Science.gov

Sample records for anthropometric nutritional diagnosis

  1. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  2. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Studies carried out during the last decade have led to a better understanding of the value of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. The present report concentrates on data concerning 0-5-year-old children and examines the indices of weight and height and the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. The need for a reference population as well as for a standard or target is recognized and the advantages and disadvantages of local versus international reference populations are discussed. In the analysis of data, preference is given to the use of standard deviation (SD) scores and to the presentation of whole distributions. Cut-offs, for example -2SD, are needed for comparison of prevalences and for screening of populations. Sequential or serial measurements and the increasing use of growth velocities are discussed and their uses and difficulties are outlined. PMID:3493862

  3. [Anthropometric nutritional evaluation of the pregnant women and its relation with the product of the gestation].

    PubMed

    Carrillo, S Martin; Pérez Guillén, A; Hernández Hernández, R Armenia; Herrera Mogollón, H A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between the anthropometric nutritional state of the pregnant women during his third trimester of pregnancy with the anthropometric state nutritional of the product of the gestation, who carried out their prenatal control in the University Hospital of Caracas and the Hospital of Caracas Clinics. The evaluated variables were: pregestational weight, gestational weight, chart, average circumference of the arm and fold of triceps; the anthropometric indicators were constructed: index of corporal mass (IMC) pregestational and gestational and of corporal composition such as greasy and muscular area of the arm. In new born, one evaluated the weight and the stature and so the ponderal index was constructed (IP), as well as the clinical evaluation of the nutritional state of the newborn one (ECEN). Statistical Package SPSS 13,0 for Windows, calculating statistical descriptive basic and coefficient of correlation of Pearson was used (p 0.05). The results indicate that when considering the associations between the maternal variables and anthropometric indicators with the neonatal ones is to a great extent positive correlation, of this form, cases as the average circumference of arm (CMB) maternal were statistically significant with the ponderal index and puntaje ECEN, indicating that the maternal CMB is constituted like an indicative variable of the nutritional state of the newborn one. The early incorporation in the routine monitoring of the prenatal control, the anthropometric valuation with effective simple variables of low cost is recommended and, being able to detect nutritional alterations in which it is found opportunely to prevent adverse results in the newborn one. PMID:21336443

  4. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  5. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran.

    PubMed

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  6. The impact of oedema on anthropometric measurements in nutritional surveys: a case study from Zaire

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Robert R.; Dikassa, Lusamba N.; Bertrand, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Six surveys for protein-energy malnutrition were carried out in sequence in Bas-Zaire beginning at the end of 1978 at the estimated height of the famine and continuing throughout the recovery period. Utilizing a stratified multi-stage sampling technique, over 1000 children aged 6 months to 6 years were measured anthropometrically and examined for the presence or absence of bilateral pedal oedema in each survey. The proportions of children who were less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height and who had oedema decreased, respectively, from 12.8% and 14.4% initially to 2.1% and 1.8% in the final survey. The proportion of oedematous children who were found to be not less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was high, varying from 71.7 ± 7.0% to 94.4 ± 10.6%. The importance of these findings for the interpretation of anthropometric data from nutritional surveys in developing countries is discussed. PMID:6609019

  7. The impact of a nutritional intervention on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the health Gym Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 ± 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme. PMID:26060972

  8. [Nutritional screening tool versus anthropometric assessment in hospitalized children: which method is better associated to clinical outcomes?].

    PubMed

    Márquez Costa, María Verónica; Alberici Pastore, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization contributes to worsening of the nutritional status and malnutrition is associate to increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to asses nutritional status/risk using anthropometry and the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), comparing their results to clinical outcomes. For that propose, was conducted an observational longitudinal study with children up to one month of life, hospitalized in Pediatric ward of a teaching hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by Body Mass Index for age and weight for age. Nutritional risk was classified as high, intermediate or low. The length of stay, clinical outcome and complications were taken of the medical records. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Research. Were evaluated 181 children, from both sexes. The median age was 8.8 (IQR 3.3; 26.9) months and the median length of stay was 7 (IQR 4; 10) days. There was 20.8% of malnutrition in children younger than one year. Most of the children (55.3%) were classified as in intermediate nutritional risk. The length of stay was associated to nutritional risk, while anthropometry was associated to only in those younger than one year. There were five infectious complication, not associated to nutritional status/risk. Therefore, nutritional risk was significantly associated to length of stay, showing that STRONGkids was a better method compared to anthropometric nutritional assessment to predict this outcome. PMID:26320301

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  10. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  11. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  12. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  13. Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454

  14. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, TE; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Subjects and Methods: Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of < 3 meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who “ate out” < 2 times/day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Conclusion: Findings should inform policy, via the “Health in All” policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments. PMID:26035813

  15. A study of the geographical clustering of districts in Uttar Pradesh using nutritional anthropometric data of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. Vishnu Vardhana; Kumar, Sharad; Brahmam, G.N.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Worldwide variations in human growth and its genetic and environmental factors have been described. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the morphological differences and similarities among under 5 year children of rural areas of Uttar Pradesh State in India, and to determine differences or similarities of body size among children living in diverse regions. Methods: For this purpose, a cross-sectional district nutrition profile study conducted during 2002-2003 was used. The data on 10,096 children drawn from 1080 villages in 54 districts were part of the district level Diet and Nutrition Assessment survey. The mean values for height and weight for 54 districts were taken as the input data for subsequent analysis. The data were first normalized by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and then K-means clustering was performed. Results: The PCA and cluster analysis yielded four distinguishable clusters or patterns in the anthropometric data of children. These clusters were ordered according to the average body size (weight and height) of children. The mean stature and body weight of these children in cluster I were 3.2 cm and 1.4 kg higher than those of cluster IV indicating differences between clusters. Also, the variations between clusters in their social, demographic, health and nutrition parameters were compared. Interpretation & conclusions: The use of PCA and cluster analysis methods and their merits in studying the Uttar Pradesh preschool children growth variations are discussed. These results helped in identifying the districts with higher prevalence of undernutrition and the contributing factors. PMID:23481054

  16. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. I. Descriptive and anthropometric data.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    By sequential random numbering 10 schools in greater Winnipeg were selected for a nutrition survey. Interviews were conducted with 201 grade 3 children and 182 grade 6 children for whom parental consent was obtained. Of these, 48 in grade 3 and 51 in grade 6 were studied in further detail. There were no differences in descriptive data between the general and detailed groups or among the 10 schools. Most fathers were skilled or unskilled labourers and about 50% of the mothers were homemakers without outside employment; parental occupation did not influence eating patterns. Breakfast was the meal most often missed; 8% of the 383 children had come to school without breakfast. Since many children in grade 3 had prepared their own breakfast and since there was a relative lack of physical activity, school health programs should incorporate more than nutritional supplements and nutrition education. On the basis of body weight and height the nutritional status of the 99 children studied in detail was judged to be generally satisfactory; according to the Boston standards the boys were heavy and tall, and the girls were normal in weight but short. PMID:837314

  17. Nutritional and anthropometric assessment of a sample of pregnant women and young children in Palau.

    PubMed

    Pobocik, R S; Heathcote, G M; Spiers, J B; Otto, C T

    2000-06-01

    This study examines the diet and body constitution of a small sample of pregnant women, n = 27, and children, n = 32, enrolled in the Maternal and Child Health program at the Public Health/Community Health Center in Koror, Palau. Twenty-four hour diet recalls were collected from both groups, 17 anthropometric and body composition measurements were made on the women and a range of body measurements from height to a full battery of 28 measures were obtained from the children. Diets were found to be low in energy, calcium and zinc. Women consume micronutrients primarily from fish, traditional starches, vegetables and fruits, while children rely more on fortified grain products and milk. The energy distribution is higher in protein and fat and lower in carbohydrate than earlier reports of adult Palauans. A significant minority of the women (27%) have body fat or body mass index profiles indicative of clinically significant obesity or energy storage deficit, both problematic in terms of pregnancy outcomes. While sample sizes of infant and young child cohorts are very small, our findings indicate that a relatively high proportion of these younger children, have experienced inadequate growth and development This is especially true of females, among whom stunting (height deficients) and especially wasting (weight and arm circumference deficits) were in greater evidence. PMID:24394396

  18. Nutritional intake and anthropometric changes of professional road cyclists during a 4-day competition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, C; Zabala, M; Muros, J J

    2016-07-01

    Appropriate nutrition through adequate dietary intake of total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients is an essential component of optimizing the performance of all elite athletes. The aim of this study was to describe the food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of professional cyclists during the Tour of Andalusia, a four-stage race covering a total distance of 647.6 km. Nutritional data were collected by trained investigators who weighed all of the food and fluid ingested by the cyclists. The nutritional intake of the cyclists was as follows: CHO, 12.8 ± 1.7 g/kg of body weight (BW; 62.3%); fat, 2.1 ± 0.2 g/kg BW (23.2%); proteins, 3.0 ± 0.3 g/kg BW (14.5%); total kcal was 5644.3 ± 593.1. Intake of all micronutrients, except for folate and potassium [which were 93.7% and 91.3% of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)] exceeded the RDA/I. Percentage of body fat and fat weight significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while weight of muscle mass remained unchanged after the Tour. Concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and high-density lipoproteins significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the Tour. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe both nutritional intake and the body and biochemical composition of a sample of professional road cyclists during a top-class cycling race. PMID:26104055

  19. [Vitamin A deficiency and the anthropometric nutritional status of urban and rural marginalized children in the state of Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Daisy; Viloria-Castejón, Haydée; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Urrieta, Jesús R; Lobo, Pablo; Estévez, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    The present transversal study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of both vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and protein-energy malnutrition among children (24 to 85 months) from three urban slums (n = 173) in Maracaibo city, Zulia State, Venezuela and a rural slum area (n = 34), vieinal to Maracaibo, by measuring serum retinol and z score of anthropometric indices Height//Age (H//AZ); Weight//Age (W//AZ) and Weight//Height (W//HZ), compared to NCHS-WHO reference values. The Graffar's methodology adapted to Venezuela by Méndez Castellano (1986) confirmed the underprivileged socio-economic condition of the children population. For serum retinol analysis, peripheral venous blood was drawn and serum was treated according to the Bieri et al. (1979) technique and HPLC procedure. Values were recorded in microgram/dL. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info 2000, release 1.0 and SAS release 6.0 (1996) computer programs. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dL) in the total children population (n = 207) was 22.2%, being higher in urban children than in rural children (22.5% vs 20.5%). No clinical signs of VAD were detected in the children. The nutritional status analysed by Z score of anthropometric indices revealed that 27.4% of children suffered from undernutrition (Z score = -2 to > -3 SD), being 15.4% stunted, 9.6% wasted and 2.6% with acute protein-energy malnutrition. Neither severe malnutrition nor overweight were detected. According with the H//AZ index, 54.6% of children had adequate nutrition. However 23% of them suffered from VAD. In children at risk of developing undernutrition (Z score = -1 to > -2 SD), 20.9% had VAD and of the stunted children, 21.9% presented VAD. With W//AZ, 60.3%, 29.9% and 9.1% of children were with adequate nutrition, at risk, or wasted respectively; of each group, 25.6%, 17.7% and 15%, respectively had serum retinol values below 20 micrograms/dL. The Z score of W//HZ indicator revealed that 87.4%, 10.4% and 2

  20. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity. PMID:19656810

  1. [From anthropometrical evaluation to the prediction of nutritional facts at infancy].

    PubMed

    Mardones-restat, F; Jones, G; Diaz, M

    1990-04-01

    This study developed instruments to predict the unsatisfactory growth of children in the context of social programs, (health, education, nutrition, social work, food and employment) which measure the probability of malnutrition using anthropometry. Variables used were biological and social (family incompetency). A cohort of 822 breastfeeding infants were followed prospectively from prenatal until 12 months of age in 5 primary health clinics in Santiago, Chile. Weight by age was the dependent variable, defined as "unsatisfactory growth" if it was under the 20th percentile established by the World Health Organization. By 1 year, 32% of the study population was in this category, reflecting national statistics; at 3 months 8% of the infant population and no more than 2% of those breastfeeding were under the 20th percentile. 25 high risk variables were selected that also demonstrated a high correlation with weight and age and these were evaluated by using 3 statistical methods: 1) the relative simple risk (RRS) used by the WHO; 2) logistical regression; and 3) classification and regression trees (CART). PMID:12283399

  2. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  3. [Evolution of the nutritional status of Chilean children from preschool to school age: anthropometric results according to the source of the data].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Galván, Marcos; Taibo, Marcela; Corvalán, Camila; Lera, Lydia; Uauy, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Because the results of the nutritional status released by Chilean institutions which collect anthropometric data on their population under control, show different increments in the prevalence of obesity between preschoolers and children in 1st grade, we decided to verify the real magnitude of this increase. This study is based on a longitudinal investigation which began in 2006 and included 1100, three-year old children, which we evaluated when they were 4, 5 and 6 y. The nutritional status was determined according to BMI Z and WHO References 2006/2007. The information was also used to determine the concordance between the anthropometric data collected on first graders by teachers from public schools in 2009 (JUNAEB data set) and the same children assessed in parallel by INTA (INTA data set). The sample included 474, six-year olds. No differences were found between the average BMI Z and HAZ of the two data sets, and the degree of concordance between the BMI Z's was good (rho = 0.73), however there were differences in the nutritional status, since the prevalence of low weight was significantly greater when assessed with JUNAEB's data (9.5% vs. 3.6% ), while that for obesity was lower with INTA's data, 17.5% vs. 19.2% (not significantly different). At 4 and 5 y, obesity prevalence of the children was 13.3% and 15.7% respectively (INTA's data). Considering the observed nutritional trajectory, it is likely that the rise in obesity between 4 and 6 y of age, was 4 percentage points and not 6, as was determined with INTA's data. PMID:21427882

  4. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  5. Assessment of Under Nutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) amongst Toddlers Residing in Urban Slums of Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Soni, G.P.; Jain, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Shubhra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several indicators have been used for measurement of under nutrition in the past. They are overlapping and none individually provide a comprehensive number of under nourished in the community. The effort has been to discuss the use of an alternative indicator of malnutrition – the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Aim To study the prevalence of under nutrition of Toddlers using CIAF and compare the prevalence of under nutrition obtained by primitive indicators and CIAF. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional community based study was carried out in urban slums of Raipur (C.G) during Jan 01,2014 to Sept 30, 2014 using sample size of 602. Slums were selected by multistage random sampling and the subjects were selected by convenient sampling, i.e. starting from a random point house to house survey was carried out until desired number of subjects (According to PPS) were covered assuming that slum population is evenly distributed. Attendant of Toddlers were interviewed with semi structured proforma and Height and Weight were measured by measuring tape and Salter’s weighing machine respectively. Informed consent was obtained. MS excel was used for data analysis after compilation. Results Girls and boys were 50% each. By CIAF the prevalence of under nutrition was found to be 62.1% while, Underweight, Stunting and Wasting showed it to be 45.2%, 46.6% and 17.8% respectively. Conclusion Primitive indices under estimate the burden of under nutrition and CIAF should be used a screening tool for assessing under nutrition. PMID:26393147

  6. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

  7. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r = 0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r = 0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r = 0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r = 0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r = 0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r = 0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r = 0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r = 0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r = 0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r = 0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication

  8. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sett, M; Sahu, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); p<0.0001) is lower and the body fat % (mean 10.63% vs. 13.09%; p<0.0001) of the brick carriers is significantly higher. The hand grip strength (HGS) (horizontal) of the brick workers in right (mean 379.52 vs. 267.72N; p<0.0001) and left (mean 268.78 vs. 162.79N; p<0.0001) hands are significantly greater than the control group. The serum malondialdehyde level is significantly higher (mean 99.97 vs. 160.21nmol/mg of protein; p<0.0001) but the superoxide dismutase level (mean 6.71 vs. 3.34unit/mg of protein; p<0.0001), glutathione level (GSH) (mean 3.93 vs. 2.11μg/mg of protein; p<0.0001) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity (mean 5.4 vs. 2.73nmole/min/mg of protein; p<0.0001) are significantly lower than that of the control group. The indirect nutritional assessments have shown that the women are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation. PMID:27005784

  9. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-08-01

    The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA.We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices.In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of all CMA

  10. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  11. Nutritional assessment of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Volpini, Milena Maffei; Frangella, Vera Silvia

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To define the nutritional profile of institutionalized elderly individuals. Methods: Comparative correlation and quantitative field study conducted in a Long-Stay Institution in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil, between December 2010 and January 2012. To define nutritional diagnosis, data were collected from patient files, such as body mass index, circumferences, triceps skinfold, muscle area of the arm, thickness of the adductor pollicis, handgrip strength, and biochemical test results. The anthropometric variables were presented as mean, standard deviation, and percentages, and were grouped by gender and stratified by age. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: One hundred and two elderly individuals were selected, and 84 were females. Excess weight was the most common anthropometric diagnosis in men (n=11; 61%), with the detection of protein depletion in those aged 70 years, and possible cases of sarcopenic obesity. All women were in good health conditions (n=84; 100%). However, in 27% (n=23) of them, protein depletion was evident. Conclusion: More anthropometric studies are necessary which would allow a definition of local reference standards, stratified by gender and age group. The difference between populations and factors, such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, and methodological characteristics, limit the use of international standards, interfering in the reliability of the nutritional diagnosis. PMID:23579741

  12. [Effectiveness of body mass index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Pérez, Gladys; Azuaje-Sánchez, Arelis

    2005-03-01

    Our goal was to analyze the concordances and non-concordances of the nutritional classification in pregnant women and to evaluate their effectiveness when different BMI classification methodologies were applied. The study consisted of 314 adult healthy pregnant women in their first trimester, of socioeconomic status IV. In all of them, two nutritional classification criteria were applied: the integral nutritional diagnosis (IND) and different BMI reference values (Institute of Medicine, FAO/OMS, Frisancho, Bray, and Atalah). Kappa, concordance and nonconcordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The highest frequency of concordance between IND and the analyzed classification criteria in comparing four and three nutritional categories was Frisancho's with the following results 89.2%, Kappa = 0.81 in the first case, and 91.4, Kappa = 0.84 in the second case. In deficit, the Bray and Atalah classification criteria were the highest sensitivities. In excess, FAO/ OMS, Frisancho, and Bray had a high sensitivity (1 - 0.99). Frisancho, in addition, had a high specificity with respect to FAO/OMS and Bray. Frisancho's classification criteria are the best choice for diagnosing adult pregnant women's nutritional status during the first trimester within population groups with these characteristics. PMID:16187677

  13. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  14. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  15. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  16. Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity—The Dietitians Role

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

  17. [Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight. PMID:22776157

  19. [Effectiveness of the Body Mass Index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Pérez, Gladys

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic capacity of different classification criteria based on Body Mass Index in the assessment of nutritional status and to evaluate their effectiveness. The sample comprised 367 healthy pregnant adolescents in their first trimester of gestation, from a socioeconomic level IV, between Oct. 1999 and Dec. 2008. Two methodologies were applied for the nutritional classification: (1) Integral nutritional diagnosis (gold standard), and (2) Body Mass Index (BMI), using local reference values: Proyecto Venezuela and the Transversal Study of Caracas, and international reference values: Frisancho and WHO 2006. Concordances, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden index were calculated. According to the gold standard and BMI, the percentage of well-nourished pregnant women ranged between 62.4% and 80.6%. Within the deficit range, Frisancho was the most effective with kappa: 0.80; sensitivity: 87.3%; specificity: 94.8%; positive likelihood ratio: 16.9, and negative likelihood ratio: 0.13; Youden index: 0.82. Within the excess range, Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas were the most effective with Youden index: 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. These results revealed that Frisancho was the best criterion to diagnose malnutrition in deficit in pregnant women. All references have an adequate diagnostic capacity for the excess range, of which Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas are the best. We recommend using such reference values to optimize the efficiency of the BMI indicator in diagnosing malnutrition in deficit and in excess in the first trimester of gestation in pregnant adolescents within populations with similar characteristics. PMID:21427881

  20. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  1. SNCF experience in anthropometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

  2. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  3. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  4. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  5. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  6. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional

  7. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  8. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  9. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  10. [The canopy and leaf spectral characteristics and nutrition diagnosis of tomato in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-jiao; Li, Min-zan; Yang, Ce; Yang, Wei; Sun, Hong

    2010-11-01

    A green house experiment was conducted to research the characteristics of tomato canopy spectral reflectance and leaf spectral reflectance under different nutrition treatments, and the relationships between spectral reflectance and the water content, chlorophyll content, as well as nitrogen content were analyzed. Substrate cultivation method was used to grow the plants. The substrate was made from a mixture of peat and vermiculite. Test area was prepared for four levels of nutrition to form nutritional stress. There were 12 seedlings under each nutritional condition and a total of 48 seedlings were planted for the experiment. The canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance were measured by an ASD handheld spectroradiometer and a FT-NIR spectrometer respectively. It was observed that the trend of tomato canopy reflectance was similar to each others. There was a reflection peak at about 550 nm, and the reflectance in the visible light region was lower than that in near-infrared region. The results of analysis also indicated that under different nutrient conditions, canopy spectral reflectance characteristics of tomato took on disciplinary change. At near-infrared bands, the reflectance gradually increased with adding nutrition, while reduced at visible light bands. The leaf spectral reflectance characteristics at near-infrared bands had the similar change with the canopy reflectance. There were four sensitive wavelengths of water at near-infrared bands: about 980, 1450, 1 930, and 2 210 nm, and the results of single linear regression (SLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) indicated that the reflectance at these sensitive wavelengths could be used to estimate the water content in tomato leaves. R2 were 0.5903 and 0.7437 respectively. NDCI as one of the most important spectral parameter was calculated by the spectral reflectance of 530 and 760 nm, and the result indicated that there existed a good correlation between NDCI and the nitrogen content, with R2 = 0

  11. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  12. Genome health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics--diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome damage on an individual basis.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The term nutrigenomics refers to the effect of diet on gene expression. The term nutrigenetics refers to the impact of inherited traits on the response to a specific dietary pattern, functional food or supplement on a specific health outcome. The specific fields of genome health nutrigenomics and genome health nutrigenetics are emerging as important new research areas because it is becoming increasingly evident that (a) risk for developmental and degenerative disease increases with DNA damage which in turn is dependent on nutritional status and (b) optimal concentration of micronutrients for prevention of genome damage is also dependent on genetic polymorphisms that alter function of genes involved directly or indirectly in uptake and metabolism of micronutrients required for DNA repair and DNA replication. Development of dietary patterns, functional foods and supplements that are designed to improve genome health maintenance in humans with specific genetic backgrounds may provide an important contribution to a new optimum health strategy based on the diagnosis and individualised nutritional treatment of genome instability i.e. Genome Health Clinics. PMID:17693008

  13. Winter wheat nutrition diagnosis under different N treatments based on multispectral images and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruijiao; Li, Minzan; Li, Shuqiang; Ding, Yongjun

    2010-11-01

    In order to rapidly and accurately acquire winter wheat growing information and nitrogen content, a non-destructive testing method was developed combined with multi-spectral imaging technique and remote sensing technology to research wheat growing and nutrition status. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image collecting platform was developed to acquire visible image and NIR image synchronously, meanwhile, the canopy spectral reflectance and the nitrogen content of wheat leaves were measured and analyzed to research the characteristics of the canopy spectral reflectance. Secondly, using calibration panels the experiential linear calibration model was established between image gray value and spectral reflectance. Thirdly, NIR image was processed to segment wheat canopy from soil and then gray value of wheat leaves was achieved by image processing of Red, Green, and Blue channels. Finally, the gray value of wheat leaves was transformed into spectral reflectance by aforementioned experiential linear model, and the vegetation index were calculated and analyzed to research the winter wheat growing and nitrogen content status. Experiment results showed that it was reasonable to diagnose nitrogen content of winter wheat based on multi-spectral imaging system and experiential linear model. There existed remarkable correlation between vegetation index (NDVI, GNDVI) and nitrogen content of winter wheat, and the correlation coefficients (R2 ) were 0.633 and 0.6.

  14. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  15. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of nutritional deficiencies in alcoholic liver disease: Overview of available evidence and open issues.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is common in alcoholic liver disease and is associated with high rates of complications and mortality. In this article, the current literature was reviewed to highlight the relevance of proper nutritional management providing levels of evidence, when available. A PubMed search was performed for English-language publications from 1980 through 2014 with the keywords: alcoholic liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, nutritional support, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, and protein-energy malnutrition. Manuscripts focused on nutritional approach in patients with alcoholic liver disease were selected. Although nutritional support for malnourished patients improves the outcome of hospitalization, surgery, transplantation and reduces the complications of liver disease and the length of hospital stay, specific guidelines are scanty. Both enteral and parenteral nutrition appear to improve nutritional parameters and liver function; however data on survival is often conflicting. As micronutrient depletion is common in alcoholic liver disease and each deficiency produces specific sequelae, all cirrhotic patients should be screened at baseline for deficiencies of micronutrient and supplemented as needed. In summary, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient depletion are clinical concerns in alcoholic liver disease. Nutritional therapy, including enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and micronutrient supplementation should be part of the multidisciplinary management of these patients. PMID:26164399

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  18. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH OF CANDIDATES FOR SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    SILVEIRA, Thalita Morgana Guimarães; de SOUSA, Juliana Barbosa; STRINGHINI, Maria Luiza Ferreira; FREITAS, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; MELO, Paulla Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values ​​of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. Results The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (diagnosis of nutritional subjective assessment with anthropometric methods and strength of the handshake only at the non-dominant limb. PMID:25004287

  19. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  20. Anthropometric measurements in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, D; Buccheri, G

    2001-10-01

    There is evidence that malnutrition is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer patients and may have an impact on the clinical course of disease. The simplest way to assess nutritional status at the patient's bedside remains recourse to anthropometric measurements. This study was carried out in order to assess the clinical and prognostic significance of triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm circumference (AC), and wrist circumference (WC) in lung cancer. The patient population was a consecutive series of 388 patients seen for a newly diagnosed primary non-small-cell lung cancer during the last 4 years. A set of 22 anthropometric, clinical, physical, laboratory, radiological, and pathological variables was prospectively recorded for all patients. Patients were carefully followed up, and their subsequent clinical course was recorded. The median values of TST, WC and AC were 8 mm (range 2-25 mm), 18 cm (range 10-27 cm), and 25 cm (range 15-35 cm), respectively. In 107 patients (27.6% of the total) TST values were below the reference value, and 37 of these patients also had a pathologically low small circumference. In all, AC was below the normality range in 60 of the 388 subjects (15.5%). Among the three variables, the strongest relationships were those between AC and WC (r(s)=0.541), and between TST and AC (r(s)=0.521). Univariate analyses of survival showed that TST was strongly predictive of a better prognosis (P<0.001), while WC was unrelated to outcome (P=0.101). Patients with higher values of AC had significantly longer survival than patients with lower values (P<0.018). The multivariate model, in contrast, did not confirm the prognostic capability of any of the anthropometric measures. These data indicate that the anthropometric measures may be significant predictors of survival, although not independently of the other prognostic factors. PMID:11680832

  1. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  2. Anthropometric indicators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Ana Carolina; Rosado, Lina; Rosado, Gilberto; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Franceschini, Sylvia; Geloneze, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    Some studies have analyzed the efficacy of anthropometric indicators in predicting insulin resistance (IR), for they are more economic and accessible. In this study, the objective was to discuss the measures and anthropometric indices that have been associated with IR. A bibliographic review was done, based on Scielo, Science Direct and Pubmed. Among these studies, waist and sagittal abdominal diameter presented better predictive capacity for IR, with more consistent results. The waist-to-thigh, waist-to-size, neck-to-thigh ratios, the conicity and the sagittal index have showed positive results; nevertheless, more studies are necessary to consolidate them as predictors to IR. The obtained results, with the use of body mass index and of the waist-to-hip ratio, were inconsistent. In the Brazilian population, the realization of studies evaluating the performance of these indicators in predicting IR is suggested, since the results of the studies conducted in other populations are not always applicable to ours, due to ethnic differences resulting from the great miscegenation in the country. PMID:20694396

  3. Better health data with a portable microcomputer at the periphery: an anthropometric survey in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, P.; Dupret, A.; Cutting, W. A. M.

    1987-01-01

    A portable microcomputer was programmed to record anthropometric nutritional data from children aged under 7 years in either a clinic or a population survey situation. An alarm sounds when the anthropometric measurements of a child are below a predetermined value; an immediate check thus avoids the need for subsequent data cleaning and discarding of doubtful information. Data cut-off points in the computer can be adjusted to suit the survey or service needs of the situation. A print-out at the end of the clinic session provides immediate feedback for the staff and a record of the nutritional status of the group. In Cape Verde, 14 670 children attending clinics were surveyed; 26% were identified as stunted, 3% as wasted, and 1% as stunted and wasted. While a portable microcomputer can improve precision, speed and motivation, nutrition surveys still depend on accurate scales, careful measurements and competent staff. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3322601

  4. Characterization of anthropometric assessment studies of Brazilian children attending daycare centers

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; de Menezes, Tarciana Nobre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To obtain an overview of available information on the anthropometric assessment of Brazilian children attending daycare centers. Data source: A literature search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases of studies published from 1990 to 2013 in Portuguese and English languages. The following search strategy was used: (nutritional status OR anthropometrics OR malnutrition OR overweight) AND daycare centers, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. In the case of MEDLINE search, the descriptor Brazil was also used. Data synthesis: It was verified that the 33 studies included in the review were comparable from a methodological point of view. The studies, in general, were characterized by their restrictive nature, geographical concentration and dispersion of results in relation to time. Considering the studies published from 2010 onwards, low prevalence of acute malnutrition and significant rates of stunting and overweight were observed. Conclusions: Despite the limitations, considering the most recent studies that used the WHO growth curves (2006), it is suggested that the anthropometric profile of Brazilian children attending daycare centers is characterized by a nutritional transition process, with significant prevalence of overweight and short stature. We emphasize the need to develop a multicenter survey that will more accurately define the current anthropometric nutritional status of Brazilian children attending daycare centers. PMID:26553574

  5. Nutritional status assessment in geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology Nutrition Work Group.

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26025067

  6. [Nutritional status assessment in Geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology NutritionWork Group].

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26388249

  7. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  8. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  9. [The role of the Consultative and Diagnostic Centre "Healthy Nutrition" in the diagnosis and nutritional prevention of non-communicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Yu; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Makurina, O N; Levin, L G; Soto, S Kh; Aristarkhova, T A; Korosteleva, M M; Denisova, N N; Solntseva, T N; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Redzyuk, L A; Polyakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of Institute of Nutrition the nutritional status of 3500 patients (mean age 48.4 ± 0.3 years) liv- ing in the Moscow region, using a system Nutritest IP-3, including genomic analysis has been examined. In the analysis of dietary intake by an average review, increased energy intake due to excess intake of the total (44.2% energy) and saturated fat (13.6%) has been shown. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese. Osteopenia was detected in 31.0% of men and 25.0% women, osteoporosis--20.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of the results of biochemical studies revealed increased cholesterol in 68.7% of patients, LDL cholesterol--at 63.9%, triglycerides-- at 22.5%, glucose--at 29.4%. The frequency of the occurrence of risk alleles of genes associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was: 47.8%--for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene), 8.3%--for polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3), 60.2%--for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2), 36.6%--for the rs5219 polymorphism in the gene of ATP-dependent potassium channel. PMID:25929022

  10. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The review utilizes data on three micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc and iron), anthropometrically defined undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and obesity to evaluate the effect on immune function, recovery of immune function in response to nutritional interventions, related health outco...

  11. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  12. Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM + CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM + CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM + CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM + CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p < 0.001). BMI z-score change one year prior to CD diagnosis was lower in the T1DM + CD than the T1DM group (p = 0.009). At two years, height velocity and change in BMI z-scores were similar in all groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c between the T1DM + CD and T1DM groups before or after CD diagnosis. More children with T1DM + CD had raised tTg levels one year after CD diagnosis than CD controls (CDx to CDx + 1 yr; T1DM + CD: 100% to 71%, p = 0.180 and CD: 100% to 45%, p < 0.001); by two years there was no difference. Conclusions No major nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM + CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet. PMID:24885742

  13. [Methodical approaches to usage of complex anthropometric methods in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Bukavneva, N S; Pozdniakov, A L; Nikitiuk, D B

    2007-01-01

    The new methodical approach of complex anthropometric study in clinical practice has been proposed for evaluation of nutritional state, dyagnostics and effectiveness of dietotherapy of patients with alimentary-depended pathology. The technique of body's voluminous size measurements, adipose folds measurements by means of caliper, extremities diameter measurements has been described, which would allow to receive more precise data during patients examinations. Formulas which allow to calculate the amount of bone, muscular and adipose mass been provided. PMID:18219935

  14. Body mass index and other anthropometric variables in children with sickle cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Odetunde, Odutola Israel; Chinawa, Josephat Maduabuchi; Achigbu, Kingsley Ihedioha; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the anthropometric variables of children with sickle cell anaemia and comparing it with those with normal haemoglobin genotype. Methods: A cross sectional study of anthropometric measurements was conducted over a period of six months. Children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state aged between 6-20 years were recruited. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometrical variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 20. Results: The sickle cell patients comprised of 20 males and 20 females. There were an equal number of controls with an equal male to female ratio of 1:1. Forty eight percent (19) of the children with sickle cell anemia were underweight (< 5th %ile) and this is statistically significant. χ2=18.02 and p=0.000. When compared with subjects with normal haemoglobin genotype only five of them (13%) were underweight. χ2=10.286 and p=0.001. The controls weighed significantly more than the HbSS patients and also had significantly larger body surface compared to the HbSS population (P<0.05). Conclusion: BMI and other anthropometric variables among children with sickle cell anemia were low when compared with children with normal Haemoglobin genotype. PMID:27182236

  15. Timing of Complementary Food Introduction and Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary STUDY (SNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Crume, Tessa L.; Crandell, Jamie; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana; Fangman, Mary T.; Pettitt, David J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; O'Connor, Rebecca; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5-month earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared to those who were not (9.0 ± 0.2 vs. 9.5 ± 0.1; p=0.02), independent of HLA-risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA-risk status found that children with a high risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age of diagnosis=9.3 ± 0.1, 9.1 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.2 for introduction at ≤ 6 months, between 7 and 11 months, and ≤12 months, respectively; p=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA-risk status. PMID:25117987

  16. Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).

    PubMed

    Crume, T L; Crandell, J; Norris, J M; Dabelea, D; Fangman, M T; Pettitt, D J; Dolan, L; Rodriguez, B L; O'Connor, R; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2014-11-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ⩽6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ⩾12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status. PMID:25117987

  17. Nutritional Status of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Do We Know Enough?12

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is on the rise; therefore, well-timed screening is important. Given that this is a nutritionally vulnerable population, it is imperative to conduct a detailed nutritional assessment so that timely and intensive interventions can be recommended. This review article summarizes the research, focusing on the nutritional status of individuals with ASDs based on their anthropometric measurements, biomarkers, and dietary assessments. Research examining anthropometric measurements reveals an abnormally accelerated rate of growth among children with autism but shows inconsistent findings on the prevalence of overweight/obesity in comparison with typically growing children. Although dysregulated amino acid metabolism, increased homocysteine, and decreased folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as possible biomarkers for an early diagnosis of ASDs, research investigating their association with age, gender, severity, and other comorbid psychiatric/nonpsychiatric disorders is lacking. There is consensus that children with autism have selective eating patterns, food neophobia, limited food repertoire, and sensory issues. Although inadequate micronutrient but adequate macronutrient intakes are increasingly reported, there are inconsistent results about the extent and type of nutrient deficiencies. Identification and development of nutritional assessment indicators that serve as early warning signs during routine practice beginning at birth and extending throughout the child’s growth are necessary. With this population aging, there is also a dire need to study the adult population. A more vigorous role by nutrition professionals is warranted because management of potential comorbidities and contributory factors may be particularly problematic. PMID:26178024

  18. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  19. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  20. Maximum tolerated volume in drinking tests with water and a nutritional beverage for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Montaño-Loza, Aldo; Schmulson, Max; Zepeda-Gómez, Sergio; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Valdovinos-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recently, drinking load tests with water or nutritional beverages have been proposed as diagnostic tools for functional dyspepsia (FD), therefore we sought to reproduce if these tests can discriminate between FD patients and controls in a Mexican population. METHODS: Twenty FD-Rome II patients were matched by age and gender with 20 healthy controls. All underwent both drinking tests at a 15 mL/min rate, randomly, 7 d apart. Every 5 min within each test, four symptoms were evaluated (satiety, bloating, nausea and pain) by Likert scales. Maximum tolerated volume (MTV) was defined as the ingested volume when a score of 5 was reached for any symptom or when the test had to be stopped because the patients could not tolerate more volume. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. RESULTS: FD patients had higher symptom scores for both tests compared to controls (water: t = 4.1, P = 0.001<0.01; Nutren®: t = 5.2, P = 0.001<0.01). The MTV for water and Nutren® were significantly lower in FD (water: 1014±288 vs 1749±275 mL; t = 7.9, P = 0.001<0.01; Nutren®: 652±168 vs 1278±286 mL; t = 6.7, P = 0.001<0.01). With the volume tolerated by the controls, the percentile 10 was determined as the lower limit for tolerance. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 0.95 for water and 0.95, 0.95 for Nutren® tests. CONCLUSION: A drinking test with water or a nutritional beverage can discriminate between FD patients and healthy subjects in Mexico, with high sensitivity and specificity. These tests could be used as objective, noninvasive, and safe diagnostic approaches for FD patients. PMID:15918201

  1. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  2. Prediction of mortality in patients in acute medical wards using basic laboratory and anthropometric data.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J.; Mak, Y. T.; Lau, J.; Swaminathan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The value of anthropometric and biochemical indices in predicting short-term mortality among patients in general medical wards was assessed in 294 patients admitted consecutively to a district hospital over a one month period. Using a stepwise logistic regression model and supported by the linear discriminant analysis method, mortality within 3 months could be predicted with sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 84% using the following variables: sex, functional ability, urea, total protein, alkaline phosphatase and albumin-adjusted calcium. Addition of anthropometric values and biochemical nutritional indices did little to improve the accuracy of the prediction, contrary to previous findings among surgical patients and elderly residents of long-term care institutions. PMID:1494524

  3. Exploring the multidimensional nature of anthropometric indicators for under-five children in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, Kakoli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional nature of the association of stunting, wasting, and underweight for children below 5 years of age in India using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (2005-2006). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to examine the association of the indicators. Additionally, log-linear model was used to find out the model of best fit to examine the nutritional status of children. It was found that underweight is associated with both stunting and wasting, whereas there was no consistent pattern of association between stunting and wasting. The results also confirmed that children suffered from multiple anthropometric failures. The results showed that height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age taken together give the model of best fit for analysis of nutritional status. The study concluded that the three indicators of nutritional status should be considered simultaneously to determine the percentage of undernourished children. PMID:26911220

  4. Investigation of hemorheological parameters at the diagnosis and the follow-up of nutritional vitamin B12 deficient children.

    PubMed

    Tancer-Elci, Hazal; Isik-Balci, Yasemin; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Senol, Hande; Aybek, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on hemorheological parameters, and the changes in these parameters following vitamin B12 treatment. 33 patients (mean-age:7 ± 5.7 years) diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency, and 31 age and sex matched controls (mean-age:7.1 ± 5.2 years) were enrolled. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. The differences between patients and controls were compared. Hemorheological parameters were repeated in the patient group following vitamin B12 treatment, and the results were compared with the initial results. In vitamin B12 deficiency, erythrocyte deformability and whole blood viscosity were found to be significantly decreased, eythrocyte aggregation was found to be significantly increased compared with the controls. Plasma viscosity was found to be decreased in deficiency but this decrease was not statistically significant. In patient group, erythrocyte deformability, whole blood and plasma viscosities were found to be significantly increased and erythrocyte aggregation was significantly decreased, after treatment. This study indicates that vitamin B12 deficiency has important effects on hemorheological parameters and adequate treatment of deficiency not only corrects the hematological parameters, but also by helping to normalize the hemorheological parameters, may contribute to the regulation of microvascular perfusion. PMID:23719423

  5. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  6. Anthropometric Indices in Children With Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    AMINZADEH, Vahid; DALILI, Setila; ASHOORIAN, Yalda; KOHMANAEE, Shahin; HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on reducing the risk of refractory seizure due to lipoid tissue factors. Materials & Methods This matched case-control study, consisted of cases (Patients with refractory epilepsy) and controls (Healthy children) referred to 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran during 2013-2014. Data were gathered by a form including demographic characteristics, type of epilepsy, predominant time of epilepsy, therapeutic approach, frequency of epilepsy, time of disease onset and anthropometric indices. We measured anthropometric indices and transformed them into Z-scores. Data were reported by descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t test and multinomial regression analysis test using SPSS 19. Results There was no significant difference between sex groups regarding anthropometric indices. Generalized and focal types of epilepsies were noted on 57.5% and 38.75% of patients, respectively. Daytime epilepsies happened in 46.25% of patients and 33.75% noted no predominant time for epilepsies. Clinicians indicated poly-therapy for the majority of patients (92.5%). The most common onset times for epilepsies were 36-72 months for 32.5% of patients. Lower onset time indicated lower frequency of refractory epilepsies. Although, there was significant difference between Zheight and predominant time of epilepsies but no significant relation was found between types of epilepsies and frequency of epilepsies with anthropometric indices. Using multivariate regression analysis by backward LR, Zweight and birth weight were noted as the predicting factors of refractory epilepsies. Conclusion This effect may be because of leptin. Therefore, researchers recommend further investigations regarding this issue in children with epilepsy. PMID:27057188

  7. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries. PMID:20102048

  8. Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. PMID:25681074

  9. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  10. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained

  11. TME17/473: Web-Based Visualization and Processing of Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    Lesný, P; Vejvalka, J; Krásnièanová, H

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Body height and body weight are the most common anthropometric values that are observed in children by their parents. Basic anthropometric measurements are also a common and natural part of routine medical check-ups in infants, children and adolescents. Although commonly taken, this data is not always correctly interpreted: cases when anthropometric data might have served for an earlier diagnosis of e.g. an endocrine disorder still occur. To facilitate utilization of this data, a software module was developed that visualizes the data and also provides a basic interpretation of the curves obtained. This software module consists of the knowledge base which was written at the auxological department of 2nd Medical Faculty and its interpreter. This platform independent module is offered to software developers for integration into their GP systems. Methods To demonstrate the functions of the module offered to software developers and also to allow patient (and parent) growth self-assessment, the module that visualizes and interprets children's anthropometric data is ported into a WWW interface. Each pro-band is assigned a unique (and anonymous) ID, so that new data can be added in the course of time. Various anthropometric parameters can be followed - so that the system can serve not only parents to assess their children's growth, but also can help the practitioner to visualize and evaluate more intrinsic relations in children's development. Results The service is just being launched at the web site of the 2nd Medical Faculty of Charles University - so the most important result of the project is the function of the system itself, that allows for further refinements of the project. The WWW interface also allows extensive testing of the module and demonstration of the module's capabilities to the software developers, GPs and other potential users. Discussion During the future project development will be necessary to refine various components that surround the

  12. An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 7–11 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.56±5.33 kg and 36.63±9.45 kg in boys and between 20.79±3.48 kg and 35.88±9.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/02±53.98 mm and 1420.83± 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.90±51.01mm and 1421.27±70.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

  13. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  14. Maternal overweight/obesity characteristics and child anthropometric status in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    John, Collins; Ichikawa, Tomo; Abdu, Halima; Ocheke, Isaac; Diala, Udochukwu; Modise-Letsatsi, Virginia; Wada, Takayuki; Okolo, Seline; Yamamoto, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totally, 262 mother-child pairs were recruited. Results: Mean maternal age and mean child age were 30.8 ± 6.3 yrs (15-47 yrs) and 22.3 ± 18.7 months (3-72 months). Prevalence of maternal underweight, overweight and obesity was 4.2% (11/262), 29.4% (77/262) and 25.9% (68/262), respectively. Child overweight/obesity was 5.4% (14/262), severe under-nutrition 5.7% (15/262). Mean maternal BMI was higher in the older, more educated and higher socioeconomic status (SES). Child mean birth-weight, weight-for-age Z-score and BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) were higher among mothers with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. All large-for-age babies were in mothers with maternal BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Childhood over-nutrition was more common in maternal BMI of ≥25 kg/m2. Overall, BAZ was directly related with maternal BMI, maternal age and birth-weight, although it was inversely related with maternal BM I ≥ 25 kg/m2. Conclusion: Higher BMI is seen in educated and higher SES mothers and this impact on childhood anthropometry. PMID:26759505

  15. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  16. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  17. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  18. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  1. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  2. Nutritional survey of patients in a general surgical ward: is there an effective predictor of malnutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D; Smith, A D; McAllister, J; La Ferla, G

    1987-01-01

    A survey of patients in a general surgical ward was undertaken to establish biochemical and anthropometric standards which could be used to detect malnourished patients in hospital. Results of biochemical and anthropometric tests of nutritional status were compared with assessment by a clinician and the quick nutritional index of Seltzer. Triceps skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentrations indicated that 29% and 35% of patients, respectively, were undernourished compared with 16% by clinical assessment and 17% by the quick nutritional index. Significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between serum albumin and transferrin concentrations and arm muscle area were found for men but not for women. Poor nutritional specificity and sensitivity of some anthropometric and biochemical tests may account for the difference in the level of undernutrition found by these tests and clinical assessment. This shows the importance of the choice of test in influencing the level of undernutrition detected. PMID:3624502

  3. Nutrition and exercise in children.

    PubMed

    Caldarone, G; Spada, R; Berlutti, G; Callari, L; Fiore, A; Giampietro, M; Lista, R

    1995-01-01

    Various surveys and research studies carried out in the scientific world have expressed general consensus on the preventive role of regular physical exercise associated with a correct and adequate diet. A sedentary style of life is the common etiopathogenetic basis of "paramorphism" of the different organs and system that generate the hypokinetic syndrome. Therefore it is important to adopt a correct life style from childhood. For this purpose 1208 subjects aged between 6 and 14 years, in an Italian rural area, have been studied for nutritional habits, anthropometric parameters, nutritional state and motor abilities (Di.S.Co. project:experimental community project for preventing chronic-degenerative diseases). The population was divided in: subjects participating to organized sport activities and sedentary subjects; and then subjects of different ages between 9 and 14 years; results regarding anthropometric parameters, body composition and the predominance of overweight and obesity are given. Our study has shown widespread tendency to incorrect nutrition habits, also in those doing organized sports, and a low attitude to volontary physical activity. School represents a privileged institution for releasing and promoting correct life style beginning from the younger age. PMID:8851701

  4. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10–37% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 45–77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7–47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16–64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p < 0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Discussion and conclusion Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. PMID:23107624

  5. Nutritional status, assessment, requirements and adequacy of traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Subash, Selvaraju; Mahmood, Lubna; Kumar, Parvathy R

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been considered as a serious public health problem. Each year, traumatic brain injuries are contributing to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability and deaths and it can be classified according to the severity into penetrating and closed head injury. Symptoms, beside to be unconscious can be defined as vomiting, nausea, headache, dizziness, lack of motor coordination, difficulty in balancing, blurred vision and lightheadedness, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, fatigue and lethargy as well as changes in sleep patterns. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients mostly have a complex metabolic alterations including aberrant cellular metabolism, abnormal metabolic processes, changes in hormones functions and inflammatory cascade. The TBI patient's status needed to be assessed medically and nutritionally since the medical status of the patients can affect the nutrition part. Data from the four assessment tools are needed to be correctly used and interpreted in order to make a proper nutritional diagnosis, clinical assessment, biochemistry as well as anthropometric measurements. Regardless the methods used for assessing TBI patients, having adequate intake and medical care can lead to a reduction in hospital costs, numbers of day hospitalized, numbers of hours of mechanical ventilation and in the overall infection rates. PMID:26027152

  6. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  7. Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

  8. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  9. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are. PMID:11441457

  10. PERSONALISED BODY COUNTER CALIBRATION USING ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    Pölz, S; Breustedt, B

    2016-09-01

    Current calibration methods for body counting offer personalisation for lung counting predominantly with respect to ratios of body mass and height. Chest wall thickness is used as an intermediate parameter. This work revises and extends these methods using a series of computational phantoms derived from medical imaging data in combination with radiation transport simulation and statistical analysis. As an example, the method is applied to the calibration of the In Vivo Measurement Laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) comprising four high-purity germanium detectors in two partial body measurement set-ups. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and the Extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) phantom series have been used. Analysis of the computed sample data consisting of 18 anthropometric parameters and calibration factors generated from 26 photon sources for each of the 30 phantoms reveals the significance of those parameters required for producing an accurate estimate of the calibration function. Body circumferences related to the source location perform best in the example, while parameters related to body mass show comparable but lower performances, and those related to body height and other lengths exhibit low performances. In conclusion, it is possible to give more accurate estimates of calibration factors using this proposed approach including estimates of uncertainties related to interindividual anatomical variation of the target population. PMID:26396263

  11. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  12. Nutrition in Pancreatic Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Simone; Krüger, Janine; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Steveling, Antje; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both genders. More than 80% of patients suffer from significant weight loss at diagnosis and over time develop severe cachexia. Early nutritional support is therefore essential. Summary This review evaluates the different nutritional therapies, such as enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and special nutritional supplements, on nutritional status, quality of life and survival Key Message Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and the rapid development of anorexia-cachexia-syndrome, early nutritional intervention is crucial and supported by clinical data Practical Implications Enteral nutrition should be preferred over parenteral nutrition. Omega-3 fatty acids and l-carnitine are promising substances for the prevention of severe cachexia, but further randomized controlled trials are needed to establish generally accepted guidelines on nutrition in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27403414

  13. Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet

  14. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2003–2006.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Margaret A; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L; Flegal, Katherine M

    2008-10-22

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2003-2006, adding to results published previously from 1960-2002. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 19,593 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population . PMID:25585443

  15. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Gu, Qiuping; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-10-01

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2007-2010, adding to results published previously from the years 1960-2006. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 20,015 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population. PMID:25204692

  16. Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

  17. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  18. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

  19. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:19906320

  20. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  1. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8 kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1 kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4 mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8 kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2 mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9 kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9 kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3 mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  2. Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

  3. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  4. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  5. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  6. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  7. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  8. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  9. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Virendra C.; Parale, G. P.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Patil, Harsha V.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21584164

  10. Nutritional Assessment in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Najmeh; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zand, Farid; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the days of admission and discharge via a detailed nutritional assessment. Methods: Totally, 125 patients were followed up from admission to discharge at 8ICUs in Shiraz, Iran. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indices, and body composition indicators. Diet prescription and intake was also evaluated. Results: Malnutrition prevalence significantly increased on the day of discharge (58.62%) compared to the day of admission (28.8%) according to SGA (P<0.001). The patients’ weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference decreased significantly as well (P<0.001). Lean mass weight and body cell mass also decreased significantly (P<0.001). Biochemical indices showed no notable changes except for magnesium, which decreased significantly (P=0.013). A negative significant correlation was observed between malnutrition on discharge day and anthropometric measurements. Positive and significant correlations were observed between the number of days without enteral feeding, days delayed from ICU admission to the commencement of enteral feeding, and the length of ICU stay and malnutrition on discharge day. Energy and protein intakes were significantly less than the prescribed diet (26.26% and 26.48%, respectively). Conclusion: Malnutrition on discharge day increased in the patients in the ICU according to SGA. Anthropometric measurements were better predictors of the nutritional outcome of our critically ill patients than were biochemical tests. PMID:27217600

  11. Anthropometric characteristics of wrists joint surfaces depending on lunate types.

    PubMed

    Dyankova, S

    2007-10-01

    It is well known that the lunate presents with two main types: lunate type I has one facet of its distal surface only for capitates, whereas lunate type II has two facets of the same surface for capitate and for hamate. Our previous anthropometric studies showed that the lunate type II wrists are of greater size than the lunate type I wrists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the lunate types and the presence or absence of hamato-lunate joint correlate with anthropometric characteristics of the joint surfaces of other wrists. Sixteen sets of macerated wrists with the lunate type I and 21 with the lunate type II were studied. Two-thousand-four-hundred-and-forty-eight anthropometric measurements were done (for 68 anthropometric indicators) and 864 anthropometric indices were calculated (for 24 anthropometric indices) separately for the wrist joint surfaces. The absolute value of the anthropometric indicators of the joint surfaces of the separated wrists were greater in the wrists with the lunate type II, except for the indicators "Greatest length of the dorsal joint surface of pisiform", "Width of the proximal joint surface, measured in the middle" and "Greatest width of the proximal joint surface" for the trapezoid and "Greatest height of the ulnar joint surface" for the capitate. The enlargement of the joint surfaces for the scaphoid was mainly in proximo-distal direction. The enlargement for the triquetrum and pisiform was mainly in radio-ulnar direction. The enlargement for trapezium, trapezoid and capitate was mainly in dorso-volar direction (except for the ulnar joint surface of capitate). The enlargement for hamate was mainly in radio-ulnar and dorso-volar directions (except for the joint surfaces for capitate and triquetrum). The calculated indices illustrate the quantitative proportions of the variations mentioned above. The anthropometric differences are a good reason to make a clear distinction between both types of wrist joint

  12. A carpet-weaver's chair based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nader; Bazrafshan, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Ergonomic design of chairs has been well studied by ergonomists. Chair design based on anthropometric data analysis is recommended. Weavers in carpet-weaving workshops use chairs with backrests and armrests. An anthropometric survey was carried out among weavers in Tabriz, Iran, to design a flexible chair and to improve its comfort on the basis of design dimensions. This study focused on the design dimensions of a chair for weavers and its recommended dimensions. The developed chair needs to be tested for its effects on weavers' posture and comfort. PMID:24321633

  13. Using digital photogrammetry to conduct an anthropometric analysis of wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Barros, Helda Oliveira; Soares, Marcelomárcio

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with using digital photogrammetry to make an anthropometric analysis of wheelchair users. To analyse the data, Digita software was used, which was made available by means of the agreement of the Design Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco--Brazil--with the Department of Ergonomics of the Technical University of Lisbon--Portugal. Data collection involved a random sample of 18 subjects and occurred in the Biomechanics Laboratory of the Maurice of Nassau Faculty, located in Recife, Pernambuco. The methodology applied comprises the steps of Ergonomic Assessment, Configuration of the Data Base, Taking Digital Photographs, Digitalising the Coordinates and Presentation of Results. 15 structural variables related to static anthropometry were analysed, and 4 functional range variables relating to dynamic anthropometry. The results were presented by analysing personal data, classified by gender, ethnicity and age; by functional analysis of the sample, classified by clinical diagnosis, results of assessing the joints, results of the evaluation through motion and postural evaluation; and of the analysis of the anthropometric sample, which indicated for each variable the number of people, the mean, the standard deviation, and the minimum, median and maximum values. PMID:22317342

  14. May Underdiagnosed Nutrition Imbalances Be Responsible for a Portion of So-Called Unexplained Infertility? From Diagnosis to Potential Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Cinthya, Vescio; Valentini, Romina; Campagnaro, Tania; Marci, Roberto; Paola, Rossana Di; Alviggi, Carlo; Gangemi, Michele; Saccardi, Carlo; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether women affected by unexplained infertility may have undiagnosed dietary imbalances which negatively affect fertility. Secondarily, we investigated whether varying degrees of nutritional abnormalities may benefit from different periconceptional dietary supplementations, evaluating the most effective intervention in improving pregnancy rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We conducted a survey on 2 cohorts of patients (group A: unexplained infertility and group B: healthy first trimester spontaneous pregnancies) with the scope of investigating and comparing their dietary status discriminating women without dietary abnormalities (cohort 1) from those with abnormalities exclusively in micronutrient intake (cohort 2) or combined abnormalities in both micronutrient and macronutrient intake and associated obesity (cohort 3). All women included in group A were offered the opportunity to receive a prescription for one of the 3 designated daily dietary supplementation schemes (subgroups A1, A2, and A3) which were to be implemented in the 3 months immediately prior to beginning IVF treatment. When compared with fertile women, patients having unexplained infertility showed significant abnormalities in dietary habits. These differences ranged from a minimal imbalance in micronutrient intake (potentially avoidable with dietary supplementation) to severe combined macronutrient and micronutrient imbalance frequently associated with obesity (partially amendable by inositol supplementation and frequently requiring long-term dietary reeducation before establishment of fertility). Nutritional investigation and treatment may explain and resolve a portion of cases of unexplained infertility, improving the outcome of IVF treatment and, with minimal imbalances, likely restore spontaneous fertility. PMID:26692540

  15. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  16. Anthropometric characteristics of high level European junior basketball players.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, M; Sekulić, D; Marinović, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess anthropometric status of European high-level junior basketball players and to determine anthropometric differences between the players playing in different game positions (guards, forwards, centers). The sample consisted of 132 young basketball players, participants of the European Junior Basketball Championship, Zadar, 2000. Participants were measured with 31 measures (anthropometric variables), on the basis of which two body composition measures (BMI and relative body fat) and somatotype were calculated. The basic statistical parameters were computed. The analysis of variance and discriminant canonical analysis were employed to determine the differences between positions in play. Results indicate that prominent longitudinal and transversal skeletal dimensions as well as circumference measures characterize players on the position of centers, but they do not have significantly larger skinfold measures in relation to forwards. Centers are also predominantly ectomorphic compared with other players. Guards achieved significantly lower values in all spaces and they are predominantly mesomorphic. Further investigations are necessary in order to assess potential changes in status of these parameters when the participants will reach the age of senior players and afterwards, as well as to determine relations between anthropometric status and skill related variables. PMID:12674837

  17. Anthropometric characteristics account for time to exhaustion in cycling.

    PubMed

    Basset, F A; Billaut, F; Joanisse, D R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between the phenotypic and anthropometric characteristics and the cycling time to exhaustion (Tlim) at the maximal aerobic power output (Pmax). 12 (7 men, 5 women) physically-active participants performed a square-wave test at Pmax to determine the maximal time limit. Muscle histochemistry, enzymatic activities and buffer capacity were determined from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, lean body mass (LBM) by hydrostatic weighing, and total (TV) and lean (LV) volumes of the thigh by anthropometric measurements. The mean (±SD) Tlim was 235±84 s (score range: 108-425 s). No relationship was found between Tlim and any muscle phenotypes. However, we observed a strong, linear relationship between Tlim and LBM (r=0.84, P<0.05). Thigh TV and LV displayed weaker correlation coefficients with Tlim (r=0.66 and r=0.73, respectively; P<0.05). We further estimated the femur length and found this measure to correlate with Tlim (r=0.81, P<0.05). This study suggests that muscle phenotypes may not be representative of Tlim. Rather, anthropometric characteristics account for such performance by conferring a biomechanical advantage in cycling. We conclude that, in addition to metabolic factors, anthropometric characteristics with reasonable accuracy predict Tlim in cycling, and may account for the large inter-subject variability observed in previous studies. PMID:24977949

  18. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m2, which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities. PMID:27579216

  19. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Halder, P K; Sarker, E

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m(2), which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities. PMID:27579216

  20. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  1. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  2. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  3. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  4. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  5. The pattern of anthropometric measurements among term newborn infants in Khartoum state in relation to maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E.M.; Abozied, Elfatih E.; Mohamed, Sarar H.; Salih, Amira A.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of neonates are an important clinical tool for diagnosis of abnormally small or large neonates. This study aimed at finding the means of the anthropometric measurements among newborn babies in Khartoum state and to relate the tendency of the anthropometric parameters to maternal and paternal factors. This observational hospital-based study was carried out in 3 hospitals in Khartoum. Birth weights, crown-heel length and head circumference were taken from term neonates and questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with the mothers. Means of the sample and their associations with maternal and paternal factors were calculated using SPSS. In addition, the means were compared to WHO- MGRS (World health organization-multi growth reference standards). It was found that the average male newborn weighed 3.16kg with a range of 2.4kg to 4.1kg, measured 48.91cm in length with a range of 46.1cm to 51.4cm and measured 34.74cm in head circumference with a range of 32.3cm to 36.9cm. As for the females, the average newborn weighed 3.11kg with a range of 2.1kg to 4.2kg, measured 48.49cm in length with a range of 45.1cm to 51.7cm and measured 34.16cm in head circumference with a range of 32.3 to 36.4. These values were found to be statistically significant when compared with the WHO- MGR. We conclude that there was a difference observed in relation to Sudanese neonate’s anthropometric parameters compared to WHO-MGR standards. Growth charts specific for Sudanese neonates are urgently needed.

  6. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  7. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  8. Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (≥9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p = 0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men. PMID:24516542

  9. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  10. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  11. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  12. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  13. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  14. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  15. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  16. Consistent improvement in the nutritional status of Colombian children between 1965 and 1989.

    PubMed

    Mora, J O; de Paredes, B; de Navarro, L; Rodríguez, E

    1992-01-01

    Three national anthropometric surveys carried out in Colombia in 1965-1966, 1977-1980, and 1986-1989 provide a reasonably standardized basis for comparing the nutritional status of infants and young children in those years. That comparison, presented here together with appropriate socioeconomic data, indicates marked reduction of malnutrition paralleling strong socioeconomic gains. PMID:1600432

  17. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  18. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  19. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  20. Nutrition Considerations in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian; Samuels, Emily; Mullins, Lucille

    2015-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a serious degenerative muscular disease affecting males. Diagnosis usually occurs in childhood and is confirmed through genetic testing and/or muscle biopsy. Accompanying the disease are several nutrition-related concerns: growth, body composition, energy and protein requirements, constipation, swallowing difficulties, bone health, and complementary medicine. This review article addresses the nutrition aspects of DMD. PMID:25977513

  1. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  2. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY UPON FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRICS AND RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Raymond J.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups.There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  3. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  4. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  5. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  6. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  7. Anthropometric equations for studying body fat in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Lederman, S A; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1998-01-01

    Anthropometric data from 200 pregnant women were used to estimate body fat at gestation weeks 14 and 37 and changes in body fat from week 14 to week 37 with four formulas from the literature. The resulting estimates were evaluated against the estimation of fat by a four-compartment model that determined fat from weight, total body water, bone mineral mass, and body density. The estimates of fat by existing anthropometric models were statistically different from those by the four-compartment model in both early and late pregnancy. Most importantly, the change in body fat estimated by the anthropometric models (all > 4 kg) was considerably higher than that estimated by the four-compartment model (3.3 kg). Two new anthropometric equations were developed, both of which used the four-compartment model as the reference method. The equation for predicting change in fat mass from week 14 to 37 of pregnancy was as follows: 0.77 (change in weight, kg)+ 0.07 (change in thigh skinfold thickness, mm)-6.13 (r2 = 0.73). The equation for determining fat (kg) at term was as follows: 0.40 (weight at week 37, kg)+ 0.16 (biceps skinfold thickness at week 37, mm) + 0.15 (thigh skinfold thickness at week 37, mm)-0.09 (wrist circumference at week 37. mm)+ 0.10 (prepregnancy weight.kg)-6.56 (r2 = 0.89). Both equations were derived on a randomly selected half of the total sample and validated on the remaining half. Both equations were found to be valid for use in studying pregnant women with different prepregnancy body mass indexes, different gestational weight gains, different ethnicities, and different socioeconomic status. PMID:9440383

  8. Effect of education on anthropometric indices in obese parents and children after one year of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Tavalaee Zavvareh, Seyyed Abdlohossein; Ghatreh-Samani, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels. Children obesity predisposes them to risk of cardiac disease in adulthood. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. Furthermore, family life style has a great influence on children obesity. This study aimed to determine the effect of family-oriented weight reduction program on the children’s anthropometric measurements. METHODS This was a non-pharmacological clinical trial study which was performed on 4-18 years old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for all the participants. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having a regular physical activity each day and also benefits of having healthy nutrition. All the participants took part in every 4 months one-hour educational sessions and their anthropometrics were measured. RESULTS Fifty eight single-mother families participated in this study. Fourteen single-father families started the intervention but did not follow it to the end. Children’s body mass index (BMI) z-score decreased significantly after the study. Children waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) significantly increased. Mothers WC and waist to hip ratio (WHR) increased significantly. Regression test showed that mother BMI was an independent factor (B = 0.307; P < 0.021). The effect of the pattern of children’s BMI changed across a one-year period. CONCLUSION Our study showed significant effect of repetitive family life style education on children’s BMI z-score changes. Family, as the first place for children behavior formation, must be regarded as one of the best place to tackle childhood obesity. PMID:23056096

  9. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60 months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5 years in developing countries. PMID:20859760

  10. Nutrient intake of institutionalized developmentally disabled individuals: impact of the nutrition knowledge of paraprofessionals.

    PubMed

    Litchford, M D; Wakefield, L M

    1985-06-01

    The role of the caretaker in enhancing nutrient intake of developmentally disabled individuals living in an institutional setting was examined. Eighty developmentally disabled residents living at the Western Carolina Center, Morganton, NC, were assessed for anthropometric measurements and for dietary intake, with a 3-day plate waste study. Seventy paraprofessionals/feeders working at the same center were assessed for knowledge of nutrition and food practices and participated in a series of inservice programs on nutrition. Pretest and post-test scores for knowledge of nutrition and food practices were determined. For the paraprofessionals/feeders, inservice programs on nutrition resulted in increased knowledge of nutrition but did not increase the nutritional quality of their own diets. However, statistically significant differences were noted in residents' diets for calories (p less than .05), iron (p less than .05), and niacin (p less than .05) attributable to the inservice programs on nutrition. PMID:3998339

  11. Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (∼10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

  12. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  13. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  14. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  15. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  16. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  17. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  18. A Prognosis Tool Based on Fuzzy Anthropometric and Questionnaire Data for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kung-Jeng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Huang, Shou-Hung; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are linked to the augmented risk of morbidity and mortality. Although polysomnography is considered a well-established method for diagnosing OSA, it suffers the weakness of time consuming and labor intensive, and requires doctors and attending personnel to conduct an overnight evaluation in sleep laboratories with dedicated systems. This study aims at proposing an efficient diagnosis approach for OSA on the basis of anthropometric and questionnaire data. The proposed approach integrates fuzzy set theory and decision tree to predict OSA patterns. A total of 3343 subjects who were referred for clinical suspicion of OSA (eventually 2869 confirmed with OSA and 474 otherwise) were collected, and then classified by the degree of severity. According to an assessment of experiment results on g-means, our proposed method outperforms other methods such as linear regression, decision tree, back propagation neural network, support vector machine, and learning vector quantization. The proposed method is highly viable and capable of detecting the severity of OSA. It can assist doctors in pre-diagnosis of OSA before running the formal PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources. PMID:26932370

  19. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG≥200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  20. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  1. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance. PMID:24044066

  2. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  3. Nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M; D'agostino, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experience of an International Children's Center (ICC) team following many years of work in the field of education for nutrition in developing and industrialized countries. Nutrition education, a long term intervention in which individuals of all ages are active participants who acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude pertaining to food and nutrition in the context of socioeconomic and cultural limitations. The discussion covers the concepts of attitude, behavior, and eating conduct. Attitude is defined as a way of viewing or internal disposition adopted by any person in a specific situation. Attitudes grow out of knowledge, beliefs, and values and personal predisposition. On the other hand, behavior denotes an observable act and results in a certain manner of acting in response to external stimuli. Eating conduct is expressed differently and in varying extents depending on living conditions and dietary resources. These concepts correspond to the different degrees of information, awareness, and participation achieved by individuals during the educational program. While examination of conduct and dietary resources are necessary for any education for nutrition programs, more attention and investigation should be given to the "negotiation" phase with the people. The community must be ready to take risks, made aware of the implications of the choices to be made to the professionals and to the general public. In this issue, the ICC team highlights important points concerning nutrition education programs. PMID:12295489

  4. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  5. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  6. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  7. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  8. Anthropometric approximation of body weight in unresponsive stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, M W; Graf, M; Henke, C; Hermans, M; Ziemann, U; Sitzer, M; Foerch, C

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose Thrombolysis of acute ischaemic stroke is based strictly on body weight to ensure efficacy and to prevent bleeding complications. Many candidate stroke patients are unable to communicate their body weight, and there is often neither the means nor the time to weigh the patient. Instead, weight is estimated visually by the attending physician, but this is known to be inaccurate. Methods Based on a large general population sample of nearly 7000 subjects, we constructed approximation formulae for estimating body weight from simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference). These formulae were validated in a sample of 178 consecutive inpatients admitted to our stroke unit, and their accuracy was compared with the best visual estimation of two experienced physicians. Results The simplest formula gave the most accurate approximation (mean absolute difference 3.1 (2.6) kg), which was considerably better than the best visual estimation (physician 1: 6.5 (5.2) kg; physician 2: 7.4 (5.7) kg). It reduced the proportion of weight approximations mismatched by >10% from 31.5% and 40.4% (physicians 1 and 2, respectively) to 6.2% (anthropometric approximation). Only the patient's own estimation was more accurate (mean absolute difference 2.7 (2.4) kg). Conclusions By using an approximation formula based on simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference), it is possible to obtain a quick and accurate approximation of body weight. In situations where the exact weight of unresponsive patients cannot be ascertained quickly, we recommend using this approximation method rather than visual estimation. PMID:17494978

  9. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p < 0.05) leaner than players in MLB and AAA. These same players had significantly lower lean body mass than seen in MLB, AAA, and AA players. Greater grip strength (p < 0.05) was seen in MLB and AAA than in Rookie and A. Players in MLB were also faster (p < 0.05) than players in AA, A, and Rookie. Vertical jump power measures were greater (p < 0.05) in MLB than AA, A, and Rookie. Regression analysis revealed that performance measures accounted for 25-31% of the variance in baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance. PMID:19826310

  10. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer. PMID:26258817

  11. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  12. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  13. The female/male ratio of anthropometric dimensions.

    PubMed

    al-Haboubi, M H

    1998-12-01

    A great many anthropometric studies contain the data of either males or females. Instead of presenting single-sex data, this study presents a method of using the female/male (F/M) ratio to estimate the dimensions of unknown body parts. Several studies that include the data for both sexes are used to develop the ratio. Statistical analysis is performed, including fitting to normal distribution. Stature, sitting shoulder height, shoulder breadth, and hip breadth are used in the study. The result of the analysis reveals the importance of using a different F/M ratio for each body part instead of adopting a single value for estimation. PMID:11579703

  14. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  15. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised. PMID:25874831

  16. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  17. Validation of Self-Reported Anthropometrics in Female College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    LEONE, RYAN J.; MORGAN, AMY L.; LUDY, MARY-JON

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=−0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=−0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention. PMID:27293506

  18. Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Zhuang, Ziqing; Guan, Hongyu; Xing, Jingcai; Tang, Xianzhi; Wang, Limin; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Yuewei; Su, Wenjin; Benson, Stacey; Gallagher, Sean; Viscusi, Dennis; Chen, Weihong

    2008-11-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been completely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006. A total of 3000 subjects (2026 males and 974 females) between the ages of 18 and 66 years old was measured using traditional techniques. Nineteen facial dimensions, height, weight, neck circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. A stratified sampling plan of three age strata and two gender strata was implemented. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible effects of gender, age, occupation and body size on facial dimensions. The regression coefficients for gender indicated that for all anthropometric dimensions, males had significantly larger measurements than females. As body mass index increased, dimensions measured increased significantly. Construction workers and miners had significantly smaller measurements than individuals employed in healthcare or manufacturing for a majority of dimensions. Five representative indexes of facial dimension (face length, face width, nose protrusion, bigonial breadth and nasal root breadth) were selected based on correlation and cluster analysis of all dimensions. Through comparison with the facial dimensions of American subjects, this study indicated that Chinese civilian workers have shorter face length, smaller nose protrusion, larger face width and longer lip length. PMID:18765398

  19. Anthropometric Analysis of the South Indian Woman's Nose.

    PubMed

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Bashour, Mounir; Nayak, Satheesha

    2016-06-01

    The normal values of nasal dimensions and position have been established for various racial and ethnic groups. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information related to these values in South Indian females, leading to surgeons being forced to use statistical data from Caucasians in their decision making. The objective of the present study was to compare statistically the nasal anthropometric measurement of South Indian women (SIW) with published norms for North American white women (NAWW) using independent t-test. Anthropometric analysis was done on standardized frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of South Indian woman's noses (n = 375) ages 18 to 35 years. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between SIW and NAWW in 15 of 17 measurements. All 14 nasal indices revealed significant differences that were calculated. SIW had relatively shorter, wider, and more horizontally oriented noses, and the noses have ellipsoid appearance in submental view, deeper nasal root, underrotated nasal tip, flared alae, and rounded nasal tip. As cosmetic surgery becomes more popular among South Indians, the obtained normative mean values might serve as a prototype for facial surgery. PMID:27248029

  20. Anthropometric Parameters for Access to Sella Turcica Through the Nostril.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Yousef; Mousavi, Mahboubeh; Pakzad, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-09-01

    The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica. Pituitary tumors constitute approximately 15% of intracranial benign tumors. "Endo nasal endoscopic trans-sphenoidal" method is an appropriate surgical technique to remove this tumor. In this operation an endoscope enters the nasal cavity through the nostril to reach the floor of the sella turcica. The aim of this study was an anthropometric evaluation of the route of endoscope in this surgery. Two hundred twenty-seven patients (116 women, 111 men) were divided into ≥30, 31 to 61, and ≥61-year age groups. Lateral scanograms of skull were used to measure 3 linear distances and 1 angle. While the mean of the linear variables was significantly higher in men (P <0.001), this difference was not significant in angular measurement between sexes. More detail evaluation of the age groups showed age- and sex-specific differences in measurements. The authors concluded that it needs to consider the anthropometrical indexes in pituitary surgery. PMID:27526241

  1. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  2. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; Kılınç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kırbaş, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Yılmaz Aydın, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  3. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. PMID:26456121

  4. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  5. Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

  6. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  7. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  8. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  9. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  10. Extent and correlates of change in anthropometric and fitness outcomes among participants in a corporate team-based weight loss challenge in Singapore: lose to win 2009.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Kathryn; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Chan, Mei Fen; Amin, Handy; Khoo, Gary; Choo, Lin; Chew, Ling; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala

    2015-03-01

    The authors describe a national corporate team-based weight loss intervention targeting groups of overweight/obese employees and assess its effectiveness. A 12-week weight loss program comprising nutrition education and physical activity sessions, enhanced by a nationwide media campaign, was organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. A total of 285 participants, forming 72 teams (1 per workplace), had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index [BMI], and body fat percentage) and fitness (fitness index score based on UKK 2-km walk test) measurements taken pre-intervention and post-intervention. Average decreases, from baseline to end of intervention, in weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were 3.58 kg, 1.32 kg/m(2), and 2.14%, respectively. The fitness index score increased by 34.1 units. Greater participation in physical activity and nutrition education sessions was associated with more beneficial anthropometric and fitness changes. The intervention was well received and effective in producing short-term weight loss. Further research needs to be done to ascertain its long-term effectiveness and generalizability. PMID:22887805

  11. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  12. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  13. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

  14. Analytical evaluation of the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics in motion capturing.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Dominik; Cockcroft, John; Zaumseil, Falk; Odenwald, Stephan; Milani, Thomas L; Louw, Quinette

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decisions based on gait data obtained by optoelectronic motion capturing require profound knowledge about the repeatability of the used measurement systems and methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics calculated with the Plug-in Gait model. Therefore, a sensitivity study was conducted to ascertain how joint kinematics output is affected to different anthropometric data input. One previously examined gait session of a healthy male subject and his anthropometric data that were assessed by two experienced examiners served as a basis for this analytical evaluation. This sensitivity study yielded a maximum difference in joint kinematics by the two sets of anthropometrics of up to 1.2°. In conclusion, this study has shown that the reliability of subjects' anthropometrics assessed by experienced examiners has no considerable effects on joint kinematics. PMID:27131168

  15. A study of automotive workers anthropometric physical characteristics from Mexico Northwest.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of anthropometric information in northwest Mexico, we did an anthropometric study that represents the population physical characteristics and that is reliable for the design or redesign of workstations. The study was divided in two phases. The first one was the anthropometric study of 2900 automotive industry workers in northwest of Mexico. The study includes 40 body dimensions of 2345 males and 555 females personalized to be used in future researches. Second phase includes compared anthropometric characteristics of population reported in four Mexican studies and a Colombian study against the current study. Benefits of this project are: a reliable database of anthropometric characteristic of automotive industry population for workstations design or redesign that match with the users, increase product quality and reduce economic, medical and union complains. PMID:22317566

  16. [Anthropometric indices of children treated in daycare centers and the relationship with socioeconomic, maternal and child factors].

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Oliveira, Maria Monica de; Rocha, Ana Carolina Dantas; Araujo, Erika Morganna Neves de

    2016-06-01

    Weight/height and weight/age anthropometric statistics are important, respectively, for identifying incipient changes in weight and alterations in nutritional status at an early stage. The scope of this study was to analyze weight/height- and weight/age-associated factors in preschool children. This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample scrutinizing 299 children enrolled in municipal daycare centers. Information was obtained through interviews with mothers together with a questionnaire analyzing socioeconomic, maternal and child information. Weight and height/stature of children were measured according to recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that none of the maternal variables was associated with the nutritional status of children and that only birth weight among child variables revealed any association with weight/height (p = 0.0030) and weight/age scores (p = 0.0018). The block of socioeconomic variables, in turn, proved to be the most representative variation factor of results, especially in the weight/age index. The importance of birth weight in the weight/height and weight/age of children, as well as the socioeconomic conditions notably in weight/age indices, was clearly revealed. PMID:27383355

  17. Dietary intake and clinical, anthropometric and biochemical indices of malnutrition in elderly demented patients and non-demented subjects.

    PubMed

    Burns, A; Marsh, A; Bender, D A

    1989-05-01

    Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status and weighed dietary intake have been studied in hospitalized patients with senile dementia, demented patients living in the community and age-matched control subjects who were not cognitively impaired. Demented patients were lighter than control subjects, and had a lower body mass index, skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference and arm muscle bulk. The hospitalized patients were more seriously affected than those living in the community, and body weight was significantly negatively correlated with duration of hospitalization. Over a 6-month period the hospitalized patients showed a further weight loss, while those living in the community did not. Both groups of demented patients had higher intakes of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals than the control subjects. The diet of the hospitalized patients was slightly, but not significantly, superior to that of the patients living in the community. Biochemical evidence of specific vitamin inadequacy was equally prevalent in all three groups of subjects, and there were no significant correlations between the degree of cognitive impairment or behavioural disorder and any of the indices of nutritional state. Clinical signs suggestive of malnutrition were not correlated with either biochemical evidence of deficiency or cognitive impairment and behavioural disturbance. PMID:2503850

  18. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  19. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  20. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  1. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the

  4. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  5. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance. PMID:7899544

  6. The Anthropometric Measurement of Schober's Test in Normal Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yong-Ren; Luo, Jin-Fan; Liu, Ming-Li; Lu, Fung-Jou; Wang, Soo-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of lower back mobility is essential in the assessment of lower back pain including ankylosing spondylitis. Original Schober's test (OST) and modified Schober's test (MST) are popularly conducted in daily rheumatology and orthopedics clinical practices. To our knowledge, this report is the only anthropometric reference study in a normal oriental population. The OST declined with age from 5.0 cm in the youngest (20–30 years old) to 3.1 cm in the aged (70–80 years old) male subjects and from 3.6 cm to 2.4 cm in the female subjects. The male OST was significantly more than the female OST. There was a good correlation between OST and MST in each of the three age groups of both sexes. PMID:26273601

  7. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  9. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  10. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Amanda Carla; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible airway obstruction. The innumerable complications that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  11. Polish experience in nutrition support in children.

    PubMed

    Laskowska, Justyna; Friedman-Gruszczyńska, Joanna; Popińska, Katarzyna; Lyszkowska, Małgorzata; Książyk, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Organization of enteral nutrition programme in Poland has developed rapidly in the last years, however, the underdiagnosis and late diagnosis of malnutrition are still the major challenges. For those children who are unable to tolerate enteral diet, intravenous support is required. Main achievements in our parenteral nutrition programme (PN) consist in decreasing septic complication rate and introducting fish oil based emulsions for prevention of PN-related liver disease. The challenge to combat in the future comprises development of a network of nutritional centres covering the whole country, which will take care of patients requiring nutrition support. The Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw will remain the reference centre for the management of the most complicated cases. The organization of postgraduate courses should lead to continuous reduction of nutrition related complications rate. The important problem remains the relatively low number of patients weaned off PN. The widespread introduction of intestine rehabilitation programme is essential to improve this issue. PMID:22006489

  12. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  13. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, F.J. Paul; Abonyi, Sylvia; Dyck, Roland F.

    2016-01-01

    Background First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI), height for age (HA) and weight for age (WA) of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls) were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8%) than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%), but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0%) and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. <2.0%). There was an overall trend of diminishing levels of underweight and increasing levels of overweight/obesity over time. Although 6.6% of boys and 7.9% of girls had HA Z-scores >−2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First

  14. Exploring anthropometric and laboratory differences in children of varying ethnicities with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Seema; Alzaben, Abeer; Shirton, Leanne; Persad, Rabindranath; Huynh, Hien Q; Mager, Diana R; Turner, Justine M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder with an increasing prevalence, including in ethnic minorities. OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of CD diagnosis in ethnic minorities presenting to a Canadian pediatric celiac clinic and to determine whether ethnic differences exist at diagnosis or follow-up. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven CD diagnosed at a multidisciplinary celiac clinic between 2008 and 2011 were identified through the clinic database. Data at referral, and six-month and 12-month follow-ups were collected. These included demographics, self-reported ethnicity, symptoms, anthropometrics and laboratory investigations, including serum immunoglobulin antitissue transglutaminase (aTTG). RESULTS: A total of 272 patients were identified; 80% (n=218) were Caucasian (group 1) and 20% (n=54) were other ethnicities. South Asians (group 2) comprised 81% (n=44) of the minority population. No differences in age or sex were found between the two groups. Group 1 patients presented more often with gastrointestinal symptoms (71% versus 43%; P<0.001), while patients in group 2 presented more often with growth concerns (21% versus 68%; P<0.001). At diagnosis, serum aTTG level was consistently lower in group 1 compared with group 2 (367 IU/mL versus 834 IU/mL; P=0.030). Both groups reported symptom improvement at six months and one year. At the end of one year, aTTG level was more likely to be normal in group 1 compared with group 2 (64% versus 29%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Although they represent a minority group, South Asian children comprised a significant proportion of CD patients presenting to a Canadian celiac clinic. South Asian children were more likely to present with growth concerns, which has important implications for timely diagnosis in this population. In addition, the apparent delay in normalization of aTTG levels suggests that careful follow-up and culturally focused education supports should be developed for South Asian children with

  15. Nutritional assessment in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Manning, E M; Shenkin, A

    1995-07-01

    Although many of the measurements and techniques outlined in this article may be epidemiologically useful and correlate with morbidity and mortality, no single indicator is of consistent value in the nutritional assessment of critically ill patients. Measurements such as anthropometrics, total body fat estimation, or delayed hypersensitivity skin testing either are liable to non-nutritional influences or lack accuracy and precision in individual patients. Plasma concentrations of hepatic proteins are affected significantly by the patient's underlying disease state and therapeutic interventions and therefore lack specificity. Although the measurement of these proteins is of little value in the initial nutritional assessment of the critically ill, serial measurement, particularly of plasma pre-albumin, may be useful in monitoring the response to nutritional support. Nitrogen balance is a widely used and valuable nutritional indicator in the critically ill. Direct measurement of urine nitrogen is the preferred test, although nitrogen excretion often is derived from 24-hour urine urea measurement, an inexpensive and easy procedure, but one that is less accurate. More accurate techniques of assessing change in nutritional status, such as IVNAA of total body nitrogen or isotopic measurement of exchangeable potassium or sodium, are more expensive, less available, unsuitable for repeated analyses, and less feasible in severely ill patients. Total body nitrogen measured using IVNAA and total-body potassium, however, are the most accurate ways of measuring body composition in the presence of large amounts of edema fluid. The application of body composition measurements to patient care remains poorly defined because of the many problems encountered with the various techniques, including cost, availability, and radiation exposure. Improved, more sensitive and, preferably, bedside methods for the measurement of body composition are needed. It is of paramount importance that

  16. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Salvioni, Cristina Cleide Dos Santos; Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  17. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  18. Effect of parental consanguinity on anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Krishan, G

    1986-05-01

    The study of consanguineous marriage is an efficient way to elucidate the genetic structure of human populations. Such matings give an opportunity for recessive genes to manifest themselves by becoming homozygous. The present attempt examines the effects of parental consanguinity on various anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of old Delhi between the ages of 11 and 16 years. A slight inbreeding depression has been observed for all eight anthropometric measurements, i.e., stature, span, sitting height, head length, head circumference, chest girth, and calf circumference. The results support earlier studies in regard to the effect of consanguinity on anthropometric measurements. PMID:3728657

  19. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  20. [Crohn's disease and enteral feeding: comparative nutritional efficacy of elemental and polymeric nutritive mixtures].

    PubMed

    Cosnes, J; Bellanger, J; Gendre, J P; Le Quintrec, Y

    1988-10-01

    The nutritional development with three types of enteral diets during 28 days, was compared in 45 patients with malnutrition presenting an active Crohn's disease. Enteral feeding consisted of a polymeric mixture (Realmentyl) administered in addition to a normal oral diet in 11 patients; the same mixture was administered alone exclusively to 9 patients, and an elemental diet (Vivonex HN) administered exclusively to 25 patients. The total caloric intake reached, in the three groups, the mean values of 60.2, 36.9 and 33.8 kcal/kg of ideal weight/day, respectively. 33 patients also received steroids. At the end of 28 days of enteral diet, the improvement in the weight and the anthropometric measurements (muscle circumference, triceps skinfold) was significantly more marked (gain of 6.5 kg) with the supplemental polymeric mixture than with exclusive enteral diet, polymeric diet (+/- 2.0 kg) or basic (+1.2 kg). Transferrin and albumin plasma levels increased in all 3 groups, but much faster with the exclusive elemental feeding, in spite of a higher urinary urea excretion in these patients. The overall nutritional development was significantly better with supplemental polymeric feeding, and was identical in the two other groups. These results confirm that the supplemental polymeric enteral feeding is more effective, from the nutrition standpoint. With an exclusive enteral feeding, the nutritional result is appreciably the same, whether the mixture consists of polymers or basic elements. PMID:3144938

  1. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  2. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  3. Notes on the history of nutritional anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R

    1981-09-01

    This paper reviews briefly the history of the use of growth for assessing nutritional status. The first significant development occurred during the early part of the 19th century when studies of army conscripts and of English working children established that poor growth was a reflection of poverty, malnutrition, and disease. The development of statistics later in the 19th century had an explosive effect on growth and development research and provided the techniques necessary for the elaboration of growth standards. The preferred indicator of nutritional status during the early part of the 20th century was weight for height, children being usually considered undernourished if they were 10% below the ideal weight for height and age. It was not until the 1940's that longitudinal growth data arising from the studies implemented in the 1920's and 1930's became available for use as percentile standards. The appropriateness of Western growth standards for developing countries became a topic of debate as many anthropometric surveys began to be carried out in developing countries after World War II. Efforts to develop valid, reliable, and simple indicators of nutritional status for use in developing countries continue to this day. The functional implications of growth retardation, particularly the contrast between stunting and wasting, is likely to be an important subject for future research. PMID:7023992

  4. Geriatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  5. Crusade against Malnutrition: Nutrition Education Program.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth, K E

    2016-03-01

    A holistic approach in assessment and plan for intervention in childhood malnutrition is the need of the hour. This is in the context of nutrition education program (NEP), undertaken under the National IAP action plan, 2015. In the crusade against malnutrition, an ABCDEFQ assessment scale is recommended, with aspects covering anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, ecological/epidemiological, functional parameters and quality of life. In the dietary assessment, a scoring system based on the ten interventions related to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices recommended by UNICEF and the food frequency table score are incorporated. In the evaluation of quality of life and plan for intervention, a tool called IMPACT (IAP Malnutrition Proactive Assessment: A Comprehensive Tool) is proposed. PMID:27029680

  6. [Trace elements deficiency in children receiving nutritional management].

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji

    2016-07-01

    The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described. PMID:27455814

  7. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in

  8. Physiological and Anthropometrical Predictors of 15-Kilometer Time Trial Cycling Performance Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Frank R.; Manfredi, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    A study assessing the relationship between physiological and anthropometrical variables and cycling performance time found that anaerobic threshhold and body circumference ratio correlated highly with cycling performance time. (Author/CB)

  9. Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.

    PubMed

    Harris, B

    1994-08-01

    This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

  10. Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780-1920.

    PubMed

    Heyberger, Laurent

    2007-07-01

    A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. While heights were relatively low, they did not decline much preceding the Revolution in 1789. During the first half of the 19th Century heights varied considerably both spatially and longitudinally, indicating the contrasting effects of modernization among the four areas. Conscripts from the least productive agricultural area, Limousin, were the shortest. Heights in Alsace remained essentially unchanged during the first half of the 19th Century, but those in Brie increased after 1820 and those in Limousin after 1840. The positive trend became more general after 1870, though Brie alone showed the considerable negative impact of the agricultural depression of the last quarter of the 19th Century. Heights diverged until 1850 and converged thereafter. In Limousin, the annual height of conscripts is positively correlated with the weight of cattle. By the early decades of the 20th Century, a marked, long-term increase in anthropometric growth had occurred in these four regions, as elsewhere in Europe. The regional estimates correspond well to the national trends estimated by Komlos and Weir except that they show the great local variation in height until the turn of the 20th Century. PMID:17531551