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Sample records for anthropometric nutritional diagnosis

  1. Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory nutritional markers of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Prevalence and diagnostic use.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn; Phillips, Mary E; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) frequently occurs secondary to exocrine pancreatic disease (e.g. chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, cancer) or pancreatic/gastrointestinal surgery, resulting in the maldigestion of nutrients and consequently malnutrition. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the cornerstone of PEI management. Despite its clinical relevance, the diagnosis of PEI in clinical practice is challenging, as the current gold standard test is cumbersome, and alternatives have limited availability or accuracy. There is a need for accurate and easily applicable diagnostic modalities. We review the prevalence of clinical symptoms and changes in anthropometric measurements and laboratory nutritional markers indicative of malnutrition in patients with PEI, and the relevance of these findings in diagnosing PEI and monitoring PERT efficacy. Based on limited available evidence, assessment of clinical symptoms, body weight, body mass index and other anthropometric parameters are not sensitive methods for PEI diagnosis, owing to high variability and multiple confounding factors, but appear useful in monitoring PERT efficacy. Limited evidence precludes strong recommendations but suggests that serum levels of vitamin E, magnesium, and plasma proteins, notably retinol binding protein, albumin, and prealbumin, may have diagnostic utility in PEI. Studies show that assessment of changes in these and other nutritional parameters is helpful in monitoring PERT efficacy. Further research is needed to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters for PEI. Until such data are available, a nutritional evaluation including circulating vitamin E, magnesium, retinol binding protein, albumin, and prealbumin may be used to evaluate the probability of PEI in clinical practice when reliable pancreatic function tests are not available. PMID:26243045

  2. An anthropometric and dietary assessment of the nutritional status of vegan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Purves, R

    1981-10-01

    The nutritional status of 23 vegan children between one and five years was assessed using anthropometric and dietary criteria. All of the children had been breastfed for at least the first six months of life and in most cases well into the second year. The majority of the children were growing normally but they did tend to be smaller in stature and lighter in weight when compared with standards. Energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were usually below those recommended. Their diets, however, were generally adequate but a few children had low intakes of riboflavin and vitamin B12. It is concluded that, provided sufficient care is taken, a vegan diet can meet the nutritional requirements of the preschool child. PMID:7288184

  3. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely. PMID:25420774

  4. Nutritional assessment and its correlation with anthropometric measurements in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Koor, Behrooz Ebrahimzadeh; Nakhaie, Mohammad Reza; Babaie, Saied

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problems in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is chronic malnutrition. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition using a subjective global assessment (SGA) in HD patients referred to the Valie ASR Hospital, Arak, Iran. In this descriptive analysis study, 190 HD patients were selected with random sampling. SGA and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed in all patients. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and t-tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 190 patients studied, 78 patients (41.1%) were male and 112 patients (58.9%) were female. Sixteen patients were detected to have adequate nutritional status (8.4%), 90 (47.4%) had mild malnutrition and 84 patients (44.2%) had moderate malnutrition. We found a significant negative correlation of SGA score with patient's weight (r = -0.147) and patient's body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.238). Also, it correlated significantly with duration of dialysis treatment (years) (r = 0.404). The SGA score showed a significant negative correlation with mid-arm circumference (MAC) (r = - 0.152). No significant correlation was found between SGA score and mid-arm muscle area. Our study showed that >50% of patients on maintenance HD had mild or moderate malnutrition. There was no case of severe malnutrition. Duration of dialysis treatment and some anthropometric indices (weight, BMI and MAC) also showed a significant correlation with SGA score, which are important to determine the nutritional status of HD patients. PMID:26178540

  5. Anthropometric and Biochemical Assessment of Nutritional Status in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    ?lhan, ?nci Ergrhan; Sar?, Neriman; Ye?il, ?ule; Eren, Tuba; Tay?ld?z, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment. According to weight for height, the frequency of malnutrition was 16% at initial presentation and 22% at 6th month. Triceps skinfold thickness was significantly thinner in patients than controls at both measurements. Patients had lower levels of prealbumin, albumin, iron, folate, zinc, and vitamin C and higher levels of ferritin, vitamin B12, and copper. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients at initial presentation and seemed to be correlated with copper levels. Compared with other patients, malnourished patients had significantly higher levels of vitamin B12 at 6th month. Results of the current study demonstrate that trace minerals, vitamins, and anthropometric measures may yield important clues for nutritional status and disease activity in pediatric oncology patients. However, validation and updating these potential markers warrant further trials on larger series. PMID:26237587

  6. The impact of a nutritional intervention on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the health Gym Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Raquel Mendona; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrcia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Sade (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme. PMID:26060972

  7. Anthropometric measures at multiple times throughout life and prostate cancer diagnosis, metastasis and death

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, A.; Poon, B.Y.; Thorek, D.L.J.; Mucci, L.A.; Evans, M.J.; Scardino, P.T.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Nilsson, P.; Manjer, J.; Bjartell, A.; Malm, J.; Vickers, A.; Freedland, S.J.; Lilja, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and anthropometrics (i.e. body measurements) were based on single measurements or obtained over limited time spans. Objective To study the association between anthropometrics measured at multiple time-points in life and their relation to later diagnosis, metastasis or death from PCa. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study includes 27,167 Swedish men enrolled in two population-based projects during 1974 – 96. PCa diagnosis up to Dec. 31st 2006, disease information, gestation time, anthropometrics at birth, military conscript testing, and adulthood were collected. 1355 PCa-cases were matched with 5271 controls. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Univariate conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether clinical diagnosis, metastasis, or PCa death were associated with low birth weight (weight < 2500 g), Small for Gestational Age, or with weight, length or BMI at birth, adolescence (age 16–22), or early middle age (age 44–50). Results and Limitation Apart from weight at adolescence, which was associated with an increased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.05 (1.01–1.09; P = 0.026)), pre-adulthood measurements were not associated with any PCa endpoint. Adulthood parameters were not associated with diagnosis. In contrast, weight and BMI at early middle age were significantly associated with metastasis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.13 (1.06–1.20; P<0.0001) and (OR (95%) 1.09 (1.05–1.14; P<0.0001) and death (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.11 (1.03–1.19; P=0.005) and (OR (95%) 1.08 (1.03–1.13; P=0.003), respectively. It remains unclear whether these results apply to men of non-Caucasian origin, in populations with active PCa screening programs, or in countries without socialized health-care. Conclusions The analyses of these large data sets demonstrate significant effects of body characteristics (with links to metabolic syndrome) when measured at early middle age are associated with PCa disease severity, metastatic progression and outcome. Conversely, measurements at birth or adolescence are not associated with PCa prevalence or outcome, Patient Summary Increased weight and BMI in adults is associated with a higher risk of PCa metastasis and death. PMID:25794458

  8. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  9. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  10. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  11. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  12. Nutritional status of children and adolescents at diagnosis of hematological and solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was ?2.82% in the hematologic group and ?2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652

  13. Implementing nutrition diagnosis at a multisite health care organization.

    PubMed

    Van Heukelom, Holly; Fraser, Valli; Koh, Jiak-Chin; McQueen, Kay; Vogt, Kara; Johnson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The American Dietetic Association Nutrition Care Process (NCP) is designed to improve patient care and interdisciplinary communication through the consistent use of standardized nutrition language. Supported by Dietitians of Canada, the NCP has been gaining prominence across Canada. In spring 2009, registered dietitians at Providence Health Care, an academic, multisite health care organization in Vancouver, British Columbia, began using the NCP with a focus on nutrition diagnosis. The success of nutrition diagnosis at Providence Health Care has depended on support from the Clinical Nutrition Department leadership, commitment from the NCP champions, regularly scheduled lunch-and-learn sessions, revised nutrition assessment forms with a section for nutrition diagnosis statements, and the Pocket Guide for International Dietetics & Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) Reference Manual. Audit results from June through August 2010 showed a 92% nutrition diagnosis completion rate for acute-care and long-term care sites within Providence Health Care. Ongoing audits will be used to evaluate the accuracy and quality of nutrition diagnosis statements. This evaluation will allow Providence Health Care dietitians to move forward with nutrition intervention. PMID:22146116

  14. Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454

  15. [Nutritional characterization by anthropometrics of institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly Venezuelan].

    PubMed

    Daz, Nayka; Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti; Pea, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    In order to evaluate nutritional status by anthropometry, a group of elderly (60 to 83 years old) was studied: 63 institutionalized and 37 non-institutionalized elderly from Valencia city, Venezuela. Weight, height, triceps skinfold and mid-arm circumference were measured and the body mass index (weight/height2) was calculated. The average age for the institutionalized group was 77.3 +/- 7.5 years old and 69.5 +/- 7.6 years old for the free-living elderly group. Tricipital skinfold (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) means were within the normal reference range for both groups, without significant differences by sex. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in the institutionalized group. Lower BMI and MAC were found in older elderly (> or =80 y). According to the nutritional classification by BMI, 16% of nutritional deficit, 45% of normal status and 39.7% with of excess weight were found in institutionalized elderly; while in free-living elderly, prevalences were 8%, 62% and 29.7% respectively. Even though normal nutritional status was highly prevalent, institutionalized elderly showed higher prevalences of nutritional alterations (underweight and overweight). PMID:16001743

  16. A study of the geographical clustering of districts in Uttar Pradesh using nutritional anthropometric data of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. Vishnu Vardhana; Kumar, Sharad; Brahmam, G.N.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Worldwide variations in human growth and its genetic and environmental factors have been described. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the morphological differences and similarities among under 5 year children of rural areas of Uttar Pradesh State in India, and to determine differences or similarities of body size among children living in diverse regions. Methods: For this purpose, a cross-sectional district nutrition profile study conducted during 2002-2003 was used. The data on 10,096 children drawn from 1080 villages in 54 districts were part of the district level Diet and Nutrition Assessment survey. The mean values for height and weight for 54 districts were taken as the input data for subsequent analysis. The data were first normalized by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and then K-means clustering was performed. Results: The PCA and cluster analysis yielded four distinguishable clusters or patterns in the anthropometric data of children. These clusters were ordered according to the average body size (weight and height) of children. The mean stature and body weight of these children in cluster I were 3.2 cm and 1.4 kg higher than those of cluster IV indicating differences between clusters. Also, the variations between clusters in their social, demographic, health and nutrition parameters were compared. Interpretation & conclusions: The use of PCA and cluster analysis methods and their merits in studying the Uttar Pradesh preschool children growth variations are discussed. These results helped in identifying the districts with higher prevalence of undernutrition and the contributing factors. PMID:23481054

  17. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, TE; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Subjects and Methods: Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of < 3 meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who “ate out” < 2 times/day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Conclusion: Findings should inform policy, via the “Health in All” policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments. PMID:26035813

  18. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. I. Descriptive and anthropometric data.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    By sequential random numbering 10 schools in greater Winnipeg were selected for a nutrition survey. Interviews were conducted with 201 grade 3 children and 182 grade 6 children for whom parental consent was obtained. Of these, 48 in grade 3 and 51 in grade 6 were studied in further detail. There were no differences in descriptive data between the general and detailed groups or among the 10 schools. Most fathers were skilled or unskilled labourers and about 50% of the mothers were homemakers without outside employment; parental occupation did not influence eating patterns. Breakfast was the meal most often missed; 8% of the 383 children had come to school without breakfast. Since many children in grade 3 had prepared their own breakfast and since there was a relative lack of physical activity, school health programs should incorporate more than nutritional supplements and nutrition education. On the basis of body weight and height the nutritional status of the 99 children studied in detail was judged to be generally satisfactory; according to the Boston standards the boys were heavy and tall, and the girls were normal in weight but short. PMID:837314

  19. [Vitamin A deficiency and the anthropometric nutritional status of urban and rural marginalized children in the state of Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Daisy; Viloria-Castejón, Haydée; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Urrieta, Jesús R; Lobo, Pablo; Estévez, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    The present transversal study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of both vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and protein-energy malnutrition among children (24 to 85 months) from three urban slums (n = 173) in Maracaibo city, Zulia State, Venezuela and a rural slum area (n = 34), vieinal to Maracaibo, by measuring serum retinol and z score of anthropometric indices Height//Age (H//AZ); Weight//Age (W//AZ) and Weight//Height (W//HZ), compared to NCHS-WHO reference values. The Graffar's methodology adapted to Venezuela by Méndez Castellano (1986) confirmed the underprivileged socio-economic condition of the children population. For serum retinol analysis, peripheral venous blood was drawn and serum was treated according to the Bieri et al. (1979) technique and HPLC procedure. Values were recorded in microgram/dL. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info 2000, release 1.0 and SAS release 6.0 (1996) computer programs. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dL) in the total children population (n = 207) was 22.2%, being higher in urban children than in rural children (22.5% vs 20.5%). No clinical signs of VAD were detected in the children. The nutritional status analysed by Z score of anthropometric indices revealed that 27.4% of children suffered from undernutrition (Z score = -2 to > -3 SD), being 15.4% stunted, 9.6% wasted and 2.6% with acute protein-energy malnutrition. Neither severe malnutrition nor overweight were detected. According with the H//AZ index, 54.6% of children had adequate nutrition. However 23% of them suffered from VAD. In children at risk of developing undernutrition (Z score = -1 to > -2 SD), 20.9% had VAD and of the stunted children, 21.9% presented VAD. With W//AZ, 60.3%, 29.9% and 9.1% of children were with adequate nutrition, at risk, or wasted respectively; of each group, 25.6%, 17.7% and 15%, respectively had serum retinol values below 20 micrograms/dL. The Z score of W//HZ indicator revealed that 87.4%, 10.4% and 2.4% of children were in good nutrition, at risk, or with acute protein-energy malnutrition, respectively. In the three groups 22.1%, 23.8% and 20%, respectively were affected by VAD. These results indicate that VAD coexists indistinctly in healthy, adequately nourished children, as in those malnourished ones. Our VAD prevalence results and others from Venezuela, are higher than the criteria laid down by WHO and PAHO which warrant wide community intervention. This public health problem becomes more significant because children are apparently healthy and, if timely vitamin A supplementation is not given, any intercurrent infection is likely to worsen the vitamin A status, increasing the widely known consequences. PMID:12108030

  20. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  1. [Evolution of the nutritional status of Chilean children from preschool to school age: anthropometric results according to the source of the data].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Galvn, Marcos; Taibo, Marcela; Corvaln, Camila; Lera, Lydia; Uauy, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Because the results of the nutritional status released by Chilean institutions which collect anthropometric data on their population under control, show different increments in the prevalence of obesity between preschoolers and children in 1st grade, we decided to verify the real magnitude of this increase. This study is based on a longitudinal investigation which began in 2006 and included 1100, three-year old children, which we evaluated when they were 4, 5 and 6 y. The nutritional status was determined according to BMI Z and WHO References 2006/2007. The information was also used to determine the concordance between the anthropometric data collected on first graders by teachers from public schools in 2009 (JUNAEB data set) and the same children assessed in parallel by INTA (INTA data set). The sample included 474, six-year olds. No differences were found between the average BMI Z and HAZ of the two data sets, and the degree of concordance between the BMI Z's was good (rho = 0.73), however there were differences in the nutritional status, since the prevalence of low weight was significantly greater when assessed with JUNAEB's data (9.5% vs. 3.6% ), while that for obesity was lower with INTA's data, 17.5% vs. 19.2% (not significantly different). At 4 and 5 y, obesity prevalence of the children was 13.3% and 15.7% respectively (INTA's data). Considering the observed nutritional trajectory, it is likely that the rise in obesity between 4 and 6 y of age, was 4 percentage points and not 6, as was determined with INTA's data. PMID:21427882

  2. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly has a spatial dimension that is highly influenced by the degree of urbanity, which should be taken into consideration in policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26880073

  3. Assessment of Under Nutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) amongst Toddlers Residing in Urban Slums of Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Soni, G.P.; Jain, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Shubhra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several indicators have been used for measurement of under nutrition in the past. They are overlapping and none individually provide a comprehensive number of under nourished in the community. The effort has been to discuss the use of an alternative indicator of malnutrition – the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Aim To study the prevalence of under nutrition of Toddlers using CIAF and compare the prevalence of under nutrition obtained by primitive indicators and CIAF. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional community based study was carried out in urban slums of Raipur (C.G) during Jan 01,2014 to Sept 30, 2014 using sample size of 602. Slums were selected by multistage random sampling and the subjects were selected by convenient sampling, i.e. starting from a random point house to house survey was carried out until desired number of subjects (According to PPS) were covered assuming that slum population is evenly distributed. Attendant of Toddlers were interviewed with semi structured proforma and Height and Weight were measured by measuring tape and Salter’s weighing machine respectively. Informed consent was obtained. MS excel was used for data analysis after compilation. Results Girls and boys were 50% each. By CIAF the prevalence of under nutrition was found to be 62.1% while, Underweight, Stunting and Wasting showed it to be 45.2%, 46.6% and 17.8% respectively. Conclusion Primitive indices under estimate the burden of under nutrition and CIAF should be used a screening tool for assessing under nutrition. PMID:26393147

  4. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

  5. Effects of age misstatement on the utility of age-dependent anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Khan, A D

    1987-01-01

    We report the effects of age error on use of weight-for-age and height-for-age for assessing and screening malnutrition, and for identifying factors of malnutrition in 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companiganj, in rural Bangladesh. Overreporting and random error in age and correlation of age error with each of the anthropometric indices are observed. As a result, the proportion of children having less than or equal to 60 per cent of median weight-for-age is overestimated by five percentage points and the proportion having less than 80 per cent of median height-for-age is overestimated by six points. Loss in sensitivity (proportion of malnourished children correctly identified) for the above cutoff points is 20 per cent for weight-for-age and 28 per cent for height-for-age, compared to the situation in the absence of age error. Although mother's education is not a significant determinant of weight-for-age and height-for-age, age error makes mother's education appear artifactually significant in the analysis of variance. PMID:3812830

  6. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  7. [Effectiveness of body mass index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Prez, Gladys; Azuaje-Snchez, Arelis

    2005-03-01

    Our goal was to analyze the concordances and non-concordances of the nutritional classification in pregnant women and to evaluate their effectiveness when different BMI classification methodologies were applied. The study consisted of 314 adult healthy pregnant women in their first trimester, of socioeconomic status IV. In all of them, two nutritional classification criteria were applied: the integral nutritional diagnosis (IND) and different BMI reference values (Institute of Medicine, FAO/OMS, Frisancho, Bray, and Atalah). Kappa, concordance and nonconcordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The highest frequency of concordance between IND and the analyzed classification criteria in comparing four and three nutritional categories was Frisancho's with the following results 89.2%, Kappa = 0.81 in the first case, and 91.4, Kappa = 0.84 in the second case. In deficit, the Bray and Atalah classification criteria were the highest sensitivities. In excess, FAO/ OMS, Frisancho, and Bray had a high sensitivity (1 - 0.99). Frisancho, in addition, had a high specificity with respect to FAO/OMS and Bray. Frisancho's classification criteria are the best choice for diagnosing adult pregnant women's nutritional status during the first trimester within population groups with these characteristics. PMID:16187677

  8. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet & Nutrition - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign ... with MS Health and Wellness Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. ...

  9. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  10. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.

  11. Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food HypersensitivityThe Dietitians Role

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

  12. [A protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic osteopathy in patients with home-based parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Enterría, P Gómez; González, L Laborda; Faedo, C Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Patients presenting severe intestinal failure submitted to a home-based parenteral nutrition program have increased risk for bone metabolism impairments. This decrease in bone quality has a multifactorial origin and may be already present when implementing nutritional support. There is the need for having available protocols allowing early diagnosis of osteo-metabolic disease and implementing adequate therapy to prevent fractures and improving the quality of life of these patients. PMID:17612377

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  14. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development ... nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased from 76.0% in 2000 to 88. ...

  15. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Grlek Gkebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hac? Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH <90th percentile and BMI <5th percentile (P = .003 and P = .04, respectively). Infectious complications occurred more frequently in malnourished patients during first 3 months, and survival of children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children. PMID:26418028

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  17. [Effectiveness of the Body Mass Index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Prez, Gladys

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic capacity of different classification criteria based on Body Mass Index in the assessment of nutritional status and to evaluate their effectiveness. The sample comprised 367 healthy pregnant adolescents in their first trimester of gestation, from a socioeconomic level IV, between Oct. 1999 and Dec. 2008. Two methodologies were applied for the nutritional classification: (1) Integral nutritional diagnosis (gold standard), and (2) Body Mass Index (BMI), using local reference values: Proyecto Venezuela and the Transversal Study of Caracas, and international reference values: Frisancho and WHO 2006. Concordances, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden index were calculated. According to the gold standard and BMI, the percentage of well-nourished pregnant women ranged between 62.4% and 80.6%. Within the deficit range, Frisancho was the most effective with kappa: 0.80; sensitivity: 87.3%; specificity: 94.8%; positive likelihood ratio: 16.9, and negative likelihood ratio: 0.13; Youden index: 0.82. Within the excess range, Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas were the most effective with Youden index: 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. These results revealed that Frisancho was the best criterion to diagnose malnutrition in deficit in pregnant women. All references have an adequate diagnostic capacity for the excess range, of which Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas are the best. We recommend using such reference values to optimize the efficiency of the BMI indicator in diagnosing malnutrition in deficit and in excess in the first trimester of gestation in pregnant adolescents within populations with similar characteristics. PMID:21427881

  18. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight. PMID:22776157

  20. SNCF experience in anthropometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

  1. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology

  2. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  3. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  4. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional treatment, the patient should be followed up. No single marker can be used to monitor progress; interpretations will once again require examination of the patient's medical history, the taking of anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Depending on whether a patient is ambulatory or hospitalised, the follow-up assessment times and variables measured will differ. PMID:25719787

  5. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  6. Dietary history and nutritional state in treated coeliac patients.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, B J; Bell, P M; Thomson, J M; Fee, D B; Wilson, E A; Love, A H

    1986-01-01

    The gluten content and nutritional adequacy of the diet of a group of adult coeliac patients supposedly following a gluten-free diet for at least one year were assessed. Results were considered in relation to the nutritional state of these patients, determined by anthropometric measurement, and the histological appearance of jejunal biopsies taken at the time of nutritional assessment. Imperfect gluten avoidance, mild malnutrition and mild histological abnormalities on jejunal biopsy were frequent findings. A careful dietary and nutritional assessment when considered in light of histological findings at jejunal biopsy helps to identify the causes of persisting symptoms or malnutrition in treated coeliac patients. A normal jejunal biopsy in a malnourished patient whose dietary compliance is good should prompt a search for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:3701766

  7. Nutrition Assessment of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Suzanne Nelson; McKinney, Shortie

    1986-01-01

    Diet recall, a food record, a written test, interviews, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were used to examine the nutrition and weight control practices and knowledge of 42 wrestlers from two college teams. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  8. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  9. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  10. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  11. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th to 75th percentiles) body mass index (BMI) values were 23.2 (21.6 - 24.6) and 20.6 (19.4 - 21.9) kg . m (-2) for the men and women, respectively. Men were significantly taller, heavier and had greater BMI's across all age groups compared with the women. Among the top-5 overall finishers, mean BMI values were 23.2 (range 22.4 - 24.7) for the men and 19.8 (range 17.3 - 21.1) for the women. Average running speed and BMI were negatively correlated for both men (r (2) = 0.11, p < 0.0001) and women (r (2) = 0.10, p = 0.02). From this analysis, it is concluded that those participating in ultramarathon runs can vary widely in physical characteristics with BMI values that would classify some individuals as underweight and others as overweight. BMI varied considerably even among the top finishers, but lower BMI values were associated with faster running times. PMID:18401807

  12. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  13. Laboratory Testing for and Diagnosis of Nutritional Deficiencies in Pregnancy Before and After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Huizinga, Mary M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Bariatric surgery can reduce the risk of obesity-related complications of pregnancy, but may cause essential nutrient deficiencies. To assess adherence to laboratory testing guidelines, we examined frequency of testing for and diagnosis of deficiency during preconception and pregnancy using claims data in women with a delivery and bariatric surgery. Methods: Retrospective analysis of claims from seven Blue Cross Blue Shield plans between 2002 and 2008. We included women with a delivery and bariatric surgery within the study period. We used common procedural terminology (CPT) and ICD-9 codes to define laboratory testing and deficiencies for iron, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and thiamine. Using Student's t-test and chi-square testing, we compared frequency of laboratory tests and diagnoses during 12 months preconception and 280 days of pregnancy between women with pregnancy before versus after surgery. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate for predictors of laboratory testing. Results: We identified 456 women with pregnancy after bariatric surgery and 338 before surgery. The frequency of testing for any deficiency was low (9%–51%), but higher in those with pregnancy after surgery (p<0.003). The most common deficiency was vitamin B12 (12%–13%) with pregnancy after surgery (p<0.006). Anemia and number of health provider visits were independent predictors of laboratory testing. Conclusion: Women with pregnancy after bariatric surgery were tested for and diagnosed with micronutrient deficiencies more frequently than those with pregnancy before surgery. However, most laboratory testing occurred in less than half the women and was triggered by anemia. Increased testing may help identify nutrient deficiencies and prevent consequences for maternal and child health. PMID:24102519

  14. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  15. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  16. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH OF CANDIDATES FOR SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    SILVEIRA, Thalita Morgana Guimares; de SOUSA, Juliana Barbosa; STRINGHINI, Maria Luiza Ferreira; FREITAS, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; MELO, Paulla Guimares

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values ??of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. Results The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (diagnosis of nutritional subjective assessment with anthropometric methods and strength of the handshake only at the non-dominant limb. PMID:25004287

  17. Nutritional status assessment in geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology Nutrition Work Group.

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26025067

  18. [Nutritional status assessment in Geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology NutritionWork Group].

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26388249

  19. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  20. Better health data with a portable microcomputer at the periphery: an anthropometric survey in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, P.; Dupret, A.; Cutting, W. A. M.

    1987-01-01

    A portable microcomputer was programmed to record anthropometric nutritional data from children aged under 7 years in either a clinic or a population survey situation. An alarm sounds when the anthropometric measurements of a child are below a predetermined value; an immediate check thus avoids the need for subsequent data cleaning and discarding of doubtful information. Data cut-off points in the computer can be adjusted to suit the survey or service needs of the situation. A print-out at the end of the clinic session provides immediate feedback for the staff and a record of the nutritional status of the group. In Cape Verde, 14 670 children attending clinics were surveyed; 26% were identified as stunted, 3% as wasted, and 1% as stunted and wasted. While a portable microcomputer can improve precision, speed and motivation, nutrition surveys still depend on accurate scales, careful measurements and competent staff. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3322601

  1. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  2. [Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

  3. Evaluation of growth and changes in body composition following neonatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Greer, R; Shepherd, R; Cleghorn, G; Bowling, F G; Holt, T

    1991-07-01

    Early deficits in nutritional status that might require specific treatment and early response to nutritional therapy were studied longitudinally in 25 infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed by neonatal screening, using anthropometric and research body composition methodology, and evaluation of pancreatic function. At the time of confirmed diagnosis (mean 5.4 weeks), body mass, length, total body fat (TBF), and total body potassium (TBK) were all significantly reduced. Following diagnosis and commencement of therapy there was a normalization of weight, length, and TBK by 6-12 months of age, indicating catch-up growth. But in some individuals the response was incomplete, and as a group, mean total body fat remained significantly lower than normal at 1 year of age. Seven of 25 (28%) were pancreatic sufficient at diagnosis, and all but one had evidence of declining pancreatic function requiring the institution of pancreatic enzyme therapy during the next 1-9 months. The median age of commencement of enzyme therapy was 10 weeks (range 5 weeks to 11 months). These longitudinal assessments emphasize the dynamic changes occurring in absorptive function, body composition, and nutritional status following neonatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and may reflect previously described abnormalities of energy metabolism in this age group. Abnormal body composition is evident in most CF infants following diagnosis by neonatal screening but pancreatic damage may still be evolving. We suggest that early active nutritional therapy and surveillance for changes in pancreatic function are warranted in CF infants diagnosed by neonatal screening. PMID:1919953

  4. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The review utilizes data on three micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc and iron), anthropometrically defined undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and obesity to evaluate the effect on immune function, recovery of immune function in response to nutritional interventions, related health outco...

  5. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  6. Nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J E; McNeill, K G

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of body composition are made to assess nutritional status. The measurements used for these studies should be selected on the basis of reliability, as well as simplicity and costs, and reliability depends on the information required. In normal adults simple estimates of fat and lean tissue (LBM), i.e. the anthropometric measurements of weight, height and skin fold thickness, should be sufficient since the proportions, in LBM, of water, protein and bone mineral are relatively constant. Measurements of body water (by isotope dilution or bioelectrical impedance) allow indirect estimates of fat and LBM that are reliable, provided that water is a constant proportion of LBM. In disease states, however, including renal disease, it is well established that the proportion of water in LBM varies from significant water overload to dehydration. In disease, it is important to determine not only total LBM but also the quality of LBM, determining essential body protein as well as body water. Body protein can be measured directly by nuclear techniques. This procedure should be more readily available for the clinical investigation of nutritional status. PMID:7986479

  7. Nutrition-related problems of pediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    González, L; Nazario, C M; González, M J

    2000-03-01

    Children with neuromuscular disorders have special health needs that place them at risk of nutritional problems. These needs may have detrimental effects on their development, immune and respiratory system. Identified nutrition-related problems are malnutrition, obesity, food intolerance, food allergies, drug-nutrient interactions, constipation and reflux. In order to improve the nutritional status of these patients, a nutritional assessment is recommended which should include anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. PMID:10761203

  8. Timing of Complementary Food Introduction and Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary STUDY (SNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Crume, Tessa L.; Crandell, Jamie; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana; Fangman, Mary T.; Pettitt, David J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; O'Connor, Rebecca; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5-month earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared to those who were not (9.0 0.2 vs. 9.5 0.1; p=0.02), independent of HLA-risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA-risk status found that children with a high risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age of diagnosis=9.3 0.1, 9.1 0.1 and 9.6 0.2 for introduction at ? 6 months, between 7 and 11 months, and ?12 months, respectively; p=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA-risk status. PMID:25117987

  9. Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars; Sperling, Lena; Gard, Gunvor; Ipsen, Staffan; Olivares Vergara, Cindy

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18-65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study B). Subjects were scanned in four positions. Manual measuring equipment was used for hands, feet, head and stature. As differences between significant measurements in Studies A and B were negligible, the data were merged. Anthropometric descriptive statistics of women and men are presented for 43 body dimensions. Participants represent the Swedish population fairly well when compared with national statistics of stature and weight. Comparing new anthropometric data with old shows that the breadth, depth, height, and length measurements of Swedes as well as weight have increased and that Swedish anthropometric homogeneity has decreased. The results indicate that there is a need to update ergonomic recommendations and adjust products and workplaces to the new information. PMID:18977470

  10. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  11. Nutrition and Fitness Course for Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Lillian

    1983-01-01

    Provides an outline of a 10-session, individualized nutrition/fitness course for junior high school students. Course topics include growth, body composition, exercise, energy, and nutrition. Through the use of worksheets, students assess their own anthropometric measurements, calculate energy expenditures, analyze diets, and compare dietary

  12. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal

  13. [WinDiet. Support decision system for the assessment of nutritional status and diet prescription].

    PubMed

    Esteves, E A; Siqueira, A D; Monteiro, J B; Ludwig, A

    1998-09-01

    A "Sistema de Apoio Deciso para Avaliao do Estado Nutricional e Prescrio de Dietas" called "WinDiet" was developed. The system was developed on a computer compatible to IBM-PC standard. For system processing procedures through the computer, that is, interpretation, compilation, table generation en others, it was selected the Delphi version 1.0 software, from Borland International, for its using facilities, data basis accomplishment, communication environment and mainly an ample availability of mathematic, impression and programming resources besides allowing for all the programming operations to be accomplished on Windows environment. Knowing the procedures for nutritional evaluation and diet prescription was possible by consulting to text books, periodicals and the area experts. This system allows for individual nutritional assessment applying the anthropometric methods such as weight, height, skinfold thickness measurings, the lab methods such as albumin, transferrin, height/creatinin index and others, the dietary methods by food consumption recall, and the clinical methods that give emphasis to pathological antecedents and indicative sings of nutritional status. The software also turns possible to prescribe and calculate diets from recommendation besides having an actual data basis which may be changed or modified. Yet it maintains the individual description from all evaluation and menus, emitting its complete reports. It was verified that it reduce significantly the working time and increase the precision of estimate and nutritional diagnosis. Thus, the WinDiet may be used in nutritionist's offices, ambulatories, hospitals as well as on nutritional researches and education. PMID:9951537

  14. U.S. Truck Driver Anthropometric Study and Multivariate Anthropometric Models for Cab Designs

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinhua; Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Reed, Matthew R.; Jahns, Steven K.; Loczi, Josef; Hardee, H. Lenora; Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study presents data from a large-scale anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers and the multivariate anthropometric models developed for the design of next-generation truck cabs. Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. truck driver population is needed for the design of safe and ergonomically efficient truck cabs. Method We collected 35 anthropometric dimensions for 1,950 truck drivers (1,779 males and 171 females) across the continental United States using a sampling plan designed to capture the appropriate ethnic, gender, and age distributions of the truck driver population. Results Truck drivers are heavier than the U.S. general population, with a difference in mean body weight of 13.5 kg for males and 15.4 kg for females. They are also different in physique from the U.S. general population. In addition, the current truck drivers are heavier and different in physique compared to their counterparts of 25 to 30 years ago. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide more accurate anthropometric information for cab designs than do the current U.S. general population data or truck driver data collected 25 to 30 years ago. Multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the current truck driver population on the basis of a set of 12 anthropometric measurements, have been developed to facilitate future cab designs. Application The up-to-date truck driver anthropometric data and multivariate anthropometric models will benefit the design of future truck cabs which, in turn, will help promote the safety and health of the U.S. truck drivers. PMID:23156628

  15. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  16. Anthropometrics and biochemical markers in men.

    PubMed

    Donescu, Oana S; Batti, Michele C; Videman, Tapio; Risteli, Juha; Eyre, David

    2005-01-01

    The relation between anthropometric components and biochemical markers has not been previously studied. To clarify the role of anthropometric factors in bone metabolism in men, 145 randomly selected subjects 40 to 70 yr of age from a population-based cohort were studied. Pearson's r and multiple regression analysis were used to assess the relation between anthropometrics (weight, body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat, fat-free weight, and fat freeBMI), biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and femoral neck, as well as between BMD and each biochemical marker (serum bone formation marker procollagen amino-terminal propeptide [PINP],urinary bone resorption marker amino-terminal telopeptide [NTx], and the ratio of PINP to NTx. Of the anthropometric factors, fat-free BMI had the highest association with the markers (r = -0.21 to -0.35, p < 0.05) and explained a higher percent of both spine BMD and NTx variance than weight. Body fat did not correlate with the BMD measures. Urinary NTx was a better indicator of current BMD status than PINP or the ratio of PINP to NTx, with the highest association with BMD at the sites tested (r = -0.20 to -0.29). NTx levels were statistically significantly different between men with normal and osteoporotic BMD at the femoral neck. PMID:15908711

  17. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  18. Prediction of mortality in patients in acute medical wards using basic laboratory and anthropometric data.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J.; Mak, Y. T.; Lau, J.; Swaminathan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The value of anthropometric and biochemical indices in predicting short-term mortality among patients in general medical wards was assessed in 294 patients admitted consecutively to a district hospital over a one month period. Using a stepwise logistic regression model and supported by the linear discriminant analysis method, mortality within 3 months could be predicted with sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 84% using the following variables: sex, functional ability, urea, total protein, alkaline phosphatase and albumin-adjusted calcium. Addition of anthropometric values and biochemical nutritional indices did little to improve the accuracy of the prediction, contrary to previous findings among surgical patients and elderly residents of long-term care institutions. PMID:1494524

  19. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  20. Making a nutritional assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Pencharz, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

  1. Exploring the multidimensional nature of anthropometric indicators for under-five children in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, Kakoli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional nature of the association of stunting, wasting, and underweight for children below 5 years of age in India using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (2005-2006). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to examine the association of the indicators. Additionally, log-linear model was used to find out the model of best fit to examine the nutritional status of children. It was found that underweight is associated with both stunting and wasting, whereas there was no consistent pattern of association between stunting and wasting. The results also confirmed that children suffered from multiple anthropometric failures. The results showed that height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age taken together give the model of best fit for analysis of nutritional status. The study concluded that the three indicators of nutritional status should be considered simultaneously to determine the percentage of undernourished children. PMID:26911220

  2. Parent perceptions of nutritional issues during their child's treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Baughcum, Amy E; Johnston, Amy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Hobart Davies, W; Mackner, Laura M; Noll, Robert B

    2006-07-01

    To examine family mealtime interactions, parental concerns about nutrition, and body mass index (BMI) among children with cancer who did not have primary central nervous system involvement. Parents of 95 children receiving treatment for cancer and 95 comparisons completed the About Your Child's Eating-Revised (AYCE-R) measure. Anthropometric data for children with cancer were obtained from medical charts at diagnosis and again when the AYCE-R was administered. No differences in mealtime interactions were found between children with cancer and comparisons, but parents of children with cancer reported greater concern about their child's weight. Anthropometric measures for children with cancer were consistent with national norms. However, children with cancer were somewhat underweight at diagnosis and became heavier over time. Lower BMI was associated with mother and father report of greater resistance from the child at mealtime, father report of his own aversion to family meals, and more severe treatment. The impact of cancer on family mealtime interactions and BMI appeared minimal during treatment. However, further longitudinal research is needed given the risk for late effects, such as growth problems and obesity, among cancer survivors. Families also may benefit from ongoing education to optimize healthy lifestyles among survivors. PMID:16825993

  3. Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. PMID:25681074

  4. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Nalin, Tatiele; Castro, Kamila; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G.J.; Perry, Ingrid D.S.; Mainieri, Alberto Scofano; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation to toxic levels due to the low activity of phenylalanine-hydroxylase. PKU patients must follow a Phe-restricted diet, which may put them in risk of nutritional disturbances. Therefore, we aimed to characterize body composition parameters and nutritional status in Brazilian PKU patients also considering their metabolic control. Methods Twenty-seven treated PKU patients older than 5 years, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, were analyzed for anthropometric features and body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Patients' metabolic control was assessed by historical Phe levels. Results There was no effect of PKU type, time of diagnosis, or metabolic control for any analyzed parameter. About 75% of patients and controls were eutrophic, according to their BMI values. There were no difference between groups regarding body composition and other BIA-derived parameters. Conclusions Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population. PMID:27014574

  5. Genetic drift and anthropometric variation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H

    1991-04-01

    The effect of genetic drift on the genetic structure of seven Irish populations was investigated using anthropometric data collected during the 1890s on 259 adult males. These populations ranged in size from 769 to 3757, were relatively stable over time, and were located within 119 km of one another. Two populations are known to have experienced considerable English admixture. Data on ten anthropometric variables (three body measures and seven craniofacial measures) were adjusted for age and used to compute a relationship (R) matrix. The R matrix was converted into a distance measure and compared with a potential genetic drift distance measure, defined as (1/Ni + 1/Nj), where Ni and Nj are the effective population sizes of groups i and j (derivation of this formula is presented). Distances were rank-transformed, and the correlation between their pairwise elements was computed using matrix permutation methods to assess significance. Under the hypothesis that drift affects anthropometric variation, these correlations are expected to be positive. The correlation between anthropometric distance and potential genetic drift distance is 0.123, which is not significantly different from 0 (P = 0.368). When a multiple regression model is used to adjust for geographic distance and English admixture, the partial correlation (0.369) is significant (p = 0.021). As part of further analysis of the genetic structure of these populations, the same analyses were repeated using a distance matrix derived from surname frequencies. The correlation of surname distance and potential genetic drift distance is 0.164, which is not significant (p = 0.264). When the multiple regression model is applied, the correlation is 0.401, which is borderline significant (p = 0.055). These results show the influence of genetic drift, local migration, and admixture on Irish population structure. PMID:2019408

  6. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  7. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  8. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  9. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skins capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  10. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  11. TME17/473: Web-Based Visualization and Processing of Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    Lesn, P; Vejvalka, J; Krsnianov, H

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Body height and body weight are the most common anthropometric values that are observed in children by their parents. Basic anthropometric measurements are also a common and natural part of routine medical check-ups in infants, children and adolescents. Although commonly taken, this data is not always correctly interpreted: cases when anthropometric data might have served for an earlier diagnosis of e.g. an endocrine disorder still occur. To facilitate utilization of this data, a software module was developed that visualizes the data and also provides a basic interpretation of the curves obtained. This software module consists of the knowledge base which was written at the auxological department of 2nd Medical Faculty and its interpreter. This platform independent module is offered to software developers for integration into their GP systems. Methods To demonstrate the functions of the module offered to software developers and also to allow patient (and parent) growth self-assessment, the module that visualizes and interprets children's anthropometric data is ported into a WWW interface. Each pro-band is assigned a unique (and anonymous) ID, so that new data can be added in the course of time. Various anthropometric parameters can be followed - so that the system can serve not only parents to assess their children's growth, but also can help the practitioner to visualize and evaluate more intrinsic relations in children's development. Results The service is just being launched at the web site of the 2nd Medical Faculty of Charles University - so the most important result of the project is the function of the system itself, that allows for further refinements of the project. The WWW interface also allows extensive testing of the module and demonstration of the module's capabilities to the software developers, GPs and other potential users. Discussion During the future project development will be necessary to refine various components that surround the WWW portation of the core anthropometric module as the user interface, security issues, data storage etc.. We believe that the project will be found useful by parents and GPs, and we hope that it will also bring us interesting data for further analyses. We believe that this specialized software module developed by experts and integrated into the GP software systems will be a big step towards improvement of the computer assisted growth diagnosis.

  12. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as metabolic syndrome, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review data on nutrition and liver transplantation. PMID:25755385

  13. Maternal overweight/obesity characteristics and child anthropometric status in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    John, Collins; Ichikawa, Tomo; Abdu, Halima; Ocheke, Isaac; Diala, Udochukwu; Modise-Letsatsi, Virginia; Wada, Takayuki; Okolo, Seline; Yamamoto, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totally, 262 mother-child pairs were recruited. Results: Mean maternal age and mean child age were 30.8 6.3 yrs (15-47 yrs) and 22.3 18.7 months (3-72 months). Prevalence of maternal underweight, overweight and obesity was 4.2% (11/262), 29.4% (77/262) and 25.9% (68/262), respectively. Child overweight/obesity was 5.4% (14/262), severe under-nutrition 5.7% (15/262). Mean maternal BMI was higher in the older, more educated and higher socioeconomic status (SES). Child mean birth-weight, weight-for-age Z-score and BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) were higher among mothers with BMI ? 25 kg/m2. All large-for-age babies were in mothers with maternal BMI ? 25 kg/m2. Childhood over-nutrition was more common in maternal BMI of ?25 kg/m2. Overall, BAZ was directly related with maternal BMI, maternal age and birth-weight, although it was inversely related with maternal BM I ? 25 kg/m2. Conclusion: Higher BMI is seen in educated and higher SES mothers and this impact on childhood anthropometry. PMID:26759505

  14. An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 711 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.565.33 kg and 36.639.45 kg in boys and between 20.793.48 kg and 35.889.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/0253.98 mm and 1420.83 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.9051.01mm and 1421.2770.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

  15. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational

  16. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  17. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  18. Evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Giuliana Bastos; Macedo, Alessandra; Nakasato, Miyoko; Bruno, Maria Lcia Mendes

    2009-12-01

    A retrospective study using anthropometric data to assess the evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight. We included patients with an initial body mass index (BMI) < 17 kg/m(2) (malnourished, n = 10) or > 27 kg/m(2) (overweight, n = 20). Each patient subsequently had three appointments with a nutritionist (nutritional interventions). In the malnourished group, there were no significant post-intervention changes in the anthropometric variables. In the overweight group, however, nutritional intervention had a positive impact on weight, BMI and waist circumference. PMID:20126924

  19. [Craniofacial anthropometric patterns in genetic facial dysmorphism: methodology and applications].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Richard, O; Philip, N; Dutour, O

    2002-04-01

    Craniofacial anthropometric has become an important tool in medical genetics. The method is simple, non-invasive, reliable, and inexpensive. To provide reliable measurements, the method must be conducted with a precise procedure by a trained physician. Anthropometric determination of craniofacial morphology is helpful in identifying and describing syndromes associated with classical techniques. Additional studies may involve new approaches to facial morphogenesis. PMID:11997739

  20. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  1. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic disorders and nutritional status with the occurrence of ATD. PMID:25614676

  2. Preschool vegetarian children. Dietary and anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J R; Hutton, C W; Stitt, K R

    1980-04-01

    Three-day dietary intakes were obtained on forty-eight preschool children between two and five years old, who had followed a vegetarian diet since birth. Intakes were calculated for food energy and selected nutrients. In addition, the children were measured for height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumference. Average dietary intakes of the children compared favorably with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Calcium was the only nutrient consumed in less than optimal amounts. Average intakes of the calculated amino acids were adequate when compared with available information. In general, anthropometric data were below the standards established by HANES findings, the National Center for Health Statistics, and available arm circumference data. PMID:7391470

  3. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 1037% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 4577% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 747% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 1664% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p < 0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Discussion and conclusion Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. PMID:23107624

  4. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  5. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  6. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  7. Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0612 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patients nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention. Trial Registration number Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775 PMID:22625878

  8. 71 FR 18103 - NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and Workspace Dimensions; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-04-10

    ... SERVICES Centers of Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and... Meeting on the NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and Workspace Dimensions. Meeting Date and... anthropometric and workspace data. This possible large-scale study will establish an anthropometric and...

  9. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  10. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  11. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Danil; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533

  12. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and

  13. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  14. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are. PMID:11441457

  15. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  16. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, J P; Bird, S R; White, J A

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and Professional Cycling Association). The sprint cyclists were significantly shorter and more mesomorphic than the other three groups (p less than 0.05). The time trialists were the tallest, most ectomorphic group, having the longest legs (p less than 0.01), the highest leg length/height ratio (p less than 0.05) and the greatest bitrochanteric width (p less than 0.05). The pursuit and road cyclists were found to have similar physiques, which were located between those of the sprinters and time trialists. The biomechanical implications of these differences in physique may be related to the high rate of pedal revolutions required by sprinters and the higher gear ratios used by time trialists. PMID:2730997

  17. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  18. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Gu, Qiuping; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-10-01

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2007-2010, adding to results published previously from the years 1960-2006. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 20,015 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population. PMID:25204692

  19. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 20032006.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Margaret A; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L; Flegal, Katherine M

    2008-10-22

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2003-2006, adding to results published previously from 1960-2002. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 19,593 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population . PMID:25585443

  20. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  1. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ? Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  2. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

  3. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food

  4. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose

  5. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  6. Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

  7. Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

  8. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8 kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1 kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4 mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8 kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2 mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9 kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9 kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3 mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  9. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  10. Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgeryAn anthropometric appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

  11. Nutritional status and nutritional management in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Edward P T; Sullivan, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition is often seen at the point of diagnosis in childhood malignancy or may develop during the course of treatment. Strategies for optimal diagnosis and management of nutritional problems in children with cancer are limited in the published literature. Identification of children who may be malnourished or at nutritional risk can be achieved through improved approaches for risk stratification and classification. Once recognised, various strategies have been demonstrated to reduce malnutrition, minimise side effects of treatment and improve survival. Novel approaches in vivo and adult oncology populations provide future avenues for investigation. PMID:26130383

  12. Relation between index finger width and hand width anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Komandur, Sashidharan; Johnson, Peter W; Storch, Richard L; Yost, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Measures of hand and finger anthropometry are very important for designing many hand held devices as well as understanding anthropometric effects on the operation of such devices. Many historical datasets have measured and recorded gross hand dimensions but do not often record the finer dimensions of the hand such as finger anthropometry. Knowing the size and mass of fingers across genders can be critical to the design and operation of hand held devices. In this paper we compare two empirical linear models that predicts index finger width at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (a finger anthropometric measure) based on hand-width (hand anthropometric measure). This will be especially useful for deriving population measures of finger anthropometry from large historical data sets where only gross hand dimensions are available. PMID:19963979

  13. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  14. A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing!

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limited body of research suggests that ongoing maintenance enteral nutrition (MEN) can be beneficial in maintaining disease remission in Crohns Disease (CD). We aimed to assess how achievable MEN is and whether it helps to prolong remission. Methods Patients newly diagnosed with CD in 2010 and 2011 who commenced exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for 8weeks were followed up for a year post diagnosis. All patients who took EEN were encouraged to continue MEN post EEN. Data on azathioprine use was also collected. Categorical variables were compared using chisquare/Fischers exact test. Medians were expressed along with complete data ranges. Results 59 patients (34 male, median age 11.07years, range 2.5-16.33years) were identified. 11/59 (18%) had a poor response to EEN and were switched to steroids. 48/59 patients completed 8weeks EEN and achieved clinical remission/response. 46/48 patients received Modulen IBD, 29/48 (60%) consumed EEN orally and 19/48 (40%) via NGT. 15/48 (31%) patients were able to continue MEN post EEN completion. MEN was consumed for a mean of 10.8months (range 414months). 14/15 patients drank MEN and 1/15 had MEN via NGT. Remission rates at 1year in patients continuing MEN were 60% (9/15) compared to15% (2/13) in patients taking no treatment (p?=?0.001) and 65% (13/20) in patients taking azathioprine (p?=?0.14). Conclusion A sub group of patients can continue MEN as a maintenance treatment and this seems a useful strategy, especially in those who are not commencing azathioprine. PMID:24645851

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  16. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  17. A carpet-weaver's chair based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nader; Bazrafshan, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Ergonomic design of chairs has been well studied by ergonomists. Chair design based on anthropometric data analysis is recommended. Weavers in carpet-weaving workshops use chairs with backrests and armrests. An anthropometric survey was carried out among weavers in Tabriz, Iran, to design a flexible chair and to improve its comfort on the basis of design dimensions. This study focused on the design dimensions of a chair for weavers and its recommended dimensions. The developed chair needs to be tested for its effects on weavers' posture and comfort. PMID:24321633

  18. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  19. [Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet. PMID:23175415

  20. Nutritional considerations in the management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Slowie, L A; Paige, M S; Antel, J P

    1983-07-01

    This study examines the nutritional status of patients with ALS based on data derived from a dietary history, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical assessment. Twenty patients, 11 men and 9 women, were studied to determine nutritional status in order to differentiate appropriate therapy and monitor prognosis. The study suggests that nutritional support of these patients may help allay weight loss and retard muscle atrophy. Nutritional management involves (a) early detection and correction of inadequate nutrient intake, particularly of kilocalories; (b) concurrent modification in consistency of food intake with development of bulbar involvement; and (c) determination of optimal time to institute alternate feeding routes in cases of bulbar involvement. PMID:6863783

  1. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  2. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  3. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional

  4. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  5. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  6. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  7. [Malnutrition and evaluation of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Planas Vila, M; Prez-Portabella, C

    1999-05-01

    Malnutricin is assessed from its concept to the main causes thereof. The different types and degrees of malnutrition are described as well as their clinical presentation. The prevalence of malnutrition is defined, how this affects both the hospitalized and the non-hospitalized population, and the factors that contribute to the variability of the results of the prevalence thereof. The objectives of the nutritional assessment are analyzed, as were the requirements that should be met by the ideal nutritional marker, and the different nutritional markers used. Among these are the classic anthropometric measurements all the way up to the serum proteins or the immunological parameters. The nutritional indexes that allow an assessment of the existence of a risk for the developing malnutrition are described also. A special emphasis is made on the assessment of the clinical history from the nutritional point of view, on the subjective global assessment, and on dietary questionnaires. The role of the muscle function as a nutritional marker is also analyzed, as well as the possibility of using other methods of body composition assessment. The importance of establishing special considerations in view of the collectives to be analyzed is notable. Finally, the clinical and economic consequences of malnutrition are analyzed. PMID:10548022

  8. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  9. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  10. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group

  11. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  12. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-Gonzlez, Agustn; Zazpe-Garca, Itziar; Mar-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Surez-Varela, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD

  13. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  14. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  15. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  16. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.

  17. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,

  18. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jrgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with significant undernutrition, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 26 and 611?months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  19. Position specific differences in the anthropometric characteristics of elite European Super League rugby players.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James C; Routledge, Harry E; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby league is a collision sport which traditionally adopts a large emphasis on lean muscle mass. Currently there is limited research on the anthropometry of European Super League players. The aim of this study was to assess body composition using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans to identify the typical profile of elite rugby league players. One hundred and twelve players from five different clubs competing in the European Super League were recruited for the study. DXA scans were performed and the total mass, lean mass, fat mass and percentage body fat were reported for each positional group. For the Fullback and Wingers, Centres, Half Backs, Hookers, Props and Back Row Forwards the mean (SD) body fat percentage was 13 (2.1), 13 (2.4), 12 (3.4), 15 (3.9), 16 (4.3) and 15 (2.1)%, respectively, and total mass was 86 (8.2), 91 (6.6), 81 (8), 84 (9.5) 102 (8.5) and 93 (5.5) kg, respectively. Despite small to very large inter positional differences in all anthropometric variables (effect sizes = -0.08 to 2.56), particularly between the Prop and the other playing positions, there was large intra-position variation in body fat, lean mass and total mass making a standardised position specific profile difficult to establish. When used with other key performance indicators, these data provide the first multi-team anthropometric profile of elite Super League players that can be used to guide individualised training and nutrition practices for current and aspiring athletes. PMID:25600232

  20. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  1. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management is to observe the quality improvement in the discharge reports for the patients admitted, including the nutritional diagnosis within the section for the main diagnosis, and also the administration of artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral) in the section on procedures. With all of these measures we will improve the quality of the hospitals' information systems and contribute directly to ensuring that our activities in clinical nutrition have an impact on the overall results of the hospital when measured in terms of effectiveness, efficacy or quality. PMID:15211719

  2. Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (≥9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p = 0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men. PMID:24516542

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePLUS

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need it if you Can't swallow Have problems with your appetite Are severely malnourished Can't ...

  5. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  6. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that small-for-dates infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  7. Physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance

    PubMed Central

    Mermier, C.; Janot, J.; Parker, D.; Swan, J.

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveTo identify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance. MethodsForty four climbers (24 men, 20 women) of various skill levels (self reported rating 5.65.13c on the Yosemite decimal scale) and years of experience (0.1044 years) served as subjects. They climbed two routes on separate days to assess climbing performance. The routes (11 and 30 m in distance) were set on two artificial climbing walls and were designed to become progressively more difficult from start to finish. Performance was scored according to the system used in sport climbing competitions where each successive handhold increases by one in point value. Results from each route were combined for a total climbing performance score. Measured variables for each subject included anthropometric (height, weight, leg length, arm span, % body fat), demographic (self reported climbing rating, years of climbing experience, weekly hours of training), and physiological (knee and shoulder extension, knee flexion, grip, and finger pincer strength, bent arm hang, grip endurance, hip and shoulder flexibility, and upper and lower body anaerobic power). These variables were combined into components using a principal components analysis procedure. These components were then used in a simultaneous multiple regression procedure to determine which components best explain the variance in sport rock climbing performance. ResultsThe principal components analysis procedure extracted three components. These were labelled training, anthropometric, and flexibility on the basis of the measured variables that were the most influential in forming each component. The results of the multiple regression procedure indicated that the training component uniquely explained 58.9% of the total variance in climbing performance. The anthropometric and flexibility components explained 0.3% and 1.8% of the total variance in climbing performance respectively. ConclusionsThe variance in climbing performance can be explained by a component consisting of trainable variables. More importantly, the findings do not support the belief that a climber must necessarily possess specific anthropometric characteristics to excel in sport rock climbing. Key Words: rock climbing; strength; muscular endurance; training; anthropometric determinants PMID:11049146

  8. Metabolic and anthropometric changes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; De Angelis, Carmine; Buono, Giuseppe; Colao, Annamaria; Giuliano, Mario; Malgieri, Simona; Cicala, Stefania; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Accurso, Antonello; Crispo, Anna; Limite, Gennaro; Lauria, Rossella; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Forestieri, Valeria; Bruzzese, Dario; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-11-01

    Weight gain and metabolic changes have been related to survival of early breast cancer patients (EBC). ''However, factors influencing metabolism post-diagnosis are not fully understood. We measured anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio] and metabolic (levels of insulin, glucose, H1Ac, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the homeostasis model assessment score [HOMA]) parameters in 433 pre- and post-menopausal women with EBC at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24months thereafter. At diagnosis, compared with post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal patients were more likely to be leaner and to have a lower BMI, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio. They had also lower glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels and a lower HOMA score. Furthermore, they were more likely to have an estrogen- and/or progesterone-positive tumor and a higher proliferating breast cancer. During the first two post-diagnosis years, all women showed a significant increase of weight (+0.72kg/year, P<0.001), waist circumference (+1.53cm/year, P<0.001), and plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (+5.4mg/dl per year, P=0.045) and triglycerides (+10.73mg/dl per year, P=0.017). In patients receiving chemotherapy only, there was a significant increase in hip circumference (+3.16cm/year, P<0.001) and plasma cholesterol levels (+21.26mg/dl per year, P<0.001). We showed that weight, body fat distribution, and lipid profile changed in EBC patients receiving adjuvant therapy. These changes occurred during the first 2 years after diagnosis and were not specifically related to chemotherapy, menopausal status, or initial body weight. PMID:26424165

  9. Nutritional surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be disaggregated to village level, but are of unknown representativeness and often cannot be linked with other variables of interest; sample surveys provide integrated data of more or less known representativeness, but sample sizes usually do not allow disaggregation to, for example, specific villages. A combination of these sources, with a capability for ad hoc surveys (formal or informal) is often the best solution. Finally, much depends on adequate facilities for data analysis, even though simple, comprehensible data outputs are what is required. Intersectoral cooperation is needed to provide realistic options for the decision-making process. PMID:6606498

  10. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, Mara Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation. PMID:23822693

  11. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  12. Secondary analysis of anthropometric data from a South African national food consumption survey, using different growth reference standards.

    PubMed

    Bosman, L; Herselman, M G; Kruger, H S; Labadarios, D

    2011-11-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references were used to analyse anthropometric data from the 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) of South Africa. Since then, however, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 standards were released. It was anticipated that these reference and standards may lead to differences in the previous estimates of stunting, wasting, underweight and obesity in the study population. The aim was to compare the anthropometric status of children using the 1977 NCHS, the 2000 CDC growth references and the 2006 WHO standards. All children 12-60months of age with a complete set of anthropometric data were included in the analyses. Data for 1,512 children were analysed with SAS 9.1 for Windows. A Z-score was calculated for each child for weight-for-age (W/A), weight-for-length/height (W/H), length/height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age, using each of the three reference or standards for comparison. The prevalence of stunting, obesity and overweight were significantly higher and the prevalence of underweight and wasting were lower when using the WHO standards compared to the NCHS and the CDC references. The higher than previously established prevalence of stunting at 20.1% and combined overweight/obesity at 30% poses a challenge to South African policy makers to implement nutrition programmes to decrease the prevalence of both stunting and overweight. The 2006 WHO growth standard should be the standard used for assessment of growth of infants and children younger than 5years in developing countries. PMID:20859760

  13. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY UPON FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRICS AND RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Raymond J.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups.There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  14. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  15. Flight deck design and pilot selection: anthropometric considerations.

    PubMed

    Buckle, P W; David, G C; Kimber, A C

    1990-12-01

    Safe and successful operation of flight displays and controls is, in part, dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the pilots with respect to the design of a particular aircraft. This paper describes the approach required to optimise this fit and provides guidelines for both those responsible for design and those who select pilot recruits. The major results reported are those for a British population, although the aircraft considered (Boeing 737-200, 747, 757 and Lockheed TriStar) are used by airlines throughout the world. The study shows that limitations in design considerably reduce the pool of potential recruits with the appropriate anthropometric characteristics. The selection criteria, based on functional seated eye height, might exclude 73% of the British, 19-65-year-old female population and 13% of the male population. PMID:2285396

  16. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  17. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-03-14

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  18. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  19. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union football players.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, C W

    1997-06-01

    Rugby union enjoys worldwide popularity, but there is a lack of comprehensive research into the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players and the demands of the game, particularly at the elite level. One of the possible explanations for this is that the sport has previously been primarily concerned with the aspects of skill related to the game, rather than the physical and physiological requirements. However, with the increased physiological demands being placed on the elite players (using the British Isles as an example), with the recent introduction of professionalism, regional championships, the World Cup and major tours, information about the demands of the game and the assessment of, and methods of improving, the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players, are of paramount importance. Match analysis has indicated that rugby is an interval or intermittent sport and players must be able to perform a large number of intensive efforts of 5 to 15 seconds' duration with less than 40 seconds' recovery between each bout of high intensity activity. These observations, together with the metabolic responses during the game, give some insight into its physiological demands and are a prerequisite in the development and prescription of training programmes by coaches in preparing individual players for competition. The results from studies reporting the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union players observed that these individuals had unique anthropometric and physiological attributes which depended on positional role and the playing standard. These have important implications for team selection and highlight the necessity for individualised training programmes and fitness attainment targets. PMID:9219321

  20. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  1. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  2. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stggl, R; Mller, E; Stggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  3. Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mrio J; Goncalves, Jos; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, Antnio J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707

  4. Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

  5. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ??0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ??0.3?kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i.?e., anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer. PMID:26258817

  6. Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2014-07-01

    Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumb (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

  7. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  8. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Exercise ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  9. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. PMID:26896201

  10. Nutrition-focused physical examination in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    A complete nutrition assessment includes several components: medical record review, anthropometric measurements, diet/nutrition intake, interview, and physical examination. The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) can identify or confirm muscle wasting, subcutaneous fat loss, and edema and clarify information gathered during the medical record review. The physical examination component of the nutrition assessment is more critical in pediatric patients because pediatric patients can become malnourished more quickly than adults and because prolonged malnutrition can negatively affect growth and development. In addition, case studies of micronutrient deficiencies, essential fatty acid deficiency, and protein-calorie malnutrition with skin manifestations have been reported in developed countries. The etiologies of the deficiencies are chronic disease, long-term tube feedings, or long-term parenteral nutrition. An NFPE involves an in-depth examination of the patient from head to toe by a trained nutrition professional. Nutrition professionals recognize the importance and value of an NFPE, yet it is seldom completed, particularly in pediatrics, most likely due to lack of training and lack of pediatric-specific information or training opportunities. Although there are similarities between NFPE in pediatric and adult patients such as the techniques used (inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation), there are important differences related to growth and development. This review provides an overview of nutrition assessment with focus on the NFPE and aspects unique to the pediatric patient. PMID:25739708

  11. Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joseph J.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Leverson, Glen; Best, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine possible anthropometric and performance sex differences in a population of high school basketball players. Design and Setting: Measurements were collected during the first week of basketball practice before the 1995-1996 season. Varsity basketball players from 4 high schools were tested on a battery of measures chosen to detect possible anthropometric and performance sex differences. Subjects: Fifty-four female and sixty-one male subjects, from varsity basketball teams at high schools enrolled in the athletic training outreach program at the University of Wisconsin Hospital Sports Medicine Center in Madison, WI, volunteered to take part in this study. Measurements: We took anthropometric measurements on each of the 115 subjects. These included height, weight, body composition, ankle range of motion, and medial longitudinal arch type in weightbearing. Performance measures included the vertical jump, 22.86-m (25-yd) shuttle run, 18.29-m (20-yd) sprint, and single-limb balance time. Results: We compared anthropometric and performance characteristics using a 2-sample t test. The only exception to this was for medial longitudinal arch type, where the 2 groups were compared using a 2-tailed Fisher's exact test. The male subjects were significantly taller and heavier, while the females had a significantly higher percentage of body fat. There were no significant differences found for ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but the females had significantly more inversion and eversion range of motion. Analysis of medial longitudinal arch type found females to have a higher percentage of pronated arches and males to have a higher percentage of supinated arches. Performance testing revealed that the males were able to jump significantly higher and run the 22.86-m (25-yard) shuttle run and 18.29-m (20-yard) sprint significantly faster than the female subjects. There was no significant difference between the groups for single-limb balance time. Conclusions: We found significant anthropometric and performance sex differences in a cohort of high school basketball players. Further study of these measures is necessary to determine if these differences can predict the risk for ankle injuries in this particular population. PMID:16558515

  12. Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?

    PubMed

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

    2012-01-01

    With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

  13. A Prognosis Tool Based on Fuzzy Anthropometric and Questionnaire Data for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kung-Jeng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Huang, Shou-Hung; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are linked to the augmented risk of morbidity and mortality. Although polysomnography is considered a well-established method for diagnosing OSA, it suffers the weakness of time consuming and labor intensive, and requires doctors and attending personnel to conduct an overnight evaluation in sleep laboratories with dedicated systems. This study aims at proposing an efficient diagnosis approach for OSA on the basis of anthropometric and questionnaire data. The proposed approach integrates fuzzy set theory and decision tree to predict OSA patterns. A total of 3343 subjects who were referred for clinical suspicion of OSA (eventually 2869 confirmed with OSA and 474 otherwise) were collected, and then classified by the degree of severity. According to an assessment of experiment results on g-means, our proposed method outperforms other methods such as linear regression, decision tree, back propagation neural network, support vector machine, and learning vector quantization. The proposed method is highly viable and capable of detecting the severity of OSA. It can assist doctors in pre-diagnosis of OSA before running the formal PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources. PMID:26932370

  14. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG?200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  15. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  16. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

  17. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  18. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 385-item annotated bibliography covers policy issues, conceptual approaches, baseline information, ethnographies, case studies (general, Africa, Arab states, Asia and Pacific, Europe, Latin America, Caribbean, North America), exemplary materials, evaluation, and materials from national campaigns on topic of nutrition education. List of 15

  19. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  20. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  1. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  2. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    PubMed

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs. PMID:21831001

  3. [Nutritional assessment in a Moroccan university population during Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Oliveras Lpez, M J; Agudo Aponte, E; Nieto Guindo, P; Martnez Mart?ez, F; Lpez Garca de la Serrana, H; Lpez Martnez, M C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess nutritional status in Muslim population, bigger and bigger in our universities, in a period during which its dietary habits change considerably. The study has been performed in a population of Muslim students from the University of Granada, and has been compared to a non-Muslim population within the same setting. Study subjects undertook a questionnaire in which they reported the diet consumed each day during the Ramadan period. Macronutrient analysis for such diet was performed with Dietsource software. On the other hand, anthropometrical parameters were taken before and after the study period to observe their change and obtain conclusions on nutritional status. It has been observed that lipid intake of Muslims during the Ramadan period was excessive (48% of total energy), by decreasing hydrocarbons and particularly proteins. This is highlighted by means of the anthropometrical study, observing a decrease in measurements such as muscular area of the arm, the arm area, the muscle perimeter of the arm, and weight, with an increase in arm fat, perimeter of the arm, leg and mid-ieg circumference in the Muslim group, which are in contrast with parameters in the non-Muslim group. From our results, we may stress that during the Ramadan period macronutrient intake values are not appropriate as compared to standard recommendations in Spain. Besides, it is striking to observe how anthropometrical measurements related to fat increase whereas those related to muscular mass decrease. PMID:16771113

  4. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  5. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  6. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  7. Anthropometric and Physical Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ? 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 7.1; 18s = 183.5 7.2; 21s = 186.7 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 12.8; 18s = 88.3 11.9; 21s = 98.3 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players. PMID:25647656

  8. Combined physiological and anthropometrical databases as ergonomic tools.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Küchmeister, Gerd; Jürgens, Hans W

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an ergonomic basis for the integration of female personnel at military workplaces. The results of anthropometrical and physiological measurements of 1337 male and female subjects (aged 18-25 years) are presented. The empirical design included classical and functional body measures of high ergonomic relevance. Additionally, the isometric forearm-flexor and knee-extensor forces of the subjects were tested as representative variables for their physiological suitability. With regard to biometric and strength parameters, the present results clearly show only small overlaps between the sexes. Rating the 5th percentile of the male subjects as an exclusion value, the anthropometrical variables (sitting and standing body height measures, shoulder breadth, hand length and breadth etc.) show that 29% up to 72% of the women do not match this criterion. The situation becomes even worse when strength parameters are taken into consideration: Only 26% (knee extensors) respectively 3% (forearm flexors) of the females generate higher forces than the corresponding 5th percentiles of their male counterparts. The application of the database established in this survey aims at the integration of female personnel at all kinds of military workplaces; our data account for a combination of anthropometrical and physiological variables. In contrast to former systems based on isolated percentile tables, the results of our investigation make multivariate queries possible in optimization processes. This type of combined database is to be considered a useful tool for the evaluation of workplaces and personal equipment, for general ergonomic considerations and for personnel planning purposes to prevent applicants from occupational harm. PMID:17213688

  9. Adjusting step count recommendations for anthropometric variations in leg length.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Fahs, Christopher A; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-09-01

    Recent public health recommendations for step frequency over a given timeframe (steps min(-1)) associated with moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) have been developed. The recommendation suggests 100 steps min(-1). This estimate overlooks the impact of anthropometric differences between individuals, notably leg length, which is related to step frequency. Therefore this study examined the impact of leg length on steps min(-1) associated with MPA. Twenty adults age 20-40 years (age 26.4+/-4.6 years, 9 males) walked over-ground at five walking speeds (0.5m s(-1), 0.75m s(-1), 1.0m s(-1), 1.25m s(-1), and 1.5m s(-1)), lasting 6 min each, while wearing a portable gas analyser. Participants' step frequency (steps min(-1)) for each walking speed was determined using a hand-tally counter. Random effects models were used to predict steps min(-1) from METs and participant anthropometric measures (body mass index and leg length [cm]). Model estimates were used to predict steps min(-1) corresponding to heights ranging from 5ft. to 6ft. 6in. (6 in increments). Overall, 100 steps min(-1) corresponded to expending 3 METs (SEE 3.49 steps min(-1), R(2)=0.68). As leg length increased estimated steps min(-1) decreased by -1.15 steps min(-1) (95CI -2.19 to -0.10 steps min(-1)). Based on leg length for individuals 5ft to 6ft 6in., steps min(-1) ranged from 111 to 85, respectively. Established steps min(-1) cutpoints associated with MPA are general public health guidelines and anthropometric differences in leg length should be accounted for when developing step frequency recommendations for physical activity or weight loss studies that include individuals of varying height. PMID:20096631

  10. [Study of somatic sex maturation based on various anthropometric indicators].

    PubMed

    Kornetov, N A

    1989-01-01

    Clinico-anthropometric investigation was performed in 840 schizophrenic patients and 135 patients with other mental disorders. Somatic sex differentiation was assessed using the Tanner index, biacromial and bicristal diameters. Body-building deviations towards non-differentiated adolescent-type patterns were observed only in schizophrenic patients with multiple regional morphologic dysplasias. This could be repeatedly confirmed in three samples of schizophrenic patients observed in different regions of this country. The retardation in the somatic sex differentiation is supposedly related to constitutional-biological features of the disease independent on the speciaficity of schizophrenic process. PMID:2781929

  11. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  12. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ? 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 8.6, forwards = 80.9 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 0.08, forwards = 3.14 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 0.18, forwards = 1.51 0.17 kgkg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players. PMID:23942164

  13. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  14. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  15. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  16. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  17. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  18. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Burgos Pelez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretn Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the importance of glycemic control during hospitalization for stroke. Hyperglycemia at diagnosis and during the first hours of admission impact on patient prognosis. The goal of glycemic control necessary to modify this bad prognosis without adding risk by iatrogenic hypoglycemia is still matter of debate. PMID:25077346

  19. Extent and correlates of change in anthropometric and fitness outcomes among participants in a corporate team-based weight loss challenge in Singapore: lose to win 2009.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Kathryn; Malhotra, Rahul; stbye, Truls; Chan, Mei Fen; Amin, Handy; Khoo, Gary; Choo, Lin; Chew, Ling; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala

    2015-03-01

    The authors describe a national corporate team-based weight loss intervention targeting groups of overweight/obese employees and assess its effectiveness. A 12-week weight loss program comprising nutrition education and physical activity sessions, enhanced by a nationwide media campaign, was organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. A total of 285 participants, forming 72 teams (1 per workplace), had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index [BMI], and body fat percentage) and fitness (fitness index score based on UKK 2-km walk test) measurements taken pre-intervention and post-intervention. Average decreases, from baseline to end of intervention, in weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were 3.58 kg, 1.32 kg/m(2), and 2.14%, respectively. The fitness index score increased by 34.1 units. Greater participation in physical activity and nutrition education sessions was associated with more beneficial anthropometric and fitness changes. The intervention was well received and effective in producing short-term weight loss. Further research needs to be done to ascertain its long-term effectiveness and generalizability. PMID:22887805

  20. Relationship between dietary intake and use of protease inhibitors with anthropometric and biochemical parameters of lipodystrophy in people living with hiv.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tatiane Andreza Lima; Barboza, Renata Rangel; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; de Medeiros, Rafaela Catherine da Silva Cunha; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Souza, Hunaway Albuquerque Galvo; Leite, Lcia Dantas; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by redistribution of body fat and disorders of glicidic and lipid metabolism. Although its etiology is related to infection and drug therapy, there is little evidence regarding the nutritional disturbances on this association. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary intake and use of protease inhibitors (PIs) with anthropometric and biochemical parameters in HIV positive patients. The study included 50 patients. A questionnaire about socioeconomic status, lifestyle and infection history was taken. In addition, it was conducted the evaluation of dietary intake (frequency questionnaire), anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, corrected arm muscle area) and biochemistry tests (glycemia and lipid profile). Only 37% of the sample was classified as "good food consumption", 54% were overweight or obese and 66% presented high waist circumference. The group with good food consumption had higher HDL-C (p=0.04) levels than the group with poor food consumption. Patients taking PIs presented VLDL-C (p=0.023) and triglycerides (p=0.024) levels significantly higher. These results indicated the necessity for continuous monitoring of HIV-positive patients and non-pharmacological interventions such as nutrition education and practice of physical exercises. PMID:25335684

  1. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  2. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health. PMID:25516308

  3. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; Lpez-Milln, Francisco; Soto-Flix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  4. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 3.5 years). The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.0001)). A three variable model was also found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and plantar contact area minus the toe region (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region. PMID:19863799

  5. Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Zhuang, Ziqing; Guan, Hongyu; Xing, Jingcai; Tang, Xianzhi; Wang, Limin; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Yuewei; Su, Wenjin; Benson, Stacey; Gallagher, Sean; Viscusi, Dennis; Chen, Weihong

    2008-11-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been completely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006. A total of 3000 subjects (2026 males and 974 females) between the ages of 18 and 66 years old was measured using traditional techniques. Nineteen facial dimensions, height, weight, neck circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. A stratified sampling plan of three age strata and two gender strata was implemented. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible effects of gender, age, occupation and body size on facial dimensions. The regression coefficients for gender indicated that for all anthropometric dimensions, males had significantly larger measurements than females. As body mass index increased, dimensions measured increased significantly. Construction workers and miners had significantly smaller measurements than individuals employed in healthcare or manufacturing for a majority of dimensions. Five representative indexes of facial dimension (face length, face width, nose protrusion, bigonial breadth and nasal root breadth) were selected based on correlation and cluster analysis of all dimensions. Through comparison with the facial dimensions of American subjects, this study indicated that Chinese civilian workers have shorter face length, smaller nose protrusion, larger face width and longer lip length. PMID:18765398

  6. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. PMID:26456121

  7. Anthropometric variation and the population history of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Crawford, M H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic variation among human populations can reflect a combination of contemporary patterns of gene flow and genetic drift as well as long-term population relationships due to population history. We examine the likely impact of past history and contemporary structure on the patterns of anthropometric variation among 31 counties in Ireland (made up of the two nations of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). Data for 17 anthropometric measures and parent-offspring migration on 7,214 adult Irish males were taken from the large data set originally collected by Dupertuis and Dawson in the mid-1930s (Hooton et al., 1955). Patterns of genetic similarity among 31 counties were assessed using R matrix methods that allow estimation of minimum genetic distances. These distances were compared to distances reflecting history, geography, and migration using matrix permutation methods. The results indicate that among-group variation in Ireland reflects past population history to a much greater extent than contemporary patterns of migration and population size. The midland counties are distinct from other populations, and their history suggests greater genetic input from early Viking invasions. A second major pattern in biological variation is a longitudinal gradient separating western and eastern counties. This gradient appears related to patterns of early settlement and/or a concentration in the east of later immigrants, particularly from England. Comparison of regional means with published data for several other European nations confirms these hypotheses. PMID:7726293

  8. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; Kılınç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kırbaş, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Yılmaz Aydın, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  9. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Amanda Carla; Bezerra, Olvia Maria de Paula Alves

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible airway obstruction. The innumerable complications that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, individualized nutrition therapy is extremely important and has been shown to be fundamental to improving quality of life. PMID:17268751

  10. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  11. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  12. Nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Feldman, K W; Marcuse, E K; Springer, D A

    1990-11-01

    Nutritional rickets was diagnosed in 18 infants aged eight to 24 months. Clinical features included progressive leg bowing, poor linear growth, a diet deficient in vitamin D, seizures, and abnormal serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels. Wrist radiographs and serum alkaline phosphatase levels were the most useful confirmatory tests. Breast milk may not contain enough vitamin D to protect infants, particularly dark-skinned children and those living in cloudy, northern U.S. cities, from rickets after six months of age. As breast feeding becomes more widely practiced, care is required to ensure that infants at high risk for rickets receive appropriate vitamin D supplementation. PMID:2239638

  13. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  14. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out. PMID:3655163

  15. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... espaol Gua de nutricin para sus hijos pequeos Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  16. Nutrition.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Site Help Contact Us FAQ En Espanol Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Search Tips Browse by Subject What's In Food Smart Nutrition 101 Life Stages Weight Management Nutrition and Health ...

  17. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

  18. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  19. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Salvioni, Cristina Cleide Dos Santos; Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  20. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clnicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of So Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements were useful in the confirmation of the prevalence of LLS. BMI alone does not appear to be a good parameter for assessing the nutritional status of HIV-infected patients on HAART and with LLS. Other anthropometric measurements are needed to evaluate patients with the lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome. PMID:25923888

  1. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. PMID:4027491

  2. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  3. An exploration of sample representativeness in anthropometric facial comparison.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Xanth D G; Dryden, Ian; Bruegge, Richard Vorder; Evison, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Faces are assumed to be unique, but their use in court has remained problematic as no method of comparison with known error rates has been accepted by the scientific community. Rather than relying on the assumed uniqueness of facial features, previous research has been directed at estimations of face shape frequency. Here, the influence of age, sex, and ancestry on variation was investigated. Statistical shape analysis was used to examine the necessity for sub-divisions in forensic comparisons, using a large sample of facial images on which 30 anthropometric landmark points had been placed in 3D. Results showed a clear pattern of separation of the sexes in all age groups, and in different age groups in men. It was concluded that sub-division of databases by sex will be necessary in forensic comparisons. Sub-division by age may be necessary in men (although not necessarily in women), and may be necessary by ancestry. PMID:20487167

  4. [Some anthropometric facial characteristics in children of Prokuplje].

    PubMed

    Ivanovi?, S; Jovanovi?, D; Kozarov, J; Kozarov, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated anthropometrically the facial growth in 7 to 14 years old school children from Prokuplje. The analysis included about 3500 children of both sexes (boys-1953), and girls-1823). This paper presents the results of the following facial diameters: facial height (N-Gn), bizygomatic (Zy-Zy) and bigonial distance (Go-Go), and gonial angle. It was observed that facial dimensions investigated increased gradually in all age groups and both sexes. In the late childhood growth of the facial diameters showed some decrease. The facial height and bigonial diameter increased almost equally in both sexes. The sexual dimorphism was registered in favour of the male sex up to 10 years. It was also established that is more expressed for the facial height and bigonial distance. Finally, children from Prokuplje showed lower values in some investigated measurements compared with their contemporaries from other localities in the Nis area. PMID:2638167

  5. [Anthropometric proportion parameter of hand-face verification].

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, N

    1990-01-01

    By studying the criteria used in the pictorial art field, the Author obtained an anthropometric parameter. This appears to be a procedure to investigate and verify the ideal pattern as well as to calculate the vertical ratios and relationships of the face in different ages. The Pantaleoni's parameter shows the correspondence between Sn-Gn skin measurement and the interphalangeal flexion plica pf2-pf5. It is a parameter of verticality which changes depending on age, from youth to senility, and can be used in different dentistry areas. In orthognathia it allows to draw a borderline between true orthognathia and pre-surgical orthodontics; moreover it allows to detect if abnormal occlusion involves either maxillary or jaw-bone. PMID:2074883

  6. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. Images p100-a p100-b PMID:4027491

  7. The Anthropometric Measurement of Schober's Test in Normal Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yong-Ren; Luo, Jin-Fan; Liu, Ming-Li; Lu, Fung-Jou; Wang, Soo-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of lower back mobility is essential in the assessment of lower back pain including ankylosing spondylitis. Original Schober's test (OST) and modified Schober's test (MST) are popularly conducted in daily rheumatology and orthopedics clinical practices. To our knowledge, this report is the only anthropometric reference study in a normal oriental population. The OST declined with age from 5.0 cm in the youngest (20–30 years old) to 3.1 cm in the aged (70–80 years old) male subjects and from 3.6 cm to 2.4 cm in the female subjects. The male OST was significantly more than the female OST. There was a good correlation between OST and MST in each of the three age groups of both sexes. PMID:26273601

  8. Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception

    PubMed Central

    Tehard, Bertrand; Van Liere, Marti J.; Com Nougu, Catherine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements and factors related to misreporting. Design E3N, a prospective cohort study of cancer risk factors conducted in France, part of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer. E3N comprises 100,000 women, born between 1925 and 1950, followed with self-administered questionnaires sent every 18 to 24 months starting in 1990. Subjects 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91,815 women selected to evaluate factors affecting misreporting of body silhouette. Statistical analysis Paired t tests, Pearson and Spearman correlations were applied to evaluate the validity of self-reported measures, and analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to assess the factors influencing misreporting silhouette. Results The correlation coefficients between self- and external measurements were very high. All but sitting height (r=0.56) were more than 0.80, with weight and bust (nipples) measurements correlation coefficients attaining 0.94. The correlation between body mass index (BMI), measured by the technician and the self-reported silhouette, was 0.78. Small height was always associated with misclassification. Specific factors related to a more favorable perception of body silhouette were being overweight, small height, younger age and a lower level of education. These women were also more frequently unmarried, more physically active and had had a slender body shape during adolescence. Results denoting a less favorable perception of body shape were reversed. Conclusion/Applications Self-reported measurements (made with or without help) are valid measures in epidemiological studies. Body silhouettes are simple and useful indicators of body mass index. However they should be interpreted with caution in certain instances, especially for overweight subjects. PMID:12487540

  9. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  10. Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players

    PubMed Central

    Jawis, M; Singh, R; Singh, H; Yassin, M; Khanna, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Anthropometric and physiological profiles of national sepak takraw players were determined. Methods: Thirty nine players, specialising in the three playing positions (tekong/server, feeder, and killer/spiker) were divided into three age categories of under 15 (U15), under 18 (U18), and under 23 (U23) years of age. Height, weight, percent body fat (%bf), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max), range of motion (ROM), back and leg strength, and heart rate, for the estimation of oxygen consumption during matches, were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA for independent measurements and data are presented as meanstandard deviation. Results: The U23 players were significantly taller and heavier with significantly better ROM of the neck, trunk, and ankle joints and back and leg strength than the U15 players. No significant difference was found in %bf between the three age categories. Mean maximum heart rate during exercise was significantly higher in the U15 group when compared to the U18 and U23 groups (p<0.05). Mean Vo2max was similar between the three groups. Estimated oxygen consumption during matches was 69.1%, 68.5%, and 56.4% of Vo2max in the killer, tekong, and the feeder groups, respectively. Conclusions: The mean height, body weight, and cardiopulmonary capacities of the players were within the Malaysian population norms, but were somewhat lower than those of players of other court games from other countries. %bf was also lower in these players. This study provides the much needed anthropometric and physiological data of sepak takraw players for further development of this sport. PMID:16244191

  11. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  12. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, LC; Darmstadt, GL; Khatry, SK; LeClerq, SC; Tielsch, JM

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants. Objective To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants. Subjects and setting Newborn infants (n = 1640) born between March and June 2004 in 30 Village Development Committees of Sarlahi district, Nepal. Design Chest circumference, foot length and weight (SECA 727, precise to 2 g) of newborns were measured within 72 h after birth. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for a range of cutoff points of the anthropometric measures were estimated using the digital scale measurements as the gold standard. Results Among LBW infants (469/1640, 28.6%), chest circumference measures <30.3 cm were 91% sensitive and 83% specific. Similar levels of sensitivity for foot length were achieved only with considerable loss of specificity (<45%). Foot length measurements <6.9 cm were 88% sensitive and 86% specific for the identification of VLBW infants. Conclusion Chest circumference was superior to foot length in classification of infants into birth weight categories. For the identification of VLBW infants, foot length performed well, and may be preferable to chest circumference, as the former measure does not require removal of infant swaddling clothes. In the absence of more precise direct measures of birth weight, chest circumference is recommended over foot length for the identification of LBW infants. Sponsorship The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children US and the Office of Heath and Nutrition, United States Agency for International Development (see Acknowledgements). PMID:16885929

  13. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

  14. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  15. Nutritional and lung function profile of boys belonging to east Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P

    1997-06-01

    Nutritional and pulmonary profile of 50 boys (age group 12-15 years) belonging to slums of East Delhi were studied. Various anthropometric parameters (height, weight, total body fat) and pulmonary parameters (FVC, FEV1 and PEFR) were recorded and compared with control group of same age studying in public school of East Delhi. Regression analysis was carried out to see the correlation between body surface area (BSA) with lung functions. The lung functions were found to be compromised in boys inhabitating the slums and a positive correlation between BSA and lung functions indicates that multitude of factors like environmental pollution, nutritional status, etc, do contribute towards pulmonary morbidity. PMID:9420395

  16. Polymyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In PM, the ...

  17. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Diagnosis Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... anthrax. The only ways to confirm an Anthrax diagnosis are: To measure antibodies or toxin in blood ...

  18. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in undernourished children. PMID:26831553

  19. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  20. Nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in children on regular hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD. PMID:25758871

  1. [Research advance in assessment of nutritional status of children].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is not a simple disease, which occurs in the condition when the body does not get the right amount of nutrients to maintain healthy tissues and organ functions. Malnutrition generally refers both to undernutrition and overnutrition, but usually it is used to refer solely to a deficiency of nutrition. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable because of their high nutritional requirements for growth and development. Growth is an important indicator of health and nutritional status of a child. Generally, underweight, studding and wasting are used as the indicators of malnutrition. In fact, a gain in height is a better indicator of the adequacy of a diet than a gain in weight. Rates of weight gain needs to accompany accelerated height gain to maintain normal body proportions (weight-for-height). Now therefore WHO recommends using weight-for-height as the indicator of malnutrition of epidemic intensity in communities and of nutritional condition evaluation, including treatment assessment. The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarized by the mnemonic "ABCD," which stands for anthropometric measurement (A), biochemical or laboratory tests (B), clinical indicators (C) and dietary assessment (D). Children with malnutrition are required to ingest more than 30 essential nutrients including both functional, protective nutrients (type I) and growth nutrients (type II), in order to have a catch-up growth in weight and height. PMID:24461169

  2. Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.

    PubMed

    Harris, B

    1994-08-01

    This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

  3. Consistency and accuracy of measurement of lower-limb amputee anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Geil, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    Lower-limb amputees often exhibit large fluctuation in residual-limb shape, necessitating careful observation and anthropometric measurement for prosthetists to ensure socket fit. Anthropometric measurement may become more important as an outcome measure indicating success in rehabilitation. This study investigated the accuracy and reliability of seven prosthetic anthropometric measurement devices as used by a group of eight prosthetic-orthotic practitioners and a group of five prosthetic-orthotic students to measure six common anthropometric dimensions on three foam positive models of transtibial amputee residual limbs. Two of the models were identical, enabling assessment of individual repeatability. Some clinically significant errors were noted in the results; however, the general variability in measurements was not clinically significant. Students were slightly more consistent than practitioners; students were more consistent with linear measurements, while practitioners were more consistent with circumferential measures. The results further demonstrated that the VAPC measurement device used in the study was both inaccurate and unreliable. PMID:15944877

  4. Nutritional status of institutionalized children and adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pesce, K A; Wodarski, L A; Wang, M

    1989-01-01

    The relationship was explored between anomalies associated with developmental disabilities and nutritional status of institutionalized children and adolescents who received comprehensive interdisciplinary services. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Mean intakes of nutrients were greater than 67% of Recommended Daily Allowances. Laboratory values were within normal ranges with the exceptions of serum ferritin, which was borderline or below normal in 46% of the males and 55% of the females, and alkaline phosphatase, which was elevated in 70% of residents receiving anticonvulsants. Energy intake was highest in residents with adequate feeding skills, followed by nonfeeders and feeders requiring behavior management. Subjects had greater triceps skinfold and lower mid-arm muscle circumference and weight measurements as compared to reference data. Findings of this study suggest that these developmentally disabled children and adolescents who received comprehensive interdisciplinary nutritional services, in general, are adequately nourished and have nutrient intakes that meet the RDA requirements. PMID:2928578

  5. The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn. PMID:25246836

  6. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498mm in width, 404mm in depth, and 365-476mm in height for seat pans; 429-522mm in width and 542mm in height for seat back; 871mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733mm at shoulder and 678mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  7. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  8. Association between dyslipidemia and anthropometric indicators in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vieira Cunha Lima, S C; Oliveira Lyra, C; Galvo Bacurau Pinheiro, L; Medeiros de Azevedo, P R; Arrais, R F; Campos Pedrosa, L F

    2011-01-01

    The dyslipidemia associated with excess weight is a risk profile global call for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dyslipidemias and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adolescents, considering sexual maturation. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 432 adolescents from public schools, aged 10-19 years. The correlations between the variables from the lipid profile and the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), sexual maturation, familial history and maternal education were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was the most prevalent dyslipidemia (50.5%), regardless of gender. There were significant correlations between triglycerides and BMI (r = 0.30, p<0.01), WC (r = 0.32, p < 0.01) and WHtR (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). The linear model, which took into consideration sexual maturation, age and BMI, explain about 1 to 10.4% of the lipid profile variation. The low HDL-c was the most prevalent dyslipidemia in all adolescents and hypertriglyceridemia was most prevalent in overweight adolescents. Associations between dyslipidemias and anthropometric indicators (BMI and RCA) detected in this study can generate the hypothesis of the risk factors for CVD in adolescents. PMID:21666967

  9. High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625

  10. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. PMID:26633668

  11. The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

  12. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  13. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  14. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (? = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (? = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  15. Predicting the throwing velocity of the ball in handball with anthropometric variables and isotonic tests.

    PubMed

    Debanne, Thierry; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the influence of general anthropometric variables, handball-specific anthropometric variables, and upper-limb power and strength on ball-throwing velocity in a standing position (?(ball)), and (2) predict this velocity using multiple regression methods. Forty-two skilled male handball players (age 21.03.0 years; height=1.810.07m; body mass=78.311.3kg) participated in the study. We measured general anthropometric variables (height, body mass, lean mass, body mass index) and handball-specific anthropometric parameters (hand size, arm span). Upper-limb dynamic strength was assessed using a medicine ball (2kg) throwing test, and power using a one-repetition maximum bench-press test. All the variables studied were correlated with ball velocity. Medicine ball throwing performance was the best predictor (r=0.80). General anthropometric variables were better predictors (r=0.55-0.70) than handball-specific anthropometric variables (r=0.35-0.51). The best multiple regression model accounted for 74% of the total variance and included body mass, medicine ball throwing performance, and power output in the 20-kg bench press. The equation formulated could help trainers, athletes, and professionals detect future talent and test athletes' current fitness. PMID:21400345

  16. Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala1234

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 2938 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 012 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score. PMID:19793851

  17. Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: physiopathological significance and predictive value in the immunochemotherapy era.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clmentine; Camus, Vincent; Tilly, Herv; Salles, Gilles; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed cases. Obesity is a well-defined risk factor for DLBCL. However, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on DLBCL prognosis is controversial. Recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia) or loss of fat mass can be detected by computed tomography (CT) images and is useful for predicting the clinical outcome in several types of cancer including DLBCL. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the differences in DLBCL outcome according to BMI or weight that include tolerance to treatment, inflammatory background and chemotherapy or rituximab metabolism. In this review, we summarize the available literature, addressing the impact and physiopathological relevance of simple anthropometric tools including BMI and tissue distribution measurements. We also discuss their relationship with other nutritional parameters and their potential role in the management of patients with DLBCL. PMID:25363401

  18. Aggressive Nutrition of the Preterm Infant.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition of preterm infants should result in growth similar to that of normally growing fetuses of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants are not fed enough to achieve this objective; as a result they are growth restricted by term gestation. Recent studies have demonstrated that early and enhanced "aggressive" nutrition of preterm infants can reduce postnatal growth failure and improve longer-term outcomes, particularly for the brain and its cognitive functions. When preterm infants are fed more aggressively (earlier onset of intravenous and enteral feeding, earlier achievement of full enteral feeding) cumulative energy and protein deficits are reduced and they consistently regain birth weight sooner, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis is unchanged or reduced, and they achieve discharge criteria and go home sooner, with overall shorter hospital stays, and have improved anthropometrics by term gestation. More research is needed, however, to determine optimum feeding of preterm infants, particularly during periods of illness and physiological instability. PMID:24386613

  19. Aggressive Nutrition of the Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition of preterm infants should result in growth similar to that of normally growing fetuses of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants are not fed enough to achieve this objective; as a result they are growth restricted by term gestation. Recent studies have demonstrated that early and enhanced “aggressive” nutrition of preterm infants can reduce postnatal growth failure and improve longer-term outcomes, particularly for the brain and its cognitive functions. When preterm infants are fed more aggressively (earlier onset of intravenous and enteral feeding, earlier achievement of full enteral feeding) cumulative energy and protein deficits are reduced and they consistently regain birth weight sooner, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis is unchanged or reduced, and they achieve discharge criteria and go home sooner, with overall shorter hospital stays, and have improved anthropometrics by term gestation. More research is needed, however, to determine optimum feeding of preterm infants, particularly during periods of illness and physiological instability. PMID:24386613

  20. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... INFO Scabies General Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  1. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa

    2015-02-28

    Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262

  2. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data.

    PubMed

    Shypailo, R J; Ellis, K J

    2011-05-21

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of (40)K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration. PMID:21490381

  3. Anthropometric and Biochemical Profile of Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Predialysis Pediatric Interdisciplinary Program

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa R.; Soares, Cristina B.; Magalhes, Juliana O.; de Barcelos, Isabella Peixoto; Cerqueira, Debora C.; Simes e Silva, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    This is longitudinal retrospective observational cohort study that evaluated anthropometric and biochemical variables of children and adolescents admitted to a Predialysis Interdisciplinary Management Program (PDIMP) responsible for the follow-up of children and adolescents at stages 2 to 4 of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at a tertiary center. One hundred thirty-eight patients with CKD on predialysis treatment with median age at admission of 9 years and the median follow-up time of 5 years were evaluated. Seventy-four (53%) had CKD stage 3 at admission and 70 (51%) reached CKD stage 5 at the end of the follow-up. There was no significant difference between the mean initial and final hemoglobin and serum albumin. However, the final serum bicarbonate presented a significant improvement. Analyses stratified according to clinical variables of interest showed a significant improvement in body mass index (BMI) Z score, especially in the subgroup of children admitted under two years of age. In relation to stature-for-age Z score, data show a significant improvement in stature SD at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study showed improvement of nutritional status of CKD patients and that the deterioration of renal function was not correlated with BMI-for-age Z score. PMID:25629088

  4. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  5. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Patient Support For Families and Caregivers My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness ... Resources Patient Support For Families and Caregivers My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness ...

  6. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... School Breakfast Program (SBP) Special Milk Program (SMP) Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ( ... Benefits Become a SNAP Retailer Community Food Systems Summer Food Service Program Food Safety Child Nutrition Disaster ...

  7. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  8. Nutritional aspects in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan

    2009-04-01

    Nutrition plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily in prevention and treatment of malnutrition and growth failure. Furthermore, in Crohn disease (CD), nutrition can induce remission, maintain remission, and prevent relapse. Malnutrition is common in IBD and the mechanisms involved include decreased food intake, malabsorption, increased nutrient loss, increased energy requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions. At the time of diagnosis, up to 85% of pediatric patients with CD and 65% of those with ulcerative colitis (UC) have weight loss. Growth failure occurs in 15% to 40% of children with IBD and is less common in UC compared with CD, both at diagnosis and during follow-up. In CD, nutritional therapy with enteral formulas induces remission at a rate comparable with that achieved with steroids. In adults with CD, limited information suggests that enteral nutrition (EN) may play a role in maintenance of remission. In children with CD colitis, one study suggested that children without colitis respond better to EN than children with colitis, and another study found no such difference but reported a trend toward earlier relapse in those with isolated colonic involvement. Finally, nutrition may play a role in IBD via the possible protective effect of breastfeeding against UC and CD. In summary, although only CD may benefit from nutrition as primary therapy for remission induction and possibly maintenance of remission, nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in IBD, and may have a protective role, via the effect of breast-feeding on disease occurrence. PMID:19300135

  9. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166190 cm and aged 2042 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition super body category. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.66.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 23.77 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  10. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Catharina J.; Walsh, Corinna M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar. Objectives This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa. Method Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (2534 years) and older (3544 years) groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS) and added sugar (AS) consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories. Results AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations. Conclusion The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  11. Classification of hard core and petty criminals using anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Girdhar G; Asthana, Akash; Maurya, Amit

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the somatometric measurements among hard core criminals, petty criminals and community people. Using standard anthropometric procedures, somatometric dimensions were studied on 250 subjects each from the three groups: (i) experimental (hard core criminal) group, (ii) control-I (petty criminal) group, and (iii) control-II (community people) group. Univariate analysis of variance was used for making comparisons of somatometric measurements between these groups in the univariate case. Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to develop a model based on measurements that classifies the cases into groups. The study revealed that the somatometric measurements such as morphological total facial height (p < 0.01), physiognomic total facial height (p = 0.015), nasal length (p = 0.001), height of lower face (p = 0.001), nasal depth (p = 0.002), sitting height vertex (p = 0.011), bigonial breadth (p < 0.001), maximum head breadth (p = 0.001), morphological upper facial height (p < 0.001), and physiognomic ear breadth (p = 0.039) were significantly different between the three groups. Morphological upper facial height, physiognomic total facial height, nasal length and height of lower face could be used as identifying factors for hard core criminals. Morphological total facial height, physiognomic upper facial height, physiognomic ear breadth, and sitting height were found different significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control-II group. The QDA provided an overall 72.4% correct classification of cases and 74.5%, 69.6%, and 72.9% correct classification for the experimental, control-I and control-II groups, respectively. The blurred distinction of the three groups could be explained by using the QDA model. PMID:21068476

  12. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  13. Impact of Nutrition on Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, Brenda B; Martin, Camilia R

    2015-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a common morbidity of prematurity. Although the pathogenesis of BPD is recognized to be both multifactorial and complex, the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of BPD is typically limited to management after a diagnosis has been made. Infants born small for gestational age and those who experience postnatal growth failure are more likely to have BPD. Therapies for lung disease, such as fluid restriction, diuretics, and corticosteroids, can negatively impact postnatal growth. Future research is needed to optimize nutritional strategies in the neonatal intensive care unit and following hospital discharge. PMID:26593079

  14. Metabolic Determinants and Anthropometric Indicators Impact Clinical-pathological Features in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Conti, Laura; Mandoj, Chiara; Antenucci, Anna; Digiesi, Giovanna; Sergi, Domenico; Amodio, Antonella; Marchetti, Paolo; Sperati, Francesca; Valle, Mario; Garofalo, Alfredo; Vizza, Enrico; Corrado, Giacomo; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Tomao, Federica; Kayal, Ramy; Marsella, Annalise; Carosi, Mariantonia; Antoniani, Barbara; Giordano, Antonio; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last twenty years, the efforts of the scientific community devoted to the comprehension and treatment of ovarian cancer have remained poorly remunerative, with the case-fatality ratio of this disease remaining disappointedly high. Limited knowledge of the basic principles regulating ovarian carcinogenesis and factors impacting the course of disease may significantly impair our ability to intervene in early stages and lessen our expectations in terms of treatment outcomes. In the present study, we sought to assess whether metabolic factors and anthropometric indicators, i.e., pre-treatment fasting glucose and body mass index, are associated with renown cancer related prognostic factors such as tumour stage and grade at diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Study participants were 147 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and treated with platinum based regimens and/or surgery at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome, Italy. Glucose levels were assessed at the institutional laboratories on venous blood collected in overnight fasting conditions and prior to any therapeutic procedure. Stage was coded according to the FIGO staging system based on the results of the diagnostic workup, while tumour grade was locally assessed by an expert pathologist. Participants' characteristics were descriptively analyzed for the overall study population and in a subgroup of 70 patients for whom data on body mass index (BMI) were available. FIGO stage and grade were compared by categories of pre-treatment fasting glucose defined upon the median value, i.e., 89 mg/dl. The association of interest was tested in regression models including BMI. Results: For the overall study population, patients in the lowest category of fasting glucose were significantly more likely to exhibit a FIGO stage III-IV at diagnosis compared with their counterpart in the highest glucose category (81.3 vs 66.7%, p: 0.021). Subgroup analysis in 70 patients with BMI data confirmed this association (81.5 vs 55.8, p: 0.049), which remained significant when tested in regression models including BMI (OR: 0.28 95% CI 0.086-0.89, p: 0.031). No relevant evidence emerged when testing the association between fasting glucose and tumour grade. Conclusions: In patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer, pre-treatment glucose levels appear to be inversely associated with FIGO stage. Further studies are warranted to eventually confirm and correctly interpret the implications of this novel finding. PMID:26958087

  15. Peri-operative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ali Abdelhamid, Y; Chapman, M J; Deane, A M

    2016-01-01

    Patients are frequently malnourished or are at risk of malnutrition before surgery. Peri-operative nutritional support can improve their outcomes. This review focuses on new developments in peri-operative nutrition, including: patient preparation and pre-operative fasting; the role of nutritional supplementation; the optimal route and timing of nutrient delivery; and the nutritional management of specific groups including critically ill, obese and elderly patients. PMID:26620142

  16. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  17. [Comparison of self-reported anthropometric variables and real measurement data].

    PubMed

    Daz-Garca, J; Gonzlez-Zapata, L I; Estrada-Restrepo, A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate self-reporting of weight, height, and waist circumference, and to compare that perception with the real measurements in college students of the MESPYN cohort--Medellin, Salud Pblica y Nutricin--from the University of Antioquia (UdeA), Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted starting with the first measurement of the MESPYN Cohort 2009-2010. The sample included volunteer students from different academic areas. Self-perception of weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded before the real measurements were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all the variables, and an alpha of 0.05 was used. The concordance between real measurements and self-referred values was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. 424 volunteer students were included. The average real weight (kg) in males was 67.4 +/- 10.4 and self-reported: 67.0 +/- 11.0; in females the real value was 55.7 +/- 10.1 and self-reported: 55.0 +/- 9.0. The average real height (m) in males was 1.73 +/- 6.1 and self-reported: 1.73 +/- 6.0; in females the real value was 1.60 +/- 5.9 and self-reported: 1.61 +/- 6.0. In males, the average real waist circumference (cm) was 76.6 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 75.0 +/- 14.0; in females the real value was 69.9 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 70.0 +/- 9.0. Weight ICC: 0.956, 95% CI (0.95; 0.97), (p < 0.01); height ICC: 0.953, 95%IC (0.91; 0.97), (p < 0.01), and waist circumference ICC: 0.593, 95% IC (0.55; 0.65), (p < 0.01). In conclusion, anthropometric nutritional evaluation of UdeA students can be performed with self-reported data for weight and height, but the evaluation of abdominal obesity requires direct measurement of waist circumference. PMID:23610897

  18. Nutrition and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. National Advisory Council on Supplementary Centers and Services.

    This two-part report provides a source book of information on (a) federal health and nutrition legislation and programs, and (b) government and commercial agencies with nutrition and health education materials and instructional services available to the public. Part 1 describes the kinds of health and nutrition programs to be funded under ESEA

  19. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  20. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long

  1. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared

  2. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.

  3. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  4. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  5. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different

  6. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  7. Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  9. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement. PMID:25686639

  10. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

    1999-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages. PMID:10695800

  11. Influence of nutritional status on clinical outcome after acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Gariballa, S E; Parker, S G; Taub, N; Castleden, C M

    1998-08-01

    A cause-and-effect relation between protein-energy malnutrition and poor outcome in acute stroke patients has not been definitively established. To measure the effect of the nutritional status of hospitalized stroke patients on clinical outcome, a prospective, observational study was performed. Acute stroke patients admitted to Leicester General Hospital from June 1994 to October 1995 had their nutritional status assessed with anthropometric, hematologic, and biochemical methods within 48 h of admission and after 2 and 4 wk. Outcome measures including disability, handicap, length of stay, morbidity (infective complications), discharge destination, and mortality were recorded during the hospital stay and at 3 mo. Nutritional status deteriorated significantly during the study period, but only serum albumin concentrations showed a significant association with various outcome measures. Stroke patients with hypoalbuminemia had a greater risk of infective complications (P<0.0001) and poor functional outcome during hospitalization than those with normal or higher serum albumin concentrations. Serum albumin concentrations were good predictors of the degree of disability and handicap during the hospital stay. After prognostic indicators of poor outcome were adjusted for, serum albumin concentration in the hospital was a strong and independent predictor of mortality at 3 mo after acute stroke [hazard ratio 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99) for a 1-g/L higher serum albumin concentration]. Whether nutritional supplementation removes or mitigates the hazard of poor outcome associated with undernutrition after acute stroke needs to be determined. PMID:9701183

  12. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  13. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight the high level of nutritional risk in rural dwelling older adults of Asian Indian Origin. Clinicians conducting assessments in this population need to take these measures into account in order to fully account for potential health risks. PMID:21846245

  14. [Asthma diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ortega Martell, José Antonio; Fernández Vega, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of asthma is based primarily on patient history, conducting the interrogation to the search for risk factors for developing it and the triggers of their symptoms. This chapter will detail some laboratory tests and cabinet that can support this clinical diagnosis. Respiratory function tests help to show the degree of airway obstruction and its reversibility with treatment. Allergy tests help prove the existence of cells sensitized to a specific allergen and once identified, implement environmental control measures or if necessary to control this immunomodulation exaggerated immune response. The exhaled nitric oxide test has been most useful in assessing the course of asthma during treatment, rather than for diagnosis. Sometimes the confirmatory diagnosis of asthma is achieved after excluding other diseases that may present a similar clinical picture, and especially after knowing the response to standard treatment with bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20873051

  15. Prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Madhulika

    2003-01-01

    With the leaping advances in knowledge of genetics, its applications in patient management are also increasing. Prenatal diagnosis is the most useful application as it offers prospective parents the assurance of having an unaffected child in situations of high recurrence risks. Pretest and post test counseling is an integral part of prenatal diagnosis. All Pediatricians and Obstetricians should be familiar with the basic prerequisites of prenatal screening/testing. Timely referral, preferably pre-pregnancy is important. There is more or less a consensus regarding offering prenatal diagnosis for lethal/chronic disabling or difficult/expensive to treat conditions. Ethical issues are already around regarding prenatal testing for disabilities like deafness and late onset disorders. The present communication is an effort to present the clinician's perspective of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:12619957

  16. [Nutritional status and diet characteristics of a group of adolescents from the rural locality Calama, Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Prez-Cueto, F J A; Almanza-Lpez, M J; Prez-Cueto, J D; Eulert, M E

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 a pilot study was carried out in the rural area of the Bolivian Department of La Paz aiming at the identification of dietary patterns among a group of secondary school adolescents who have little or scarce contact with the urban centres. The study consisted of a food intake survey (24 h recall), the measurement of anthropometrics and sociodemographic information. Nine percent was the global prevalence of overweight, although it was more present in girls. No statistically significant differences were found between nutrients in the diets of boys and girls. The energy intake was distributed in the five usual eating times as follows: 22% breakfast, 20% break time at school, 24% lunch, 12% tea time and 22% dinner. Furthermore, the anthropometric measures of boys were compared with their urban counterparts, where the differences were only significant with students in private schools. The present study can be used for the formulation of nutritional policies in Bolivia. PMID:19266112

  17. The relationship between hand anthropometrics, total grip strength and individual finger force for various handle shapes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Kim, Dae-Min

    2015-01-01

    The design and shape of hand tool handles are critical factors for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by the use of hand tools. We explored how these factors are related to total force and individual finger force in males and females with various hand anthropometrics. Using the MFFM system, we assessed four indices of anthropometry, and measured total force and individual finger force on various handle designs and shapes. Both total force and individual finger force were significant according to gender and handle shape. Total grip strength to the handle shape indicated the greatest strength with D shape and the least with A shape. From the regression analysis of hand anthropometric indices, the value of R was respectably high at 0.608-0.696. The current study examined the gender and handle shape factors affecting grip strength based on the force measurements from various handle types, in terms of influence on different hand anthropometric indices. PMID:26323777

  18. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  19. Preimplantation diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, J D; Martin, M C; Lebo, R V; Pedersen, R A

    1993-01-01

    Preimplantation embryonic biopsy and analysis offer couples at increased risk of having offspring affected with a genetic disorder the possibility of an early prenatal diagnosis. For many couples, this approach would avoid the issue of the selective termination of affected fetuses. Substantial advances have been made in the area of preimplantation diagnosis, but the possible difficulties with this approach cannot be ignored. Images PMID:8236971

  20. A program of nutritional education in schools reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency in students.

    PubMed

    Garca-Casal, Mara Nieves; Landaeta-Jimnez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patio, Elij; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083

  1. Evaluation of parenteral nutritional support in the surgical and medical wards of a referral teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Malnutrition is a common problem in patients who are hospitalized in surgical and medical wards. Surgical patients, geriatric populations and individuals with severe illness are more vulnerable to malnutrition during their hospitalization course. The purpose of this study was evaluation of parenteral nutrition services in a referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Medical records of 72 patients who received parenteral nutrition during one year period in different surgical and medical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were reviewed retrospectively by clinical pharmacists. Criteria for initiation of parenteral nutrition, selection of appropriate formulation and monitoring parameters were assessed based on the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations. Results Based on the patients' anthropometric parameters and serum albumin levels, 4.2%, 75% and 20.8% of the patients were well-nourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished respectively at the hospital admission and before nutritional support. Adequate calorie, protein, carbohydrate and lipid supports were achieved in 21.1%, 32.4%, 23.7% and 10.5% of the patients respectively. About 91% of the patients experienced at least one complication of the nutritional support. Conclusion In this evaluation, several errors in assessment, establishing goals, and monitoring of parenteral nutrition regimens have been detected. Approximately all of the patients did not receive to the trace elements supports goals. PMID:23351175

  2. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    PubMed Central

    García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083

  3. Nutritional effects of amino acid dialysate (Nutrineal) in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Misra, M; Ashworth, J; Reaveley, D A; Muller, B; Brown, E A

    1996-01-01

    The use of amino acid dialysate (AAD) has been shown to improve the nutritional status of malnourished continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We report on a randomized, prospective, cross-over study evaluating the effects of a single, daily, postprandial 2-L exchange of 1.1% AAD (Nutrineal) on a nutritionally unselected group of 18 stable CAPD patients. Patients in group A (n = 10) were randomized to receive AAD in the initial six months, whereas group B (n = 8) patients received AAD in the final six months of the study. Regular biochemical, hematological, and anthropometric measurements were made. A computerized nutrition score(1) combined anthropometry, serum albumin, and total lymphocyte count. Improved nutritional status was indicated by a decreased score. Mean serum albumin and transferrin did not show a significant rise in either group. However, patients in group A, with a mean serum albumin of less than 30 g/L, showed a significant rise at two months, which persisted at six months (26.8 g/L on entry, 29.0 g/L at two months, 30.1 g/L at six months; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Treatment with AAD showed a trend towards improvement in midarm muscle circumference in both groups (22.9 -23.5 cm, group A; 22.9-23.7 cm, group B). The nutrition score improved in both groups but was significant only in group A (14.6 to 13.1; p = 0.02). These effects of AAD on the nutritional status of CAPD patients need validation in a long-term study to evaluate the effects on morbidity and mortality. PMID:8865926

  4. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  5. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  6. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  7. [Nutrition status evaluation of the women at reproductive age. Uses and limitations].

    PubMed

    De Santiago, S; Valdés-Ramos, R

    1999-03-01

    Information is given about the main methods for nutrition status evaluation of the woman, this information is oriented to three stages of the woman's life cycle: adult stage, gestation stage and lactation stage. The usefulness as well as the limitations of the diet surveys are discussed. The main anthropometric indicators are presented, useful in the clinical practice to evaluate nutrition status of the non-pregnant woman (body mass index, waist/hip index and skinfolds), pregnant woman (percentage of expected weight for height and gestation age, weight gain during pregnancy, height of fundus of uterus, arm circumference and skinfolds) and lactating woman (weight loss and skinfolds). The most important nutrition status biochemical indicators are discussed. At last some special evaluation technics as measurements of body composition and balance methods are discussed. PMID:15338582

  8. [Croatian guidelines for perioperative enteral nutrition of surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Zeli?, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesi?; Keleci?, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvari?, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Raheli?, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerovi?, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Susti?, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovaci?, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznari?, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals. PMID:25327004

  9. [THE DYNAMICS OF INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC SIGNS OF NEWBORN CHILDREN IN NIZHNEVARTOVSK FROM 1990 TO 2011].

    PubMed

    Tupitsyna, L S

    2015-01-01

    There were studied anthropometric data of newborn infants and their dynamics from 1990 to 2011. There was evaluated the distribution of infants according to five criteria: body weight and length, head, chest and abdomen circumference. There is done the characteristic of the set of anthropometric signs of mothers. In the middle of the studied period investigated parameters of infants were shown to be lower than at the beginning and the end, which might be due to the decrease in the proportion of repeated births, to the aggravation ofanthropogenic pollution and with the deterioration of the socio-economic situation. PMID:26302569

  10. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  11. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of kenyan distance runners.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pui W; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m(- 2)), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg(-1), knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg(-1)) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60(o)/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120(o)/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180(o)/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  12. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  13. Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition

  14. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  15. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  16. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  17. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and childrens nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  18. Anthropometric measures at different ages and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Maso, L Dal; Tavani, A; Zucchetto, A; Montella, M; Ferraroni, M; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Decarli, A; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI), but the influence of BMI history and of different types of obesity is uncertain. Ethods: M A case–control study was carried out in Italy including 454 cases and 908 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariate logistic and spline regression models. Results: The OR for BMI >30 at diagnosis compared with 20 to <25 kg m−2 was 4.08 (95% CI: 2.90–5.74). The association for BMI was monotonic with a possible steeper increase for BMI above 28. Conversely, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) showed a bell shaped curve with increased OR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.43–3.09) in the intermediate tertile only. After stratification by BMI at diagnosis, history of weight loss and BMI at age 30 did not influence endometrial cancer risk. History of obesity in middle age had a weak and not significant adverse effect among obese women (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 0.52–4.96). Conclusion: The predominant importance of recent weight compared to lifetime history, justifies encouraging weight reduction in women at any age. PMID:21386846

  19. Multi-resolution description of three-dimensional anthropometric data for design simplification.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jianwei; Li, Zhizhong; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry can provide rich information for ergonomic product design with better safety and health considerations. To reduce computational load and model complexity in product design when using 3D anthropometric data, wavelet analysis is adopted in this paper to establish multi-resolution mathematical description of 3D anthropometric data. A proper resolution can be selected for design reference according to the application purpose. To examine the approximation errors under difference resolutions, 510 upper head, whole head, and face samples of Chinese young men have been analyzed. Descriptives of approximation errors under different resolutions are presented. These data can be used as resolution selection guide. The application of the multi-resolution method in product design is illustrated by two examples. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY: Multi-resolution description of 3D anthropometric data would facilitate the analysis of and design with 3D anthropometric data to improve fitting comfort. The error data under different resolutions provide important reference for resolution selection. PMID:18639863

  20. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radams Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Verssimo; do Rgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  1. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one

  2. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  3. [Anthropometric examinations of the sick with congenital inborn facial-maxillary-occlusal defects].

    PubMed

    Michalski, T W; Plewi?ska, H

    1988-10-01

    The authors describe rules, usefulness and advantages from carrying out anthropometric examinations in the sick with facial-maxillary-occlusal defects in the paper. They present a card especially elaborated for these examinations and used in case of each sick. PMID:3270598

  4. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements Under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedzadeh, Faramarz; Alizadeh, Saeed; Riazi, Bahareh; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler. Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na), subnasal (Sn) point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog). The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software. Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8. Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments. PMID:23724216

  5. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  6. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Koley, Shyamal; Singh, Arvinder Pal

    2009-03-01

    The present study deals with the correlations of dominant hand grip strength and 12 anthropometric variables, namely, height, weight, BMI, upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, hand breadth, hand length, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, biceps skinfold and triceps skinfold in randomly selected 303 unrelated, normal, healthy students (151 males and 152 females) aged 18-25 years of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The findings of the present study indicate a strong association of dominant right hand grip strength with all the anthropometric variables, except biceps skinfold in male students and with height (r = 0.200), weight (r = 0.275), BMI (p = 0.217), total arm length (p = 0.218) and upper arm circumference (r = 0.199) in female students. Statistically significant positive correlations were also found between dominant left hand grip strength and height (r = 0.275), weight (p = 0.537), BMI (p = 0.472), hand breadth (p = 0.464), upper arm circumference (r = 0.570), forearm circumference (p = 0.464) and triceps skinfold (p = 0.343) only in male students, but no such association was found between grip strength of left hand dominant female students with any of the twelve anthropometric variables. It may be concluded that hand dominance, especially of the right hand, has some close association with the anthropometric variables related to upper extremities. PMID:19462672

  7. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  8. An image-based approach to obtaining anthropometric measurements for inertia modeling.

    PubMed

    Gittoes, Marianne J R; Bezodis, Ian N; Wilson, Cassie

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate an image-based method of obtaining anthropometric measurements for accurate subject-specific inertia parameter determination using Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were obtained directly from five athletic performers and indirectly from digitization of subject-specific whole-body still images. The direct and image-based measurements were used as input into Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. The overall absolute error in predicted whole-body mass achieved using the image-based approach (2.87%) compared well to that achieved using the direct measurements (2.10%). The inclusion of image-based anthropometric measurements obtained from extremity (hand and feet) images was not found to consistently improve model accuracy achieved using whole-body images only. The presented method provides a successful alternative to direct measurement for obtaining anthropometric measurements required for customized inertia modeling. The noninvasive image-based approach is benefited by the potential for obtaining subject-specific measurements from large samples of subjects and elite athletic performers for whom time-consuming data collections may be undesirable. PMID:19827477

  9. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  10. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  11. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  12. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  13. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  14. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Login Menu Food Food Find out more Categories Nutrition Planning and Prep Vitamins and Supplements Resources Topics ... Handouts and Tipsheets for Families and Communities National Nutrition Month 2016 National Nutrition Month Health Health Find ...

  15. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nutrition Support Professional Press Room Join / Renew Donate Online Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. Sometimes a ...

  16. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    PubMed Central

    Omitola, O. O.; Mogaji, H. O.; Oluwole, A. S.; Adeniran, A. A.; Alabi, O. M.; Ekpo, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  17. Anthropometric findings from birth to adulthood and their relation with karyotpye distribution in Turkish girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sari, Erkan; Bereket, Abdullah; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Aydın, Banu Küçükemre; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Unuvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Fidancı, Kürşat; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Acıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric features of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) at birth and presentation and the effect of karyotype on these parameters. Data were collected from 842 patients with TS from 35 different centers, who were followed-up between 1984 and 2014 and whose diagnosis age ranged from birth to 18 years. Of the 842 patients, 122 girls who received growth hormone, estrogen or oxandrolone were excluded, and 720 girls were included in the study. In this cohort, the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) birth was 33%. The frequency of SGA birth was 4.2% (2/48) in preterm and 36% (174/483) in term neonates (P < 0.001). The mean birth length was 1.3 cm shorter and mean birth weight was 0.36 kg lower than that of the normal population. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.1 ± 4.4 years. Mean height, weight and body mass index standard deviation scores at presentation were -3.1 ± 1.7, -1.4 ± 1.5, and 0.4 ± 1.7, respectively. Patients with isochromosome Xq were significantly heavier than those with other karyotype groups (P = 0.007). Age at presentation was negatively correlated and mid-parental height was positively correlated with height at presentation. Mid-parental height and age at presentation were the only parameters that were associated with height of children with TS. The frequency of SGA birth was found higher in preterm than term neonates but the mechanism could not be clarified. We found no effect of karyotype on height of girls with TS, whereas weight was greater in 46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotype groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26788866

  18. Effects of intensive nutrition education on nutritional status and quality of life among postgastrectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ok; Han, So Ra; Choi, Sung Il; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Sang Hyun; Ahn, Hong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effects of 3 months of intensive education (IE) after hospital discharge compared to conventional education (CE) on nutritional status and quality of diet and life among South Korean gastrectomy patients. Methods The study was conducted among 53 hospitalized gastrectomy in-patients (IE group, n = 28; CE group, n = 25) at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. Baseline data were collected from electronic medical records and additional information was gathered via anthropometric measurements, assessment of nutritional status through a patient-generated, subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), diet assessment, and measures of self-efficacy and satisfaction with meals for 3 months following hospital discharge. Results Total PG-SGA scores were significantly higher in the CE group than in the IE group at 3-week post-discharge (5.2 in the IE group vs. 10.4 in the CE group, P < 0.001), with higher scores indicating a greater severity of malnutrition. Energy intake over the 3 months increased in both the IE group (from 1,390 to 1,726 kcal/day) and the CE group (from 1,227 to 1,540 kcal/day). At 3-week post-discharge, the IE group had significantly higher daily protein and fat intake (P < 0.05). Self-efficacy improved in each category (P < 0.001), except for 'difficulty eating adequate food'. When assessing satisfaction with meals, there was a difference in the 'satisfaction with the current meal size' (P < 0.001) and 'satisfaction with the menu content' (P < 0.001). Conclusion Nutritional status among gastrectomy patients in the IE group improved. Relative to the CE control, the IE group demonstrated improved self-efficacy and meal satisfaction 3-week post-discharge. PMID:26878015

  19. Dual Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that make them feel better temporarily. Sometimes the substance abuse occurs first. Over time, that can lead to emotional and mental problems. Someone with a dual diagnosis must treat both conditions. For the treatment to be effective, the person needs to stop ...

  20. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  1. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are

  2. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States

  3. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  4. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  5. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  6. Nutrition and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis; Winegarner, Nola

    1992-01-01

    A Head Start center assessed and improved its nutrition program. The process involved understanding the program's flaws; developing strategies for change that emphasized mental health and education and impacted all components of the curriculum; and fostering positive staff attitudes toward nutrition. (SM)

  7. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

  8. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  9. Nutrition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ?-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  10. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  11. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  12. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  13. On-Line Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kongshem, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

  14. Getting Personal About Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Noecker, Cecilia; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-02-01

    Nutritional guidelines for maintaining healthy blood glucose levels are commonly portrayed as universally applicable. However, a new study now demonstrates that the impact of each food on blood glucose varies dramatically across individuals and largely depends on personal characteristics and gut microbiome properties, laying the foundation for the broad implementation of personalized nutrition. PMID:26776092

  15. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of

  16. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Kalle-Uhlmann, Tamara; Arregui, Maria; Buijsse, Brian; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials provide conflicting results on the effects of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on changes in body weight. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to changes in anthropometric measures. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to July 2015 for prospective studies reporting on habitual fruit and/or vegetable consumption in relation to changes in body weight or waist circumference or to risk of weight gain/overweight/obesity in adults. Random-effects meta-analysis was applied to pool results across studies. Findings Seventeen cohort studies (from 20 reports) including 563,277 participants met our inclusion criteria. Higher intake of fruits was inversely associated with weight change (decrease) (beta-coefficient per 100-g increment, -13.68 g/year; 95% CI, -22.97 to -4.40). No significant changes could be observed for combined fruit and vegetable consumption or vegetable consumption. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with changes (decrease) in waist circumference (beta: -0.04 cm/year; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.02). Comparing the highest combined fruit & vegetable, fruit, and vegetable intake categories were associated with a 9%, 17%, and 17% reduced risk of adiposity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99), (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99), and (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99), respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed several inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and prospective improvements in anthropometric parameters, and risk of adiposity. The present meta-analysis seems to be limited by low study quality. Nevertheless, when combined with evolutionary nutrition and epidemiological modeling studies, these findings have public health relevance and support all initiatives to increase fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:26474158

  17. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods: The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure in symbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (p< 0.05). The trend of weight loss in symbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Conclusion: Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss. PMID:26478871

  18. Standards for selected anthropometric measurements in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Meaney, F J

    1991-10-01

    We report standards (95th, 50th, and 5th centiles) in Prader-Willi syndrome for weight, height, sitting height, head circumference, head length, head breadth, hand length, middle finger length, palm length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold. For comparison with Prader-Willi syndrome standardized curves, normal control data from the literature were plotted similarly and standard curves were produced. We encourage the use of these standards with the examination of patients who have Prader-Willi syndrome and in the comparison of the patient who has Prader-Willi syndrome with other similarly affected individuals. The standards may also be useful for assisting in the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, particularly in younger individuals. PMID:1896298

  19. Relationship between balance performance in the elderly and some anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, A A; Gbiri, C A

    2008-12-01

    Ability to maintain either static or dynamic balance has been found to be influenced by many factors such as height and weight in the elderly. The relationship between other anthropometric variables and balance performance among elderly Nigerians has not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these other anthropometric variables and balance performance among old individuals aged >60 years in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post facto design and involved two hundred and three apparently healthy (103 males and 100 females) elderly participants with ages between 60 years and 74 years, selected using multiple step-wise sampling techniques from churches, mosques and market place within Ibadan. They were without history of neurological problem, postural hypotension, orthopeadic conditions or injury to the back and/or upper and lower extremities within the past one year. Selected anthropometric variables were measured, Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) was used to assess static balance and dynamic balance respectively. All data were summarized using range, mean and standard deviation. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the physical characteristics, anthropometric variables and performance on each of the two balance tests. The results showed that there were low but significant positive correlations between performance on FRT and each of height, weight, trunk length, foot length, shoulder girth and hip girth. (p<0.05). There was low significant and positive correlation between SRT with eyes closed and arm length, foot length and shoulder girth. (p<0.05) and there was low but significant positive correlation between SRT with eyes opened and shoulder girth and foot length (P<0.05). Anthropometric variables affect balance performances in apparently healthy elderly. PMID:19301708

  20. Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relying on self-reported anthropometric data is often the only feasible way of studying large populations. In this context, there are no studies assessing the validity of anthropometrics in a mostly vegetarian population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Methods We selected a representative sample of 911 participants of AHS-2, a cohort of over 96,000 adult Adventists in the USA and Canada. Then we compared their measured weight and height with those self-reported at baseline. We calculated the validity of the anthropometrics as continuous variables, and as categorical variables for the definition of obesity. Results On average, participants underestimated their weight by 0.20 kg, and overestimated their height by 1.57 cm resulting in underestimation of body mass index (BMI) by 0.61 kg/m2. The agreement between self-reported and measured BMI (as a continuous variable), as estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.97. The sensitivity of self-reported BMI to detect obesity was 0.81, the specificity 0.97, the predictive positive value 0.93, the predictive negative value 0.92, and the Kappa index 0.81. The percentage of absolute agreement for each category of BMI (normoweight, overweight, and obese) was 83.4%. After multivariate analyses, predictors of differences between self-reported and measured BMI were obesity, soy consumption and the type of dietary pattern. Conclusions Self-reported anthropometric data showed high validity in a representative subsample of the AHS-2 being valid enough to be used in epidemiological studies, although it can lead to some underestimation of obesity. PMID:21466678

  1. The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mrio C; Silva, Antnio J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 12 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 12 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

  2. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

  3. Nutrition and cognitive development among rural Guatemalan children.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, H E; Klein, R E; Townsend, J W; Lechtig, A

    1980-01-01

    Women and children from four Guatemalan villages participated in a voluntary food supplementation program for seven years. In two of the villages, they received a vitamin and mineral fortified, high-protein calorie supplement. In the other two villages, the vitamin-mineral fortified supplement contained no protein and a relatively small number of calories. Cognitive tests were administered regularly to children ages three to seven, and anthropometric measures obtained. In addition, measures of families' social milieu were collected at several points in time. Using multiple regression analysis, we find that both nutritional and social environmental measures are related to various dimensions of cognitive competence. The results suggest that nutritional intake, independent of social factors, affects cognitive development. There is also some evidence that the children who receive the high-protein calorie supplement (and whose mothers received it during pregnancy and lactation) are more likely to score high in cognitive performance. Our results, while not diminishing social environmental explanations of differences in cognitive function, suggest benefits from nutrition intervention programs in rural areas of lesser-developed countries. PMID:7435746

  4. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. PMID:25908606

  5. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  6. Nutritional factors associated with rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Zaman, M M; Yoshiike, N; Chowdhury, A H; Nakayama, T; Yokoyama, T; Faruque, G M; Rouf, M A; Haque, S; Tanaka, H

    1998-06-01

    The determinants for a child with group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal throat infection (BHS infection) to develop rheumatic fever (RF) remain unclear. In this case-control study, we deal with BHS infected children to examine whether nutritional factors are related to RF. In a RF hospital in Dhaka (Bangladesh) we examined 218 consecutive out-patients who had antecedent BHS infection. Sixty of them met the updated Jones criteria for RF (cases) while 104 did not (controls). Fifty-four possible RF patients were excluded. We used anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional factors. Higher risk of RF was observed for low height for age (odds ratio 3.82, 95% confidence interval 1.73-8.42); low weight for age (2.41, 1.12-5.57); low upper arm circumference for age (3.76, 1.87-7.89); and low consumption of eggs (3.81, 1.95-7.63), milk (2.60, 1.36-5.08), chicken (2.62, 1.35-5.21), pulses (1.98, 1.03-3.84), fruits 2.29, 1.20-4.45), and ruti (home-made bread) (3.15, 1.61-6.34). Reduced risk was observed for soybean oil consumption (0.28, 0.12-0.62). The significant association of upper arm circumference and eggs persisted after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic confounders. The association of ruti and soybean oil appeared to be suggestive (0.05 < p < 0.1). Protein-energy malnutrition is likely to be associated with RF. The protective effect of moderate consumption of eggs and soybean oil may support other published work which suggests that the anti-inflammatory substance present in these food items may prevent maturation of the rheumatic process. PMID:9680778

  7. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  8. [Protein-energy wasting and nutritional supplementation in chronic hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Bozzoli, Laura; Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Donadio, Carlo; Cupisti, Adamasco; Piotti, Giovanni; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) is a pathological condition characterized by a progressive reduction of protein and energy stores. PEW has a high prevalence among patients with CKD/ESRD (Chronic Kidney Disease/End Stage Renal Disease) and is closely associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased rate of hospitalization, complications and mortality. The multifactorial pathogenesis of PEW is complex. A key role is played both by the reduced intake of nutrients and the condition of hypercatabolism/reduced anabolism typical of renal patients. The approach to prevent or treat PEW has several milestones such as reduction of potential risk factors, improvement in lifestyle and correction of any factor related to dialysis. It also needs a periodic assessment of nutritional status by using biochemical markers, body and muscle mass variables, nutritional scores and instrumental methods, aiming for an early diagnosis. In case of reduced protein and energy intake, the administration of nutrients during dialysis, or the use of oral supplements specific for renal patients are the first nutritional interventions recommended. In fact, oral nutritional supplementation represents the most effective nutritional approach to PEW prevention and treatment. It is simple and safe and it has a positive impact on quality of life and survival of haemodialysis patients. In the case of failure of oral supplementation, nutritional support should be enhanced by using intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN). If the patient has difficulty in swallowing or IDPN is insufficient, total enteral nutrition should be considered. PMID:26480252

  9. Guidance for the nutrition management of gastrointestinal allergy in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Groetch, Marion; Henry, Michelle; Feuling, Mary Beth; Kim, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies and their related elimination diets have been associated with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake and poor growth in the pediatric population. In recognition of these nutritional risks, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States recommend nutrition counseling and close growth monitoring for all children with food allergy. The care of children with gastrointestinal food allergic disorders can be complicated and is best performed with a structured approach in which medical and nutrition needs are addressed simultaneously. Children with gastrointestinal food allergy may be at greater nutritional risk because of decreased dietary intake. For these children, it is important to perform a comprehensive nutrition assessment to identify nutrition-related problems and to develop and implement a plan that meets the patient's needs within the context of the elimination diet. We provide an overview of the nutritional risks and strategies to assess nutritional status in pediatric patients with gastrointestinal food allergy. PMID:24565537

  10. Nutritional status of men attending a soup kitchen: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Laven, G T; Brown, K C

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided. PMID:4040716

  11. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception through the postpartum period. This practice paper supports the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' position paper "Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy Outcome" published in the July 2014 Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:25699300

  12. Crohn's disease: nutrition and nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A; Glen, M; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    Disordered nutrition is common in Crohn's disease and is multifactorial. Regular and systematic monitoring of at least a minimum set of nutrition data is an essential component of care of children and adults with Crohn's disease. However, even in children, monitoring of growth and development may be deficient. Multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies are common in Crohn's disease, especially in those with extensive small bowel deficiencies or after multiple surgical resections. Body composition analysis may show differences from simple starvation, and metabolic effects of inflammation are increasingly being recognized. Nutritional support is part of the management of all patients with Crohn's disease, but nutritional intervention with defined formula liquid diet is an effective specific anti-inflammatory therapy. Although meta-analysis of published trials suggest that steroids are more effective than defined formula liquid diets, objective evidence from whole gut lavage fluid analysis and from faecal excretion of radiolabelled leukocytes shows unequivocal benefit of elemental diet based on measuring parameters of tissue damage. Enteral feeding with liquid diets should be considered in patients with incomplete small bowel obstruction, severe painful perianal disease, failure of corticosteroids in active Crohn's disease, borderline intestinal failure and in children with active Crohn's disease or with growth failure. PMID:9704157

  13. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  14. Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.

    PubMed

    Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. PMID:24630782

  15. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients

    PubMed Central

    Filipovi?, Branka F; Gaji?, Milan; Milini?, Nikola; Milovanovi?, Branislav; Filipovi?, Branislav R; Cvetkovi?, Mirjana; ibali?, Nela

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods: subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI). METHODS: The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients, aged 18-84 years (average life span 55.57 12.84), with different gastrointestinal pathology, admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical and Hospital Center Bezanijska Kosa during a period of 180 d. All the patients, after being informed in detail about the study and signing a written consent, underwent nutritional status analysis, which included two different nutritional indices: SGA and NRI, anthropometric parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and biochemical markers, within 24 h of admission. RESULTS: In our sample of 299 hospitalized patients, global malnutrition prevalence upon admission varied from 45.7% as assessed by the SGA to 63.9% by NRI. Two applied methods required different parameters for an adequate approach: glucose level (5.68 1.06 mmol/L vs 4.83 1.14 mmol/L, F = 10.63, P = 0.001); body mass index (26.03 4.53 kg/m2 vs 18.17 1.52 kg/m2, F = 58.36, P < 0.001); total body water (42.62 7.98 kg vs 36.22 9.32 kg, F = 7.95, P = 0.005); basal metabolic rate (1625.14 304.91 kcal vs 1344.62 219.08 kcal, F = 9.06, P = 0.003) were very important for SGA, and lymphocyte count was relevant for NRI: 25.56% 8.94% vs 21.77% 10.08%, F = 11.55, P = 0.001. The number of malnourished patients rose with the length of hospital stay according to both nutritional indices. The discriminative function analysis (DFA) delineated the following parameters as important for prediction of nutritional status according to SGA assessment: concentration of albumins, level of proteins, SGA score and body weight. The DFA extracted MAMC, glucose level and NRI scores were variables of importance for the prediction of whether admitted patients would be classified as well or malnourished. CONCLUSION: SGA showed higher sensitivity to predictor factors. Assessment of nutritional status requires a multidimensional approach, which includes different clinical indices and various nutritional parameters. PMID:20419837

  16. National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and

  17. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,

  18. Nutritional Intervention Using Nutrition Care Process in a Malnourished Patient with Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794

  19. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  20. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  1. Nutritional Status in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TEIUSANU, Adriana; ANDREI, Mihai; ARBANAS, Tudor; NICOLAIE, Tudor; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Malnutrition is prevalent in all forms of liver disease: from 20% in compensated liver disease to more than 80% in those patients with decompensated liver disease. Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) can be identified in all clinical stages but is easier observed in advanced stages of liver disease. The presence of malnutrition is associated with increased number of complications and increased short and long term mortality. Aim: to evaluate the nutritional status using of combination of BMI (Body Mass Index), TST (triceps skinfold thickness) and MAMC (mid-arm muscle circumference). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. The features of subjective global assessment are history, physical evaluation and SGA rating. Based on this evaluation, patients were classified into three groups: well, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished. Material and methods: Our study was designed as a descriptive prospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis, admitted in Elias Emergency Hospital, Gastroenterology Department, during a year, January 2010-January 2011. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on the medical history, physical examination, biochemical findings and imagistic methods (ultrasound and / or computed tomography). A series of 176 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, 114 (65%) male and 62 (35%) female, median age 52 (range 18-68 years). Etiology of liver disease was alcoholic in 98 (56%), hepatitis B virus in 14 (8%), HCV in 43 (24%), HBV and HDV in 10 (7%), 11 patients have other etiology. The evaluation of nutritional status was made by different methods. A detailed history was recorded with appetite, caloric intake, change in body weight. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. Conclusions: Malnutrition was correlated with clinical severity of liver disease. The mild-moderate malnourished patients are 88% Child B, over 58% with viral etiology. 22% from these patients are alcoholic and 11% have Child C score (p<0.01). In severely malnourished group, 43% have alcoholic disease and 31% are Child C classification(p<0.01). Triceps skinfold thickness (mm) and mid-arm circumference(cm) decrease significantly according to the Child score, a positive correlation was found between these two parameters and the severity of cirrhosis. PMID:23483873

  2. Nutritional Support in Cancer Patients: A Position Paper from the Italian Society of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE).

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Cereda, Emanuele; Gavazzi, Cecilia; Pinto, Carmine; Paccagnella, Agostino; Beretta, Giordano Domenico; Nardi, Mariateresa; Laviano, Alessandro; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in cancer patients, which leads to prolonged hospitalization, a higher degree of treatment-related toxicity, reduced response to cancer treatment, impaired quality of life and a worse overall prognosis. The attitude towards this issue varies considerably and many malnourished patients receive inadequate nutritional support. We reviewed available data present in the literature, together with the guidelines issued by scientific societies and health authorities, on the nutritional management of patients with cancer, in order to make suitable and concise practical recommendations for appropriate nutritional support in this patient population. Evidence from the literature suggests that nutritional screening should be performed using validated tools (the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 [NRS 2002], the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [MUST], the Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] and the Mini Nutritional Assessment [MNA]), both at diagnosis and at regular time points during the course of disease according to tumor type, stage and treatment. Patients at nutritional risk should be promptly referred for comprehensive nutritional assessment and support to clinical nutrition services or medical personnel with documented skills in clinical nutrition, specifically for cancer patients. Nutritional intervention should be actively managed and targeted for each patient; it should comprise personalized dietary counseling and/or artificial nutrition according to spontaneous food intake, tolerance and effectiveness. Nutritional support may be integrated into palliative care programs. "Alternative hypocaloric anti-cancer diets" (e.g. macrobiotic or vegan diets) should not be recommended as they may worsen nutritional status. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to further our knowledge of the nutritional support required in different care settings for cancer patients. PMID:26819635

  3. Nutritional Support in Cancer Patients: A Position Paper from the Italian Society of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE)

    PubMed Central

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Cereda, Emanuele; Gavazzi, Cecilia; Pinto, Carmine; Paccagnella, Agostino; Beretta, Giordano Domenico; Nardi, Mariateresa; Laviano, Alessandro; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in cancer patients, which leads to prolonged hospitalization, a higher degree of treatment-related toxicity, reduced response to cancer treatment, impaired quality of life and a worse overall prognosis. The attitude towards this issue varies considerably and many malnourished patients receive inadequate nutritional support. We reviewed available data present in the literature, together with the guidelines issued by scientific societies and health authorities, on the nutritional management of patients with cancer, in order to make suitable and concise practical recommendations for appropriate nutritional support in this patient population. Evidence from the literature suggests that nutritional screening should be performed using validated tools (the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 [NRS 2002], the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [MUST], the Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] and the Mini Nutritional Assessment [MNA]), both at diagnosis and at regular time points during the course of disease according to tumor type, stage and treatment. Patients at nutritional risk should be promptly referred for comprehensive nutritional assessment and support to clinical nutrition services or medical personnel with documented skills in clinical nutrition, specifically for cancer patients. Nutritional intervention should be actively managed and targeted for each patient; it should comprise personalized dietary counseling and/or artificial nutrition according to spontaneous food intake, tolerance and effectiveness. Nutritional support may be integrated into palliative care programs. “Alternative hypocaloric anti-cancer diets” (e.g. macrobiotic or vegan diets) should not be recommended as they may worsen nutritional status. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to further our knowledge of the nutritional support required in different care settings for cancer patients. PMID:26819635

  4. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≤ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≥ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

  5. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  6. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  7. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and

  8. USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

  9. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among

  10. Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and nutrition

  11. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  12. Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

  13. Nutrition in Medicine: Nutrition Education for Medical Students and Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  14. Nutrition in medicine: nutrition education for medical students and residents.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-10-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  15. Demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elders using home enteral nutritional therapy in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salomon Zaban, Ana Lcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them. PMID:19961057

  16. [Nutrition of the preterm infant].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, A; Razafimahefa, H; Rigourd, V; Granier, M

    2011-03-01

    The quality of nutritional support impacts not only the growth and quality of growth of preterm infants, but also all aspects of their development. In order to provide optimal nutrition, two main rules should be followed: optimise early parenteral nutrition and introduce appropriate enteral nutrition preferably with the mother's milk as early as possible. Recommendations have recently increased early energy and protein intake. The term "aggressive nutrition" has been introduced to qualify these changes, but we prefer the term "optimal nutrition," which more precisely reflects the physiology and needs of the preterm infant. Specific efforts should be continued to improve physician training in neonatal nutrition and to facilitate the dissemination of the most recent recommendations. Standardization of nutritional protocols in neonatal units should be promoted as a way to improve overall nutritional care. A full field of research remains open to determine the most effective nutritional strategy for preterm infants in order to maximize their growth and development. PMID:21288702

  17. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a waste product that we exhale. Metabolism of carbohydrates produces the most carbon dioxide for the amount ... people with COPD, eating a diet with fewer carbohydrates and more fat helps them breathe easier. Nutritional ...

  18. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  19. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  20. Nutrition Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lois

    1972-01-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  1. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on nutritional ergogenic aids thought to enhance performance by favourably affecting energy metabolism. Although most purported nutritional ergogenic aids have not been shown to enhance physical performance in well-trained, well-nourished athletes, some reliable scientific data support an ergogenic efficacy of several substances, including caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate, but additional research is needed to evaluate their potential for enhancing performance in specific athletics events. PMID:8897322

  2. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  3. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  4. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  5. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aspen Menu Public Policy Call to Action Product Shortages Public Policy Agenda Public Policy Resources Continuing Education ... Parenteral Nutrition Resources Practice and Research Toolkits Product Shortages Online Store Research Abstracts A.S.P.E.N. ...

  6. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  7. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  8. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-02-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake, but a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables. Further, the GFCF diet group had a better quality of fat intake, but needed supplementation with vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials are required to explore long-term effects of this diet on anthropometric and nutritional status (the focus of our study), but also behavioral symptoms, in children with ASD. PMID:26428353

  9. Nutritional and metabolic support in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Kushta, Irma; Molfino, Alessio; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Sabatelli, Mario; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2012-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of progressive motor neuron disease and the most devastating neurodegenerative disorder. ALS is characterized by progressive paralysis and respiratory failure leading to death within 3 to 5 years after its onset. Protein-energy malnutrition is a frequent finding in ALS. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in ALS is multifactorial. Muscle atrophy, hypophagia, dysphagia, and hypermetabolism play a role in determining the deterioration of nutritional status. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated. Standard polymeric enteral formulas are routinely used, usually providing 25 to 30 kcal/kg and protein 0.8 to 1.2 g /kg per day. The use of fiber-enriched formulas may help prevent constipation. However, considering the complex metabolic abnormalities of ALS, standard and/or fiber-enriched formulas might not be sufficient to achieve optimal metabolic and nutritional support. Based on the most recent clinical and experimental evidence, it is tempting to hypothesize that personalized nutritional support including specific nutritional substrates could act on disease progression and improve the quality of life and the response to the few and yet scarcely effective, currently available pharmacologic therapies. PMID:22677356

  10. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: evidences and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The debate over the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) is an old but evergreen and hot topic. Since many years, studies comparing EN and PN have been a pivotal 'leitmotif' in the published literature on artificial nutrition (AN). Actually, there is a background misunderstanding in this debate; specifically, that EN and PN are competitors in the choice of the route for delivering nutrition support in cancer patients. Conversely, EN and PN have specific indications and contraindications. This review has the purpose to discuss the indications and complications as well as pros and cons of EN and PN in cancer patients, the crucial role of nutrition support in oncology patients during anticancer treatments and throughout the course of disease, and, finally, the role of AN in advanced cancer patients. In summary, we have no evidence-based data able to definitively indicate the optimal method for delivering AN in cancer patients. EN and PN have to be considered equally effective in maintaining or improving nutritional status in cancer patients. Besides, this review strongly supports the recommendation that a baseline nutritional assessment should be carried out by a healthcare professional expert in AN for all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis or anticancer treatment plan, taking the nutritional status, estimated duration of AN, AN-related potential benefits and possible complications into consideration on an individual basis. Moreover, the patient symptoms, performance status, estimated life expectancy, and mainly, will or preferences have to be evaluated and incorporated into the nutrition support plan before the definitive choice of the route for delivering nutrients is decided. Finally, applying a decision-making process tailored to patient needs-regardless of whether receiving or not anticancer treatment-allows to choose reasonably the optimal nutritional support strategy. PMID:26841814

  11. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

  12. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

  13. Anthropometric, flexibility, strength-power, and sport-specific correlates in elite fencing.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Charilaos; Kostaki, Emmanuela; Vagenas, George

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated selected structural correlates of fencing performance. 33 elite fencers were tested on (a) selected anthropometric, flexibility, and strength-power related parameters, and (b) specific lower extremity functional fencing tests. Multiple regression showed that drop jump and thigh cross-sectional area were best predictors of lunge time and distance of squat jump on the shuttle test. When the two performance variables were expressed per Lean Body Mass, lunge time was significantly predicted only by the performance on the arm-driven counter-movement jump, while time on the shuttle test was best predicted by three noncollinear significant predictors: squat jump performance, thigh circumference, and percent body fat. Lunge time and time on the shuttle test were predicted by explosive power, while none of the nontrainable anthropometric measures or years of training seemed to be important in performance of fencing-related skills. PMID:20865989

  14. Anthropometric measurements to design total knee prostheses for the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S V; Ranawat, C S; Aroojis, A; Laud, N S

    2000-01-01

    An anthropometric computed tomography scan study was undertaken to design femoral components in 86 knees (47 osteoarthritic Indians-21 men, 26 women) who matched standards suggested by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 1990. Patients were classified into 3 random groups based on anteroposterior diameter (<55 mm, 55-59 mm, >59 mm). Most Indian men (86.8%) could have the femoral component satisfactorily replaced by available designs. A statistically significant number of women (60.4%, P < .001) had femoral anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available (55 mm) femoral component. Splaying in mediolateral dimension (> 10 mm) in a given anteroposterior size was noted in all 3 groups. This pilot study representative of the Indian population can be used to manufacture prosthetic inventories suitable for most of the Asian-Pacific population having smaller anthropometric measurements than Western populations. PMID:10654467

  15. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  16. Anthropometric Characteristics of Hospitalised Elderly Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Belbraouet, Slimane; Chau, Nearkasen; Tebi, Ambroise; Debry, Grard

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric status of 451 hospitalised female patients aged 70 or over, at their admission to hospital, in reference to 77 healthy women of the same age. The most frequent diseases were circulatory diseases (40.8%), mental disorders (29.9%), respiratory diseases (12.4%), endocrine and metabolic diseases (11.5%), osteomuscular diseases (8.4%), and traumatisms (6.9%). The differences were significantly high for mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), weight, weight/height, and body mass index (BMI). The patients with cancers, blood diseases, mental disorders, respiratory disease, digestive diseases, or traumatisms had the lowest values. All the indicators correlated in a similarly negative way with age. The decreased TSF was more pronounced among subjects with respiratory diseases. Measurement of anthropometric indicators, TSF in particular, should be part of preventive measures aimed at reducing malnutrition and its consequences in a hospital setting. PMID:21845147

  17. Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

  18. Recipes and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A

    1983-10-01

    Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

  19. Nutrition and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Chin, w Dat N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional support in critically ill patients with sepsis has received much attention in recent years. However, many of the studies have produced conflicting results. As for all critically ill patients, nutritional support, preferably via the enteral route, should be commenced once initial resuscitation and adequate perfusion pressure is achieved. Where enteral feeding is impossible or not tolerated, parenteral nutrition (either as total or complimentary therapy) may safely be administered. Most positive studies relating to nutritional support and sepsis have been in the setting of sepsis prevention. Thus, the administration of standard nutrition formulas to critically ill patients within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission may decrease the incidence of pneumonia. Both arginine-supplemented enteral diets, given in the perioperative period, and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition have been shown to decrease infections in surgical patients. Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions as well as probiotics given in the perioperative period may also reduce infections in patients undergoing major abdominal operations, such as liver transplantation. There is little support at the present time for the positive effect of specific pharmaconutrients, in particular fish oil, probiotics, or antioxidants, in the setting of established sepsis. More studies are clearly required on larger numbers of more homogeneous groups of patients. PMID:23075593

  20. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  1. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  2. Anthropometrics and examiner-reported body habitus abnormalities in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Palella, Frank J; Cole, Stephen R; Chmiel, Joan S; Riddler, Sharon A; Visscher, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Williams, Carolyn

    2004-03-15

    We undertook anthropometric assessments of 530 HIV-seropositive and 314 HIV-seronegative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at a regular visit that occurred between 1 April and 30 September 1999. We found anthropomorphic differences that were independent of age: the 384 seropositive men receiving HAART had diminished body size and higher frequency and severity of body habitus abnormalities, particularly lipoatrophy, compared with the 314 seronegative men. PMID:14999638

  3. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  4. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  5. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p < 0.01) components, whereas no differences in mesomorphy. Analyzing the interaction between subcategories and playing position factors, a significant effect was found only in the endomorphy component (p = 0.05). The analysis of anthropometric characteristic of Italian young soccer players indicates that players have high muscularity value and low adiposity. This study showed the presence of somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence. PMID:25734780

  6. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  7. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (T(c)) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured T(c) of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 wm(-2) walk for 90 min; data2: 32C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378??32 wm(-2) for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1). PMID:21573821

  8. Effects of a preseason intervention on anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2011-02-01

    A player's physique and body composition can substantially influence performance in a rugby league; however, there is limited evidence about the impact of training on the anthropometric profile of rugby league players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason training program on the anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional players. Fifty-seven semiprofessional rugby league players (29 backs and 28 forwards) completed a range of anthropometric tests including stature, body mass, girths, breadths, lengths, and 9 skinfold sites at the beginning (late October) and end (mid February) of a 14-week preseason. with use of Lifesize software, values were calculated for fat mass, muscle mass, percent body fat, and somatotype. Analysis of change was conducted separately for forwards and backs. Over the preseason, both backs (p < 0.01) and forwards (p < 0.001) reduced fat mass, increased muscle mass (backs [p < 0.001]; forwards [p < 0.001]), and key upper-body girth measurements. Between group analyses indicated that forwards experienced significantly greater reductions in some skinfold sites (triceps [p < 0.05], subscapular [p < 0.05], abdominals [p < 0.05]), fat mass (p < 0.05) and overall percent body fat than backs (p < 0.05). These players were predominantly endomorphic-mesomorphs. A preseason training program that included testing and feedback, education, and a combination of resistance, speed, and cardiorespiratory training and resulted in considerable anthropometric improvements by semiprofessional players. Rugby league conditioning staff at a semiprofessional level should consider the value of a comprehensive structured and periodized preseason training program and aim to educate players about strategies to achieve body composition goals. PMID:20386485

  9. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  10. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators. PMID:25410382

  11. [Nutritional status of students according to sex and age. Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R

    1990-08-01

    A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life. PMID:2152235

  12. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care

    PubMed Central

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-01

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  13. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care.

    PubMed

    Anastcio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-28

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  14. Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players

    PubMed Central

    Katralli, Jayasudha; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired t test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Out of 31 judo players 20 had ?5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance. PMID:22942997

  15. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

  16. Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; J?drzejewski, K S; Podgrski, M; Topol, M

    2011-05-01

    The concept of the study was to find the correlation between the morphometry of the suprascapular notch and basic anthropometric measurements of the human scapula. The measurements of the human scapulae included: morphological length and width, maximal width and length projection of scapular spine, length of acromion, and maximal length of the coracoid process. The glenoid cavity was measured in two perpendicular directions to evaluate its width and length. The width-length scapular and glenoid cavity indexes were calculated for every bone. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements two other measurements were defined and evaluated for every suprascapular notch: maximal depth (MD) and superior transverse diameter (STD). The superior transverse suprascapular ligament was completely ossified in 7% of cases. Ten (11.6%) scapulae had a discrete notch. In the studied material, in 21 (24.4%) scapulae the MD was longer than the STD. Two (2.3%) scapulae had equal maximal depth and superior transverse diameter. In 47 (57.7%) scapulae the superior transverse diameter was longer than the maximal depth. There was no statistically significant difference between anthropometric measurements in the group with higher MD and the group with higher STD. The maximal depth of the suprascapular notch negatively correlated with the scapular width-length index. The maximal depth of the scapular notch correlated with the morphological length of the scapulae. PMID:21630232

  17. Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Alghamdi, Mansour S; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10 inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  18. Environmental factors associated with preschool obesity. III. Dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Hankin, J H; Huenemann, R L

    1978-06-01

    This longitudinal study of children from six months to six years of age showed differences by age, sex, and race in dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements. Except for calories and iron at all ages and calcium between two and four years, most children consumed at least two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary protein was consistently high at all ages. There was no apparent relationship between the use and need for vitamin or mineral supplements. At six years of age, most children ate five meals or snacks per day. Television commercials, children accompanying mothers to grocery stores, and the publicized relationships of dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary disease influenced food practices of families. Anthropometric measurements revealed that boys were consistently taller and heavier than girls. However, at all ages, even at six months, girls had higher skinfold values than boys. These data on dietary intakes, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements will be correlated with obesity indexes at each age in subsequent papers. PMID:670612

  19. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  20. The relationship between anthropometric parameters and bone mineral density in an Iranian referral population.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher; Khashayar, Patricia; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Fakhari, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common health concern in both developed and developing countries. In this study the association between anthropometric measures and osteoporosis was investigated in 3630 males and females visiting BMD clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a teaching hospital and referral center for osteoporosis affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Anthropometric measurements obtained and also Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement was done using a Lunar DPXMD densitometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS with Chi-square and ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Results showed that the weight, BMI and age had the strongest correlation with the BMD values in the studied people. While age is negatively correlated with BMD in all the studied people, a positive association was noted between weight, height and BMI and BMD parameters (P<0.01). It was concluded that certain anthropometric parameters (BMI and weight) can considerably affect one's risk of developing osteoporosis. Further research on the effect of these variables on the association of weight and BMD is needed. PMID:25135258

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  2. Relationship of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    A variety of anthropometric and training characteristics have been identified as predictor variables for race performance in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes. Anthropometric characteristics such as skin-fold thicknesses, body fat, circumferences and length of limbs, body mass, body height, and body mass index were bi-variately related to race performance in endurance athletes such as swimmers in pools and in open water, in road and mountain bike cyclists, and in runners and triathletes over different distances. Additionally, training variables such as volume and speed were also bi-variately associated with race performance. Multi-variate regression analyses including anthropometric and training characteristics reduced the predictor variables mainly to body fat and speed during training units. Further multi-variate regression analyses including additionally the aspects of previous experience such as personal best times showed that mainly previous best time in shorter races were the most important predictors for ultra-endurance race times. Ultra-endurance athletes seemed to prepare differently for their races compared to endurance athletes where ultra-endurance athletes invested more time in training and completed more training kilometers at lower speed compared to endurance athletes. In conclusion, the most important predictor variables for ultra-endurance athletes were a fast personal best time in shorter races, a low body fat and a high speed during training units. PMID:25834701

  3. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858

  4. The relationship between anthropometric indicators and walking distance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Hsu, Min-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Li-Fei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a major issue affecting many people with COPD. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) is a widely used indicator of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. The process is strenuous and time-consuming, especially for patients who have muscle wasting. Anthropometric indicators that reflect body lean mass, such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC), may have value in predicting exercise intolerance. Purpose This study attempted to determine the abilities of simple anthropometric indicators including BMI, MAC, and CC in reflecting the exercise intolerance of COPD patients. Methods We recruited 136 nonhospitalized ambulatory COPD patients without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. Each subject’s BMI, MAC, and CC were measured, and they were examined with pulmonary function tests and a 6-minute walk test. Results Among the three anthropometric indicators examined, CC showed the strongest correlation with the 6MWD, followed by MAC and BMI. CC was also strongly associated with functional capacity, followed by MAC, according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. CC and MAC, but not BMI, were significantly associated with exercise intolerance according to logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders. Conclusion Among the three variables examined, CC and walking distance may have the strongest association in COPD patients. CC may have value in serving as an adjunct to 6MWD in evaluating exercise intolerance of patients with COPD. PMID:26392760

  5. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patients risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individuals current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  6. Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

    2012-04-01

    India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

  7. Utilization of nutrition-focused physical assessment in identifying micronutrient deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Esper, Dema Halasa

    2015-04-01

    Heightened interest in and utilization of parts of the nutrition-focused physical assessment (NFPA) have increased with recent guidelines in defining malnutrition and the call to awareness among healthcare practitioners to recognize, document, and intervene in malnourished patients. Furthermore, an increased prevalence of nutrient deficiencies has been reported in surgical weight loss patients, those with various acute and chronic diseases, and the elderly requiring physical assessment and examination skills to identify these deficiencies. The registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) can use the NFPA to note physical findings to use along with the other domains in the nutrition assessment to determine the nutrition-related diagnosis, while other nutrition professionals can use the NFPA findings to determine a differential diagnosis. This article outlines the NFPA and how to determine physical findings related to micronutrient deficiencies, which can have a profound impact on overall nutrition status. PMID:25829342

  8. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  10. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  11. [Nutritional status of opiate-dependent persons before and during methadone maintenance therapy].

    PubMed

    Szpanowska-Wohn, Agnieszka; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pach, Dorota; Targosz, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status of opiate dependent patients who where classified to participate in the methadone maintenance treatment and to give the answer to the question how the nutritional status of these patients was changing during this programme. We examined 48 persons (12 women aged 21-37 years and 36 men aged 20-46 years). All of them were participants of the methadone maintenance treatment. The patients were examined three times: first time just before the methadone treatment, then after 2 months and third time after 9 months of treatment. The anthropometrics measurement: body weight and height (it allowed us to calculate the BMI), two skin fat folds and the measurements of the body composition (using the bioimpedance method) were performed. The changes between the results of subsequent examination were tested using the t-Student test. As a result of the first examination we showed out that the majority of patients had a proper nutritional status evaluated by BMI. Poor nutritional status has been more often found than excessive nutritional status among examined patients, especially in the group of women. During the nine months of methadone maintenance treatment the statistically significant growth of body weight was observed and it derived from the increasing fat body mass and muscle mass. As a result of that we noticed the diminishing number of underweight people. More of examined people had overweight and in the group of men even obesity. PMID:15521597

  12. [Investigation of actual nutrition and some factors of physical status in rugby players].

    PubMed

    Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities. PMID:24340935

  13. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  14. [Nutritional status of adults with cystic fibrosis - current methods of assessment].

    PubMed

    Szabla, Anna; Skorupa, Wojciech; Milewska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequent monogenic disease in the Caucasian population, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This is a multiple organ disease and its main manifestations include pulmonary and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The exocrine pancreatic deficiency results in impaired digestion and absorption what may lead to malnutrition and vitamins and minerals deficiencies. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients has been increasing over the past years, so there is a need to verify usefulness of existing or create new methods of nutritional status assessment. The aim of this paper was presentation current data on the methods of assessment and monitoring of nutritional status. Particular attention has been paid to appropriate nutritional support in prevention and treatment of malnutrition patients with cystic fibrosis. On the basis of recent literature we can conclude that the advanced nutritional status assessment is recommended in patient with CF by using anthropometrical methods, body composition analysis and biochemical data. Good nutritional status is connected with pulmonary functions, quality and life length. PMID:26637102

  15. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051

  16. Pre-diagnostic anthropometry and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis in Western European populations.

    PubMed

    Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Dalton, Susanne O; Gunter, Marc J; Wark, Petra A; Norat, Teresa; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjnneland, Anne; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Bastide, Nadia; Khn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michalis; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Gonzlez, Carlos A; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Quiros, J Ramon; Manjer, Jonas; Jirstrm, Karin; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2014-10-15

    General and abdominal adiposity are associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of these exposures on cancer survival has been less studied. The association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric characteristics and CRC-specific and all-cause death was examined among 3,924 men and women diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2009 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over a mean follow-up period of 49 months, 1,309 deaths occurred of which 1,043 (79.7%) were due to CRC. In multivariable analysis, pre-diagnostic BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52) and all-cause (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.56) death relative to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19) and all-cause death (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.20); and every 10 cm increase in waist circumference was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16) and all-cause death (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18). Similar associations were observed for waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Height was not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause death. Associations tended to be stronger among men than in women. Possible interactions by age at diagnosis, cancer stage, tumour location, and hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women were noted. Pre-diagnostic general and abdominal adiposity are associated with lower survival after CRC diagnosis. PMID:24623514

  17. A pre-post pilot study of peer nutritional counseling and food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among antiretroviral therapy patients in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Felician, Melissa; Han, Bing; Palar, Kartika; Ramírez, Blanca; Farías, Hugo; Martínez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and poor nutrition are key barriers to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Culturally-appropriate and sustainable interventions that provide nutrition counseling for people on ART and of diverse nutritional statuses are needed, particularly given rising rates of overweight and obesity among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods As part of scale-up of a nutritional counseling intervention, we recruited and trained 17 peer counselors from 14 government-run HIV clinics in Honduras to deliver nutritional counseling to ART patients using a highly interactive curriculum that was developed after extensive formative research on locally available foods and dietary patterns among PLHIV. All participants received the intervention; at baseline and 2 month follow-up, assessments included: 1) interviewer-administered, in-person surveys to collect data on household food insecurity (15-item scale), nutritional knowledge (13-item scale), dietary intake and diversity (number of meals and type and number of food groups consumed in past 24 hours); and 2) anthropometric measures (body mass index or BMI, mid-upper arm and waist circumferences). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to examine changes pre-post in food insecurity and the various nutritional outcomes while controlling for baseline characteristics and clinic-level clustering. Results Of 482 participants at baseline, we had complete follow-up data on 356 (74%), of which 62% were women, median age was 39, 34% reported having paid work, 52% had completed primary school, and 34% were overweight or obese. In multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, age, household size, work status, and education, we found that between baseline and follow-up, household food insecurity decreased significantly among all participants (β=−0.47, p<.05) and among those with children under 18 (β=−1.16, p<.01), while nutritional knowledge and dietary intake and diversity also significantly improved, (β=0.88, p<.001; β=0.30, p<.001; and β=0.15, p<.001, respectively). Nutritional status (BMI, mid-arm and waist circumferences) showed no significant changes, but the brief follow-up period may not have been sufficient to detect changes. Conclusions A peer-delivered nutritional counseling intervention for PLHIV was associated with improvements in dietary quality and reduced food insecurity among a population of diverse nutritional statuses. Future research should examine if such an intervention can improve adherence among people on ART. PMID:26702362

  18. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 6.81 years and 26.89 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ?8.9g/dL and ?26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /?L per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  19. International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R; Alt, Kurt W; Bagic, Ivana; Baltadjiev, Georgi; Cunha, Eugenia; Cvicelov, Marta; Davies, Scott; Erasmus, Ilse; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Hajnis, Karel; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, Arianne; Khomyakova, Irena; Kumi, Ashizava; Kgamphe, J Stranger; Kayo-daigo, Nakamura; Le, Thuy; Malinowski, Andrzej; Negasheva, Marina; Manolis, Sotiris; Ogetrk, Murat; Parvizrad, Ramin; Rsing, Friedrich; Sahu, Paresh; Sforza, Chiarella; Sivkov, Stefan; Sultanova, Nigar; Tomazo-Ravnik, Tatjana; Tth, Gbor; Uzun, Ahmet; Yahia, Eman

    2005-07-01

    When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Drer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions exhibited the greatest variations in identical and contrasting measurements in comparison to NAW. Nose heights and widths contrasted sharply: in relation to NAW the nose was very or extremely significantly wide in both sexes of Asian and Black ethnic groups. Among Caucasians, nose height significantly differed from NAW in three ethnic groups, with one shorter and two greater. In the Middle Eastern groups nose width was identical to those of NAW but the height was significantly greater. The present study, conducted by investigators working separately across the world and with small samples of the population, is clearly preliminary in nature and extent. Yet it may fulfill its mission if medical and anthropological investigators continue the work of establishing normative data of the face. These data are urgently needed by medical professionals but have been lacking up till now in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa. PMID:16077306

  20. The role of anthropometric characteristics in modern pentathlon performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Claessens, A L; Hlatky, S; Lefevre, J; Holdhaus, H

    1994-08-01

    In order to determine the role of body build characteristics in modern pentathletes, 65 female participants at the IXth World Modern Pentathlon Championships, 1989 (Wiener Neustadt, Austria) were investigated. Of these, 54 participate in the competition; the other 11 were reserves. Their mean (+/- S.D.) age was 22.34 +/- 3.97 years (range 16.08-32.58 years). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds), somatotype and body composition estimates were determined. Compared with other female athletes (e.g. swimmers, runners, fencers), the elite modern pentathletes were rather tall (x = 168.1 cm) and, as indicated by the body mass index (x = 21.6), they had a high mass relative to their stature. Based on skinfolds, body fat was estimated as 16%, and anthropometrically determined somatotype was on average 2.5-3.9-2.8. The relationship between the athletes' anthropometric characteristics and modern pentathlon performance was investigated by means of Pearson zero-order correlations between the physical traits and the competitive performance scores. Significant correlations were found mainly for the 'fat' variables, such as skinfolds, percent fat and the endomorphy component, r varying from -0.34 to -0.58, which indicated an inverse relationship between the amount of fatness and modern pentathlon performance. To investigate this relationship further, Pearson zero-order correlations were calculated between the respective factors scores, derived from a rotated factor pattern (Varimax) carried out on selected somatic variables, and the performance scores. The results demonstrated that, in relation to anthropometric characteristics, modern pentathlon performance in females is mainly associated with the 'fat development' factor, and to a lesser degree with the 'bone-muscle development' factor. Variables representing linearity of physique seem to be unrelated to modern pentathlon performance. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 42.4% of the variance in modern pentathlon performance can be explained by the following anthropometric variables: sum of 10 skinfolds, biacromial breadth and humerus diameter. To obtain a high level of modern pentathlon performance, it would seem that a female athlete must above all have a low level of body fatness and, to a lesser degree, a relatively high level of lean body mass. PMID:7932950

  1. Incidence of nutritional support complications in patient hospitalized in wards. multicentric study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Aguilar, Nora Luz; Restrepo, Beatriz Elena; Vanegas, Marcela; Alzate, Sandra; Martnez, Mnica; Gamboa, Sonia Patricia; Castao, Eliana; Barbosa, Janeth; Romn, Juliana; Serna, ngela Mara; Hoyos, Gloria Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p= 0.363). For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%), followed by diarrhea (8.3%); an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05). For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest incidence (22.9%), followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%); all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05). Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an association with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits. PMID:24893056

  2. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Cohn, S H; Vartsky, D; Vaswani, A N; Sawitsky, A; Rai, K; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Ellis, K J

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation. Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Almost all patients gained weight on the combined nutritional support regimens. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. The findings from the anthropometric nutrition indices (arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold) were consistent with the results of the body composition study. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libidum diets. The body compartment techniques described have demonstrated their usefulness in determining the effects of hyperalimentation on cancer patients. PMID:6819545

  3. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair José

    2012-01-01

    Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world’s population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management. PMID:22826639

  4. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  5. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  6. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  7. Nutritional concerns in the alcoholic.

    PubMed

    Roe, D A

    1981-01-01

    In summary, nutritional concern of alcoholics as viewed by the patient differ from the concern of his/her nutrition and health advisers. Between alcoholics, nutritional concerns differ with age, sex, and life style. Caloric excess, obesity, nutrient overload, and a whole spectrum of nutritional deficiencies are found in alcoholics. Causes of malnutrition are complex. Malnutrition is commonly associated with prior alcoholic damage to tissues. Vulnerability for specific syndromes of nutritional deficiency is dependent on genetic predisposition. Optimal response to nutritional rehabilitation requires abstinence, as no nutrient or combination of nutrients will protect tissues from alcoholic damage. However, moderate intake of alcoholic beverages may offer some protection against coronary heart disease. PMID:7217555

  8. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management. PMID:26857771

  9. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies. PMID:3146037

  10. The nutritional assessment of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Magnano, Mauro; Mola, Patrizia; Machetta, Giacomo; Maffeis, Paola; Forestiero, Ilenia; Cavagna, Roberta; Artino, Elena; Boffano, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Patients affected by head and neck cancer are particularly at risk for nutritional depletion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients affected by head and neck cancer at diagnosis. All adult patients with head and neck cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. The following data were recorded: demographics, tobacco and/or alcohol consumption, weight, height, the reference weight 6months before the diagnosis, tumor site, tumor stage, and laboratory data. Then, Body mass index (BMI), and Buzby nutrition risk index (NRI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was used to search for associations among multiple variables. 122 men and 22 women were enrolled. As for reference BMI, 77 patients were overweight, whereas just 7 subjects were underweight. At diagnosis, 72 subjects were overweight according to BMI, whereas 52 patients were underweight. Instead, according to NRI, 96 patients were severely malnourished, 42 patients were moderately malnourished, whereas just 6 patients had a normal value of NRI. The assessment of nutrition by BMI excluded from a thorough consideration all overweight and obese patients with head and neck cancer. Instead, NRI correctly identified both undernourished and overweight/obese patients as "malnourished" subjects. PMID:25534287

  11. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  12. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I. M.; Logan, R. W.; Pollock, J. C.; Jamieson, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Six anthropometric, 24 biochemical, and five haematological markers of nutritional wellbeing were measured in children with congenital heart disease. SETTING--The west of Scotland. PATIENTS--48 children admitted consecutively for surgical correction of congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses were considered abnormal if they were below the third centile compared with standard reference data for age matched British children. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were considered abnormal if they fell below the fifth centile compared with standard data. Biochemical and haematological data were compared with age matched and locally validated laboratory normals. RESULTS--A marked degree of undernutrition was evident in all children; 52% had weight less than the third centile, 37% were below the third centile for height, and 12.5% were below the third centile for triceps skin fold thickness and 18.8% for subscapular skin fold thickness. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were below the fifth centile in 20.1% and 16.7% of children respectively. Five or more of the 29 biochemical and haematological measurements were abnormal in 83.3% of patients; 10 or more were abnormal in 12.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS--Children with congenital heart disease are frequently undernourished, irrespective of the nature of cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis. PMID:7727190

  13. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

  14. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  15. [Bone disorder and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tanaka, Sarasa

    2016-01-01

    The nutrition is important for prevention and improvement in bone disorder. Especially osteoporosis associated with nutrition. It has entered the super-aged society in 2007, a further increase in osteoporosis patients are concerned in Japan. Many studies have shown that associated with calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K intake and bone density and fracture. Relationship of osteoporosis and nutrition, despite the general awareness is high, calcium intake is not at all reached the achievement to recommend dietary allowance. In addition, vitamin D deficiency rickets in children, which has been considered in the past of the disorder, there is an increasing trend from such exposure shortage to the infancy of sunlight, vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women, the recommended breastfeeding. Improvement of lifestyle and diet from young age is important for bone disorder prevention. PMID:26923974

  16. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 23years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5years and more than 50-60% after 10years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  17. Evaluation of the impact of a food program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinean lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Varea, Ana; Malpeli, Agustina; Disalvo, Liliana; Apeztegua, Mara; Falivene, Mariana; Ferrari, Guillermina; Pereyras, Silvia; Carmuega, Estban; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, Mara; Gonzlez, Horacio F

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a food aid program (Plan Ms Vida, PMV) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of lactating mothers 1year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diets (wheat- and maize-fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup) to low-income families from the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A prospective, non-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the micronutrient nutritional status of lactating mothers (n?=?178 at baseline and n?=?151 after 1year). Biochemical tests (hemoglobin, ferritin, zinc, vitamin A, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height) and dietary surveys (24-h recall) were performed. We found no significant changes in anthropometric values 1year after the intervention. The risk for vitamin A (retinol 20-30?g/dl) and folate deficiency significantly decreased 1year after PMV implementation (56.3 vs. 29.9 and 50.3 vs. 3.4%, respectively; p?nutritional data obtained after assessing the early impact of PMV actions may be useful to provincial health authorities to perform periodic evaluations in the future. PMID:23111948

  18. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

  19. Pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Millar, D R; Jarvis, G J

    1980-04-19

    Urine pregnancy diagnostic tests are now widely available to doctors and patients and give accurate results in minutes. These tests have received such wide publicity that even physicians appear to accept them as the norm without doing vaginal examinations. To assess the apparent trend, 100 consecutive patient bookings at Jessop Hospital for Women antenatal clinics were queried about whether they had a urine pregnancy test, and whether their physicians had given them vaginal examinations. Results, in tabular form, show that 37% of the women had an independent diagnostic test, the Predictor costing 4 1/2 pounds, with other tests costing between 2 - 3 1/2 pounds. Only 14% of the women arriving at the hospital clinic had not had a urine test and 75% had not had a vaginal. Certainly there are reasons why biochemical testing is preferable to clinical diagnosis, but one might question why 86% of pregnant women have an expensive urine pregnancy test. Hospitals rarely use these tests in normal pregnancies; usually their use is reserved for cases of missed abortion or pseudocyesis. Even here, however, ultrasound is usually more helpful. However, where gestational age is in doubt, urine testing does imply that the mother was at least 6 weeks pregnant at the time of testing. The sentiment, however, is that such testing for early pregnancy is an extravagance that the N.H.S. cannot afford. PMID:6103226

  20. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)