-01

    For a long time Marais's model has been the main tool for disinfection prediction in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), although various authors have developed other disinfection models. Some ten other empirical models have been listed over the past fifteen years. Unfortunately, their predictions of disinfection in a given pond are very different. The existing models are too empirical to give reliable predictions: often their explanatory variables were chosen arbitrarily. In this work, we try to demonstrate that if influent variables have daily variations, the use of their average values in simulations may overestimate the disinfection effect. New methods are thus needed to provide better fittings of the models. Better knowledge of the mechanisms involved is needed to improve disinfection models. PMID:20182074

  4. Chemical Disinfection of Holding-Tank Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, Mark D.; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemical disinfectants were evaluated for their bactericidal and virucidal effectiveness in holding-tank sewage. It was found that the disinfection efficiencies of formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, and methylene blue were markedly improved if the pH of the sewage was raised from 8.0 to 10.5. When formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, and methylene blue were tested with either 2-week holding times with no sewage additions or 10-day holding times with daily sewage additions, disinfection effectiveness was maintained as long as the sewage pH was kept at 10.5 and the disinfectant concentration was kept at 100 mg/liter or more. Calcium hypochlorite, zinc sulfate, and phenol were found to be relatively ineffective disinfectants for holding-tank sewage. PMID:4374122

  5. Chemical disinfection of holding-tank sewage.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, M D; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-11-01

    A number of chemical disinfectants were evaluated for their bactericidal and virucidal effectiveness in holding-tank sewage. It was found that the disinfection efficiencies of formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, and methylene blue were markedly improved if the pH of the sewage was raised from 8.0 to 10.5. When formaldehyde, benzalkonium chloride, and methylene blue were tested with either 2-week holding times with no sewage additions or 10-day holding times with daily sewage additions, disinfection effectiveness was maintained as long as the sewage pH was kept at 10.5 and the disinfectant concentration was kept at 100 mg/liter or more. Calcium hypochlorite, zinc sulfate, and phenol were found to be relatively ineffective disinfectants for holding-tank sewage. PMID:4374122

  6. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  7. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Issues Encountered in an Environmental Services Department.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Sullivan, Linda; Booker, Arica; Baker, James

    2016-03-01

    We identified several factors affecting the use of quaternary ammonium-based (Quat) disinfectant in our facility. Microfiber wipers, cotton towels, and 1 of 2 types of disposable wipes soaked in a Quat disinfectant revealed significant binding of the disinfectant. Concentrations of Quat delivered by automated disinfectant dispensers varied widely. PMID:26821275

  8. Soluble expression and purification of the anthrax protective antigen in E. coli and identification of a novel dominant-negative mutant N435C.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaobing; Feng, Chunfang; Hong, Yuzhi; Guo, Aizhen; Cao, Sha; Dong, Junli; Lin, Ling; Liu, Ziduo

    2010-06-01

    The anthrax toxin is an AB-type bacterium toxin composed of the protective antigen (PA) as the cell-binding B component, and the lethal factor (LF) and edema toxin (EF) as the catalytic A components. The PA component is a key factor in anthrax-related research and recombinant PA can be produced in general in Escherichia coli. However, such recombinant PA always forms inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of E. coli, making difficult the procedure of its purification. In this study, we found that the solubility of recombinant PA was dramatically enhanced by fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and an induction of its expression at 28 degrees C. The PA was purified to high homogeneity and a yield of 3 mg protein was obtained from 1 l culture by an affinity-chromatography approach. Moreover, we expressed and purified three PA mutants, I394C, A396C, and N435C, which were impaired in expression in previous study. Among them, a novel mutant N435C which conferred dominant-negative inhibitory activity on PA was identified. This new mutant may be useful in designing new antitoxin for anthrax prophylaxis and therapy. PMID:20213183

  9. Swab protocol for rapid laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Leslie A; Marston, Chung K; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ≥ 7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. PMID:23035192

  10. Development of a Sterne-Based Complement Fixation Test to Monitor the Humoral Response Induced by Anthrax Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Adone, Rosanna; Sali, Michela; Francia, Massimiliano; Iatarola, Michela; Donatiello, Adelia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis spore-forming bacterium. Since it is primarily a disease of animals, the control in animals, and humans depend on the prevention in livestock, principally cattle, sheep, and goats. Most veterinary vaccines utilize the toxigenic, uncapsulated (pXO1+/pXO2–) B. anthracis strain 34F2 which affords protection through the production of neutralizing antibodies directed to the toxin components Protective Antigen (PA), Lethal Factor (LF), and Edema Factor (EF). The titration of specific antibodies in sera of vaccinated animals is crucial to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccination and to obtain epidemiological information for an effective anthrax surveillance. In this study, we developed a Sterne-based Complement Fixation Test (CFT) to detect specific antibodies induced in animals vaccinated with Sterne 34F2. We assessed its efficacy in laboratory animals and under field conditions by monitoring the humoral response induced by vaccination in cattle. The results indicated that the Sterne-based CFT is able to correctly identify vaccinated animals. It proved to be a very sensitive and specific test. Moreover, the Sterne-based CFT offers many benefits with regard to costs, standardization and reproducibility of the assay procedure. PMID:26858700

  11. Development of a Sterne-Based Complement Fixation Test to Monitor the Humoral Response Induced by Anthrax Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Adone, Rosanna; Sali, Michela; Francia, Massimiliano; Iatarola, Michela; Donatiello, Adelia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis spore-forming bacterium. Since it is primarily a disease of animals, the control in animals, and humans depend on the prevention in livestock, principally cattle, sheep, and goats. Most veterinary vaccines utilize the toxigenic, uncapsulated (pXO1+/pXO2-) B. anthracis strain 34F2 which affords protection through the production of neutralizing antibodies directed to the toxin components Protective Antigen (PA), Lethal Factor (LF), and Edema Factor (EF). The titration of specific antibodies in sera of vaccinated animals is crucial to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccination and to obtain epidemiological information for an effective anthrax surveillance. In this study, we developed a Sterne-based Complement Fixation Test (CFT) to detect specific antibodies induced in animals vaccinated with Sterne 34F2. We assessed its efficacy in laboratory animals and under field conditions by monitoring the humoral response induced by vaccination in cattle. The results indicated that the Sterne-based CFT is able to correctly identify vaccinated animals. It proved to be a very sensitive and specific test. Moreover, the Sterne-based CFT offers many benefits with regard to costs, standardization and reproducibility of the assay procedure. PMID:26858700

  12. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, J.C.; Akin, E.W.

    1986-11-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes.

  13. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, J C; Akin, E W

    1986-01-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes. Images FIGURE 6. PMID:3816738

  14. CDC Report on the Potential Exposure to Anthrax.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted an internal review of an incident that involved an unintentional release of potentially viable anthrax within its Roybal Campus, in Atlanta, Georgia. On June 5, 2014, a laboratory scientist in the Bioterrorism Rapid Response and Advanced Technology (BRRAT) laboratory prepared extracts from a panel of eight bacterial select agents, including Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), under biosafety level (BSL) 3 containment conditions. These samples were being prepared for analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, a technology that can be used for rapid bacterial species identification. PMID:26418856

  15. Decontamination of Anthrax spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Raymond M.; Crown, Kevin K.; Tucker, Mark David; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2010-05-01

    Decontamination of anthrax spores in critical infrastructure (e.g., subway systems, major airports) and critical assets (e.g., the interior of aircraft) can be challenging because effective decontaminants can damage materials. Current decontamination methods require the use of highly toxic and/or highly corrosive chemical solutions because bacterial spores are very difficult to kill. Bacterial spores such as Bacillus anthracis, the infectious agent of anthrax, are one of the most resistant forms of life and are several orders of magnitude more difficult to kill than their associated vegetative cells. Remediation of facilities and other spaces (e.g., subways, airports, and the interior of aircraft) contaminated with anthrax spores currently requires highly toxic and corrosive chemicals such as chlorine dioxide gas, vapor- phase hydrogen peroxide, or high-strength bleach, typically requiring complex deployment methods. We have developed a non-toxic, non-corrosive decontamination method to kill highly resistant bacterial spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets. A chemical solution that triggers the germination process in bacterial spores and causes those spores to rapidly and completely change to much less-resistant vegetative cells that can be easily killed. Vegetative cells are then exposed to mild chemicals (e.g., low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) or natural elements (e.g., heat, humidity, ultraviolet light, etc.) for complete and rapid kill. Our process employs a novel germination solution consisting of low-cost, non-toxic and non-corrosive chemicals. We are testing both direct surface application and aerosol delivery of the solutions. A key Homeland Security need is to develop the capability to rapidly recover from an attack utilizing biological warfare agents. This project will provide the capability to rapidly and safely decontaminate critical facilities and assets to return them to

  16. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  17. [Disinfection and sterilization of thermolabile instruments with gaseous formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Mecke, P

    1984-12-01

    For several years formaldehyde-gas-underpressure procedures are increasingly used for disinfection and sterilization of medical thermolabile instruments. In many places, however, uncertainty and sceptism, if these methods are sufficient in the medical field, are existing. This is understandable, since no generally test instructions are available. The principal suitability of gaseous formaldehyde for disinfection and sterilization, however, had been demonstrated by several investigators. Precondition for reliable efficacy during routine use is an apparatus which is equipped with feed-back techniques and which guarantees the bactericidal and fungicidal activity required for medical use. Decontamination procedures on the basis of gaseous formaldehyde under normal conditions of temperature and pressure must be regarded as unsafe. St. faecalis and the spores of B. stearothermophilus showed the highest formaldehyde resistance within the group of common biological testorganisms. In order to test the efficacy of corresponding procedures testorganisms have to be placed into testdevices with small lumina. The penetration of these devices to formaldehyde and vapour should be similar to that of the longest instruments with the smallest lumina, which are intended to be decontaminated by the testprocedure. PMID:6442506

  18. Recombinant HSA-CMG2 Is a Promising Anthrax Toxin Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangliang; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Ying; Dong, Dayong; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis. Protective antigen (PA) is the key component of the toxin and has been confirmed as the main target for the development of toxin inhibitors. The inhibition of the binding of PA to its receptor, capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2), can effectively block anthrax intoxication. The recombinant, soluble von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain of CMG2 (sCMG2) has demonstrated potency against anthrax toxin. However, the short half-life of sCMG2 in vivo is a disadvantage for its development as a new anthrax drug. In the present study, we report that HSA-CMG2, a protein combining human serum albumin (HSA) and sCMG2, produced in the Pichia pastoris expression system prolonged the half-life of sCMG2 while maintaining PA binding ability. The IC50 of HSA-CMG2 is similar to those of sCMG2 and CMG2-Fc in in vitro toxin neutralization assays, and HSA-CMG2 completely protects rats from lethal doses of anthrax toxin challenge; these same challenge doses exceed sCMG2 at a sub-equivalent dose ratio and overwhelm CMG2-Fc. Our results suggest that HSA-CMG2 is a promising inhibitor of anthrax toxin and may contribute to the development of novel anthrax drugs. PMID:26805881

  19. Recombinant HSA-CMG2 Is a Promising Anthrax Toxin Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangliang; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Ying; Dong, Dayong; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis. Protective antigen (PA) is the key component of the toxin and has been confirmed as the main target for the development of toxin inhibitors. The inhibition of the binding of PA to its receptor, capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2), can effectively block anthrax intoxication. The recombinant, soluble von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain of CMG2 (sCMG2) has demonstrated potency against anthrax toxin. However, the short half-life of sCMG2 in vivo is a disadvantage for its development as a new anthrax drug. In the present study, we report that HSA-CMG2, a protein combining human serum albumin (HSA) and sCMG2, produced in the Pichia pastoris expression system prolonged the half-life of sCMG2 while maintaining PA binding ability. The IC50 of HSA-CMG2 is similar to those of sCMG2 and CMG2-Fc in in vitro toxin neutralization assays, and HSA-CMG2 completely protects rats from lethal doses of anthrax toxin challenge; these same challenge doses exceed sCMG2 at a sub-equivalent dose ratio and overwhelm CMG2-Fc. Our results suggest that HSA-CMG2 is a promising inhibitor of anthrax toxin and may contribute to the development of novel anthrax drugs. PMID:26805881

  20. The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (χ2 = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted. PMID:23000586

  1. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs. PMID:27169560

  2. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingling; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  3. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  4. The cleaning and disinfection by heat of bedpans in automatic and semi-automatic machines.

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, A. B.; Chackett, K. F.

    1976-01-01

    This work is concerned with the cleaning and disinfection by heat of stainless-steel and polypropylene bedpans, which had been soiled with either a biological contaminant, human serum albumin (HSA) labelled with technetium-99m 99m(Tc), or a bacteriological contaminant, streptococcus faecalis mixed with Tc-labelled HSA. Results of cleaning and disinfection achieved with a Test Machine and those achieved by procedures adopted in eight different wards of a general hospital are reported. Bedpan washers installed in wards were found to be less efficient than the Test Machine, at least partly because of inadequate maintenance. Stainless-steel and polypropylene bedpans gave essentially the same results. PMID:6591

  5. [Disinfection efficiency for outlet water from biological activated carbon process by different disinfecting modes].

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xing-hua; Bai, Xiao-hui; Meng, Ming-qun

    2011-05-01

    Lab-scale tests were designed to treat the leak of bacteria from BAC process. Water samples from outlet of BAC pool in Xujing Waterworks in Shanghai were disinfected by NaClO and NH2Cl disinfectant to compare the disinfection efficiency. Heterotrophic bacteria in disinfected water were cultivated and counted and halo hydrocarbons were detected by GC. To keep the disinfecting efficacy [lg(N0/N)] over 2 under the water temperature of 30 degrees C, NaClO should have an initial concentration more than 1.84 mg/L total chlorine and contact with bacteria for about 30 minutes. As to NH2Cl disinfection, the initial concentration should be more than 2.20 mg/L total chlorine and contacting time should be prolonged to about 90 minutes. The production of CHCl3 ranged from 4.97 to 7.10 microg/L and CCl4 ranged from 0.01 to 0.71 microg/L in NaClO disinfection tests with a initial disinfecting concentration in the range of 1.53-2.42 mg/L total chlorine values. In NH2Cl disinfecting tests, CHCl3 ranged from 4.43 to 5.55 microg/L and CCl4 ranged from 0.01 to 0.64 microg/L when initial disinfecting concentration limited in the range of 2.10-2.86 mg/L total chlorine values. All was below the state drinking water standard. The results showed that the disinfection process can be divided into fast step and slow step. NaCl0 has higher disinfecting efficiency on bacteria than NH2Cl, but neither can reach 100% effectivity. Meanwhile the risk of producing halo hydrocarbon over standard was proved to be negligible. PMID:21780589

  6. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives

  7. Mapping the Distribution of Anthrax in Mainland China, 2005–2013

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Kun; Li, Xin-Lou; Yao, Hong-Wu; Li, Yu; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Li-Ping; Mu, Di; Yin, Wen-Wu; Fang, Li-Qun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Anthrax, a global re-emerging zoonotic disease in recent years is enzootic in mainland China. Despite its significance to the public health, spatiotemporal distributions of the disease in human and livestock and its potential driving factors remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the national surveillance data of human and livestock anthrax from 2005 to 2013, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of anthrax in mainland China. The potential determinants for the temporal and spatial distributions of human anthrax were also explored. We found that the majority of human anthrax cases were located in six provinces in western and northeastern China, and five clustering areas with higher incidences were identified. The disease mostly peaked in July or August, and males aged 30–49 years had higher incidence than other subgroups. Monthly incidence of human anthrax was positively correlated with monthly average temperature, relative humidity and monthly accumulative rainfall with lags of 0–2 months. A boosted regression trees (BRT) model at the county level reveals that densities of cattle, sheep and human, coverage of meadow, coverage of typical grassland, elevation, coverage of topsoil with pH > 6.1, concentration of organic carbon in topsoil, and the meteorological factors have contributed substantially to the spatial distribution of the disease. The model-predicted probability of occurrence of human cases in mainland China was mapped at the county level. Conclusions/Significance Anthrax in China was characterized by significant seasonality and spatial clustering. The spatial distribution of human anthrax was largely driven by livestock husbandry, human density, land cover, elevation, topsoil features and climate. Enhanced surveillance and intervention for livestock and human anthrax in the high-risk regions, particularly on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is the key to the prevention of human infections

  8. Precautionary Practices of Healthcare Workers Who Disinfect Medical and Dental Devices Using High-Level Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Scott A.; Boiano, James M.; Steege, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Background High-level disinfectants (HLDs) are used throughout the healthcare industry to chemically disinfect reusable, semicritical medical and dental devices to control and prevent healthcare-associated infections among patient populations. Workers who use HLDs are at risk of exposure to these chemicals, some of which are respiratory and skin irritants and sensitizers. Objective To evaluate exposure controls used and to better understand impediments to healthcare workers using personal protective equipment while handling HLDs. Design Web-based survey. Participants A targeted sample of members of professional practice organizations representing nurses, technologists/technicians, dental professionals, respiratory therapists, and others who reported handling HLDs in the previous 7 calendar days. Participating organizations invited either all or a random sample of members via email, which included a hyperlink to the survey. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted including simple frequencies and prevalences. Results A total of 4,657 respondents completed the survey. The HLDs used most often were glutaraldehyde (59%), peracetic acid (16%), and ortho-phthalaldehyde (15%). Examples of work practices or events that could increase exposure risk included failure to wear water-resistant gowns (44%); absence of standard procedures for minimizing exposure (19%); lack of safe handling training (17%); failure to wear protective gloves (9%); and a spill/leak of HLD during handling (5%). Among all respondents, 12% reported skin contact with HLDs, and 33% of these respondents reported that they did not always wear gloves. Conclusion Findings indicated that precautionary practices were not always used, underscoring the importance of improved employer and worker training and education regarding HLD hazards. PMID:25633000

  9. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups. PMID:11019515

  10. [General procedures in response to suspected attacks with highly contagious and pathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Richter, Martin; Herzog, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of undefined powders that are content of letters or parcels with or without threats in writing addressed to institutions, groups or persons, often raises the suspicion of an attack involving biological agents such as anthrax. Subsequent investigations and analyses by local authorities often aim at excluding anthrax or anthrax spores. Suspicion and actions are then mistakenly justified by referring to the 2001 anthrax letter attacks in the USA, which now lie more than 10 years in the past. In Germany to date there has never been a terrorist attack involving dangerous biological agents, neither in letters nor in any other possible form. In addition, it cannot be assumed that anthrax bacteria or spores will be used again in a bioterrorist event. In the case of a valid suspicion of a threatening letter, neither analyses to exclude only a certain group of substances (e.g. biological, chemical or radiological) nor analyses to exclude only one biological agent (e.g. anthrax) in particular would provide sufficient information for decision makers to conduct further actions in coping with the given situation. Moreover, a sequence of procedures such as consultation, exclusion, and analyses should be followed in order to systematically exclude all relevant threats. Therefore, and in respect to the current CBRNE threat assessment for Germany, the following article provides recommendations of actions to be taken for coping with a valid suspicion of an intentional release of biological agents utilizing powder letters as an example. PMID:25963640

  11. Nanopore Biosensor for Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a label-free real-time nanopore sensing method for the detection of anthrax lethal factor, a component of the anthrax toxin, by using a complementary single-stranded DNA as a molecular probe. The method is rapid and sensitive: sub-nanomolar concentrations of the target anthrax lethal factor DNA could be detected in ∼1 min. Further, our method is selective, which can differentiate the target DNA from other single-stranded DNA molecules at the single-base resolution. This sequence-specific detection approach should find useful application in the development of nanopore sensors for the detection of other pathogens. PMID:24806593

  12. Pre-Columbian origins for North American anthrax.

    PubMed

    Kenefic, Leo J; Pearson, Talima; Okinaka, Richard T; Schupp, James M; Wagner, David M; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Trim, Carla B; Trim, Carla P; Chung, Wai-Kwan; Beaudry, Jodi A; Jiang, Lingxia; Gajer, Pawel; Foster, Jeffrey T; Mead, James I; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Disease introduction into the New World during colonial expansion is well documented and had a major impact on indigenous populations; however, few diseases have been associated with early human migrations into North America. During the late Pleistocene epoch, Asia and North America were joined by the Beringian Steppe ecosystem which allowed animals and humans to freely cross what would become a water barrier in the Holocene. Anthrax has clearly been shown to be dispersed by human commerce and trade in animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Humans appear to have brought B. anthracis to this area from Asia and then moved it further south as an ice-free corridor opened in central Canada approximately 13,000 ybp. In this study, we have defined the evolutionary history of Western North American (WNA) anthrax using 2,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 285 geographically diverse B. anthracis isolates. Phylogeography of the major WNA B. anthracis clone reveals ancestral populations in northern Canada with progressively derived populations to the south; the most recent ancestor of this clonal lineage is in Eurasia. Our phylogeographic patterns are consistent with B. anthracis arriving with humans via the Bering Land Bridge. This northern-origin hypothesis is highly consistent with our phylogeographic patterns and rates of SNP accumulation observed in current day B. anthracis isolates. Continent-wide dispersal of WNA B. anthracis likely required movement by later European colonizers, but the continent's first inhabitants may have seeded the initial North American populations. PMID:19283072

  13. Atomic structure of anthrax PA pore elucidates toxin translocation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Collier, R. John; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in human and animals. PA forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes LF and EF into the cytosol of target cells1. PA is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. Based on biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a Φ-clamp composed of Phe427 residues of PA catalyzes protein translocation via a charge-state dependent Brownian ratchet2–9. Although atomic structures of PA prepores are available10–14, how PA senses low pH, converts to active pore and translocates LF and EF are not well defined without an atomic model of the PA pore. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) with direct electron counting, we have determined the PA pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low-pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  14. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J. . E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.

  15. Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L; Collier, R John; Zhou, Z Hong

    2015-05-28

    Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen, lethal factor, and oedema factor, is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in humans and animals. Protective antigen forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes lethal factor and oedema factor into the cytosol of target cells. Protective antigen is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. On the basis of biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a phi (Φ)-clamp composed of phenylalanine (Phe)427 residues of protective antigen catalyses protein translocation via a charge-state-dependent Brownian ratchet. Although atomic structures of protective antigen prepores are available, how protective antigen senses low pH, converts to active pore, and translocates lethal factor and oedema factor are not well defined without an atomic model of its pore. Here, by cryo-electron microscopy with direct electron counting, we determine the protective antigen pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  16. Pre-Columbian Origins for North American Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Okinaka, Richard T.; Schupp, James M.; Wagner, David M.; Ravel, Jacques; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Trim, Carla P.; Chung, Wai-Kwan; Beaudry, Jodi A.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Mead, James I.; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Disease introduction into the New World during colonial expansion is well documented and had a major impact on indigenous populations; however, few diseases have been associated with early human migrations into North America. During the late Pleistocene epoch, Asia and North America were joined by the Beringian Steppe ecosystem which allowed animals and humans to freely cross what would become a water barrier in the Holocene. Anthrax has clearly been shown to be dispersed by human commerce and trade in animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Humans appear to have brought B. anthracis to this area from Asia and then moved it further south as an ice-free corridor opened in central Canada ∼13,000 ybp. In this study, we have defined the evolutionary history of Western North American (WNA) anthrax using 2,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 285 geographically diverse B. anthracis isolates. Phylogeography of the major WNA B. anthracis clone reveals ancestral populations in northern Canada with progressively derived populations to the south; the most recent ancestor of this clonal lineage is in Eurasia. Our phylogeographic patterns are consistent with B. anthracis arriving with humans via the Bering Land Bridge. This northern-origin hypothesis is highly consistent with our phylogeographic patterns and rates of SNP accumulation observed in current day B. anthracis isolates. Continent-wide dispersal of WNA B. anthracis likely required movement by later European colonizers, but the continent's first inhabitants may have seeded the initial North American populations. PMID:19283072

  17. Stable Dry Powder Formulation for Nasal Delivery of Anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheena H.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Abraham, Soman N.; Staats, Herman F.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a current biodefense interest in protection against Anthrax. Here we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by rPA delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator Compound 48/80. The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D50=25μm, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by CD and ATR-FTIR, while functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unitdose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over two years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by IM immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine, or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases. PMID:21905034

  18. “Evaluation of the Effect of Ultraviolet Disinfection on Dimensional Stability of the Polyvinyl Silioxane Impressions.” an in-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Godbole, Surekha R; Dahane, Trupti M; Nimonkar, Sharayu V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infection control is an important concept in the present day practice of dentistry. The prosthodontists are at an added risk of transmission because of the infection spreading through the contaminated lab equipments while working in the lab. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of UV light disinfection on dimensional stability of polyvinyl siloxane impressions. Materials and Methods : Impressions were made in perforated custom tray. After polymerization of impression, half the samples were disinfected in UV light and remaining samples were not subjected to disinfection and poured in die stone which served as control group. Linear dimensions were measured on the cast with travelling microscope of 0.001accuracy. Result : The result showed that UV light disinfectant showed no significant dimensional changes on impressions. Conclusion: Hence, it can be safely used to disinfect impressions in clinical prosthodontic procedures. PMID:25386528

  19. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  20. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  1. Environmental Cleaning and Disinfecting for MRSA

    MedlinePlus

    ... stores and other retail stores. Check the disinfectant product’s label on the back of the container. Most, if ... check for an EPA registration number on the product’s label to confirm that it is registered). How should ...

  2. UV disinfection for onsite sand filter effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, J.D.; Romatzick, S.

    1982-05-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using ultraviolet (uv) light as a viable alternative to chlorine as the required disinfectant for onsite sand filter effluents discharged to surface waters in Maine was determined. To obtain a reliable cross section of performance for sand filters in Maine, 74 filters were selected for an effluent characterization program. The effluent characterization study allowed general conclusions to be made with regard to the potential of uv disinfection. A simple suspended lamp uv disinfection unit was designed, constructed, and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The efficiency of the uv disinfection unit was determined through field testing at 10 of the 74 sand filter sites used in the effluent characterization program.

  3. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project, also called the Healthy Men Study will examine potential associations between human exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts, particularly haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), and male reproductive health as indicated by semen quality. Sinc...

  4. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  5. An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Sitzlar, Brett; Deshpande, Abhishek; Fertelli, Dennis; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sethi, Ajay K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. Effective disinfection of hospital rooms after discharge of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is necessary to prevent transmission. We evaluated the impact of sequential cleaning and disinfection interventions by culturing high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms after cleaning. DESIGN. Prospective intervention. SETTING. A Veterans Affairs hospital. INTERVENTIONS. During a 21-month period, 3 sequential tiered interventions were implemented: (1) fluorescent markers to provide monitoring and feedback on thoroughness of cleaning facility-wide, (2) addition of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for adjunctive disinfection of CDI rooms, and (3) enhanced standard disinfection of CDI rooms, including a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a process requiring supervisory assessment and clearance of terminally cleaned CDI rooms. To determine the impact of the interventions, cultures were obtained from CDI rooms after cleaning and disinfection. RESULTS. The fluorescent marker intervention improved the thoroughness of cleaning of high-touch surfaces (from 47% to 81% marker removal; P < .0001). Relative to the baseline period, the prevalence of positive cultures from CDI rooms was reduced by 14% (P=.024), 48% (P <.001), and 89% (P=.006) with interventions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the baseline period, 67% of CDI rooms had positive cultures after disinfection, whereas during interventions periods 1, 2, and 3 the percentages of CDI rooms with positive cultures after disinfection were reduced to 57%, 35%, and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. An intervention that included formation of a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a standardized process for clearing CDI rooms achieved consistent CDI room disinfection. Culturing of CDI rooms provides a valuable tool to drive improvements in environmental disinfection. PMID:23571361

  6. [Survey of methods of cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization in dental health services in tropical areas].

    PubMed

    Clapeau, G; Decroix, B; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Varenne, B; Dosso-Hien, D; Decroix, M O

    1997-01-01

    The International Aid for Ontology (IAO) carried out this survey of hygiene in the dental health services of 5 French-speaking African countries in 1994, in association with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Paris. This study received support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the French Ministry for Cooperation and the European Community and the Ivory Coast Oral and Dental Hygiene and Health Committee (CIHSBD). Twenty-nine dental services from Benin (3), Burkina Faso (6), Ivory Coast (12), Mali (5), Niger (3) participated in this survey which gives an insight into the daily hygiene routines of these services. The cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization procedures for premises, dental equipment, instruments, hands and disposable items were investigated. No individual protocols are reported. Bench tops were cleaned or disinfected daily in 73% of centers and floors were cleaned or disinfected daily in 59% of centers. Walls were cleaned once per week in 44% of the centers. Hands were always washed between patients, with 68% of dental surgeons using only solid or liquid cleansing soaps and the others using antiseptic or disinfectant solutions. The dentist's chair was cleaned or disinfected daily in 68% of centers, mostly with soap (43%) or diluted bleach (23%). Vacuum equipment was cleaned with soap (50%) or diluted bleach (57%), with some surgeries using a combination of the two. Hand pieces and turbines were cleaned and disinfected after each use with alcohol (35%) or diluted bleach (26%) and were sterilized in 9% of centers. Instruments were sterilized with a Poupinel (63%), unspecified sterilizer (26%), autoclave (7%) or low temperature disinfection procedure (4%). Instruments were regularly sterilized in all centers. Single-use disposable items were often reused: 88% of centers reused gloves, 64% anesthetic cartridges and 32% disposable needles. This survey demonstrates that dentists do attempt to achieve appropriate

  7. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  8. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany.

    PubMed

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofBacillus anthracisstrain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  9. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura..., purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5)...

  10. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura..., purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5)...

  11. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura..., purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5)...

  12. Characterizing a “New” Disease: Epizootic and Epidemic Anthrax, 1769–1780

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1876, Robert Koch established anthrax as the first disease linked to a microbial agent. But Koch’s efforts had followed more than 150 years of scientific progress in characterizing anthrax as a specific human and veterinary disease. Focusing on France and the period between 1769 and 1780, this brief review examines noteworthy early events in the characterization of anthrax. It suggests that some “new” diseases like anthrax might be “discovered” not only by luck, brilliance, or new technologies, but by clinical/epidemiological “puzzle-fitting,” which can assemble a cohesive picture of a seemingly specific disease entity. If such processes have operated over 2 or more centuries, studying them may yield clues about desirable interactions between epidemiology/public health and experimental science in the characterization of new diseases. PMID:12773345

  13. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and Maximum...

  14. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and Maximum...

  15. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and Maximum...

  16. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P.; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. PMID:24959910

  17. Pathology and Pathophysiology of Inhalational Anthrax in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Savransky, Vladimir; Sanford, Daniel C.; Syar, Emily; Austin, Jamie L.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Anderson, Michael S.; Stark, Gregory V.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Briscoe, Crystal M.; Lemiale-Biérinx, Laurence; Park, Sukjoon; Ionin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits are the animal models most commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of medical countermeasures against anthrax in support of licensure under the FDA's “Animal Rule.” However, a need for an alternative animal model may arise in certain cases. The development of such an alternative model requires a thorough understanding of the course and manifestation of experimental anthrax disease induced under controlled conditions in the proposed animal species. The guinea pig, which has been used extensively for anthrax pathogenesis studies and anthrax vaccine potency testing, is a good candidate for such an alternative model. This study was aimed at determining the median lethal dose (LD50) of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain in guinea pigs and investigating the natural history, pathophysiology, and pathology of inhalational anthrax in this animal model following nose-only aerosol exposure. The inhaled LD50 of aerosolized Ames strain spores in guinea pigs was determined to be 5.0 × 104 spores. Aerosol challenge of guinea pigs resulted in inhalational anthrax with death occurring between 46 and 71 h postchallenge. The first clinical signs appeared as early as 36 h postchallenge. Cardiovascular function declined starting at 20 h postexposure. Hematogenous dissemination of bacteria was observed microscopically in multiple organs and tissues as early as 24 h postchallenge. Other histopathologic findings typical of disseminated anthrax included suppurative (heterophilic) inflammation, edema, fibrin, necrosis, and/or hemorrhage in the spleen, lungs, and regional lymph nodes and lymphocyte depletion and/or lymphocytolysis in the spleen and lymph nodes. This study demonstrated that the course of inhalational anthrax disease and the resulting pathology in guinea pigs are similar to those seen in rabbits and NHPs, as well as in humans. PMID:23357384

  18. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  19. New Developments in Vaccines, Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxins, and Antibiotic Therapeutics for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Beierlein, J.M.; Anderson, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent responsible for anthrax infections, poses a significant biodefense threat. There is a high mortality rate associated with untreated anthrax infections; specifically, inhalation anthrax is a particularly virulent form of infection with mortality rates close to 100%, even with aggressive treatment. Currently, a vaccine is not available to the general public and few antibiotics have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. With the threat of natural or engineered bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the limited population for whom the current drugs are approved, there is a clear need for more effective treatments against this deadly infection. A comprehensive review of current research in drug discovery is presented in this article, including efforts to improve the purity and stability of vaccines, design inhibitors targeting the anthrax toxins, and identify inhibitors of novel enzyme targets. High resolution structural information for the anthrax toxins and several essential metabolic enzymes has played a significant role in aiding the structure-based design of potent and selective antibiotics. PMID:22050756

  20. Periocular cutaneous anthrax in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Naturally occurring human infection is rare and is generally the result of contact with anthrax-infected animals or animal products. Case presentation We examined three patients who had contact with presumed anthrax-infected animal and/or its product and presented with preseptal cellulitis with a localized itchy erythematous papule of the eyelid and non-pitting periorbital edema, followed by ulceration and dark eschar formation. All the three patients responded to intravenous antibiotics, and the lesion resolved leaving scars which caused cicatricial ectropion in all cases. Conclusion Anthrax is a rare disease but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative (and eschar forming) preseptal cellulitis with a history of contact with anthrax-infected animals or animal products. Furthermore, cicatrization of the eyelids, one of the sequelae of periocular cutaneous anthrax, should be addressed. Urgent case report to the local zoonotic disease and infection control body and other responsible authorities is recommended. PMID:23924443

  1. Passive Immunotherapy Protects against Enteric Invasion and Lethal Sepsis in a Murine Model of Gastrointestinal Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bruce; Xie, Tao; Rotstein, David; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The principal portal for anthrax infection in natural animal outbreaks is the digestive tract. Enteric exposure to anthrax, which is difficult to detect or prevent in a timely manner, could be exploited as an act of terror through contamination of human or animal food. Our group has developed a novel animal model of gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax for evaluation of disease pathogenesis and experimental therapeutics, utilizing vegetative Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) administered to A/J mice (a complement-deficient strain) by oral gavage. We hypothesized that a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) * that neutralizes the protective antigen (PA) component of B. anthracis lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) could be an effective treatment. Although the efficacy of this anti-anthrax PA mAb has been shown in animal models of inhalational anthrax, its activity in GI infection had not yet been ascertained. We hereby demonstrate that passive immunotherapy with anti-anthrax PA mAb, administered at the same time as gastrointestinal exposure to B. anthracis, prevents lethal sepsis in nearly all cases (>90%), while a delay of up to forty-eight hours in treatment still greatly reduces mortality following exposure (65%). Moreover, passive immunotherapy protects against enteric invasion, associated mucosal injury and subsequent dissemination by gastrointestinal B. anthracis, indicating that it acts to prevent the initial stages of infection. * Expired raxibacumab being cycled off the Strategic National Stockpile; biological activity confirmed by in vitro assay. PMID:26426050

  2. The Physiologic Responses of Dutch Belted Rabbits Infected with Inhalational Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, William S; Hardcastle, Jason M; Brining, Douglas L; Weaver, Lori E; Ponce, Cindy; Whorton, Elbert B; Peterson, Johnny W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a category A priority pathogen that causes extensive damage in humans. For this reason, B. anthracis has been the focus of numerous studies using various animal models. In this study, we explored physiologic parameters in Dutch belted rabbits with inhalation anthrax to characterize the disease progression in this model. To this end, we infected Dutch belted rabbits with 100 LD50 B. anthracis Ames spores by nasal instillation and continuously recorded various physiologic parameters by using telemetry. In addition, samples were collected at selected times for serum chemistry, hematology, and blood gas analysis. The animals exhibited hemodynamic and respiratory changes that coincided with those reported in human cases of inhalational anthrax infection, including hypotension, altered heart rate, and respiratory distress. Likewise, hematology, serum chemistry, and blood gas analysis revealed trends comparable to human anthrax-related pathophysiology. The Dutch belted rabbit model of inhalational anthrax exhibited most of the physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical sequelae noted in human cases. Therefore, this rabbit model fulfills several of the criteria of a useful animal model for studying disease pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics during inhalational anthrax. PMID:19619416

  3. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  4. Current status of immunization against anthrax: old vaccines may be here to stay for a while.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Peter C.B.

    2000-04-01

    Anthrax vaccination has become a 'hot' topic. On the one hand, fears that Iraq holds secret caches of anthrax-based weaponry, that other countries may be developing or may have developed similar devices, or that hard-line groups may make their own anthrax-based devices for bioterrorist attacks have focused official attention on the need for means of protection, principally, though, for the military. On the other hand, the unsolved issues of the Gulf War illnesses have left elements of doubt in the minds of some as to the possible role of anthrax (among other) vaccines in this syndrome, and have drawn attention to the shortage of pre-clinical, clinical, pharmacological and safety data on the existing UK and US anthrax vaccines. In the middle are those hotly debating the US and Canadian policies of mandatory anthrax immunization for military personnel or, in the case of the UK policy of voluntary immunization, simply voting with their feet. Compounding matters have been the publicized failures of the US vaccine production facility and the less publicized UK problems of supply. Meanwhile, those in genuine at-risk occupations are left unsure whether, if they can get the vaccine at all, they really want it. Despite two decades of elegant science aimed at formulating alternative vaccines to overcome all the problems of efficacy, safety and supply, such an alternative is at least five years away, and the current status is that we must live with the old vaccines or not vaccinate. PMID:11964777

  5. Optimising single-visit disinfection with supplementary approaches: a quest for predictability.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2011-12-01

    Reduction of the bacterial populations to levels compatible with periradicular tissue healing is the primary microbiological goal of the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. New systems and substances have been proposed to improve root canal disinfection either by replacing conventional chemomechanical procedures or by supplementing their effects. This review focuses on supplementary approaches for optimised single-visit disinfection (OSD). The main OSD strategies reviewed include: final rinse with chlorhexidine, MTAD or iodine potassium iodide; sonic or ultrasonic activation of NaOCl; and photodynamic therapy. It is concluded that some OSD approaches may have the potential to improve disinfection in a single visit, but most of the results so far represent low-level evidence. There is no consistent clinical evidence showing that any of these OSD approaches can predictably reduce the bacterial bioburden in infected root canals to levels significantly below that achieved by chemomechanical procedures and to the point of eliminating the need for an antimicrobial inter-appointment medication. Therefore, while expediting disinfection is a goal that has been pursued, there is a need for the currently proposed protocols to be consistently evaluated for clinical effectiveness or new ones to be devised and tested before OSD is considered a predictable approach. PMID:22117714

  6. Problems in the disinfection of class 1 microbiology safety cabinets.

    PubMed

    Everall, P H; Morris, C A; Oliver, P R; Becker, J F

    1982-07-01

    Microbiology safety cabinet disinfection procedures using formaldehyde have been tested. Tubercle bacilli were killed by concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by heating commercial formalin irrespective of whether the bacilli were in the cabinet free space or above the prefilters. However, Bacillus stearothermophilus spore papers for for the testing of low temperature steam/formaldehyde sterilisers were almost never sterilised and a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCTC 7944) showed a resistance intermediate between the B stearothermophilus spores and the tubercle bacilli. Tests using a vaccine strain of poliovirus type 3 indicated a considerable degree of resistance of the virus to the action of formaldehyde. No such resistance was demonstrated by vaccinia virus or echovirus 14. Chemical and biological evidence is presented which indicates that filter paper discs are an unsuitable carrier material for a challenge organism in testing the efficiency of any formaldehyde sterilising process. Recommendations are made towards developing a satisfactory test procedure. PMID:7047573

  7. Problems in the disinfection of class 1 microbiology safety cabinets.

    PubMed Central

    Everall, P H; Morris, C A; Oliver, P R; Becker, J F

    1982-01-01

    Microbiology safety cabinet disinfection procedures using formaldehyde have been tested. Tubercle bacilli were killed by concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by heating commercial formalin irrespective of whether the bacilli were in the cabinet free space or above the prefilters. However, Bacillus stearothermophilus spore papers for for the testing of low temperature steam/formaldehyde sterilisers were almost never sterilised and a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCTC 7944) showed a resistance intermediate between the B stearothermophilus spores and the tubercle bacilli. Tests using a vaccine strain of poliovirus type 3 indicated a considerable degree of resistance of the virus to the action of formaldehyde. No such resistance was demonstrated by vaccinia virus or echovirus 14. Chemical and biological evidence is presented which indicates that filter paper discs are an unsuitable carrier material for a challenge organism in testing the efficiency of any formaldehyde sterilising process. Recommendations are made towards developing a satisfactory test procedure. PMID:7047573

  8. Identifying bacterial spores and anthrax hoax materials by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Brouillette, Carl R.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-12-01

    The distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores through the US postal system in the autumn of 2001, initiated a secondary form of terror, the mailing of hoax materials. In the past three years nearly 20,000 letters containing harmless powders have been mailed, creating additional anxiety. Thus, there is a need for analyzers that can not only identify anthrax-causing spores to save lives, but also identify hoax materials to eliminate time-consuming and costly shutdowns. Recently, we established that Raman spectroscopy has the ability to identify both Bacilli endospores and hoax materials. Here we present Raman spectra of several Bacilli spores along with the dipicolinate salts, to further define the abilities of this technology to not only identify hoax materials, but also identify spores at the genus and species level.

  9. Cutaneous Anthrax on Eyelid in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Parlak, Emine; Erturk, Ayse; Erol, Serpil; Parlak, Mehmet; Ozkurt, Zulal

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old patient who was 17 weeks of pregnant referred to our hospital due to a lesion on the eyelid and swelling on her face. Patient’s history revealed that she helped her husband for slaughtering of a sick animal and contacted with the meat. A scabby lesion was detected on the inferior eyelid with hyperaemia around, central necrotic appearance and swelling. The diagnosis of anthrax was performed based on her epidemiological data, physical examination findings, and Bacillus anthracis were seen on direct preparation. This case was considered worthy to present since she was pregnant, the disease was located on the inferior eyelid, which is a rare place for location, and caused no complication or sequel either in mother or in baby. PMID:27551179

  10. The pitfalls of bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax and smallpox experiences.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hillel W; Gould, Robert M; Sidel, Victor W

    2004-10-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories-the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world's real health needs. PMID:15451727

  11. Cutaneous Anthrax on Eyelid in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Erturk, Ayse; Erol, Serpil; Parlak, Mehmet; Ozkurt, Zulal

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old patient who was 17 weeks of pregnant referred to our hospital due to a lesion on the eyelid and swelling on her face. Patient's history revealed that she helped her husband for slaughtering of a sick animal and contacted with the meat. A scabby lesion was detected on the inferior eyelid with hyperaemia around, central necrotic appearance and swelling. The diagnosis of anthrax was performed based on her epidemiological data, physical examination findings, and Bacillus anthracis were seen on direct preparation. This case was considered worthy to present since she was pregnant, the disease was located on the inferior eyelid, which is a rare place for location, and caused no complication or sequel either in mother or in baby. PMID:27551179

  12. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  13. Effect of Different Disinfectants on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Transferred to Alginate and Polyvinylsiloxane Impression Materials

    PubMed Central

    Parnia, Fereydun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Mahboub, Farhang; Nahaei, Mohammadreza; Akbari Dibavar, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Several products have been marketed for disinfecting impression materials. The present study evaluated the effect of Deconex, Micro 10, Alprocid and Unisepta Plus sprays on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans transferred to alginate and polyvinylsiloxane impression materials. Materials and methods A total of 180 impressions of a maxillary model (90 alginate and 90 polyvinylsiloxane im-pressions) were taken for the purpose of this in vitro study. Half of the impressions were infected with Staphylococcus au-reus and the other half were infected with Candida albicans. Then the microorganisms were cultured and their counts were determined. Subsequently, the impressions were divided into groups of 15 impressions each. Each group was disinfected with Deconex, Micro10, Alprocid and Unisepta Plus according to manufacturers' instructions except for the control group. The culturing procedure was repeated after disinfection and microbial counts were determined again. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and paired-sample t-test. Results There were statistically significant differences in the means of S. aureus and C. albicans counts before and after the use of disinfectants (P < 0.05). The use of the four disinfectants reduced S. aureus counts to zero in 80% of the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in S. aureus count reductions between the four disinfectants evaluated (P = 0.31). Micro 10 was more effective on alginate; Deconex was more efficient for polyvinylsiloxane and Alprocid had a better efficacy in both impression materials in eliminating C. albicans (P < 0.05). Conclusion All the disinfectants evaluated have high disinfecting postentials. PMID:23230499

  14. Quantitative Determination of Lethal Toxin Proteins in Culture Supernatant of Human Live Anthrax Vaccine Bacillus anthracis A16R.

    PubMed

    Zai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ju; Liu, Jie; Li, Liangliang; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) is the etiological agent of anthrax affecting both humans and animals. Anthrax toxin (AT) plays a major role in pathogenesis. It includes lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are formed by the combination of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), respectively. The currently used human anthrax vaccine in China utilizes live-attenuated B. anthracis spores (A16R; pXO1+, pXO2-) that produce anthrax toxin but cannot produce the capsule. Anthrax toxins, especially LT, have key effects on both the immunogenicity and toxicity of human anthrax vaccines. Thus, determining quantities and biological activities of LT proteins expressed by the A16R strain is meaningful. Here, we explored LT expression patterns of the A16R strain in culture conditions using another vaccine strain Sterne as a control. We developed a sandwich ELISA and cytotoxicity-based method for quantitative detection of PA and LF. Expression and degradation of LT proteins were observed in culture supernatants over time. Additionally, LT proteins expressed by the A16R and Sterne strains were found to be monomeric and showed cytotoxic activity, which may be the main reason for side effects of live anthrax vaccines. Our work facilitates the characterization of anthrax vaccines components and establishment of a quality control standard for vaccine production which may ultimately help to ensure the efficacy and safety of the human anthrax vaccine A16R. PMID:26927174

  15. Quantitative Determination of Lethal Toxin Proteins in Culture Supernatant of Human Live Anthrax Vaccine Bacillus anthracis A16R

    PubMed Central

    Zai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ju; Liu, Jie; Li, Liangliang; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) is the etiological agent of anthrax affecting both humans and animals. Anthrax toxin (AT) plays a major role in pathogenesis. It includes lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are formed by the combination of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), respectively. The currently used human anthrax vaccine in China utilizes live-attenuated B. anthracis spores (A16R; pXO1+, pXO2−) that produce anthrax toxin but cannot produce the capsule. Anthrax toxins, especially LT, have key effects on both the immunogenicity and toxicity of human anthrax vaccines. Thus, determining quantities and biological activities of LT proteins expressed by the A16R strain is meaningful. Here, we explored LT expression patterns of the A16R strain in culture conditions using another vaccine strain Sterne as a control. We developed a sandwich ELISA and cytotoxicity-based method for quantitative detection of PA and LF. Expression and degradation of LT proteins were observed in culture supernatants over time. Additionally, LT proteins expressed by the A16R and Sterne strains were found to be monomeric and showed cytotoxic activity, which may be the main reason for side effects of live anthrax vaccines. Our work facilitates the characterization of anthrax vaccines components and establishment of a quality control standard for vaccine production which may ultimately help to ensure the efficacy and safety of the human anthrax vaccine A16R. PMID:26927174

  16. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  17. Divergent opinions on surface disinfection: myths or prevention? A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Virtually no prevention strategy in hospital hygiene has been the focus of such frequent controversial discussions as the role of surface disinfection. Set against that background, the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch Institute founded a working group comprising members with divergent views of risk evaluation as regards the role of disinfection. This working group produced a most carefully drafted guideline on how to deal with various risk areas and also incorporated a new provision into the guideline, stating that: “Cleaning and disinfection procedures must be organized and implemented such that there is no increase in the microbial load or spread of facultatively pathogenic or pathogenic microorganisms on surfaces.” Numerous studies have come to the conclusion that surface disinfection constitutes a basic infection control measure with which the spread of pathogens can be controlled. Conversely, when using only detergents such a form of control is not possible, something that must be taken into account in future when engaging in risk evaluation and formulating infection control measures. In view of the burgeoning trend in, for example, norovirus outbreaks, also in hospitals and nursing homes, such insights are of paramount importance and attest to the need for disinfection of surfaces and of areas with frequent hand and skin contacts. This discussion about the need for surface disinfection has, in addition to causing confusion among users, led to a decline in the willingness to accept hygienic practices, thus increasing the risk of occurrence of nosocomial infections as well as of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. PMID:20200680

  18. PARTICLE ASSOCIATION EFFECTS ON MICROBIAL INDICATOR CONCENTRATIONS AND CSO DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) and wastewater disinfection effectiveness are evaluated by measuring microbial indicator concentrations before and after disinfection. The standard techniques for quantifying indicators are membrane filtration and multiple-tube fermentation/most pro...

  19. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the provisions of this part, the Director shall disinfect them on board or request the appropriate...

  20. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the provisions of this part, the Director shall disinfect them on board or request the appropriate...

  1. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the provisions of this part, the Director shall disinfect them on board or request the appropriate...

  2. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the provisions of this part, the Director shall disinfect them on board or request the appropriate...

  3. 42 CFR 71.42 - Disinfection of imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... imports. When the cargo manifest of a carrier lists articles which may require disinfection under the provisions of this part, the Director shall disinfect them on board or request the appropriate...

  4. Formation and Occurrence of Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of drinking water. There is concern about D...

  5. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  6. Comparison of Disinfectants for Control of Listeria Biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The generation of protective biofilms by microorganisms that aggregate on food processing equipment surfaces is a major contributing factor to contamination and disinfection failure in meat and poultry processing facilities. Traditional disinfectants and cleaners do not effectively h...

  7. DISINFECTION PROCESSES AND STABILITY REFINEMENTS TO BIOSOLIDS TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusses the limitations of the practices; discusses the criteria employed in evaluating a new (innovative or alternative) disinfection process and both notes some processes ...

  8. The History And Future Directions Of Biosolids Disinfection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the history of disinfection practices, emphasizing their application to human fecal material and the residuals from wastewater treatment. It discusses development of the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusse...

  9. The History And Future Directions Of Biosolids Disinfection (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the history of disinfection practices, emphasizing their application to human fecal material and the residuals from wastewater treatment. It discusses development of the current US sewage sludge disinfection regulations and their associated practices; discusse...

  10. Evidence of effective penetration of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by disinfectant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generation of protective biofilms by microorganisms that aggregate on food processing equipment surfaces is a major contributing factor to contamination and disinfection failure in meat and poultry processing facilities. Traditional disinfectants and cleaners do not effectively penetrate the bi...

  11. DISINFECTION OF BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon (GAC) particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected wit...

  12. Standardized, App-Based Disinfection of iPads in a Clinical and Nonclinical Setting: Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    nonclinical group and 98.1% (Mann-Whitney U test, z=3.1808, P=.001469) for the clinical group was achieved using one complete disinfecting cycle. Conclusions Normal use of tablet PCs leads to a remarkable amount of microbial surface contamination. Standardized surface disinfection with isopropanol wipes as guided by the application significantly reduces this microbial load. When performed regularly, the disinfection process helps with maintaining a low germ count during use. This should reduce the risk of subsequent nosocomial pathogen transmission. Unfortunately, applying a disinfection procedure such as the one we propose may lead to losing the manufacturer’s warranty for the devices; this remains an unsolved issue. PMID:23945468

  13. Monitoring Method of Cow Anthrax Based on Gis and Spatial Statistical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Yang, Yong; Wang, Hongbin; Dong, Jing; Zhao, Yujun; He, Jianbin; Fan, Honggang

    Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer application system, which possesses the ability of manipulating spatial information and has been used in many fields related with the spatial information management. Many methods and models have been established for analyzing animal diseases distribution models and temporal-spatial transmission models. Great benefits have been gained from the application of GIS in animal disease epidemiology. GIS is now a very important tool in animal disease epidemiological research. Spatial analysis function of GIS can be widened and strengthened by using spatial statistical analysis, allowing for the deeper exploration, analysis, manipulation and interpretation of spatial pattern and spatial correlation of the animal disease. In this paper, we analyzed the cow anthrax spatial distribution characteristics in the target district A (due to the secret of epidemic data we call it district A) based on the established GIS of the cow anthrax in this district in combination of spatial statistical analysis and GIS. The Cow anthrax is biogeochemical disease, and its geographical distribution is related closely to the environmental factors of habitats and has some spatial characteristics, and therefore the correct analysis of the spatial distribution of anthrax cow for monitoring and the prevention and control of anthrax has a very important role. However, the application of classic statistical methods in some areas is very difficult because of the pastoral nomadic context. The high mobility of livestock and the lack of enough suitable sampling for the some of the difficulties in monitoring currently make it nearly impossible to apply rigorous random sampling methods. It is thus necessary to develop an alternative sampling method, which could overcome the lack of sampling and meet the requirements for randomness. The GIS computer application software ArcGIS9.1 was used to overcome the lack of data of sampling sites.Using ArcGIS 9.1 and GEODA

  14. An insight of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by alternative disinfectants for swimming pool disinfection under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linyan; Schmalz, Christina; Zhou, Jin; Zwiener, Christian; Chang, Victor W-C; Ge, Liya; Wan, Man Pun

    2016-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions. The result reveals that halogen stabilizer, TCCA, had the advantages of slower free chlorine degradation and lower DBP concentration compared to NaClO, which makes it a good alternative disinfectant. BCDMH was not recommended mainly due to the highly reactive disinfecting ingredient, hypobromous acid (HBrO), which fails to sustain the continuous disinfection requirement. Total disinfectant dosage was the main factor that affects residual chlorine/bromine and THM/HAA formation regardless of different disinfectant dosing methods, e.g. shock dosing (one-time spiking) in the beginning, and continuous dosing during the whole experimental period. Two-stage second-order-kinetic-based models demonstrate a good correlation between the measured and predicted data for chlorine decay (R(2) ≥ 0.95), THM (R(2) ≥ 0.99) and HAA (R(2) ≥ 0.83) formation. Higher temperature was found to enhance the DBP formation due to the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Thus, temperature control of pools, especially for those preferring higher temperatures (e.g. hydrotherapy and spa), should take both bather comfort and DBP formation potential into consideration. It is also observed that chlorine competition

  15. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  16. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Disinfection of Drinking Waters by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination Treatment Scenarios

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes disinfection of the same source water by two commonly used disinfection treatment scenarios for purposes of subsequent concentration, chemical analysis, and toxicological evaluation. Accompanying articles in this issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Envir...

  17. A Toxicological Perspective on Disinfection ByProducts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of water is essential for reduction of microbes harmful to human health and chemical disinfection is considered one of the major public health triumphs of the 20th Century. An unintended consequence of disinfection with oxidizing chemicals is formation of disinfectio...

  18. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  19. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  20. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  1. Proteomic Adaptations to Starvation Prepare Escherichia coli for Disinfection Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhe; Nandakumar, Renu; Nickerson, Kenneth; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the low nutrient level and constant presence of secondary disinfectants, bacterial re-growth still occurs in drinking water distribution systems. The molecular mechanisms that starved bacteria use to survive low-level chlorine-based disinfectants are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate these molecular mechanisms at the protein level that prepare starved cells for disinfection tolerance. Two commonly used secondary disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine, both at 1 mg/L, were used in this study. The proteomes of normal and starved Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655) cells were studied using quantitative proteomics. Over 60-min disinfection, starved cells showed significantly higher disinfection tolerance than normal cells based on the inactivation curves for both chlorine and monochloramine. Proteomic analyses suggest that starvation may prepare cells for the oxidative stress that chlorine-based disinfection will cause by affecting glutathione metabolism. In addition, proteins involved in stress regulation and stress responses were among the ones up-regulated under both starvation and chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. By comparing the fold changes under different conditions, it is suggested that starvation prepares E. coli for disinfection tolerance by increasing the expression of enzymes that can help cells survive chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. Protein co-expression analyses show that proteins in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway that were up-regulated under starvation are also involved in disinfection tolerance. Finally, the production and detoxification of methylglyoxal may be involved in the chlorine-based disinfection and cell defense mechanisms. PMID:25463932

  2. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General purpose disinfectants. 880.6890 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6890 General purpose disinfectants. (a) Identification. A general purpose disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General purpose disinfectants. 880.6890 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6890 General purpose disinfectants. (a) Identification. A general purpose disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose disinfectants. 880.6890 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6890 General purpose disinfectants. (a) Identification. A general purpose disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A...

  5. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  6. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General purpose disinfectants. 880.6890 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6890 General purpose disinfectants. (a) Identification. A general purpose disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General purpose disinfectants. 880.6890 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6890 General purpose disinfectants. (a) Identification. A general purpose disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A...

  8. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting. 166.14 Section 166.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.14 Cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Disinfectants to be...

  9. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting. 166.14 Section 166.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.14 Cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Disinfectants to be...

  10. OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF BOOSTER DISINFECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster disinfection is the addition of disinfectant at locations distributed throughout a water distribution system. Such a strategy can reduce the mass of disinfectant required to maintain a detectable residual at points of consumption in the distribution system, which may lea...

  11. THE TOXICOLOGY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health advance that has decreased dramatically water-borne disease. Chemical disinfectants react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water to produce a wide variety of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBP num...

  12. TOXICOLOGIC AND CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION TREATMENT SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 500 disinfecting byproducts have been identified. They result from the reaction of the disinfectants with the natural organic matter present in source waters. The concentrations and bromo/chloro speciation of these disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are influenced by source...

  13. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Gerald; Russell, A. Denver

    1999-01-01

    Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports. PMID:9880479

  14. Bactericidal properties of a new water disinfectant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D E; Worley, S D; Wheatley, W B; Swango, L J

    1985-01-01

    The N-chloramine compound 3-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (agent I) has been compared with calcium hypochlorite as to its efficacy as a bactericide for the treatment of water. The study included concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, and water quality as controlled variables. The species of bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella boydii. In general, for highly pure, demand-free water, calcium hypochlorite was the more rapid disinfectant at a given total chlorine concentration, although for water containing a controlled amount of organic load, agent I was the better disinfectant. The differences in efficacy of each of the two disinfectants can be attributed primarily to their different stabilities in water at various controlled conditions. PMID:3922300

  15. Efficacy of knife disinfection techniques in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Leps, J; Einschütz, K; Langkabel, N; Fries, R

    2013-10-01

    EU Regulation 853/2004 requires that knives used in meat processing be disinfected by submerging them in hot water (+82°C). Alternative procedures are permitted if the efficacy is proved to be equivalent. In the present study, various time-temperature combinations together with pure water, water with lactic acid (2 %), and the use of ultrasound with and without lactic acid (2%) were investigated. Steel plates were covered with fat and protein and then inoculated with a standardized bacterial contamination assembled according to the composition of bacterial contamination found in a previous field trial conducted with regard to the slaughter of pigs. Several combinations with diverse temperatures and time intervals were tested until no microbial load was detectable by using a wet-dry-swab technique that had previously been tested to ensure maximum bacterial recovery. The following were effective in bringing the tested bacterial flora below the detection limit: • 70 °C water bath for 10 s • 60 °C water bath + ultrasound for 5 s • 40 °C water bath + lactic acid (2%) for 10 s • 40 °C water bath + ultrasound + lactic acid (2%) for 5 s In particular, the use of lactic acid permitted a relevant reduction of the temperature, while providing effective sterilization. The use of such non-hazardous food-safe additives is particularly suitable for successful disinfection at lower temperatures. PMID:23743027

  16. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, B D; Barlett, P; Basaran, A; Colling, K; Osis, I; Smith, M K

    1986-01-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. Limited data are available on the health effects, in particular reproductive toxicity effects, of these compounds. In our laboratory, we have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement (micron/sec), percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats. PMID:3816727

  17. Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy: interim recommendations of a Working Party of the British Society of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    1. All patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy must be considered 'at risk' for HIV and appropriate cleaning/disinfection measures taken for endoscopes and accessories. 2. Thorough manual cleaning with detergent, of the instrument and its channels is the most important part of the cleaning/disinfection procedure. Without this, blood, mucus and organic material will prevent adequate penetration of disinfectant for inactivation of bacteria and viruses. 3. Aldehyde preparations (2% activated glutaraldehyde and related products) are the recommended first line antibacterial and antiviral disinfectant. A four minute soak is recommended as sufficient for inactivation of vegetative bacteria and viruses (including HIV and HBV). 4. Quaternary ammonium detergents (8% Dettox for two minutes for bacterial disinfection), followed by exposure of the endoscope shaft and channels to ethyl alcohol (70% for four minutes for viral inactivation), is an acceptable second-line disinfectant routine where staff sensitisation prevents the use of an aldehyde disinfectant. 5. Accessories, including mouthguards and cleaning brushes, require similarly careful cleaning/disinfection, before and after each use. Disposable products (especially injection needles) may be used and appropriate items can be sterilised by autoclaving and kept in sterile packs. 6. Closed circuit endoscope washing machines have advantages in maintaining standards and avoiding staff sensitisation to disinfectants. Improved ventilation including exhaust extraction facilities may be required. 7. Endoscopy staff should receive HBV vaccination, wear gloves and appropriate protective garments, cover wounds or abrasions and avoid needlestick injuries (including spiked forceps, etc). 8. Known HIV-infected or AIDS patients are managed as immunosuppressed, and require protection from atypical mycobacteria/cryptosporidia etc, by one hour aldehyde disinfection of endoscopic equipment before and after the procedure. A dedicated

  18. Monte Carlo N-particle simulation of neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B; Xu, J; Liu, T; Ouyang, X

    2012-01-01

    Objective To simulate the neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) 4C code. Methods Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge. They are 20 times more effective than electrons or γ-rays in killing anthrax spores on surfaces and inside closed containers. Neutrons emitted from a 252Cf neutron source are in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator can create neutrons at up to 1013 n s−1 with current technology. All these enable an effective and low-cost method of killing anthrax spores. Results There is no effect on neutron energy deposition on the anthrax sample when using a reflector that is thicker than its saturation thickness. Among all three reflecting materials tested in the MCNP simulation, paraffin is the best because it has the thinnest saturation thickness and is easy to machine. The MCNP radiation dose and fluence simulation calculation also showed that the MCNP-simulated neutron fluence that is needed to kill the anthrax spores agrees with previous analytical estimations very well. Conclusion The MCNP simulation indicates that a 10 min neutron irradiation from a 0.5 g 252Cf neutron source or a 1 min neutron irradiation from a 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator may kill all anthrax spores in a sample. This is a promising result because a 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator output >1013 n s−1 should be attainable in the near future. This indicates that we could use a D–D neutron generator to sterilise anthrax contamination within several seconds. PMID:22573293

  19. In situ gastrointestinal protection against anthrax edema toxin by single-chain antibody fragment producing lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is regarded as one of the most prominent bioterrorism threats. Anthrax toxicity is induced by the tripartite toxin complex, composed of the receptor-binding anthrax protective antigen and the two enzymatic subunits, lethal factor and edema factor. Recombinant lactobacilli have previously been used to deliver antibody fragments directed against surface epitopes of a variety of pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and rotavirus. Here, we addressed whether or not anthrax toxins could be targeted and neutralised in the gastrointestinal tract by lactobacilli producing recombinant antibody fragments as a model system for toxin neutralisation in the gastrointestinal lumen. Results The neutralising anti-PA scFv, 1H, was expressed in L. paracasei as a secreted protein, a cell wall-anchored protein or both secreted and wall-anchored protein. Cell wall display on lactobacilli and PA binding of the anchored constructs was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Binding of secreted or attached scFv produced by lactobacilli to PA were verified by ELISA. Both construct were able to protect macrophages in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Finally, lactobacilli producing the cell wall attached scFv were able to neutralise the activity of anthrax edema toxin in the GI tract of mice, in vivo. Conclusion We have developed lactobacilli expressing a neutralising scFv fragment against the PA antigen of the anthrax toxin, which can provide protection against anthrax toxins both in vitro and in vivo. Utilising engineered lactobacilli therapeutically for neutralising toxins in the gastrointestinal tract can potential be expanded to provide protection against a range of additional gastrointestinal pathogens. The ability of lactobacilli to colonise the gastrointestinal tract may allow the system to be used both prophylactically and therapeutically. PMID:22185669

  20. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue. PMID:27131131

  1. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  2. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 4. Root canal disinfection in 2015].

    PubMed

    van der Waal, S V; de Soet, J J

    2015-12-01

    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory response around the root tip of a tooth to microbial infection of the root canal system. Therefore, disinfection of the root canal system is the most important aim of root canal treatment. There are various mechanical and chemical ways to clean and disinfect. Most methods, however, cannot be relied upon to fully decontaminate in all cases. There are problems, for example, with the proper concentrations of disinfectant agents, like sodium hypochlorite. But the more recent agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, calcium hydroxide or antibiotic pastes also have disadvantages, which are mostly a result of poor access of the irrigant to the biofilm bacteria in the affected root canals. Currently, a new strategy with a modified salt solution is under investigation that offers the prospect of being used as a root canal irrigant. At this moment the preferred treatment still seems to be to remove infected tissue as much as possible and to create access for irrigation procedures. The best results are achieved with 1-2% sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant, possibly alternating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a cleansing agent. There is no scientific evidence for the successful use of calcium hydroxide. PMID:26665204

  3. Disinfection alternatives for contact surfaces and toys at child care centers.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Maribel; Martinez, Celida I; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2010-12-01

    Child care surfaces are vehicles for disease-causing organisms. Disinfectant procedures prevent microbial dispersion. This study reports the effectiveness of CITRUS Farm Edition® (CFE), Clorox® GreenWorks™ (CGW) and Clorox® Anywhere® (CA) against Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated (1 ml of 9Log(10) CFU/ml) on a high chair and ball toy. Disinfectants were sprayed and bacteria recovered from surfaces by sponge method. Exposing an inoculated high chair to CA resulted in the highest reduction of S. aureus (3.92 Log(10)) and S. Typhimurium (3.22 Log(10)). CGW reduced S. aureus and S. Typhimurium by 2.84 and 2.12 Log(10) from the inoculated high chair, while the inoculated ball toy showed a 2.50 and 1.80 Log(10) reduction, respectively. CFE showed the lowest reduction with 1.42 and 1.53 Log(10) of S. aureus and S. Typhimurium from the inoculated ball toy. CA was the best disinfectant no matter which bacteria or surface was analyzed. Emphasis on the effectiveness of disinfectant products is needed to be included in child care center infection control programs. PMID:21161800

  4. In Vitro Antifungal Evaluation of Seven Different Disinfectants on Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim-Bicer, A. Z.; Peker, I.; Akca, G.; Celik, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of denture-based materials. Material and Methods. Two different denture-based materials were included in the study. Before microbial test, the surface roughness of the acrylic resins was evaluated. Then, the specimens were divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10), according to microorganism considered and disinfection methods used. The specimens were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Candida albicans ATCC#90028 and Candida albicans oral isolate. The following test agents were tested: sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 1%), microwave (MW) energy, ultraviolet (UV) light, mouthwash containing propolis (MCP), Corega Tabs, 50% and 100% white vinegar. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated in CFU/mL. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, and Dunn's test were used for multiple comparisons. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the surface roughness. Results. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between autopolymerised and heat-cured acrylic resins. The autopolymerised acrylic resin surfaces were rougher than surfaces of heat-cured acrylic resin. The most effective disinfection method was 100% white vinegar for tested microorganisms and both acrylic resins. Conclusion. This study showed that white vinegar 100% was the most effective method for tested microorganisms. This agent is cost-effective and easy to access and thus may be appropriate for household use. PMID:24995305

  5. Disinfection of three wading boot surfaces infested with New Zealand mudsnails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    New Zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum (NZMS) have been introduced into many continents and are easily transported live while attached to wading and other field gear. We quantified the relative attachment by different life stages of NZMS to felt, neoprene, and rubber-soled boots exposed to two densities of NZMS in experimental exposure totes. Attachment by NZMS occurred on boots of all surfaces, but the highest numbers of all life stages occurred on boots with felt surfaces. We found a 15–20-min bath application of 20 g/L Virkon Aquatic was a reliable tool to disinfect boot surfaces infested with NZMS and other aquatic invertebrates. Our studies support that spray application of this disinfectant was not reliable to provide complete mortality of attached adult NZMS or neonates. Wading gear surfaces exposed to repeated bath disinfections showed little deterioration. Our results provide strong evidence that bath disinfections with Virkon Aquatic are helpful to assure biosecurity in field and hatchery settings, but applications should be coupled with cleaning procedures to remove organic materials that can deactivate the reagent.

  6. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Diane E.; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  7. Disinfecting efficacy of three chemical disinfectants on contaminated diagnostic instruments: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Ganavadiya, Rahul; Chandra Shekar, B.R.; Saxena, Vrinda; Tomar, Poonam; Gupta, Ruchika; Khandelwal, Garima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cross infection remains one of the major challenges in the dental profession, especially in field settings. Transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus have raised a major concern for patients and dental staff. These risks can be eliminated by effective sterilization and disinfection techniques. Aim: The aim was to compare the disinfecting efficacy of three chemical disinfectants on contaminated diagnostic instruments. Settings and Design: This was a randomized, cross over trial conducted among three participants selected from a research laboratory, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were examined 4 times on different days. Each time, the coded mouth mirrors of different make were used, and the disinfection was accomplished using coded disinfectants. The reduction in total viable count was compared between the three groups (2% glutaraldehyde, 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 99.9% ethyl alcohol) with distilled water as negative control and autoclaving as a positive control. Furthermore, the predisinfection count was compared between the instruments of different make. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and One-way ANOVA. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: Autoclaved instruments resulted in complete elimination of viable micro-organisms. Maximum reduction in microbial load was observed after disinfection with H2O2 followed by glutaraldehyde, ethyl alcohol and distilled water in descending order. Furthermore, maximum microbial contamination was recorded on locally manufactured mirrors, while standard plain mirrors showed least contamination. Conclusions: Although, a significant reduction in total viable count was observed with all the disinfectants evaluated in the present study, none of the disinfectants was successful in completely eliminating the viable micro-organisms. PMID:25316989

  8. Evidence of Local Persistence of Human Anthrax in the Country of Georgia Associated with Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian T.; Malania, Lile; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Manvelyan, Julietta; Bakanidze, Lela; Imnadze, Paata; Tsanava, Shota; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a soil-borne disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is considered a neglected zoonosis. In the country of Georgia, recent reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of human anthrax. Identifying sub-national areas of increased risk may help direct appropriate public health control measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of human anthrax and identify environmental/anthropogenic factors associated with persistent clusters. Methods/Findings A database of human cutaneous anthrax in Georgia during the period 2000–2009 was constructed using a geographic information system (GIS) with case data recorded to the community location. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify persistence of human cutaneous anthrax. Risk factors related to clusters of persistence were modeled using a multivariate logistic regression. Areas of persistence were identified in the southeastern part of the country. Results indicated that the persistence of human cutaneous anthrax showed a strong positive association with soil pH and urban areas. Conclusions/Significance Anthrax represents a persistent threat to public and veterinary health in Georgia. The findings here showed that the local level heterogeneity in the persistence of human cutaneous anthrax necessitates directed interventions to mitigate the disease. High risk areas identified in this study can be targeted for public health control measures such as farmer education and livestock vaccination campaigns. PMID:24040426

  9. The Disulfide Bond Cys255-Cys279 in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Required for Membrane Insertion of Anthrax Protective Antigen Pore

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Kyle; Altiyev, Agamyrat; Puschhof, Jens; Sauter, Roland; Arigi, Emma; Ruiz, Blanca; Peng, Xiuli; Almeida, Igor; Sherman, Michael; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptors act as molecular clamps or switches that control anthrax toxin entry, pH-dependent pore formation, and translocation of enzymatic moieties across the endosomal membranes. We previously reported that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) inhibited the function of the protective antigen (PA) pore. In the present study, the disulfide linkage in the Ig domain was identified as Cys255-Cys279 and Cys230-Cys315. Specific disulfide bond deletion mutants were achieved by replacing Cys residues with Ala residues. Deletion of the disulfide bond C255-C279, but not C230-C315, inhibited the PA pore-induced release of the fluorescence dyes from the liposomes, suggesting that C255-C279 is essential for PA pore function. Furthermore, we found that deletion of C255-C279 did not affect PA prepore-to-pore conversion, but inhibited PA pore membrane insertion by trapping the PA membrane-inserting loops in proteinaceous hydrophobic pockets. Fluorescence spectra of Trp59, a residue adjacent to the PA-binding motif in von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of ANTXR2, showed that deletion of C255-C279 resulted in a significant conformational change on the receptor ectodomain. The disulfide deletion-induced conformational change on the VWA domain was further confirmed by single-particle 3D reconstruction of the negatively stained PA-receptor heptameric complexes. Together, the biochemical and structural data obtained in this study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of the receptor disulfide bond C255-C279 in anthrax toxin action. Manipulation of the redox states of the receptor, specifically targeting to C255-C279, may become a novel strategy to treat anthrax. PMID:26107617

  10. Influence of pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light-based environmental disinfection on surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Catalanotti, Angela; Abbe, Dudley; Simmons, Sarah; Stibich, Mark

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the influence of nightly pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light disinfection and dedicated housekeeping staff on surgical site infection (SSI) rates. SSIs in class I procedures were reduced by 46% (P = .0496), with a potential cost savings of $478,055. SSIs in class II procedures increased by 22.9%, but this was not significant (P = .6973). Based on these results, it appears that the intervention reduces SSI rates in clean (class I), but not clean-contaminated (class II) procedures. PMID:26856467

  11. Progress and novel strategies in vaccine development and treatment of anthrax.

    PubMed

    Chitlaru, Theodor; Altboum, Zeev; Reuveny, Shaul; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    The lethal anthrax disease is caused by spores of the gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, a member of the cereus group of bacilli. Although the disease is very rare in the Western world, development of anthrax countermeasures gains increasing attention due to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bio-terror weapon. Protective antigen (PA), the non-toxic subunit of the bacterial secreted exotoxin, fulfills the role of recognizing a specific receptor and mediating the entry of the toxin into the host target cells. PA elicits a protective immune response and represents the basis for all current anthrax vaccines. Anti-PA neutralizing antibodies are useful correlates for protection and for vaccine efficacy evaluation. Post exposure anti-toxemic and anti-bacteremic prophylactic treatment of anthrax requires prolonged antibiotic administration. Shorter efficient postexposure treatments may require active or passive immunization, in addition to antibiotics. Although anthrax is acknowledged as a toxinogenic disease, additional factors, other than the bacterial toxin, may be involved in the virulence of B. anthracis and may be needed for the long-lasting protection conferred by PA immunization. The search for such novel factors is the focus of several high throughput genomic and proteomic studies that are already leading to identification of novel targets for therapeutics, for vaccine candidates, as well as biomarkers for detection and diagnosis. PMID:21198675

  12. Source and risk factors of a cutaneous anthrax outbreak, Jiangsu, Eastern China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hu, J L; Cui, L L; Bao, C J; Tan, Z M; Rutherford, S; Ying, L; Zhang, M L; Zhu, F C

    2016-09-01

    Anthrax is still a severe public health problem and threat to human health. A cutaneous anthrax outbreak occurred in Jiangsu Province, a non-endemic anthrax region of eastern China, from July to August 2012. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were initiated to trace the source of infection and identify the risk factors of the outbreak. On 25 July 2012, 17 persons were exposed to a sick cow, which had been imported from northeast China a few days previously. Of the 17 exposed, eight developed symptoms between 1 and 8 days and were diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax cases. Three main genes of Bacillus anthracis were detected from both human and cow meat samples, indicating that the outbreak was associated with this infected cow. A retrospective cohort study showed that contact with blood and presence of skin damage contributed to the case infection with B. anthracis. The outbreak highlights the need to enhance quarantine for imported livestock, which should have been vaccinated prior to importation, the significance of education for high-risk individuals, and training for primary healthcare workers even in anthrax-free areas. PMID:27277672

  13. Responding to the threat of bioterrorism: a microbial ecology perspective--the case of anthrax.

    PubMed

    Atlas, R M

    2002-12-01

    Anthrax is a disease of herbivores caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can affect cattle, sheep, swine, horses and various species of wildlife. The routes for the spread among wildlife are reviewed. There are three kinds of human anthrax--inhalation, cutaneous, and intestinal anthrax--which differ in their routes of infection and outcomes. In the United States, confirmation of cases is made by the isolation of B. anthracis and by biochemical tests. Vaccination is not recommended for the general public; civilians who should be vaccinated include those who, in their work places, come in contact with products potentially contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and people engaged in research or diagnostic activities. After September 11, 2001, there were bioterrorism anthrax attacks in the United States: anthrax-laced letters sent to multiple locations were the source of infectious B. anthracis. The US Postal Service issued recommendations to prevent the danger of hazardous exposure to the bacterium. B. anthracis spores can spread easily and persist for very long times, which makes decontamination of buildings very difficult. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, and well-coordinated public health response are the key to minimizing casualties. The US Government is seeking new ways to deter bioterrorism, including a tighter control of research on infectious agents, even though pathogens such as B. anthracis are widely spread in nature and easy to grow. It is necessary to define the boundary between defensive and offensive biological weapons research. Deterring bioterrorism should not restrict critical scientific research. PMID:12497181

  14. Effective disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic foodborne bacteria can be disseminated in households through the use of contaminated sponges. Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on sponges were evaluated. Sponges were incubated in a suspension of ground beef and tryptic soy broth to develop bact...

  15. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  16. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... serves water to the public. Water in the distribution system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration... heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured; c=number of instances where the residual disinfectant... system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration less than or equal to 500/ml, measured...

  17. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... serves water to the public. Water in the distribution system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration... heterotrophic bacteria plate count (HPC) is measured; c=number of instances where the residual disinfectant... system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration less than or equal to 500/ml, measured...

  18. Microbial contamination and disinfection methods of pacifiers

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, Paulo; LOUVAIN, Márcia Costa; MACARI, Soraia; LUCISANO, Marília Pacífico; da SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de QUEIROZ, Alexandra Mussolino; GATON-HERNÁNDEZ, Patrícia; da SILVA, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the microbial contamination of pacifiers by Mutans Streptococci (MS) and the efficacy of different methods for their disinfection. Methods Twenty-eight children were assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval. In each stage, children received a new pacifier and the parents were instructed to maintain their normal habits for 1 week. After this time, the pacifiers were subjected to the following 4 disinfection methods: spraying with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, Brushtox® or sterile tap water, and immersion in boiling tap water for 15 minutes. Microbiological culture for MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results were analyzed statistically by Friedman’s non-parametric test (a=0.05). Results The 0.12% chlorhexidine spray was statistically similar to the boiling water (p>0.05) and more effective than the Brushtox® spray and control (p<0.05). The analysis of SEM showed the formation of a cariogenic biofilm in all groups with positive culture. Conclusions Pacifiers become contaminated by MS after their use by children and should be disinfected routinely. Spraying with a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution and immersion in boiling water promoted better disinfection of the pacifiers compared with a commercial antiseptic toothbrush cleanser (Brushtox®). PMID:26537723

  19. DISINFECTION AND THE CONTROL OF WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1970's, when giardiasis began to be recognized as an important waterborne disease, the understanding of the effects of disinfectants on the cysts of the etiologic agent, Giardia lamblia, was extremely limited. The results of more recent studies, using improved method...

  20. DISINFECTION: CHLORINE, MONOCHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection process in the treatment of water is designed to insure the inactivation of microbial pathogens. These pathogens which serve as the etiological agents of waterborne disease comprise a diverse group of microorganisms, which include bacterial, viral and protozoan s...

  1. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  2. 40 CFR 141.72 - Disinfection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment must be sufficient to ensure at least 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts... for Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses. If a system uses a disinfectant other than chlorine, the system....9 percent (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and at least 99.99 percent...

  3. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  4. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Säbel, Crystal E; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R; Lo, Suet Y; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl(2), and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl(2). Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co(2+) per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co(2+) ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co(2+)-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co(2+):TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions. PMID:22093822

  5. Proton-coupled protein transport through the anthrax toxin channel

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Anthrax toxin consists of three proteins (approx. 90 kDa each): lethal factor (LF); oedema factor (OF); and protective antigen (PA). The former two are enzymes that act when they reach the cytosol of a targeted cell. To enter the cytosol, however, which they do after being endocytosed into an acidic vesicle compartment, they require the third component, PA. PA (or rather its proteolytically generated fragment PA63) forms at low pH a heptameric β-barrel channel, (PA63)7, through which LF and OF are transported—a phenomenon we have demonstrated in planar phospholipid bilayers. It might appear that (PA63)7 simply forms a large hole through which LF and OF diffuse. However, LF and OF are folded proteins, much too large to fit through the approximately 15 Å diameter (PA63)7 β-barrel. This paper discusses how the (PA63)7 channel both participates in the unfolding of LF and OF and functions in their translocation as a proton–protein symporter. PMID:18957378

  6. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  7. Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

  8. The medicinal chemistry of botulinum, ricin and anthrax toxins.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rickey P; Hartell, Mark G; Nichols, Daniel A; Bhattacharjee, Apurba K; van Hamont, John E; Skillman, Donald R

    2005-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological or chemical) by terrorist organizations represents a major threat to world peace and safety. Only a limited number of vaccines are available to protect the general population from the medical consequences of these weapons. In addition there are major health concerns associated with a pre-exposure mass vaccination of the general population. To reduce or eliminate the impact of these terrible threats, new drugs must be developed to safely treat individuals exposed to these agents. A review of all therapeutic agents under development for the treatment of the illnesses and injuries that result from exposure to nuclear, biological or chemical warfare agents is beyond the scope of any single article. The intent here is to provide a focused review for medicinal and organic chemists of three widely discussed and easily deployed biological warfare agents, botulinum neurotoxin and ricin toxins and the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax will be addressed because of its similarity in both structure and mechanism of catalytic activity with botulinum toxin. The common feature of these three agents is that they exhibit their biological activity via toxin enzymatic hydrolysis of a specific bond in their respective substrate molecules. A brief introduction to the history of each of the biological warfare agents is presented followed by a discussion on the mechanisms of action of each at the molecular level, and a review of current potential inhibitors under investigation. PMID:15790305

  9. Analysis of defined combinations of monoclonal antibodies in anthrax toxin neutralization assays and their synergistic action.

    PubMed

    Ngundi, Miriam M; Meade, Bruce D; Little, Stephen F; Quinn, Conrad P; Corbett, Cindi R; Brady, Rebecca A; Burns, Drusilla L

    2012-05-01

    Antibodies against the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin play an important role in protection against disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we examined defined combinations of PA-specific monoclonal antibodies for their ability to neutralize anthrax toxin in cell culture assays. We observed additive, synergistic, and antagonistic effects of the antibodies depending on the specific antibody combination examined and the specific assay used. Synergistic toxin-neutralizing antibody interactions were examined in more detail. We found that one mechanism that can lead to antibody synergy is the bridging of PA monomers by one antibody, with resultant bivalent binding of the second antibody. These results may aid in optimal design of new vaccines and antibody therapies against anthrax. PMID:22441391

  10. Whole Genome Analysis of Injectional Anthrax Identifies Two Disease Clusters Spanning More Than 13 Years

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul; Grunow, Roland; Vipond, Richard; Grass, Gregor; Hoffmaster, Alex; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Klee, Silke R.; Pullan, Steven; Antwerpen, Markus; Bayer, Brittany N.; Latham, Jennie; Wiggins, Kristin; Hepp, Crystal; Pearson, Talima; Brooks, Tim; Sahl, Jason; Wagner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a rare disease in humans but elicits great public fear because of its past use as an agent of bioterrorism. Injectional anthrax has been occurring sporadically for more than ten years in heroin consumers across multiple European countries and this outbreak has been difficult to trace back to a source. Methods We took a molecular epidemiological approach in understanding this disease outbreak, including whole genome sequencing of Bacillus anthracis isolates from the anthrax victims. We also screened two large strain repositories for closely related strains to provide context to the outbreak. Findings Analyzing 60 Bacillus anthracis isolates associated with injectional anthrax cases and closely related reference strains, we identified 1071 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The synapomorphic SNPs (350) were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, infer likely epidemiological sources and explore the dynamics of evolving pathogen populations. Injectional anthrax genomes separated into two tight clusters: one group was exclusively associated with the 2009–10 outbreak and located primarily in Scotland, whereas the second comprised more recent (2012–13) cases but also a single Norwegian case from 2000. Interpretation Genome-based differentiation of injectional anthrax isolates argues for at least two separate disease events spanning > 12 years. The genomic similarity of the two clusters makes it likely that they are caused by separate contamination events originating from the same geographic region and perhaps the same site of drug manufacturing or processing. Pathogen diversity within single patients challenges assumptions concerning population dynamics of infecting B. anthracis and host defensive barriers for injectional anthrax. Funding This work was supported by the United States Department of Homeland Security grant no. HSHQDC-10-C-00,139 and via a binational cooperative agreement between the United States Government and the

  11. Anthrax vaccine design: strategies to achieve comprehensive protection against spore, bacillus, and toxin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julia Y; Roehrl, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    The successful use of Bacillus anthracis as a lethal biological weapon has prompted renewed research interest in the development of more effective vaccines against anthrax. The disease consists of three critical components: spore, bacillus, and toxin, elimination of any of which confers at least partial protection against anthrax. Current remedies rely on postexposure antibiotics to eliminate bacilli and pre- and postexposure vaccination to target primarily toxins. Vaccines effective against toxin have been licensed for human use, but need improvement. Vaccines against bacilli have recently been developed by us and others. Whether effective vaccines will be developed against spores is still an open question. An ideal vaccine would confer simultaneous protection against spores, bacilli, and toxins. One step towards this goal is our dually active vaccine, designed to destroy both bacilli and toxin. Existing and potential strategies towards potent and effective anthrax vaccines are discussed in this review. PMID:15790405

  12. Cutaneous anthrax associated with drum making using goat hides from West Africa--Connecticut, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-06-13

    On August 29, 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Health was notified by a physician of suspect cutaneous anthrax involving a drum maker and one of his three children. The drum maker had been working with untreated goat hides from Guinea in West Africa. This report summarizes results of the joint epidemiologic and environmental investigation conducted by public health officials, environmental agencies, and law enforcement authorities. The investigation revealed that the drum maker was exposed while working with a contaminated goat hide from Guinea and that his workplace and home were contaminated with anthrax. His child was most likely exposed from cross-contamination of the home. The findings underscore the potential hazard of working with untreated animal hides from areas with epizootic anthrax and the potential for secondary cases from environmental contamination. PMID:18551098

  13. Vaccination against Anthrax with Attenuated Recombinant Strains of Bacillus anthracis That Produce Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, John P.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    The protective efficacy of several live, recombinant anthrax vaccines given in a single-dose regimen was assessed with Hartley guinea pigs. These live vaccines were created by transforming ΔANR and ΔSterne, two nonencapsulated, nontoxinogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, with four different recombinant plasmids that express the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein to various degrees. This enabled us to assess the effect of the chromosomal background of the strain, as well as the amount of PA produced, on protective efficacy. There were no significant strain-related effects on PA production in vitro, plasmid stability in vivo, survival of the immunizing strain in the host, or protective efficacy of the immunizing infection. The protective efficacy of the live, recombinant anthrax vaccine strains correlated with the anti-PA antibody titers they elicited in vivo and the level of PA they produced in vitro. PMID:9916059

  14. Pathogenic ecology: Where have all the pathogens gone? Anthrax: a classic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan; Walker, Wes W.; Andrews, Carrie J.; De Los Santos, Amy; Adams, Roy N.; Bucholz, Matthew W.; McBurnett, Shelly D.; Fuentes, Vladimir; Rizner, Karon E.; Blount, Keith W.

    2009-05-01

    Pathogenic ecology is the natural relationship to animate and inanimate components of the environment that support the sustainment of a pathogen in the environment or prohibit its sustainment, or their interactions with an introduced pathogen that allow for the establishment of disease in a new environment. The anthrax bacterium in the spore form has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to determine the environmental reservoir of Bacillus anthracis between outbreaks of anthrax and to examine the potential factors influencing the conversion of the Bacillus anthracis from a quiescent state to the disease causing state. Here we provide environmental and laboratory data for the cycling of Bacillus anthracis in plants to reconcile observations that contradict the soil borne hypothesis of anthrax maintenance in the environment.

  15. Serologic Surveillance of Anthrax in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania, 1996–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Auty, Harriet; Beesley, Cari A.; Bessell, Paul; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, is responsible for varying death rates among animal species. Difficulties in case detection, hazardous or inaccessible carcasses, and misdiagnosis hinder surveillance. Using case reports and a new serologic assay that enables multispecies comparisons, we examined exposure to and illness caused by B. anthracis in different species in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania during 1996–2009 and the utility of serosurveillance. High seroprevalence among carnivores suggested regular nonfatal exposure. Seropositive wildebeest and buffalo showed that infection was not invariably fatal among herbivores, whereas absence of seropositivity in zebras and frequent detection of fatal cases indicated high susceptibility. Exposure patterns in dogs reflected known patterns of endemicity and provided new information about anthrax in the ecosystem, which indicated the potential of dogs as indicator species. Serosurveillance is a valuable tool for monitoring and detecting anthrax and may shed light on mechanisms responsible for species-specific variability in exposure, susceptibility, and mortality rates. PMID:21392428

  16. Anthrax and the geochemistry of soils in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Silvestri, Erin E.; Bowling, Charlena Y.; Boe, Timothy; Smith, David B.; Nichols, Tonya L.

    2014-01-01

    Soil geochemical data from sample sites in counties that reported occurrences of anthrax in wildlife and livestock since 2000 were evaluated against counties within the same states (MN, MT, ND, NV, OR, SD and TX) that did not report occurrences. These data identified the elements, calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and strontium (Sr), as having statistically significant differences in concentrations between county type (anthrax occurrence versus no occurrence). Tentative threshold values of the lowest concentrations of each of these elements (Ca = 0.43 wt %, Mn = 142 mg/kg, P = 180 mg/kg and Sr = 51 mg/kg) and average concentrations (Ca = 1.3 wt %, Mn = 463 mg/kg, P = 580 mg/kg and Sr = 170 mg/kg) were identified from anthrax-positive counties as prospective investigative tools in determining whether an outbreak had “potential” or was “likely” at any given geographic location in the contiguous United States.

  17. 40 CFR 141.541 - What are significant changes to disinfection practice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Benchmark § 141.541 What are significant... point of disinfection; (b) Changes to the disinfectant(s) used in the treatment plant; (c) Changes...

  18. The Potential Contributions of Lethal and Edema Toxins to the Pathogenesis of Anthrax Associated Shock

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Sweeney, Daniel A.; Li, Yan; Barochia, Amisha; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in the US and Europe over the past 10 years have emphasized the health threat this lethal bacteria poses even for developed parts of the world. In contrast to cutaneous anthrax, inhalational disease in the US during the 2001 outbreaks and the newly identified injectional drug use form of disease in the UK and Germany have been associated with relatively high mortality rates. One notable aspect of these cases has been the difficulty in supporting patients once shock has developed. Anthrax bacilli produce several different components which likely contribute to this shock. Growing evidence indicates that both major anthrax toxins may produce substantial cardiovascular dysfunction. Lethal toxin (LT) can alter peripheral vascular function; it also has direct myocardial depressant effects. Edema toxin (ET) may have even more pronounced peripheral vascular effects than LT, including the ability to interfere with the actions of conventional vasopressors. Additionally, ET also appears capable of interfering with renal sodium and water retention. Importantly, the two toxins exert their actions via quite different mechanisms and therefore have the potential to worsen shock and outcome in an additive fashion. Finally, both toxins have the ability to inhibit host defense and microbial clearance, possibly contributing to the very high bacterial loads noted in patients dying with anthrax. This last point is clinically relevant since emerging data has begun to implicate other bacterial components such as anthrax cell wall in the shock and organ injury observed with infection. Taken together, accumulating evidence regarding the potential contribution of LT and ET to anthrax-associated shock supports efforts to develop adjunctive therapies that target both toxins in patients with progressive shock. PMID:22069762

  19. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent. PMID:24355852

  20. In vivo comparison of cavity disinfection efficacy with APF gel, Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, P. V. M. Uday; Uloopi, K. S.; Vinay, C.; Rao, R. Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would be enhanced if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before placing a restoration. Thus, use of disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary dentistry. Aim: To assess and compare the cavity disinfection efficacy of APF gel, Brazilian Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, single blinded, parallel grouped, active controlled trial. Eighty primary molars in 68 children with cavitated dentinal occlusal caries were randomly assigned into four groups (20 teeth each) Group I: APF gel; Group II: Propolis; Group III: Diode Laser, and Group IV: 2% CHX (control). After cavity preparation using ART procedure, dentinal samples collected before and after disinfection with respective agent of the group. These samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation, for total viable count (TVC) on blood agar, Streptococcus mutans on mutans-sanguis (MS) agar, and Lactobacilli (LB) on Rogosa agar. Results: Intragroup comparison (Wilcoxon signed rank test) showed significant reductions in TVC, MS, and LB counts in all the groups. Pairwise Mann–Whitney test showed APF gel had least bacterial reductions among the agents tested. Conclusion: This study illustrated the need for cavity disinfection. Diode Laser and Brazilian Propolis are equally effective as 2% CHX in cavity disinfection. PMID:27041900

  1. ANTXR-1 and -2 independent modulation of a cytotoxicity mediated by anthrax toxin in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Daisuke; Toyomane, Kochi; Kamiya, Kozue; Mutoh, Memi; Mifune, Etsuko; Ohnuma, Miyuki; Higashi, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Several animal models have shown that anthrax toxin (ATX) elicits a cytotoxic effect on host cells through anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR) function. In this study, compared with mouse cells, cells obtained from humans exhibited low sensitivity to ATX-mediated cytotoxicity, and the sensitivity was not correlated with expression levels of ANTXRs. ATX treatment also induced a cytotoxic effect in other cultured human cells, human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, that express ANTXRs at undetectable levels. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ANTXRs in HEK293 cells did not affect the sensitivity to ATX treatment. These findings suggest that there is an ANTXR-independent cytotoxic mechanism in human cells. PMID:27170489

  2. Molecular characterization of Bacillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997.

    PubMed

    Patra, G; Vaissaire, J; Weber-Levy, M; Le Doujet, C; Mock, M

    1998-11-01

    Outbreaks of anthrax zoonose occurred in two regions of France in 1997. Ninety-four animals died, and there were three nonfatal cases in humans. The diagnosis of anthrax was rapidly confirmed by bacteriological and molecular biological methods. The strains of Bacillus anthracis in animal and soil samples were identified by a multiplex PCR assay. They all belonged to the variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) group (VNTR)3. A penicillin-resistant strain was detected. Nonvirulent bacilli related to B. anthracis, of all VNTR types, were also found in the soil. PMID:9774609

  3. Dominant-Negative Mutants of a Toxin Subunit: An Approach to Therapy of Anthrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellman, Bret R.; Mourez, Michael; John Collier, R.

    2001-04-01

    The protective antigen moiety of anthrax toxin translocates the toxin's enzymic moieties to the cytosol of mammalian cells by a mechanism that depends on its ability to heptamerize and insert into membranes. We identified dominant-negative mutants of protective antigen that co-assemble with the wild-type protein and block its ability to translocate the enzymic moieties across membranes. These mutants strongly inhibited toxin action in cell culture and in an animal intoxication model, suggesting that they could be useful in therapy of anthrax.

  4. A brief history of European harmonization of disinfectant testing – a Dutch view

    PubMed Central

    van Klingeren, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Since 1970 we know in Europe that, by engaging in intensive dialog and constructive cooperation it is possible to achieve a generally acceptable test procedure, despite the many divergent approaches taken by the different countries. When in 1966 I began my career as a microbiologist, different procedures were used in all countries to test the efficacy of disinfectants. The results of such tests did not at all lend themselves to comparison. One of the most important requirements to be addressed to a future, generally acceptable procedure was naturally that the results should be reproducible. To that effect, it was necessary to standardize all aspects of the test since even the slightest discrepancy could give rise to markedly different results. On the other hand, each specified detail had to be scientifically corroborated to prove acceptable to all parties. 1990 marked a major breakthrough towards harmonization of European disinfection test procedures with the founding of the “Chemical Disinfection and Antiseptics” (TC 216) working group within the framework of the “European Committee for Standardization (CEN). This served as a basis for Phase 1 (basic evaluation of the disinfectant effect or suspension tests under different conditions) and Phase 2 tests (tests on different surfaces under practice-oriented conditions). The quantitative principle is now valid for both phases. Major investments were needed to bring about European harmonization. We Dutch, in particular, are well known for having our own opinions. But we, too, continued to engage in discussions and collaborations until we reached a consensus and learned to respect each other and even to become friends in some cases. Today, harmonization endeavors extend well beyond Europe: with its biocide program, the OECD pesticides working group is working towards the development of a global test procedure for disinfectants. So we have not, by any means, reached the end of the road: there is still much to be

  5. Reaction of silver nanoparticles in the disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhihua; Chen, Yunbin; Li, Tingting; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the dissolution, aggregation, and reaction kinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with the three types of water disinfectants (ultraviolet, sodium hypochlorite, and ozone) under the different conditions of pH, ionic strength, or humic acid (HA). The physicochemical changes of AgNPs were measured by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The results showed that when AgNPs contacted the disinfectants, oxidative dissolution was the primary reaction. In addition, the reaction kinetics studies revealed that the reaction rate of AgNPs with disinfectants was significantly influenced by different disinfectants along with different pH and the presence of sodium nitrate and HA. Our research demonstrated the potential effect of disinfectants on AgNPs, which will improve our understanding of the fate of AgNPs in the disinfection processes in the water and wastewater treatment plant. PMID:23830116

  6. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Barro, Alassane S.; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies. PMID:27280981

  7. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Barro, Alassane S; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies. PMID:27280981

  8. Presentation of peptides from Bacillus anthracis protective antigen on Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an epitope targeted anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    McComb, Ryan C; Ho, Chi-Lee; Bradley, Kenneth A; Grill, Laurence K; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2015-11-27

    The current anthrax vaccine requires improvements for rapidly invoking longer-lasting neutralizing antibody responses with fewer doses from a well-defined formulation. Designing antigens that target neutralizing antibody epitopes of anthrax protective antigen, a component of anthrax toxin, may offer a solution for achieving a vaccine that can induce strong and long lasting antibody responses with fewer boosters. Here we report implementation of a strategy for developing epitope focused virus nanoparticle vaccines against anthrax by using immunogenic virus particles to present peptides derived from anthrax toxin previously identified in (1) neutralizing antibody epitope mapping studies, (2) toxin crystal structure analyses to identify functional regions, and (3) toxin mutational analyses. We successfully expressed two of three peptide epitopes from anthrax toxin that, in previous reports, bound antibodies that were partially neutralizing against toxin activity, discovered cross-reactivity between vaccine constructs and toxin specific antibodies raised in goats against native toxin and showed that antibodies induced by our vaccine constructs also cross-react with native toxin. While protection against intoxication in cellular and animal studies were not as effective as in previous studies, partial toxin neutralization was observed in animals, demonstrating the feasibility of using plant-virus nanoparticles as a platform for epitope defined anthrax vaccines. PMID:26514421

  9. Lighting the way to improved disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-07-01

    Ultraviolet light has a proven track record of killing bacteria and viruses found in municipal wastewater. In addition, environmental concerns over the use of chemical disinfectants, coupled with improvements in ultraviolet-lighting technology, have led to the development of UV systems that treat spent metalworking fluids in the industrialized world; disinfect drinking water in developing countries; and clean aquaculture water, ballast water, and hospital air everywhere. A large-scale pilot plant capable of treating less than 1 million gallons per day was built on-site by Los Angeles-based Montgomery Watson and CCCSD in 1992. It demonstrated that UV was just as effective as chlorination in killing bacteria and slightly more effective in destroying viruses found in the Martinez plant`s wastewater. It also showed the lamps would need to be cleaned of fouling every two to four weeks. The paper discusses this plant and the use of UV light in the above-mentioned water treatment processes.

  10. Disinfectants for spacecraft applications - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David W.; Mallary, Laura L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The review of disinfectants for use on manned missions emphasizes the need for contamination control to prevent the detrimental effects of bacteria growth on crew health. Microbial control is possible by means of biocides, but the selected product has to meet stringent toxicity requirements for the small environments in spacecraft. The testing and evaluation is described of four biocide candidates: hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, iodine, and glutaraldehyde. The effectiveness of the disinfectants are analyzed in terms of the ability to treat typical microbial counts from Skylab missions in a closed environment. It is shown that many biocide candidates are not compatible with the ECLSS, water-recovery management, and air-revitalization subsystems of the Space Station Freedom. The use of hydrogen peroxide is proposed with a secondary stronger agent for microbial spills from biological experiments.

  11. Research Issues Underlying the Four-Lab Study: Integrated Disinfection Byproducts Mixtures Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical disinfection of drinking water is a major public health triumph of the 20th century, resulting in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality from waterborne diseases. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are chemicals formed by the reaction of oxidizing disinfectants wi...

  12. 9 CFR 85.12 - Cleaning and disinfecting means of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disinfected in accordance with § 71.7 of this chapter using one of the disinfectants registered under the... virucidal claims. These disinfectants shall be used in accordance with directions on their labels...

  13. 9 CFR 85.12 - Cleaning and disinfecting means of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfected in accordance with § 71.7 of this chapter using one of the disinfectants registered under the... virucidal claims. These disinfectants shall be used in accordance with directions on their labels...

  14. 9 CFR 85.12 - Cleaning and disinfecting means of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfected in accordance with § 71.7 of this chapter using one of the disinfectants registered under the... virucidal claims. These disinfectants shall be used in accordance with directions on their labels...

  15. 9 CFR 85.12 - Cleaning and disinfecting means of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disinfected in accordance with § 71.7 of this chapter using one of the disinfectants registered under the... virucidal claims. These disinfectants shall be used in accordance with directions on their labels...

  16. 9 CFR 85.12 - Cleaning and disinfecting means of conveyance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfected in accordance with § 71.7 of this chapter using one of the disinfectants registered under the... virucidal claims. These disinfectants shall be used in accordance with directions on their labels...

  17. Silver-based Antibacterial Surfaces for Drinking Water Disinfection - An overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risks associated with current disinfection techniques, including the formation of disinfection by-products and multi-drug resistant bacterial species, have prompted the exploration of advanced disinfection methods. One such technique employs silver nanoparticles incorporation on ...

  18. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  19. Effect of disinfection of custom tray materials on adhesive properties of several impression material systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Vermilyea, S G; Agar, J R

    1994-12-01

    The effects of impression tray disinfection procedures on the bond strength of impression-material adhesives to two types of resin trays were evaluated with a tensile test. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin and a visible light-curing resin were formed into one-half inch cubes. A screw eye was attached to each cube before polymerization. Perforated trays were fabricated with stops to maintain an even one-eighth inch of impression material over the resin block. Hooks on the opposite side permitted attachment of the metal plate to a mechanical testing machine. Before adhesive was applied, one third of the resin specimens were immersed in a 1:213 iodophor solution; one third in a 10% sodium hypochlorite solution, and one third were kept in the "as fabricated" condition. Polysulfide, polyether, and polyvinyl siloxane impression material-adhesive systems were evaluated. The resin-impression material-metal plate couples were attached to a mechanical testing machine and tensile forces were applied at a separation rate of 5 inches per minute. Mean values for adhesive strength ranged from 3.49 kg/cm2 for the autopolymerizing acrylic resin/iodophor/polyether combination to 10.55 kg/cm2 for the autopolymerizing acrylic resin/untreated/polyvinyl siloxane combination. Differences were detected among materials and disinfecting procedure. Clinically, disinfection of resin trays may adversely affect retention of the impression material to the tray. PMID:7853264

  20. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  1. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  2. Influence of ultrasound enhancement on chlorine dioxide consumption and disinfection by-products formation for secondary effluents disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Junyuan; Li, Zifu; Lan, Juanru; Li, Yajie; Yang, Xin; Wang, Dongling

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been promoted as an alternative disinfectant because of its high disinfection efficiency and less formation of organic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, particle-associated microorganisms could be protected during the disinfection process, which decreases the disinfection efficiency or increases the required dosage. Besides, the formation of inorganic disinfection by-products is a significant concern in environment health. Ultrasound (US)-combined disinfection methods are becoming increasingly attractive because they are efficient and environmentally friendly. In this study, US was introduced as an enhancement method to identify its influence on ClO2 demand reduction and to minimize the production of potential DBPs for secondary effluents disinfection. Fecal coliform was used as an indicator, and DBPs, including trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), chlorite (ClO2(-)), and chlorate (ClO3(-)), were analyzed to observe the potential DBPs formation. Results show that US pretreatment could reduce half of ClO2 dosage compared with ClO2 disinfection alone for the same disinfection efficiency, and that an input power density of 2.64 kJ/L pretreatment with the 1.5mg/L ClO2 was enough to meet the discharge requirement in China (i.e., fecal coliform below 1000 CFU/L for Class 1A) for secondary effluent disinfection, and the ClO2(-) concentration in the disinfection effluent was only 1.37 mg/L at the same time. Furthermore, the different effects of US on the two processes (US as pretreatment and simultaneous US/ClO2 disinfection) were also analyzed, including deagglomerating, cell damage, and synergistic disinfection as well as degasing/sonolysis. It was proved that the production of TCM, DCAA, and TCAA was insignificantly influenced with the introduction of US, but US pretreatment did reduce the production of ClO2(-) and ClO3(-) effectually. In general, US pretreatment could be a better option for

  3. Combining Anthrax Vaccine and Therapy: a Dominant-Negative Inhibitor of Anthrax Toxin Is Also a Potent and Safe Immunogen for Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Aulinger, Benedikt A.; Roehrl, Michael H.; Mekalanos, John J.; Collier, R. John; Wang, Julia Y.

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by the unimpeded growth of Bacillus anthracis in the host and the secretion of toxins. The currently available vaccine is based on protective antigen (PA), a central component of anthrax toxin. Vaccination with PA raises no direct immune response against the bacilli and, being a natural toxin component, PA might be hazardous when used immediately following exposure to B. anthracis. Thus, we have sought to develop a vaccine or therapeutic agent that is safe and eliminates both secreted toxins and bacilli. To that end, we have previously developed a dually active vaccine by conjugating the capsular poly-γ-d-glutamate (PGA) with PA to elicit the production of antibodies specific for both bacilli and toxins. In the present report, we describe the improved potency of anthrax vaccines through the use of a dominant-negative inhibitory (DNI) mutant to replace PA in PA or PA-PGA vaccines. When tested in mice, DNI alone is more immunogenic than PA, and DNI-PGA conjugate elicits significantly higher levels of antibodies against PA and PGA than PA-PGA conjugate. To explain the enhanced immunogenicity of DNI, we propose that the two point mutations in DNI may have improved epitopes of PA allowing better antigen presentation to helper T cells. Alternatively, these mutations may enhance the immunological processing of PA by altering endosomal trafficking of the toxin in antigen-presenting cells. Because DNI has previously been demonstrated to inhibit anthrax toxin, postexposure use of DNI-based vaccines, including conjugate vaccines, may provide improved immunogenicity and therapeutic activity simultaneously. PMID:15908368

  4. Bacterial contamination of a phenolic disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Simmons, N A; Gardner, D A

    1969-06-14

    Twenty ward stock bottles of aqueous 1% Printol were examined and 17 were found to be contaminated with Alcaligenes faecalis. Organisms were present in dead space behind the plastic liners of the bottle caps, where they could have survived washing. A. faecalis was also isolated from 31 out of 34 1% Printol solutions in use in the hospital. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown from two samples of 1% Printol in one ward, but not from stock bottles.The minimal bactericidal concentration (M.B.C.) in aqueous solution of Hycolin, Sudol, and Stericol for A. faecalis and Ps. aeruginosa was 1 in 320. The M.B.C. of Printol for both organisms was 1 in 80. The activity of all four disinfectants was reduced in the presence of large amounts of organic matter. Sudol was the least affected. Polyethylene, of which stock bottles were made, did not reduce the activity of the disinfectants. It is suggested that, ideally, stock bottles of disinfectant diluted ready for use should be autoclaved before they are refilled. PMID:4977328

  5. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.

    1986-11-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.

  6. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods.

    PubMed

    Basman, Adil; Peker, Ilkay; Akca, Gulcin; Alkurt, Meryem Toraman; Sarikir, Cigdem; Celik, Irem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10). Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p < 0.05). The most effective method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control). The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use. PMID:26676193

  7. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice. PMID:27007337

  8. Disinfecting action of a new multi-purpose disinfection solution for contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R A; Bell, W M; Abshire, R

    1999-01-01

    The disinfection activity of a new multipurpose disinfection solution (OPTI-FREE Express with ALDOX) was compared to several other contact lens disinfecting solutions. The new solution is preserved with polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine. The other solutions included 3% hydrogen peroxide systems and multipurpose solutions (MPS) preserved with polyhexamethylene biguanide. The products were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, and Aspergillus fumigatus. OPTI-FREE Express provided a broader range of antimicrobial activity than the MPS. It provided activity similar to that demonstrated by 3% hydrogen peroxide systems, but unlike the hydrogen peroxide system tested, it also prevented re growth of the organisms during extended storage. PMID:16303414

  9. Efficiency of water disinfectants against Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Mazoua, Stéphane; Berne, Florence; Bodet, Charles; Garrec, Nathalie; Herbelin, Pascaline; Ménard-Szczebara, Florence; Oberti, Sandrine; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Soreau, Sylvie; Wallet, France; Héchard, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae might be pathogenic by themselves and be a reservoir for bacterial pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila. Not only could amoebae protect intra-cellular Legionella but Legionella grown within amoebae could undergo physiological modifications and become more resistant and more virulent. Therefore, it is important to study the efficiency of treatments on amoebae and Legionella grown within these amoebae to improve their application and to limit their impact on the environment. With this aim, we compared various water disinfectants against trophozoites of three Acanthamoeba strains and L. pneumophila alone or in co-culture. Three oxidizing disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide) were assessed. All the samples were treated with disinfectants for 1 h and the disinfectant concentration was followed to calculate disinfectant exposure (Ct). We noticed that there were significant differences of susceptibility among the Acanthamoeba strains. However no difference was observed between infected and non-infected amoebae. Also, the comparison between the three disinfectants indicates that monochloramine was efficient at the same level towards free or co-cultured L. pneumophila while chlorine and chlorine dioxide were less efficient on co-cultured L. pneumophila. It suggests that these disinfectants should have different modes of action. Finally, our results provide for the first time disinfectant exposure values for Acanthamoeba treatments that might be used as references for disinfection of water systems. PMID:21093012

  10. Resistance to chemical disinfection under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchin, George L.

    1998-01-01

    In unit gravity, bacteria and disinfecting resin beads co-sediment to the septum in a fluid processing apparatus (FPA) resulting in effective chemical disinfection. In microgravity bacteria in suspension have access to a larger volume of the FPA because of a lack of sedimentation. Further, when disinfecting resin beads are added to the FPA they also remain in suspension reducing their effective concentration. Typically, therefore, disinfection experiments in microgravity return larger numbers of viable bacteria than ground-based controls. Preliminary experiments aboard the MIR Space Station with Pseudomonas aeruginosa additionally suggest that the longer bacteria are retained in microgravity the more resistant they become to chemical disinfection. This phenomenon is probably due to additional time to develop resistant biofilms on the interior of the FPA. To partially solve these problems we have developed additional disinfecting materials to use in conjunction with polyiodide containing resin beads. One of these materials carbon beads coated with 3-trimethoxy silylpropyl dimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Dow-Corning 5700®), acts synergistically with polyiodide resin disinfectants. Carbon beads so treated are still able to remove aqueous iodine from the water stream while providing an additional level of chemical disinfection. This additional capability prevents contamination of the carbon beads with heterotrophic bacteria and insures that bacteria surviving iodine disinfection are efficiently devitalized.

  11. Efficacy comparisons of disinfectants used by the commercial poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M; El-Attrache, J; Villegas, P

    2001-01-01

    Several commercially available disinfectants used by the poultry industry were evaluated for their effectiveness against selected bacteria and viruses. When tested in the absence of organic matter, most disinfectant products were effective at the manufacturer's recommended level within 10 min of contact time. However, when organic matter was present, longer contact times and/or higher disinfectant dosages were needed to maintain effectiveness. Pseudomona aeruginosa and infectious laryngotracheitis virus were very resistant organisms in the presence of organic matter. Evaluation of disinfectant efficacy against several microbials in the absence or presence of organic matter was highly practical, flexible, and reproducible. PMID:11785901

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide as an Effective Disinfectant for Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Won-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida. PMID:24954350

  13. Gastrointestinal anthrax after an animal-hide drumming event - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-07-23

    On December 24, 2009, a woman aged 24 years from New Hampshire was confirmed to have gastrointestinal anthrax on the basis of clinical findings and a Bacillus anthracis blood culture isolate. Her symptoms began on December 5. One day before symptom onset, she had participated in a drumming event at a community organization's building where animal-hide drums of multiple ages and origins were played. This report describes the case and subsequent investigation, which identified 84 persons potentially exposed to anthrax, including those persons at the drumming event and those who lived or worked at the event site. Review of New Hampshire disease surveillance data and clinical microbiology records for periods before and after the event identified no additional anthrax cases. Initial qualitative environmental testing of the event site yielded three positive samples (two from drum heads and one composite sample of three electrical outlets in the main drumming room). Wider, targeted, semi-quantitative environmental testing of the site and additional drums yielded six positive samples (two from one drum and four from environmental locations in the building). These results suggested that aerosolization of spores from drumheads had occurred. All isolates obtained from environmental and drum samples matched the patient's isolate by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis using eight loci (MLVA-8). Public health agencies and persons with exposure to animal-hide drums should be aware of the potential, although remote, risk for anthrax exposure associated with these drums. PMID:20651643

  14. Efficacy of Single and Combined Antibiotic Treatments of Anthrax in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shay; Altboum, Zeev; Glinert, Itai; Schlomovitz, Josef; Sittner, Assa; Bar-David, Elad; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory anthrax is a fatal disease in the absence of early treatment with antibiotics. Rabbits are highly susceptible to infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by intranasal instillation, succumbing within 2 to 4 days postinfection. This study aims to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy to treat systemic anthrax in this relevant animal model. Delaying the initiation of antibiotic administration to more than 24 h postinfection resulted in animals with systemic anthrax in various degrees of bacteremia and toxemia. As the onset of symptoms in humans was reported to start on days 1 to 7 postexposure, delaying the initiation of treatment by 24 to 48 h (time frame for mass distribution of antibiotics) may result in sick populations. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic administration as a function of bacteremia levels at the time of treatment initiation. Here we compare the efficacy of treatment with clarithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin), imipenem, vancomycin, rifampin, and linezolid to the previously reported efficacy of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. We demonstrate that treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem, vancomycin, and linezolid were as effective as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, curing rabbits exhibiting bacteremia levels of up to 10(5) CFU/ml. Clarithromycin and rifampin were shown to be effective only as a postexposure prophylactic treatment but failed to treat the systemic (bacteremic) phase of anthrax. Furthermore, we evaluate the contribution of combined treatment of clindamycin and ciprofloxacin, which demonstrated improvement in efficacy compared to ciprofloxacin alone. PMID:26392505

  15. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue, hemorrhagic septicemia, icterohematuria in sheep, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious...

  16. Cryo-electron microscopy study of bacteriophage T4 displaying anthrax toxin proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fokine, Andrei; Bowman, Valorie D.; Battisti, Anthony J.; Li Qin; Chipman, Paul R.; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2007-10-25

    The bacteriophage T4 capsid contains two accessory surface proteins, the small outer capsid protein (Soc, 870 copies) and the highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc, 155 copies). As these are dispensable for capsid formation, they can be used for displaying proteins and macromolecular complexes on the T4 capsid surface. Anthrax toxin components were attached to the T4 capsid as a fusion protein of the N-terminal domain of the anthrax lethal factor (LFn) with Soc. The LFn-Soc fusion protein was complexed in vitro with Hoc{sup -}Soc{sup -}T4 phage. Subsequently, cleaved anthrax protective antigen heptamers (PA63){sub 7} were attached to the exposed LFn domains. A cryo-electron microscopy study of the decorated T4 particles shows the complex of PA63 heptamers with LFn-Soc on the phage surface. Although the cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction is unable to differentiate on its own between different proposed models of the anthrax toxin, the density is consistent with a model that had predicted the orientation and position of three LFn molecules bound to one PA63 heptamer.

  17. NATIONAL RESPONSE TEAM TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR ANTHRAX RESPONSE. INTERIM FINAL DRAFT. JULY 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical information on a wide range of activities to aid in response to intentional release of anthrax in urban environments. It includes initial actions when a potential release is discovered, health and safety issues for responders, sampling and analys...

  18. [Landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Rojas, M C; Vázquez, P M; Verdier, M; Noseda, R

    2011-12-01

    The authors studied the landscape components that favour the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. As variables for study, they differentiated areas that are flooded for 20% of the time or more from primary and secondary runoff channels. They also identified areas with low-productivity pasture. Logistic regression analysis of farm populations revealed that landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks are shared runoff channels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; confidence interval (CI) = 1.2; 4.7) and > or = 40% low-productivity pasture (OR = 5.4; CI = 3.5; 8.3). Contrary to initial assumptions, susceptibility to flooding was not a significant variable (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.5; 2.1). The authors concluded that the first step in decision-making and ensuring more efficient implementation of future anthrax control and eradication plans was to identify risk variables. PMID:22435200

  19. New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal responses

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Annabel; Nizet, Victor; Bier, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), are essential virulence factors produced by B. anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection. During the first, prodromal phase, which is often asymptomatic, anthrax toxins act on cells of the immune system to help the pathogen establish infection. Then, during the rapidly progressing (or fulminant) stage of the disease bacteria disseminate via a hematological route to various target tissues and organs, which are typically highly vascularized. As bacteria proliferate in the bloodstream LT and ET begin to accumulate rapidly reaching a critical threshold level that will cause death even when the bacterial proliferation is curtailed by antibiotics. During this final phase of infection the toxins cause an increase in vascular permeability and a decrease in function of target organs including the heart, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and brain. In this review, we examine the various biological effects of anthrax toxins, focusing on the fulminant stage of the disease and on mechanisms by which the two toxins may collaborate to cause cardiovascular collapse. We discuss normal mechanisms involved in maintaining vascular integrity and based on recent studies indicating that LT and ET cooperatively inhibit membrane trafficking to cell-cell junctions we explore several potential mechanisms by which the toxins may achieve their lethal effects. We also summarize the effects of other potential virulence factors secreted by B. anthracis and consider the role of toxic factors in the evolutionarily recent emergence of this devastating disease. PMID:21930233

  20. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Larissa, Associated with a Case of Cutaneous Anthrax in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Gregor; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Larissa, isolated from a diseased sheep associated with a human case of cutaneous anthrax in Central Greece from 2012. Genome sequence analysis of strain Larissa may aid in describing phylogenetic relationships of B. anthracis isolates in Southeastern European countries. PMID:26564034

  1. Purification and biophysical characterization of the core protease domain of anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gkazonis, Petros V.; Dalkas, Georgios A.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A.

    2010-06-04

    Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) stands for the major virulence factor of the anthrax disease. It comprises a 90 kDa highly specific metalloprotease, the anthrax lethal factor (LF). LF possesses a catalytic Zn{sup 2+} binding site and is highly specific against MAPK kinases, thus representing the most potent native biomolecule to alter and inactivate MKK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinases] signalling pathways. Given the importance of the interaction between LF and substrate for the development of anti-anthrax agents as well as the potential treatment of nascent tumours, the analysis of the structure and dynamic properties of the LF catalytic site are essential to elucidate its enzymatic properties. Here we report the recombinant expression and purification of a C-terminal part of LF (LF{sub 672-776}) that harbours the enzyme's core protease domain. The biophysical characterization and backbone assignments ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) of the polypeptide revealed a stable, well folded structure even in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}, suitable for high resolution structural analysis by NMR.

  2. Anthrax among heroin users in Europe possibly caused by same Bacillus anthracis strain since 2000.

    PubMed

    Grunow, R; Klee, S R; Beyer, W; George, M; Grunow, D; Barduhn, A; Klar, S; Jacob, D; Elschner, M; Sandven, P; Kjerulf, A; Jensen, J S; Cai, W; Zimmermann, R; Schaade, L

    2013-01-01

    Injection anthrax was described first in 2000 in a heroin-injecting drug user in Norway. New anthrax cases among heroin consumers were detected in the United Kingdom (52 cases) and Germany (3 cases) in 2009-10. In June 2012, a fatal case occurred in Regensburg, Bavaria. As of December 2012, 13 cases had been reported in this new outbreak from Germany, Denmark, France and the United Kingdom. We analysed isolates from 2009-10 and 2012 as well as from the first injection anthrax case in Norway in 2000 by comparative molecular typing using a high resolution 31 marker multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a broad single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Our results show that all cases may be traced back to the same outbreak strain. They also indicate the probability of a single source contaminating heroin and that the outbreak could have lasted for at least a decade. However, an additional serological pilot study in two German regions conducted in 2011 failed to discover additional anthrax cases among 288 heroin users. PMID:23557972

  3. Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Christopher K.; Welkos, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of anthrax toxin or toxin components with B. anthracis spores has been demonstrated. Germinating spores can produce significant amounts of toxin components very soon after the initiation of germination. In this review, we will summarize the work performed that has led to our understanding of toxin and spore interactions and discuss the complexities associated with these interactions. PMID:26287244

  4. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. PMID:25102364

  5. Amoebicidal activity of a preserved contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution compared to a disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Buck, S L; Rosenthal, R A; Abshire, R L

    1998-01-01

    The amoebicidal activity of a contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) containing polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine was compared to a disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites and cysts. A quantitative microtitre method was used to evaluate the solutions. The MPDS showed similar amoebicidal activity to the disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system against the trophozoites of both species and equal or more rapid activity against the cysts of both species. PMID:16303382

  6. Inactivation kinetics of spores of Bacillus cereus strains treated by a peracetic acid-based disinfectant at different concentrations and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sudhaus, Nadine; Pina-Pérez, Maria Consuelo; Martínez, Antonio; Klein, Günter

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a commercial peracetic acid-based disinfectant against spores of Bacillus cereus, to identify the most influential factor for the final number of microorganisms after different disinfection procedures, and to evaluate the nature of the inactivation kinetics. The spores of four different strains of B. cereus (DSM 318, 4312, 4313, and 4384) were treated with five different disinfectant concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% [w/v]) at three different temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 20°C) with or without protein load. A higher temperature and PES 15/23 concentration resulted in a higher inactivation. Inactivation of B. cereus strain 4312 was around 2 log₁₀ cycles at 10°C and around 7 log₁₀ at 20°C (conc=1% [w/v] PAA; t=60 min; without protein). The protein load at higher concentrations did not significantly reduce the efficacy of the disinfectant (p>0.05). This article indicates the applicability of the Weibull model to fit the B. cereus disinfectant survival curves. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to carry out a sensitivity analysis, which revealed the most influential factors affecting the final number of microorganisms after the disinfection process. PMID:22506696

  7. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol. PMID:17719131

  8. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Beigi, Richard H.; Zotti, Marianne E.; Hutchings, Yalonda; Bower, William A.; Treadwell, Tracee A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the safety and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment in pregnant women. Data Sources Articles were identified in the PUBMED database from inception through December 2012 by searching the keywords ([“pregnancy]” and [generic antibiotic name]). Additionally, hand searches of references from REPROTOX, TERIS, review articles and Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation were performed. Methods of Study Selection Articles included in the review contain primary data related to the safety and pharmacokinetics among pregnant women of five antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin), and of nine additional antibiotics recommended as part of the treatment regimen (penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, clindamycin, meropenem, doripenem, rifampin, chloramphenicol, or vancomycin). Tabulation, Integration and Results The PUBMED search identified 3850 articles for review. Reference hand searching yielded nine additional articles. In total, 112 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions Overall, safety and pharmacokinetic information is limited for these antibiotics. Although small increases in risks for certain anomalies have been observed with some antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax, the absolute risk of these antibiotics appears low. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with anthrax, antibiotics should be dosed appropriately to ensure that antibiotic levels can be achieved and sustained. Dosing adjustments may be necessary for the beta lactam antibiotics and the fluoroquinolones to achieve therapeutic levels in pregnant women. Data indicate that the beta lactam antibiotics, the fluoroquinolones, and, to a lesser extent, clindamycin enter the fetal compartment, an important consideration in the treatment of anthrax, as these antibiotics may provide

  9. Effect of a disinfectant udder wash and a post-milking teat dip on the bacterial population of the teat end and on the rate of new intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, R F; Hoare, R J

    1980-10-01

    A pre-milking wash disinfectant procedure employing a 2% (w/v) chlorhexidine solution in a detergent basic did not reduce the rate of new intramammary infection in a lactating herd challenged with Staphylococcus aureus. Teat-end swabs showed no significant difference in the number of Staph. aureus isolated from the teat-ends pre-washed with either water, or water and chlorhexidine. In contrast, disinfecting teats after milking with a solution containing 5000 mg available iodine/l significantly reduced the staphylococcal population of the teat-ends and the rate of new intramammary infection, compared with teats not disinfected. PMID:7451707

  10. An evaluation of drinking water samples treated with alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.S.; Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Garner, L.M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to concern over potential human health risks associated with the use of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) for disinfection of drinking water, many utilities are considering alternative disinfectants. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfectants relative to those posed by Cl{sub 2}. At a pilot-scale drinking water plant in Jefferson Parish, LA., two studies were conducted in which clarified and sand filtered Mississippi River water was treated with either ozone (O{sub 3}), monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl), Cl{sub 2} or was not disinfected. Ozonated water was also post-disinfected with either NH{sub 2}Cl or Cl{sub 2}, to provide a disinfectant residual. For each treatment stream total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX) and microbiological contaminants were determined. XAD resin concentrates were also prepared for mutagenicity testing in the Ames Salmonella assay. Water samples disinfected with O{sub 3} alone had low levels of mutagenic activity, the same as the non-disinfected water. The level of mutagenicity observed following chlorination was approximately twice that observed following treatment with NH{sub 2}Cl. Disinfection with O{sub 3} prior to treatment with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl resulted in a significantly lower level of mutagenicity than when either disinfectant was used alone. The concentrations of TOX present in the water samples showed a pattern similar to that of the mutagenicity data. The levels of TOC, by contrast, were similar for all the treatment streams. No significant baterial contamination was observed in water samples treated with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl alone or in combination with O{sub 3}, as determined by heterotrophic plate counts. However, O{sub 3} alone did not insure an acceptable level of disinfection at the end of the treatment stream.

  11. Preoperative skin disinfection methodologies for reducing prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Mont, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    Surgical site infections following lower extremity total joint arthroplasty procedures remain a substantial economic burden to the patient, the treating institution, and the health care system. The complexity of these surgical procedures creates the potential for various patient- or surgery-related risk factors for infection. Although there is much literature regarding the use of many preventative methods, a consensus regarding the true efficacy and application of such practices is generally not available. In this review, we reviewed the preoperative skin disinfection methodologies that have been used for reducing periprosthetic infections following lower extremity total joint arthroplasty. Currently, cumulative evidence suggests that preoperative chlorhexidine baths or chlorhexidine-impregnated wipes may reduce the colonization of pathogenic organisms on the skin. In addition, multiple showers or topical applications of chlorhexidine may lead to more substantial reduction in colony counts. Advanced preoperative whole-body cleaning with chlorhexidine-containing cloths rather than site-specific application may confer additional advantages. Further randomized controlled trials with carefully planned protocols and endpoints are needed to determine if this conclusively leads to reduction in the rate of surgical site infections. PMID:24622912

  12. Retrospective review of the case of cutaneous anthrax-malignant pustule from 1995 in 15-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases. PMID:25848786

  13. Fatal inhalational anthrax with unknown source of exposure in a 61-year-old woman in New York City.

    PubMed

    Mina, Bushra; Dym, J P; Kuepper, Frank; Tso, Raymond; Arrastia, Carmina; Kaplounova, Irina; Faraj, Hasan; Kwapniewski, Agnieszka; Krol, Christopher M; Grosser, Mayer; Glick, Jeffrey; Fochios, Steven; Remolina, Athena; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Moses, Jeffrey; Robin, Thomas; DeVita, Maria; Tapper, Michael L

    2002-02-20

    A 61-year-old woman who was a New York City hospital employee developed fatal inhalational anthrax, but with an unknown source of anthrax exposure. The patient presented with shortness of breath, malaise, and cough that had developed 3 days prior to admission. Within hours of presentation, she developed respiratory failure and septic shock and required mechanical ventilation and vasopressor therapy. Spiral contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest demonstrated large bilateral pleural effusions and hemorrhagic mediastinitis. Blood cultures, as well as DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction of the blood, bronchial washings, and pleural fluid specimens, were positive for Bacillus anthracis. The clinical course was complicated by liver failure, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and cardiac tamponade, and the patient died on the fourth hospital day. The cause of death was inhalational anthrax. Despite epidemiologic investigation, including environmental samples from the patient's residence and workplace, no mechanism for anthrax exposure has been identified. PMID:11851577

  14. Comparing irradiation parameters on disinfecting enterrecoccus faecalis in root canal disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Ayşe. S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Although conventional method carries all the debris, studies on persisting infections in root canals show bacteria and their toxins spread from the root canal and contaminate the apical region. Thus developes apical periodontitis or symptoms, and loss of tooth. Even if the treatment has adequate success, anatomy of root canal system can be very complexwith accessory canals. The disinfecting effect of laser radiation has only recently been used in dentistry. Laser irradiation has a bactericidal effect. Each wavelength has its own advantages and limitations according to their different absorption characteristics, depending on their 'absorption coefficient'. The sterilizing efficiency of two types of wavelengths, a new fiber laser 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser and an 2940 nm Er:YAG Laser were compared in this study. Irradiation with a power of 0.50 W with 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser disinfected 95,15% of bacteria, however irradiation with same laser power with Er:YAG Laser caused a reduction of 96,48 %. But there was no significant difference in the disinfection effect of two different laser groups ( p < 0.05, Mann- U-Whitney Test). In addition to this, Er :YAG Laser caused three times more reduction from its own positive control group where 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser caused 2,5 times effective disinfection.

  15. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfectant for use under the provisions of § 71.10(b)(3): (a) The product shall remain a uniform liquid when... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  16. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disinfectant for use under the provisions of § 71.10(b)(3): (a) The product shall remain a uniform liquid when... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  17. 9 CFR 71.11 - Cresylic disinfectant as permitted disinfectant; specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfectant for use under the provisions of § 71.10(b)(3): (a) The product shall remain a uniform liquid when... than the equivalent of 0.5 percent of sodium hydroxide, and not less than 21 percent of soap exclusive... glyceride, fat acid, or resin acid may be used in preparing the soap, but not all are suitable nor are...

  18. TRIBROMOPYRROLE, BROMINATED ACIDS, AND OTHER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS PRODUCED BY DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER RICH IN BROMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  19. Drinking water and health: Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the toxicity of the by-products of disinfectants have focused on the trihalomethanes (THMs), which are formed during chlorination and for which considerable data on carcinogenicity have been developed. The level of total THMs in finished drinking water, currently regulated at 100 micrograms/L, should be reduced. Noting that chloroform is the principal THM produced by chlorination, the subcommittee found this level to be unsupportable on the basis of the risk values for chloroform developed in this review. Other, non-volatile by-products of chlorination may be important in contributing mutagenic properties to drinking water, especially when the natural water being treated contains high levels of organic matter. Short-term animal skin tests, although not conclusive, provide indications that organic concentrates from chlorinated water are tumorigenic under some experimental conditions. Unfortunately, many by-products of chlorination and other disinfection practices have not been identified. Consequently, the risks of ingesting cannot be quantified at present, but are potentially high enough to warrant continued efforts to analyze them. The use of alternative methods of drinking water disinfection is increasing, largely due to health and regulatory concerns about trihalomethanes. Thus, the nature and toxicity of the by-products of some other widely used water treatments (chloramination, ozonation, and chlorine dioxide) are also evaluated in the report to the extent allowed by available data. The subcommittee calculated quantitative risk assessment for disinfectants or their by-products when there was sufficient data.

  20. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  1. Efficacy of chlorine disinfection of soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J T; Kriel, F; van der Merwe, D; Pheiffer, G

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated the chlorine system SOFTAB (Alcon) for the disinfection of soft contact lenses. The results indicate that a 1000-fold reduction in microorganisms was achieved within 6 h. Even with the slight interference of residual cleaner and the more significant interference of organic matter disinfection was still achieved. PMID:1745498

  2. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31 Disinfecting... brucellosis, must be properly cleaned and disinfected in accordance with recommendations of the APHIS or State... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the...

  3. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31 Disinfecting... brucellosis, must be properly cleaned and disinfected in accordance with recommendations of the APHIS or State... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the...

  4. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF OZONE AS A DISINFECTANT FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) minimizes the amount of disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) released into receiving waters. Currently, the primary disinfecting agent used in the US for wastewater treatment is chlorine (Cl2); however, Cl2 produces problems in ...

  6. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  7. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  8. Design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment -- Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M.

    1998-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are being widely considered for application to treated wastewaters, in lieu of conventional chlorination facilities. The number of UV systems operating in the US was approximately 50 in 1984. In 1990 there were over 500 systems, a ten-fold increase. The use of UV disinfection has increased since 1990, and will likely to increase in the future. It is anticipated that as many chlorine disinfection facilities reach their useful life, most of them will be replaced with UV disinfection systems. Several manufacturers offer different UV disinfection equipment. Each offers something different for the designer. There are also different approaches used in estimating the number of lamps needed for the disinfection system. The lack of standardization in determination of the number of lamps for a UV system poses problems for the designer. Such was the case during the design of the disinfection system for the Watertown, SD Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWRP). The purpose of this paper is to present a case study for the design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment.

  9. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    PubMed

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made. PMID:1659857

  10. Drowning in Disinfection Byproducts? Swimming Pool Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection is mandatory for swimming pools, because transmission of disease by bacteria, virus and protozoa is the most significant health issue. However another issue arises, and care should be taken to minimize the risks from disinfection by-products (DBPs). Public pools are ...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SWIMMING POOL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to kill harmful pathogens, swimming pool water is treated with a disinfectant, such as chlorine or ozone. One of the most commonly used disinfectants is stabilized chlorine (typically trichloro-S-triazinetrione). Trichloro-S-triazinetrione reacts in water to form one m...

  12. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Koffskey, W.

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  13. Microbial contamination in sprouts: how effective is seed disinfection treatment?

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen; Smith, Michelle A

    2013-04-01

    Microbial contamination of sprouts by Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 has been a common cause of foodborne diseases and a continuing challenge to the sprout industry. Seed disinfection treatment has been recommended as a major intervention step in a multihurdle approach to reduce the risk of illness associated with contaminated sprouts. U.S. Food and Drug Administration cited 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite as an example treatment in its recommendation for seed treatment and this treatment has been considered the reference standard for seed disinfection treatment for over a decade. However, promising new disinfection treatments have emerged in recent years. In this study, we summarized published data and compared the efficacies of different disinfection methods in the reduction of microbial contamination on seeds. Our findings suggest that while biological interventions such as competitive exclusion and certain chemical treatments appear to be similar to 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite for seed disinfection, physical methods especially high pressure may be more effective than the reference standard regardless of the type of bacteria or seed. The combination of 2 or more treatments, sequentially or simultaneously, may further improve disinfection results. Since treatments with high levels of chemical disinfectants, especially 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite, can pose environmental and worker safety risks, alternative intervention approaches should be considered. Additional studies to confirm the greater efficacy of certain physical and combined seed disinfection treatments and to identify other effective management strategies are needed to further improve sprout safety. PMID:23464679

  14. CONCERNS WITH USING CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a renewed interest in disinfection with chlorine dioxide in the United States because of upcoming Federal regulations on disinfection by-products. ench studies and field applications of chlorine dioxide have shown that it is an effective biocide that does not produce hal...

  15. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (NEW ORLEANS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this state-of-the-art review is to examine the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection for combined sewer overflow (CSO) applications. Topics presented include the use of UV light as a disinfecting agent, its practical applications, d...

  16. The Next Generation of Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended health ...

  17. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  18. Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-products: Comparison to Carcinogenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be formed when water is disinfected by various agents such as chlorine, ozone, or chloramines. Among the >600 DBPs identified in drinking water, 11 are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and another ~70 DBPs that occur at s...

  19. New technologies and trends in sterilization and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Philip M

    2013-05-01

    Continued improvements in low-temperature sterilization systems have resulted in reduced processing times and expanded capabilities for instrument reprocessing. As the relationship of environmental surface contamination and health care-associated infections has become more defined, area disinfection systems and antimicrobial surface technologies have emerged as new strategies for disinfection of surfaces. PMID:23622756

  20. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANT AND DISINFECTANT TREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANE FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To comply with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes (TTHM), many utilities have modified their pre-oxidation and disinfection practices by switching to alternative oxidants and disinfectants in place of free chlorine. To evaluate the impact of these chang...