Didier Stainier is a Principal Investigator at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim, Germany. Having spent most of his career in the USA using zebrafish to study organ development, Didier recently moved back to Europe and is now branching out to study organ development in mice. At a recent conference, we caught up with Didier and asked him about his career, his thoughts on funding, view on morpholinos and his advice for young researchers. PMID:26329596
During the last decades, the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology have increasingly veered away from each other. Cognitive anthropologists have become so rare within the cognitive sciences that Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) even propose a division of the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology. However, such a divorce might be premature. This commentary tries to illustrate the benefits that cognitive anthropologists have to offer, not despite, but because of their combination of humanistic and scientific elements. It argues that the cognitive sciences (among others) profit from these benefits, as culture will become crucial for cognitive research. At the same time, problems within cognitive anthropology are discussed, including, for example, the responsibility of cognitive anthropologists to promote young academics. Finally, ideas are presented that might support future interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22685097
The first code of ethics by the American Anthropological Association, adopted in 1971, was forged during the Vietnam War, years after revelations that anthropologists had engaged in counterinsurgency research in Southeast Asia. Now, in response to issues raised by the war in Iraq, the author advocates that it is time for a new code. Members of the…
Nancy Fried Foster was an anthropologist hired by University of Rochester's library to study its undergraduates, to help shed light on how they do their research and write papers, and how they spend their days. The results of the study helped guide a library renovation, influenced a Web-site redesign, led to changes in the way the library markets…
Hardon, Anita; Pool, Robert
Can global health experiments be part of more flexible systems of knowledge generation, where different bodies of knowledge come together to provide understanding not only of the outcomes of new interventions but also of the mechanisms through which they affect people's well-being and health? Building past work in which they tried to transform how global health experiments are carried out and inspired by the articles in this special issue, the authors of this commentary argue that strategic collaboration is needed to break the hegemony of randomized controlled trials in designing global health technologies. More open-ended experiments are possible if anthropologists team up with innovative researchers in biomedicine to develop new conceptual models and to adopt novel observational techniques and 'smart' trials that incorporate ethnography to unravel complex interactions between local biologies, attributes of health systems, social infrastructures, and users' everyday lives. PMID:27618222
An on-site visit was made to the Didier Taylor Refractories Corporation located in Newtown, Ohio for the purpose of evaluating control methods instituted to protect workers from hazardous conditions. Raw materials were received at this location in bags and canisters. The bags were opened in an area with dual-pull exhaust ventilation from two sides. Several St. Regis single spout packers with local exhaust systems were also used at this facility. All exhaust ducts connected to a large Kirk and Blum dry-bag collector located adjacent to the building. Some molding and casting work was done at this facility, but no particularly significant health hazard controls were noted for the process. The product line included bricks, patches, ramming mixes, cements, castables, plastics, and miscellaneous items. Plaster of paris and thermo setting plastics were used as mold materials. Slip mixes involved a wide range of chemical compounds. Plans were made to conduct a walk-through preliminary-type survey of the location at a later date. An in-depth assessment of portions of the facility and operations may be decided upon at that time.
James, C. A., Ed.
The aim of media anthropologists is to provide the general public with entertaining, relevant anthropological background information through the public media. This quarterly newsletter disseminates information, promotes awareness of present physical and social issues, and offers a means of intercommunication on the topic of Media Anthropology.…
Freeman, Milton M. R.
Anthropology research should be relevant to public policy formation. If anthropologists continue to produce research which reflects a "detached observer" perspective, their studies will not enjoy widespread credibility. The use of policy-relevant anthropology (applied anthropology) will depend in large part on the efforts of anthropologists toward…
In this essay, the author presents a rationale (and opportunities) for anthropologists to study the middle and upper end of the social power structure, as well as the lower. Anthropologists have much to contribute to an understanding of the processes whereby power and responsibility are exercised in this country; indeed there is a certain urgency…
Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine
In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts. PMID:25345372
Kaidonis, John A
Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as 'modern-day' pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment. PMID:17938977
This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…
In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…
Ames, Michael M.
Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…
Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189
Whiteman, Darrell L., Ed.
The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, and missionary training and methods, along with specific case studies are presented. The 13 essays are: (1) "Prospects for a Better Understanding and Closer Cooperation between Anthropologists and…
It's time for physicians to stop grieving over the massive changes occurring in health care and instead create a new vision that will lead them forward into the future, a cultural anthropologist told the CMA's 8th annual Leadership Conference in March. About 175 physicians attended the 2-day conference on regaining the perspective on values in times of change.
In the tradition of anthropological reflexivity, this article examines how the structure of early doctoral training contributes to the construction of particular kinds of anthropologists. Based on research conducted in an anthropology department in the U.S.A. during the late 1990s, the experience of the transition from undergraduate to doctoral…
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001
Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…
Salamone, Frank A., Ed.
The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, missionary training and methods, and specific case studies are presented. The ten essays are: (1) "An Ethnoethnography of Missionaries in Kalingaland" (Robert Lawless); (2) "Missionization and Social Change in…
The paper privileges the "voices" of British social anthropologists examining their perceptions of how their research expertise was acquired. Reference is made to the case of education research in Britain, which, by comparison with social anthropology, reveals limited capacity as measured through performance audits of scientific research…
A FIRST-EVER SURVEY of cultural anthropologists was conducted concerning the sharing of data, interpretations, and results with study participants. Briefly summarized, the study showed that almost all of the survey respondents had shared data or results with participants and almost all found this to be a positive experience. They had carried out research in many countries, some over long periods of time, and many had completed several field projects. Most believe that researchers, either alone or in consultation with participants and their groups, should decide whether, when, and what to share. Anthropologists find that sharing produces many benefits, for themselves as individuals and as researchers, for individual participants, and for the communities, groups, or institutions to which the latter belong. The perceived harms that might result from sharing have to do particularly with potential threats to privacy, confidentiality or anonymity, as well as the possibilities of social conflict and oppression. Thus, researchers have serious concerns about the sharing of certain kinds of data that might lead to such consequences. While many or most respondents think that sharing is the ethically proper course of action, they are very aware of the complexities of particular situations and the need for nuanced decision making. Most think that the researcher should play a major role in deciding whether sharing should take place and what should be shared. Hence, for these cultural anthropologists, in the end, sharing requires trying to balance the good of sharing with the good of doing no harm to those with whom they have done research. PMID:19385754
Ethnographers are urged to "be there", in the field, in order to gain insight about a particular culture. When the field is unreachable, or does not yet exist, the applied anthropologist must adapt their methods accordingly while maintaining the integrity of their research. The space industry presents a unique case study for such a dilemma. Drawing on Bourdieu's 1977 reflection on the structural constraints and the forming of unconscious schemes of thought imposed by the material world on the body, this paper considers the effect of the presence and absence of place in applied, collaborative anthropological work.
Petersen, Lone Stub
Studying technology will often involve studying change - or in the perspective of this chapter should involve not just studying but also actively being involved with change. Your presence and the questions you ask shape the way people think and act and on the other hand their responses and your study of practice change the researchers perspective. For Techno-Anthropologist, this means that asking in specific ways about technology and having a focus on technology in the data collection and fieldwork will (should) influence what they see, the data they collect and their analysis - and also the way the informants think and the way people talk about practice and technology. The Techno-Anthropological researcher should be aware and actively use the potential for change in the empirical study of technology. In this chapter I exemplify and examine how and why change can be embraced and seen as an integral part of Techno-Anthropological studies in Health Informatics and beyond. This statement is supported through reflections on empirical examples, qualitative methods, and ethical and philosophical considerations on research and change. The chapter concludes that Techno-Anthropologists should actively consider and engage in the potential for change of the empirical studies of technology. PMID:26249196
Jones, Ross L; Anderson, Warwick
While the British Empire conventionally is recognized as a source of research subjects and objects in anthropology, and a site where anthropological expertise might inform public administration, the settler-colonial affiliations and experiences of many leading physical anthropologists could also directly shape theories of human variation, both physical and cultural. Antipodean anthropologists like Grafton Elliot Smith were pre-adapted to diffusionist models that explained cultural achievement in terms of the migration, contact and mixing of peoples. Trained in comparative methods, these fractious cosmopolitans also favoured a dynamic human biology, often emphasizing the heterogeneity and environmental plasticity of body form and function, and viewing fixed, static racial typologies and hierarchies sceptically. By following leading representatives of empire anatomy and physical anthropology, such as Elliot Smith and Frederic Wood Jones, around the globe, it is possible to recover the colonial entanglements and biases of interwar British anthropology, moving beyond a simple inventory of imperial sources, and crediting human biology and social anthropology not just as colonial sciences but as the sciences of itinerant colonials. PMID:25833796
This article presents an interview with Alice G. Dewey, professor emeritus at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and granddaughter of the renowned American philosopher John Dewey. She is an economic anthropologist who did ground-breaking research on local markets in Indonesia in the 1950s. She recently co-edited "Surviving Against the Odds:…
Bennett, B C
This essay is a discussion of the author's changing perspectives of his anthropological research in Croatia which comes about through the postmodern critique of theorectical paradigms as well as the fact that financial and cultural globalization has changed the subject of our research. Added to the globalization process and the international flow of cultural capital in Croatia are the recent events of the collapse of a modernism experiment in Marxism and the emergence of ethnic nationalism. The complexity of these current postmodern trends in theorectical anthropology, combined with complex current historical processes on top of a very complex history in Croatia, raise real questions about whether or not the outsider anthropologist can textualize the cultural situation here. But, a question still remains as to whether the insider anthropologist/ethnologist can textualize a cultural situation that is difficult to draw parameters around because of the international flow of cultural capital, e.g., are the younger generation really focused on localized ethnic nationalism or is this now a situation that is so internationalized that our former assumptions about local place make no longer make sense? PMID:9887619
Dabbs, Gretchen R
This study examines the correlation between site-specific and retrospectively collected temperature data from the National Weather Service (NWS) over an extended time period. Using iButtonLink thermochrons (model DS1921G), hourly temperature readings were collected at 15 sites (1 validation; 14 experimental) from December 2010 to January 2012. Comparison between the site-specific temperature data and data retrieved from an official reporter of NWS temperature data shows statistically significant differences between the two in 71.4% (10/14) of cases. The difference ranged between 0.04 and 2.81°C. Examination of both regression and simple adjustment of the mean difference over extended periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 9 months) suggests that on the timescale typical in forensic anthropology cases neither method of correction is consistent or reliable and that forensic anthropologists would be better suited using uncorrected NWS temperature data when the postmortem interval is extended. PMID:25678225
Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H
A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases. PMID:27352918
Mason, John P., Ed.; Clark, Mari H., Ed.
Given recent developments throughout the world, the status of U.S. foreign assistance policies is uncertain. This document is a collection of papers whose authors, all anthropologists concerned with developing nations, critically examine new directions in development assistance in the 1990s. The papers include an introduction (M. Clark; J. Mason);…
In this address, I ask: What do we bring as anthropologists and educators to our work? Two projects frame my arguments: my work with teachers in Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 tsunami and my term on a school board in an impoverished U.S. city. I conclude that at a time when challenges are simultaneously local and global, immediate and long term,…
Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…
Knutsen, Johan Henrik
Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019
Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration, a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the "born delinquent" whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most "atavistic" types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of "biological compensation" for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso's anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour. PMID:21729591
Follis, Karolina S.; Rogler, Christian R.
Casualisation takes different forms in different academic contexts, from the "adjunctification" of teaching in the U.S.A. to precarious grant-funded postdoc positions common in Europe and the U.K. and the efforts to introduce other forms of temporary academic employment in New Zealand (Shore and Davidson 2014) and Australia (Barcan…
Summary Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration , a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the “born delinquent” whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most “atavistic” types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of “biological compensation” for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso’s anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour. PMID:21729591
This article focuses on social agents' own understandings of socio-economic mobility and social achievement, exploring the possibilities offered by the tool of "family" life history in the context of formerly Untouchable communities in western India, Maharashtra. While arguing in favour of family life histories as both resource and method in the…
Pollock, D K; Lee, R V
Travellers to remote areas seem to have a magical aura. Indigenous folk often seek them out asking for medical treatment. It does not matter whether or not the traveller is in fact a doctor. Non-medical travellers have rendered good care, and by so doing ensured the success of their expedition. Nevertheless, there are reservations about 'playing doctor' and many travellers shun the role. Others, however, have purposefully impersonated doctors and capitalized on their medical fraud. PMID:7636816
Young, Jeffrey R.
Michael L. Wesch, an assistant professor of cultural anthropology at Kansas State University, was writing a paper about social networking and other interactive tools, which are collectively referred to as Web 2.0, when he decided to make use of the technology to spread his message. So he put together a short video with examples of Web 2.0…
Rudolf Virchow was born in Pomerania in 1821 in Prussia/Germany. His father was a cashier. He started his medical studies in 1839 and finished them in 1843. He became one of the most famous physicians of the 19th century, as he founded the "Cellular pathology" theory. This claims that disease and pathological change start in the cell and nowhere else. The ruling medical dogma at that time the "humoral pathology" stated that "body fluids" were in inbalance when a person got sick. Virchow's studies cleaned this out and the hallmark of the "cellular pathology" sounded "omnis cellula e cellula" ("behind every cell there is another cell"). Virchow was a Professor of Anathomy, Pathology and Physiology and was about the first medical doctor to introduce leukemia, embolus, trombosis and cancerous lymphoid glands into our vocabulary. He worked most of his time in Berlin. He was also a famous and powerful politician throughout his entire life, fighting for political rights, universal suffrage, economic reforms and loosening of the grip of the church. He was also struggling for peace and international understanding. Moreover he was engaged in Anthropology and active as an Archeologist-Historian. He was married and had 6 children. Rudolf Virchow is one of the most famous scientist of the nineteenth-century, referred to as a person of most authority by, among others, Darwin and Nietsche. He was the writer of numerous medical books, the founder of medical journals and the leader of several scientifical organizations. He died in 1902 in Berlin in the aftermath of a tramway-accident when he was on his way to an archeological scientific meeting, at 81 years of age. PMID:11625680
Hess, G. Alfred, Jr., Ed.
Elmore (1990) has presented two contrasting models of school restructuring, each with different views about who is empowered--teachers or parents. This book examines what happens when schools and school districts attempt to implement either of these models. Following the introduction, "Examining School Restructuring Efforts," by G. Alfred Hess,…
Trotter, R.T. II )
This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.
Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin
This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…
Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.
The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…
Trotter, R T
This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models. PMID:2088759
This essay follows Alfred Russel Wallace back from the field in 1862, tracing how his views on human evolution developed after his field experiences in the East Indies and how he articulated them within the social structure of British science during the 1860s. It analyses his involvement in the metropolitan scientific institutions dedicated to the study of man, the Ethnological Society of London and its breakaway counterpart, the Anthropological Society of London, which offered differing visions for a science of man and its intersection with political commitments. Using evidence from his participation in society meetings, the reception of his own anthropological papers, and the responses to the views he expressed in his field travel narrative, The Malay Archipelago, I show that although Wallace's involvement was initially enthusiastic, over time his views came into conflict with both groups. His involvement in established human science institutions declined, and Wallace turned towards other social locations for cultivating his knowledge of and engagement with questions involving the study of humanity. PMID:20503822
CORDASCO, FRANK M.
QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…
The author examines several theories and experiments dealing with the sexual basis of behavioral differences of males and females. She concludes that the cultural biases concerning women permeate current research in the behavioral sciences because of the lack of controls and poor methodologies. (MB)
Findings from a four-year action research project at a highly diverse, West Coast U.S. university reveal that a large percentage of white students cannot trace their identities to a particular nation in Europe and are, as a result, unable to name the shared meanings of a particular ethnic culture. Each time Latino, Asian American, and African…
de Figueiredo, Regina Érika Domingos
The article focuses on the work of Charles Wagley as a top staff member with Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service), a US-Brazil cooperation program established during World War II. Taking into consideration Wagley's experience with migration policy under Brazil's Rubber Program, as well as the context of development promotion and the issues then on the anthropological agenda, the article explores Wagley's community study of the Amazon town he visited while on SESP missions, published in the book Uma comunidade amazônica (Amazon Town). Encountering a reality that he believed emblematic of underdevelopment, Wagley was led to reflect on social change and the role of science. PMID:25099224
Mangan, Katherine S.
Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)
... Officer; (4) State Archeologist; (5) Curators, collections managers, conservators, archivists, archeologists, historians and anthropologists in Federal and State Government agencies and Indian tribal...
The psychoanalytical point of view regarding the notion of risks helps us to understand the concept of transference and counter transference. Practice analysis groups provide an opportunity for collective discussion and the sharing of experience of clinical situations. Interview with Didier Gauchy, a psychiatrist-psychoanalyst in Lyon. PMID:26143215
Cancer graphic narratives, I argue, are part of a medical imaginary that includes representations of difference and biomedical technology that engage Fassin's (2009) concept of biolegitimacy. Framed in three parts, the argument first draws on discourses about cancer graphic narratives from graphic medicine scholars and authors to demonstrate a construction of universal suffering. Second, I examine tropes of hope and difference as a biotechnical embrace. Finally, I consider biosociality within the context of this imaginary and the construction of a meaningful life. Autobiographical graphic narrative as a creative genre that seeks to give voice to individual illness experiences in the context of biomedicine raises anthropological questions about the interplay between the ordinary and biolegitmate. Cancer graphic narratives deconstruct the big events to demonstrate the ordinary ways that a life constructed as different becomes valued through access to medical technologies. PMID:25408557
Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…
.... ADDRESSES: Dr. Bruce Anderson, Forensic Anthropologist, PCOME, Tucson, AZ 85714, telephone (520) 243-8600... Office for forensic analysis. The Pinal County Medical Examiner, Dr Rebecca Hsu, transferred the remains to the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner for examination by a forensic anthropologist....
Hunter, David E., Ed.; Whitten, Phillip, Ed.
Forty-seven articles comprise this reader designed for beginning college students and instructors in an introductory anthropology course. Original contributions from both anthropologists and non-anthropologists are reprinted. The readings, drawn primarily from the popular press but including some of the discipline's "classical" articles, are…
Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Pugsley, Lesley
Good educational ethnography whether done by sociologists or anthropologists, makes the familiar strange. The history of that proposition is outlined, and five strategies available to all ethnographers focused on teaching and learning, whether sociologists or anthropologists of education or not, are outlined. The vital importance of the working…
Henry, Jeannette, Ed.
The anthropological reader about American Indians presents 28 articles dated from 1968 to 1971. It is divided into 4 parts: the anthropologist: the man and the discipline; a giant step between 2 worlds; scientific investigation: archaeology; and early agricultural and economy: 3 studies. Also included are (1) discussion: an anthropologist as…
What do anthropologists of education do? Many observers think that we provide quick glosses on what various "cultures"--typically racialized, ethnic, and national-origin groups--"do" in schools. Herve Varenne and I each name an alternative form of analysis that we think should be central to the subfield. Varenne argues that anthropologists of…
Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…
Flow simulations over two circular cylinders in tandem are carried out at a Reynolds number of 100, using a fully coupled resolution method for solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. A critical cylinder spacing was found between 3.95 and 4.0 cylinder diameters. The fluctuating forces jumped appreciably at this critical gap, like the shedding frequency and the mean drag. To cite this article: E. Didier, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).
Traphagan, J. W.
This presentation explores the concept of culture as it is used in anthropology and instances of contact between anthropologists and terrestrial "alien" civilizations and considers how these can inform thinking about potential contact with ETI.
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... condition. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains....
Science News, 1981
Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)
Alfonso Ortiz, anthropologist, historian, activist, and member of San Juan Pueblo, discusses education in general, bilingual education, the Tewa culture, Indian water rights, tribal sovereignty, the power issues in the Four Corners area, and his book -- "The Tewa World". (NQ)
A Canadian anthropologist describes how "rituals of respect" permeate the indigenous culture of a remote mountainous village in Peru. When children's needs for belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are met, they thrive and achieve their full potential.
Theoretical perspectives on issues of racism, ethnocentrism, and exclusion of targeted groups are examined. It is suggested that anthropologists need to explore the understanding and mediation of these problems. (MMU)
Anderson, Warwick H
This article surveys some descriptions of the Fore people made on early contact in the 1950s by patrol officers, social anthropologists and medical doctors. Sorcery accusations and cannibalism initially impressed these outside observers, though gradually they came to realize that a strange and fatal condition called kuru was a major affliction of the Fore, especially women and children. Fore attributed kuru to sorcery, anthropologists speculated on psychosomatic causes and medical officers began to wonder if it was a mysterious encephalitis. PMID:18849281
Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.
Denis-Didier Rousseau smiles shyly when discussing his new role as the chair of AGU's Fall Meeting Program Committee. "I'm not used to giving interviews," he says. Nonetheless, he becomes very passionate as he begins to talk about his views on transdisciplinary science and its role in AGU meetings, on including more young scientists in planning meetings, and on the importance of virtual meetings. Rousseau, who is currently a visiting professor at Columbia University, sat with Eos to share his excitement about working with AGU.
Flockenhaus, C.; Proetzl, M.; Rohde, W.
This paper describes the design of a demonstration plant, and the results obtained in this, for the testing of Didier Engineering's 2-stage recuperative system. The two stages are: (I) partial recuperation using a metallic heat exchanger and making special use of radiation; (II) direct heat exchange between coke oven waste gas and coking coal for thermal treatment making special use of convection. It is concluded that this type of oven meets the requirements for economic production of coke in chamber-type ovens even after the year 2000. 4 references.
The MODIS aerosol products today are widely used by the climate and air quality communities, operationally in data assimilation systems, by air quality forecasters, and throughout the research world. The product is the result of algorithms that were conceptualized 20 years ago by Yoram Kaufman and Didier Tanre, developed through the entire 1990's by a team spanning two continents, and maintained and evaluated since Terra launch in 1999. I will use this opportunity to point out the highlights of the past 20 years, and preview plans for a future that is beginning even now.
In 1939 an Australian anthropologist, W.E.H Stanner, believed that the nation needed to examine the question of biological and cultural preservation of the Aboriginal peoples. In an attempt to address the issue a range of proposals were suggested, most concentrating on the provision of adequate nutrition, proper medical supervision, good conditions of employment, appropriately trained field staff with sufficient financial resources, and the creation of inviolable reserves. This paper is a case study of a northwest Northern Territory cattle station, Wave Hill, where a survey conducted by two anthropologists aimed to reveal the causes of population decline on Vestey owned cattle stations. Could these anthropologists devise a way that would see an increase in station labour without having to seek new labour from marginal areas--'bush' people as they were called? Could they provide an answer to the wider challenge of stemming population decline through improving Aboriginal health? PMID:25095482
The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society. PMID:19848186
The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.
For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropology's best and most comprehensive anti-Cartesian manifesto to date. This volume brings together some of the finest studies on the cultural and historical diversity of bodies and minds. Yet anthropologists' blanket rejection of the mind/body dualism seems politically self-defeating. If anthropologists want to criticize racism, gender hierarchies, or discrimination against disabled people, they need to believe that the mind is independent from the body. In other words, they need to uphold the Cartesian split. PMID:19271351
Sachs Collopy, Peter
In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor. PMID:25950769
Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de
The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders. PMID:27438731
Wilson, Christine S
Social, ecological, physiological and cognitive processes all influence choices among foods that cumulate in dietary intake. This broad research field is studied by nutritionists, agricultural economists and consumer researchers, specialists in ingestive behaviour, biosocial psychologists and cognitive anthropologists of food acceptance, sociologists and anthropologists of social roles of food and historians, folklorists, geographers and other cultural scholars of belief systems surrounding food research. Each discipline has its primary concerns, sometimes with other close fields. This workshop considered merits and mechanisms of inclusive research meetings, journals and books as physical units as well as separate workers and facilities for virtual conferences, documents and organizations. PMID:11883919
Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth
We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906
Melvyn C. Goldstein, an anthropologist at Case Western Reserve University, has spent 40 years, off and on, collecting oral histories from Tibet. As rural Tibetans who have endured decades of tumult approach old age, Goldstein, who is also a director of the university's Center for Research on Tibet, has preserved their stories. He has interviewed…
Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.
This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…
Post, Chris W.
Geographers, along with anthropologists and sociologists, have been debating the homeland concept as it applies in North America for decades. In recent years, the political ideology of the war on terror has added another dimension to this discussion. If the attention given to the concept by introductory textbooks is any indication, homelands are…
Haynes Writer, Jeanette
Draws on critical race theory to examine the concept and practice of terrorism on Native Americans by the U.S. government, providing two examples of terrorism (the Sand Creek Massacre and the murder of Anna Mae Aquash). Asserts that educators and educational anthropologists must critically analyze issues of power and media portrayals of terrorism…
Upala, M. Afzal; Gonce, Lauren O.; Tweney, Ryan D.; Slone, D. Jason
A number of anthropologists have argued that religious concepts are minimally counterintuitive and that this gives them mnemic advantages. This paper addresses the question of why people have the memory architecture that results in such concepts being more memorable than other types of concepts by pointing out the benefits of a memory structure…
Today anthropologists seem to be increasingly studying phenomena in their own societies. Many have a focus on policies in organizations and an interest in explicating cultural phenomena constituted by power and governance. Consequently, a recent interest has emerged in Michel Foucault's philosophy, especially as an inspiration for ethnographic…
Abu El-Haj, Thea R.
Recommends that educational anthropologists publicly attack the ideological purposes to which the concept of culture has been deployed following the September 11 attacks, noting the importance of supporting schools, communities, and the media in addressing the power and politics of race and religion in contemporary social and political contexts.…
Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.
Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…
Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert
Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…
This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…
Havighurst, Robert J.
A historical overview of cultural attitudes in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States reveals that anthropologists greatly influenced the interaction between the Western "modern" culture and the primitive native culture in those countries. Historical analysis of attitudes toward Aborigines, Maoris, and American Indians provides the basis…
Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine
After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…
Bartell, Carol A.; Willis, David B.
Guided by interpretive ethnographic methods and by instructional leadership concepts, this comparative study of secondary principals in Japan and America discovers characteristics of excellent principals and examines their values in relation to dominant cultural themes. The investigation applies anthropologist Clifford Goertz's assumptions (1973,…
Cole, Michael; And Others
A group of American and Japanese psychologists, anthropologists, linguists, and computer scientists gathered at the University of California, San Diego, to exchange ideas on models of joint problem solving and their special relevance to the design and implementation of computer-based systems of instruction. Much of the discussion focused on…
Iber, George Leland
This study analyzes how acculturation and ethnic identity traits of first- and second-generation Mexican-American high school students in West Liberty, Iowa, correlate with their academic performance. The analysis tests the educational theories of educational anthropologists John Ogbu and Henry Trueba, to determine the extent to which these…
Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Beall, Cynthia M.
Noting that few western social scientists have been allowed to enter Tibet, this article describes the 5-month experience of 2 United States anthropologists. Included are 5 photographs of nomads, a description of the research conditions, and a collection of observations and tentative conclusions about these highland peoples (JDH)
Roberts, Alexa; Bradford, James E.
Illustrates implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act in the three-year collaborative efforts of tribal representatives, anthropologists, archeologists, Park Service staff, and other experts to excavate, analyze, and rebury human remains found in the Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (Texas). Lake Meredith…
Traces anthropology as a discipline from its origins in the 19th century to the present, defines the areas of interest of physical and cultural anthropologists, reviews major anthropological works, and identifies contributions made to American anthropology by sociology, psychology, and economics. (Author/DB)
Terry, Paul M.
No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…
Goldman, L. R.
This book addresses the need for anthropologists to produce in-depth ethnographies of children's play. In examining the subject from a cross-cultural perspective, the book argues that understanding the way children transform their environment to create make-believe is enhanced by viewing their creations as oral poetry. The result is a richly…
Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Briller, Sherylyn H.; Chapleski, Elizabeth E.
An end-of-life interdisciplinary graduate seminar incorporated culture throughout the course. Cultural variability related to the life course, ethical/moral issues, and spirituality were presented by an anthropologist, nurse ethicist, and sociologist with the intention of increasing cross-cultural understanding. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)
Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…
Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)
Monroe, Suzanne S.
Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…
Pesavento, Wilma J.
This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation. Included…
Chilcott, John H., Ed.
Eight papers which discuss the teaching of anthropology are presented in the February issue of this quarterly publication. The papers, organized into four sections, represent four major interests of anthropologists. In the first section, the teaching of anthropology as an activity is emphasized. Two authors present ideas on employing the processes…
Child Care: Exploring Private and Public Sector Approaches. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (San Francisco, CA, June 18, 1984).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
Testimony was heard concerning unmet needs for child care and current child care policy. Appearing before the Committee were California government officials, agency administrators and directors, school district officials, psychologists, anthropologists, and other researcher/practitioners, doctors, lawyers, parents, and children. Testimony covered…
Lawson Clark, Sherri
Researchers have been following a trend posited by the renowned anthropologist Janet Fitchen, which examines the increasing movement of low-income people to rural communities drawn not necessarily by labor market forces, but by the characteristics and amenities found in rural towns. This study adds to that literature by focusing on the ways in…
Page, Miriam Dempsey
In "The Uses of Diversity," the interpretive anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, says that it is impossible to completely get inside the point of view of another culture. Geertz contends, however, that despite multiple voices in the growing body of reflexive ethnographies there is still an author composing the work. Besides Geertz, reflexive…
Ivers, John J.
A couple of decades ago, a visiting anthropologist agreed with some U.S. authors that the American intellectual on university campuses is basically dead and his/her demise is reflected in the superficial, boring, and uninspiring content to which students are exposed. More recent evidence indicates that things have not changed very much. In this…
Presenting varied perspectives describing the Native American woman, this book is divided into six chapters as follows: (1) Native Americans and Anthropology (this chapter illustrates the way in which anthropologists have helped stereotype American Indian women); (2) The Native American Woman in Ethnographic Perspective (emphasizing role…
Bynum, Gregory Lewis
The philosophical anthropologist Dorothy Dinnerstein, in her 1976 work "The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise," argued that in order for us to address the excesses of male-dominated rule in society (militarism, rapacious consumerism), we must attack the root cause of patriarchy--women's domination of early…
Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.
Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…
Benga, Oana; Neagota, Bogdan; Benga, Ileana
As cultural anthropologists, we noticed an unexpected and interesting convergence of the therapeutic practices suggested in the target article and the rites of passage occurring across multiple societies, as individuals make the transition from one significant age or status to another. PMID:26050694
Park, Ji Yong
Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…
BLOM, JAN-PETTER; GUMPERZ, JOHN J.
IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY, BERNSTEIN (1961, 1964) EXPLORES THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ACT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES BETWEEN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR REALIZATION IN SPEECH. HIS FORMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THE ANTHROPOLOGISTS' ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS…
Public reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks have ranged from shock, fear, and anger to group profiling and acts of violent retribution. Suggests that the cycle of terrorism requires perspective and reflection so that educational anthropologists can facilitate, through education, more useful understandings of the phenomenon of terrorism.…
The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…
This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…
Kroskrity, Paul V.
In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…
Ford, Iris Carter
In this commentary, anthropologist Iris Carter Ford reflects on the preceding pieces by Carmen Kynard and Signithia Fordham. She identifies parallels among the two essays and her own life, drawing out themes that emerge from the narratives. Integrating ideas about "talking black" and "talking back," Ford notes that both phenomena have roots in…
Lindahl, Mats Gunnar
To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…
Schnepf, Candy A.
The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…
Whaley, Lindsay J.
The success of programs that are focused on revitalizing an endangered language depends on careful implementation. This paper examines four common mistakes that are made when linguists and anthropologists get involved with documenting endangered languages or participating in revitalization efforts: a failure to appreciate the complexity of the…
Segelström, Fabian; Holmlid, Stefan
Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed…
The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…
In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285
Bolles, A. Lynn
The Black anthropologist, Vera Mae Green, is featured in this analysis of the concept of soul as applied to African-Americans. Music and dance are used to express soul in cultural context. But soul is also a force, an energy which encompasses the Black experience and makes Black culture persevere. (VM)
"Language death" is an undeniable phenomenon of our modern times as languages have started to disappear at an alarming rate. This has led linguists, anthropologists, philosophers and educationists to engage with this issue at various levels in an attempt to try to understand the decline in this rich area of human communication and culture. In this…
Bronstein, Arthur J.; Raphael, Lawrence J.
Phonetic science is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Phoneticians rely on, or at least collaborate with, sociologists, psychologists, biologists, poets, physicists, anthropologists, neurologists and others. A look at the history of phonetics reveals that this seemingly recent trend has deep roots. In fact, it is possible to draw parallels…
Baker, Lee D.
As early as 1887, the anthropologist Franz Boas began to combat scientific racism and the insistence that blacks were of lower intelligence than whites. Throughout his career, Boas guided anthropology to a consensus that people of color were not racially inferior and that they possessed unique and historically specific cultures. (SLD)
Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II. Inspired by…
Guilherme, Alexandre; Morgan, W. J.; Freire, Ida
Gilberto Freyre, the great Brazilian historian and sociologist, described Brazil as a "racial paradise", a place where different races and nationalities have come to live together in a sort of "racial democracy". The literature on this topic has become extensive as anthropologists, social scientists and historians felt the need to either prove or…
Cooper, B. Lee; Schurk, William L.
Discussion of the use of daily habits or common social activities by anthropologists and sociology teachers to illustrate the power of popular culture focuses on the role of coffee. Provides a list of more than 60 specific songs and albums that could be used for classroom discussion. (Author/LRW)
Qafisheh, Hamdi A.
This Gulf Arabic text is designed for those who want to acquire a conversational tool beyond the basic level; it is also of interest to Arabists, anthropologists, and Arabic dialectologists. The language in this text is used in informal situations by the indigenous populations of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The text contains 21 lessons…
The author of this article looks back at television advertising from the last 50 years. He observes the position of women in American society as creatures who served at men's pleasure and for men's pleasure. When future anthropologists examine today's television advertising, one significant change they will note is that the culture is more…
Mattson, Phyllis H.; Abshire-Walker, Tisa
This paper is about an education experiment, the sponsorship and coordination of a series of workshops for teachers by an organization of teaching anthropologists. We plan to discuss the impetus for the formation of such a series of workshops, and then describe and evaluate them. (Author/JM)
Mukhopadhyay, Carol; Henze, Rosemary C.
Drawing on work of contemporary biological anthropologists and other scientists, argues that biologically based racial differences are not scientifically valid, but are instead socially constructed categories. Draws implications for teachers, students, and society. Provides suggestions and resources for teachers and students to learn more about…
American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this program was to discover and to help bring about a more effective articulation between anthropologists and the research and development needs of the schools. To that end, a number of crucial activities were undertaken coincident with the creation of university-based centers. A national conference was organized to assess the…
... professional staff with assistance from a Central Washington University physical anthropologist and professional staff from Washington State University, the National Park Service, and the History/Archaeology... shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American human remains and...
Clavner, Jerry B.; Clavner, Catherine
This study explores reverse discrimination as a cultural phenomenon that should be studied by anthropologists, and to which anthropology has inadvertently contributed. Discrimination by minority group members is taught and encouraged under the guise of ethnic pride and promotion of traditional beliefs. Ethnocentrism may be a cultural defense…
.... Subsequently in 1963, a skull from an adult male was given to Dr. Mulloy by Ted Miller of Gering, NE, which had...), in Goshen County, WY. The remains, which consist of a skull, were found and collected by Grant... gave the skull to Dr. George Gill, ] University of Wyoming Anthropologist, who brought it to...
Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)
Defines and illustrates the main tools used in intercultural research: ethnography, ethnicity, social interaction, identity, and culture. These are the ongoing product of intersecting processes. All are social accomplishments, influenced by the context in which they occur. The anthropologist and native jointly participate in these enterprises. (17…
Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia
The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…
Dartt-Newton, Deana; Erlandson, Jon M.
This article deals with the Chumash people, their history, as well as colonization and coercion during the mission period in California. In this article, the authors examine a complex paper on the missionization of the Chumash Indians of the California Coast published in American Anthropologist by Daniel O. Larson, John R. Johnson, and Joel C.…
Welch, Kathleen E.
Some tentative connections can be made between 20th-century cultural and rhetorical reception of Isocrates' writing and selected issues in historical literacy. Specifically, two literacy scholars, David Bleich and Brian Street, the former a humanist and the latter an anthropologist, can be read concerning some issues in literacy as applied to…
Low, Setha M.
This paper describes two research projects in the anthropology of landscape architecture design which show that "professional culture" restrictions often prevent anthropologists from putting their theories into practice. The first research project grew out of the author's assumption that landscape architecture students were not producing socially…
American Indian literature deserves a more prominent place in the English language arts curriculum. Oral literature of American Indians includes didactic stories, told to maintain tribal mores and value systems; it also includes humorous and entertaining stories, as well as histories of various American Indian peoples. Anthropologists and…
Harlow, Steven; Cummings, Rhoda
Discusses the effective use of instructional technology and examines the use of instructional technology within the framework of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's theory of learning, which views learning as a function of expectation and engagement of the student within the context of the learning experience. (Author/LRW)
This essay about the work of a famous anthropologist is an attempt to illuminate one way that researchers could apply their findings about the behavior of people in particular groups to ethical considerations of social relations. I argue that Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) is a good example because he applied a few seminal ideas to a wide range of…
A general observation about the vocabularies of most languages is that they tend to increase in size over time. Little is known about the causal mechanisms involved in this lexical expansion, but most anthropologists and linguists are in agreement that it probably mirrors general cultural evolution. The study of lexical growth becomes important if…
Serrie, Hendrick, Ed.
The range and possibilities of "business anthropology" are explored in fourteen papers. The papers are presented in an order designed to illustrate five major roles for anthropologists interested in working with business: (1) conducting cross-cultural orientation programs for business personnel working in foreign countries or with different…
Selig, Ruth O., Ed.; Brooks, Alison S., Ed.; Lanouette, JoAnne, Ed.
The journal is intended for anthropologists, archaeologists, teachers, museum and other professionals interested in the wider dissemination of anthropology, particularly in schools. It offers in-depth articles on current anthropological research, teaching activities, and reviews of new resources. The winter/spring issue contains four sections: (1)…
Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.
For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general outline of the most…
Lippy, Charles H.
Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)
Berendzen, R. (Editor)
A symposium is reported on the implications of the possibility of extraterrestrial life for social, philosophical, and humanistic impacts. The viewpoints from astronomers, biologists, physicists, anthropologists, and theologians are given. Costs involved for finding this life are discussed along with the possible benefits to society. The direct implications from radio telescopes, the Pioneer 10 plaque, and discussions between the panelists are also reported.
Mohatt, Gerald V.
In 1951 the anthropologist and psychoanalyst George Devereux wrote "Reality and Dream," on his analysis of an American Indian patient. In the prologue to the book, he summarizes his approach as such: "Whatever happened between Jimmy and myself on the personal level happened between two men of good will and concerns only us: it concerns two men…
The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…
Background/Context: In the 1970s, Lawrence Cremin urged researchers to remember that education is more than schooling. Few heeded this call, perhaps because of the absence of the theoretical framework needed to make this more than a platitude. As a cultural anthropologist, I argue that education is a fundamental human activity that is infinitely…
This article explores the concept of "cleverness" as it is employed by Tanzanian youth to improve their likelihood of succeeding in school. It analyzes the Swahili term "ujanja," which combines cleverness, opportunism, and deception, while it also illustrates an educational anthropologist's ongoing process of…
Lenneberg, Eric H., Ed.
A cross-section of language research at mid-century from the viewpoint of the psychologist, biologist, and anthropologist is offered in this book bearing on problems of (1) maturation, (2) social anthropology, (3) human biology, (4) experimental psychology, and (5) primary acquisition of speech and language. Five papers delivered at a symposium on…
A social anthropologist suggests that other decision making models besides the consensual one (which assumes that the public behaves in accordance with values and attitudes) should be adopted by education as a result of shrinking resources, and discusses approaches to making decisions resulting from P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped…
Olatunji, P. G.
There are often many problems, as well as many benefits, in the incorporation of non-local (alien) cultures into an existing cultural framework. This paper explores this process; it consists of five parts, beginning with a detailed definition and discussion of the meaning of culture as seen by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and…
Heathcote, Dorothy; Herbert, Phyl
When the "mantle of the expert" system of teaching is used in drama, the teacher assumes a fictional role which places the student in the position of being the expert. In this project, students were historians/anthropologists charged with the responsibility of creating a Bronze Age community. (MT)
The premise of this 14 week anthropology course is that endeavors by the mass media should be understood as cultural enterprises. Students will examine the means by which anthropologists, photographers, filmmakers, writers, new reporters or other observers translate their observations of another culture to members of their own culture. The Eskimo…
DeLoache, Judy S., Ed.; Gottlieb, Alma, Ed.
People living in different parts of the world hold diverse beliefs about the nature and the nurturing of infants. Celebrating that diversity and based on the research of anthropologists, psychologists, and historians, this book presents information on child care from seven societies around the world, past and present, illustrating how the…
As part of a study that sought ways to improve the language arts educational experience for Grenadian children, an anthropologist investigated how Carriacou Creole English (CCE) reading materials could be provided and how these children would react to them. CCE is the native language of the inhabitants of Carriacou, a sister island of Grenada. The…
Kimball, Solon T.
An anthropological perspective on the educative process is presented in the four parts of this book. Part 1, "An Anthropological Overview," suggests some of the many viewpoints from which anthropology says something about education. For instance, methodologically, anthropologists look at the whole context of a learning situation rather than at…
Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the idea that anthropology is composed of a number of subdisciplines and that cultural anthropology has numerous subfields which are the specialty areas for many practicing anthropologists. Beginning with a general discussion…
van de Laar, Paul Th.
Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…
Handy, Rollo; Harwood, E. C.
This book discusses modern scientific inquiry and examines the procedures of inquiry into human behavior used in the behavioral science disciplines. Psychologists look at the individual's adjustive procedures and the evolution of those adjustments within a species. Anthropologists inquire into the behavioral similarities and differences of human…
Keefe, Susan Emley, Ed.
In this book, 17 psychologists, anthropologists, social workers and others explore important theoretical and applied issues concerning the mental health of Appalachian people. Rejecting the view of Appalachia as an area dominated by a culture of poverty, these papers portray a strong regional culture based on family, community, and religion. This…
Dr. Mead, the world-renowned anthropologist and expert behavioral scientist, is associated with the American Museum of Natural History, which acts as her headquarters as she documents her observations on Man, society and technology. She discusses the need to develop specialists with concern for saving the endangered planet earth. (Editor/GR)
The monochromatic view of early anthropologists tended toward oversimplification, reductionism, and the notion that all cultures were internally consistent. This view must be replaced by a "dual vision" which sees field research as an intercultural exchange. The dual vision can also apply to education, another field concerned with ethnicity,…
Lawrence, Pensile, Comp.; And Others
This book presents English and Ponape versions of the stories, legends, and histories originally transcribed by anthropologists attached to the Thilenius South Sea Expedition of 1908-1910. The natives of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia who related these stories are identified, but the material is much older and represents the cultural heritage…
Winterhalder, Bruce; Evans, Tom
Computerized analysis of a geographic database (GIS) for Cuyo Cuyo, (Dept. Puno, Peru) is used to correlate the agricultural production zones of two adjacent communities to altitude, slope, aspect, and other geomorphological features of the high-altitude eastern escarpment landscape. The techniques exemplified will allow ecological anthropologists to analyze spatial patterns at regional scales with much greater control over the data.
In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…
Clifford-Napoleone, Amber R.
Anthropologist James Clifford published his influential essay "Museums as Contact Zones" in 1997. He explored the aspects and limits of museums as contact zones in the globalized world, and focused on the museum's role in cross-cultural dialogue in the twentieth century. In "A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact…
Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others
Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…
Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.
Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…
“Healing circle” is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines. PMID:25105070
Miller, Patrick W.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…
Young, Richard F.
In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…
Blot, Richard K.
The heuristic value of Chilcott's essay lies less in its support for structural functionalism and more in its concern to reexamine theory in the work of earlier educational anthropologists for what earlier theories and practices can add to current research. (SLD)
Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.
Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…
Rice, Patricia C.
Describes a hands-on project in which anthropology students play the role of professional physical anthropologist in collecting and analyzing data on a small group of contemporary humans. Use of simulated data to represent ancestral populations results in an analysis of microevolution. (KH)
Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.
This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…
A growing number of universities have implemented community-based research pedagogy into their undergraduate education. Integrating academic training with community engagement has the potential to engage students in a way volunteering may not. This interview with Trisha Thorme, an anthropologist and assistant director of Princeton University's…
Florez-Morris, Mauricio; Tafur, Irene
Video production has come into widespread use in various fields of social science. Visual anthropologists (Pink 2006), psychologists (Webster and Sell 2007), historians (Ferro 2000), and visual sociologists (Newman 2006) have used films and videos to document, to preserve, and to analyze social data. There is no reason to think that the use of…
Berkowitz, Susan G.
Many anthropologists believe that anthropology stands to gain from devoting greater attention to history and historical questions. A successful synthesis of anthropology and history would not be difficult to achieve for several reasons. First, the two disciplines share fundamentally similar subject matters. Anthropology is the exploration of the…
Smith, David M.
Discusses distinctions between the anthropology of education and educational research. Although the educationist generally has a technocist view of the reality of schooling (how to do it more efficiently), the anthropologist deals with the relational reality of schooling (what events mean to participants). (SLD)
Sapolsky, Robert M.
Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…
Decency would suggest that people should be allowed to bury their own dead. But, with the help of a climate of racial intimidation, modern Indian tribes, backed by the federal government, asserted exclusive ownership of everything before Columbus. Glynn Custred remembers a stalwart anthropologist who cried foul and preserved the knowledge of our…
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
Jobs and job satisfaction are the focus of this transcript of a radio series broadcast by the National Public Radio System entitled "Can You Get There from Here?" The second of a 4-part series on the relationship between schooling and jobs, this program centers around an interview with anthropologist Elliot Liebow, author of "Tally's Corner," and…
This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)
Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…
Klee, Carol A.
The Standards for Foreign Language Learning present a definition of language teaching that includes the sociolinguistic and cultural aspects of language. The article analyzes the concept of communicative competence as used by sociolinguists and anthropologists and examines some of the components of communication (interpersonal, interpretive, and…
Meredith, R. Alan
The interdependence of language and culture highlights the need to find methods for second language students to acquire cultural information and practices. This article reviews definitions of culture posited by anthropologists and language educators and discusses problems related to the recent paradigm shift from "small "c" and big "C"" as…
Washburn, S. L.
There is no clearly defined, universally accepted evolutionary theory that social anthropologists must accept. There has been great progress in the understanding of genetic mechanisms, but there are still major controversies. The most fundamental problem comes from postulating genes to account for behaviors. (Author/AM)
Bodine, John J.
Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)
The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal culture to this…
In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…
Grove, Cornelius Lee
The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…
Young people represent the future, and youth is an eternal topic. In the 1970s when the American anthropologist Margaret Mead published her famous work "Generation Gap," research on generations gained sudden popularity worldwide, and ever since the 1980s when "Generation Gap" was brought to China, research by scholars in this country on the…
Culture, Freedom, and Pedagogy in the Public School Classroom: Learning To Teach from an Anthropological Point of View or Pedagogical Anthropology and the Reform of Public Education. A Teaching Essay (with Associated Supplement).
Steffy, D. Michael
Educators must realize that today's public schools are a specialized development out of the universal culture-process. Research anthropologists have identified cross-culturally as enculturation, the process of acquiring a culture. By virtue of being born into a specific socio-cultural group, all humans have culture, and all human groups…
This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact" culture of Bali. The…
Rabinowitz, Dan; Shamir, Ronen
The tension surrounding Barnard College's determination of whether to grant tenure to anthropologist Nadia Abu El-Haj was resolved this fall. Barnard reached a positive decision. The affair, however, leaves a number of important issues open. At the center of this controversy stands Abu El-Haj's first book, "Facts on the Ground: Archaeological…
Zierdt, Ginger L.
This article profiles Maria Montessori, an international ambassador for children who became known for her theories and methods of pedagogy, called the "Montessori Method." Montessori developed an educational theory, which combined ideas of scholar Froebel, anthropologists Giuseooe Serge, French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Sequin, with…
Regional suburbanization processes are transforming rural America socially and physically, threatening the uniqueness of small towns whose diversity is a national resource. This article reviews existing holistic descriptions of American rural communities since post-World War II by rural sociologists and anthropologists. Three new community case…
Foster, Andrea L.
Since its unveiling in 2003, professors and college students have flocked to the virtual world of Second Life. Professors use Second Life to hold distance-education classes, saying that communication among students becomes livelier when they assume digital personae. Anthropologists and sociologists see the virtual world as a laboratory for…
Deyhle, Donna; McCarty, Teresa L.
Over a 50-year professional career, Dr. Beatrice Medicine never failed to assert the importance of Indigenous language rights or to challenge racism in the academy, public schools, and society. She urged educational anthropologists to confront racism in our research with Indigenous peoples. She challenged linguicism and urged the teaching of…
Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.
The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…
Waddell, Jack O., Ed.; Watson, O. Michael, Ed.
Three main questions related to American Indians in urban society are discussed by 9 anthropologists and 1 American Indian in this 3-part book. Part 1 deals with historical and current urbanization trends and their effects on American Indians, in addition to providing a historical approach to governmental policies and attitudes toward the American…
Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle
Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…
Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann
Through poetry and strips of narrative, this paper discusses the embodied experience of chemical sensitivity and the anthropologist author's and other patients' journey through altered perception towards knowledge, community and transformation in the context of a medical clinic. The narratives are situated in several strands of relevant theory,…
TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT CULTURALLY-BASED WAYS OF LEARNING AND COMMUNICATING MIGHT HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING, AN ANTHROPOLOGIST AND A BEHAVIORIST CONDUCTED BOTH FORMAL AND INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS AND INTERVIEWS IN FOUR JOB CORPS CENTERS AND TWO VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS, ONE WITH A STUDENT POPULATION OF 86 PERCENT WHITE AND 14 PERCENT NEGRO,…
Butler, Edward R.
Alcohol use and abuse has received extensive attention, with recent concerns focused on the use and abuse of alcohol by adolescents and young adults. Alcohol use has become one of the major rituals in the rites of passage from childhood to adulthood. Anthropologists have documented the importance of rites of passage rituals for marking the…
Butler, Edward R.
In many ways young people appear to be using and abusing alcohol as a ritual in their "rites of passage" to adulthood, perhaps as a symbolic means to demonstrate their "adultness." Anthropologists have documented the importance of rites of passage rituals for marking the successful passage from one position in a social structure to another. Rites…
Malone, Dennis L.
With the gloomy prospect of massive language extinction over the next 100 years, efforts by applied linguists, educational anthropologists, and multilingual educators to reverse the trends in language loss are increasing. Education in minority languages seems to be a key to maintaining endangered languages and cultures. One often cited challenge…
Winkler, Karen J.
While Freud's reputation is in decline among psychiatrists and psychologists, it is on the rise among literary and film critics, historians, anthropologists, and political scientists, where it is being adopted as a tool to help analyze historical movements, literary works and films, cultural patterns, and political theories. (MSE)
Kueng, W; Silber, E; Eppenberger, U
The method for cell number measurement in monolayer cultures by crystal violet staining published recently by Gillies et al. (R. G. Gillies, N. Didier, M. Denton (1986) Anal. Biochem. 159, 109-113) was modified and significantly improved. The procedure was adapted for use in 96-well plates since the method is inherently very sensitive. Modifications allowed fast and complete solubilization of dye adsorbed by cell nuclei during staining. Since light absorption of the unstained or destained cell layers is negligible, cell number measurements can be performed in the respective wells. Due to these features, multiple assays may be carried out rapidly using standard 96-well plate readers. In addition, it is shown that the sensitivity of the assay can be varied and easily controlled by choosing the appropriate pH during the staining procedure. This increases the flexibility of the method making it useful for determining cell density of a wide range of different cell types. PMID:2604040
Carr, Paul H.
In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.
As Beller, Bender, and Medin (in press) pointed out in their target article, in the contemporary study of culture in psychology, anthropology is virtually invisible. In this commentary, I traced this invisibility to a root conflict in epistemological goals of the two disciplines: Whereas anthropologists value rich description of specific cultures, psychologists aspire to achieve theoretical simplicity. To anthropologists, then, to understand culture is to articulate symbolic systems that are at work in a given location at a given time. In contrast, to psychologists, to understand culture amounts to identifying socio-cultural variables that moderate psychological effects. These divergent epistemological goals dictate both theoretical perspectives and empirical approaches in both disciplines. Yet, the two goals are both valid and in fact complementary. A renewed effort toward integration of the two goals may enrich both disciplines. PMID:22684774
Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A
Forensic anthropologists have become increasingly involved in the interpretation of skeletal trauma caused by exploding ordnance. This study examines the cause and significance of butterfly fractures observed in a recent study investigating skeletal blast trauma by Christensen et al. Fractured ribs resulting from blast events carried out in the original study were re-examined revealing that rib butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface were present in 100% of viable pig specimens. Additionally, manual fracture testing was performed on 46 pig ribs to simulate the bending force believed to have been sustained in the original blast events. Fracture testing resulted in 93% of specimens presenting butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface. This fracture pattern differs significantly from that normally observed in association with other types of trauma events and may aid forensic anthropologists and other investigators in the identification and interpretation of blast events. PMID:23126284
Kendell, Ashley E; Fleischman, Julie M; Fulginiti, Laura C
Within the context of medical examiner's offices, forensic anthropologists are increasingly being asked to assist with the interpretation of traumatic skeletal injury. This case study presents an example of trauma analysis performed by forensic anthropologists at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. The primary goal of this study is to document an uncommon pattern of traumatic injury-severe grinding abrasions of the lower appendage that macroscopically resemble sharp force trauma, especially as observed in dismemberment cases-resulting from an individual being dragged beneath a Light Rail train for c. 1.7 miles. The abraded skeletal elements include a femoral shaft fragment, a femoral head portion, and the right foot. Second, this study aims to illustrate the efficacy of forensic anthropological analysis of patterned skeletal trauma. Finally, this study demonstrates the critical importance of analyzing scene information before drawing conclusions as to the etiology of a traumatic injury pattern. PMID:25689938
Pasquale-Styles, Melissa A; Crowder, Christian M; Fridie, Jeannette; Milla, Sarah S
Bilateral symmetric bone nodules were observed in the anterolateral first ribs of an infant with shaking injuries at autopsy. The location prompted diagnostic considerations of healing fractures versus anomalous articulations with pseudarthroses. The forensic pathologist worked with forensic anthropologists and pediatric radiologists to evaluate autopsy findings and compare premortem and postmortem X-rays. Gross examination of the bones by the pathologist and anthropologists confirmed bilateral, callus-like bone nodules in first-rib locations associated with pseudarthroses. Histologic examination of one of the bones further showed features most consistent with pseudarthrosis, not a healing fracture. Radiologists then compared multiple premortem and postmortem radiographs that showed no remodeling of the bone over a 2-week interval between the time of injury and death, which would be unexpected for a healing fracture in an infant. This multidisciplinary approach resulted in the appropriate diagnosis of pseudarthroses due to anomalous articulations, an uncommon finding in forensic pathology. PMID:25382601
Herman, E; Bentley, M E
The authors' experience in developing a manual based on ethnographic methods for collecting, analyzing and using information about the 'cultural context of diarrhea' is presented. The goal of the process outlined in the manual is to recommend programmatic strategies and educational messages that are likely to be effective in achieving the adoption of appropriate diarrhea case management behaviors by mothers. The implications of manuals of this type for the role of anthropologists, and for social science capacity building in developing country programs are discussed. While recognizing that this approach risks limiting the anthropologist's role to a technical one, the authors suggest that appropriate application of program specific manuals can encourage anthropological input into formulating program policies and strategies. PMID:1462176
Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind–body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind–body holism in non-Western cultures, mind–body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind–body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind–body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, lastly, the role of mind–body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind–body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental healthcare. PMID:18784989
McCreery, J L
Anthropologists who accept the functionalist dogma that everything in a culture is related to everything else can easily demonstrate from their own point of view that any ritual is richly meaningful. If, then, the healing power of therapeutic ritual depends on making illness meaningful, any ritual, if seen from this perspective, should be efficacious. We must distinguish, however, between potential and effective meaning, i.e. what a ritual might mean and what it does mean to participants in it who generally lack an anthropologist's global view of their culture. Effective meaning can be assessed by examining a ritual's relevance to the situation in which it occurs and factors which facilitate or hinder communication of what it might mean to particular persons. This argument is illustrated by analyzing the meaning of a Chinese healing ritual in two different situations in which it occurs. PMID:498802
Dahlberg, Britt; Barg, Frances K.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wittink, Marsha N.
Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps “individual disease” and “culture” disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. PMID:20428332
Chipfakacha, V G
The purpose of this article is to show the advancement in knowledge of cesarean sections among African traditional healers before the advent of colonialism and introduction of scientific medicine (allopathy) to Africa. The case mentioned below was witnessed by Robert W. Felkin, a Scottish medical anthropologist, in Uganda in 1879. Felkin subsequently wrote a medical dissertation on his observations, which he submitted to Marburg University, Deutsche Reich (now Federal Republic of Germany), in 1885. PMID:2673530
While considerable progress has been made, disabled people are still perceived as "separate" beings in our society. For them to be integrated, it is necessary to accept their difference and favour their autonomy. The respect of the rights of disabled people thereby enables professionals to position themselves within an ethical support approach. An interview with Charles Gardou, an anthropologist and university professor at Lumière-Lyon 2 University. PMID:24941528
Morren, George E. B., Jr.
Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.
Turda's article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania's ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459
Turda’s article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania’s ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459
Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles. PMID:25697337
Goodrum, Matthew R
Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly. PMID:25665380
Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan
alert. Didier Bompangue and Silvan Vesenbeckh contributed equally to this work. *corresponding author: Silvan Vesenbeckh, Harvard School of Public Health (firstname.lastname@example.org) Didier Bompangue is Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology (University of Kinshasa) and Epidemiologist in the DRC Ministry of Health. He was involved in the investigations of the described outbreak since February 2011. PMID:22453903
Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta
Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305
de Beer, Hans
In the late-Middle Ages and at the onset of the early modern period, the Dutch population was taller than in the first half of the 19th century. This inference is partially based on skeletal evidence, mainly collected by the Dutch physical anthropologist George Maat and his co-workers. A spectacular increase in Dutch heights began in the second half of the 19th century and accelerated in the second half of the 20th century. At the end of the 20th century, the Dutch became tallest in the world. PMID:15463992
Uhl, Natalie M; Rainwater, Christopher W; Konigsberg, Lyle W
Body size reconstructions of fossil hominins allow us to infer many things about their evolution and lifestyle, including diet, metabolic requirements, locomotion, and brain/body size relationships. The importance of these implications compels anthropologists to attempt body mass estimation from fragmentary fossil hominin specimens. Most calculations require a known "calibration" sample usually composed of modern humans or other extant apes. Caution must be taken in these analyses, as estimates are sensitive to overall size and allometric differences between the fossil hominin and the reference sample. PMID:23588924
Using psychoanalytic theory, this paper attempts to trace the natural history of the phenomenon designated as Culture. It postulates that psychoanalysis, a product of the Hegelian philosophical revolution, is still one of the best instruments to understand Culture. It traces the origins of culture as postulated by Freud and the pioneer anthropologists and its course from early and evolved religion through humanism, science, and finally postmodernism. It emphasizes the dialectical concepts in psychoanalysis and reviews summarily those psychoanalysts that, according to the author, have had a major impact on the study of culture: Freud, Horney, and Lacan. PMID:11760661
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.
While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.
This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Lamaze childbirth educators are responsible for teaching wellness-based classes that do not add to the anxiety of the current, fear-based culture of maternity health care. Expectant parents' vulnerable months of pregnancy offer “teachable moments” for the childbirth educator, during which parents can be encouraged to alter their lifestyles and adopt the concept of wellness to their principles of living. In this article, concepts of wellness are examined, drawing from the writings of wellness advocates, midwifery researchers, and an anthropologist. Nutrition, physical exercise, breathing, and awareness of the five senses are components of potential class content explored in this article. PMID:17273442
Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P
Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts. PMID:16267966
Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504580