Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591
MARGARETA BACHRACH-LINDSTRÖM; MITRA UNOSSON; ANNA-CHRISTINA EK; HANS J ARNQVIST
Background & Aims: The aim of this study of women with hip fracture was to describe nutritional status with biochemical markers and anthropometric variables, and to evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention with the intention of increasing protein and energy intake.Methods: The first consecutive 44 women were included, and used as controls. The next 44 were matched for age, fracture
Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Kooshesh, Seyed-Mohammad-Ali; Sarikhani, Yaser; Peimani, Payam; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri
Objective Malnutrition and depression are highly prevalent in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. The aims of the current study were to determine the association between malnutrition and depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in free living elderly. Method In this cross-sectional study, 337 elderly subjects (193 females) were selected using cluster sampling. Depressive symptoms and nutritional status were determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores questionnaires, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured all in standard situations. Chi squared test and t-test were used when necessary. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for linear relations between variables. Results Of all the total subjects, 43.62% were depressed; and of whom, 48.01% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. GDS had a significant negative dependence with the MNA for the entire sample (r=-0.58, p <0.0001). However, there was no significant correlation between age and GDS or MNA scores. Moreover, the mean GDS scores differed significantly between men and women (p <0.05), and women were more depressed than men (27.9% vs. 15%, respectively). The elderly subjects living in urban areas were more depressed than those living in rural areas (39.46% vs. 3.85% respectively). Conclusion The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of depression and malnutrition among old subjects. Moreover, depression was associated with worsening of nutritional status. The mechanism of this association needs further study. PMID:24130608
J Goulet; A Lapointe; B Lamarche; S Lemieux
Objective:To evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women.Design:Nutritional intervention study.Setting:Laval University, Canada.Subjects:Seventy-seven healthy women started the study and four did not complete the study.Methods:A 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses on nutrition and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed
Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro
Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was ?2.82% in the hematologic group and ?2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652
Luis A Moreno; María Joyanes; María Isabel Mesana; Marcela González-Gross; Carlos M Gil; Antonio Sarría; Angel Gutierrez; Marta Garaulet; Raúl Perez-Prieto; Manuel Bueno; Ascensión Marcos
ObjectiveAlthough the need for accurate anthropometric measurement has been repeatedly stressed, reports on growth and physical measurements in human populations rarely include estimates of measurement error. We describe the standardization process and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out in a pilot study.
Tai-Fai Fok; Kam-Lun Hon; Pak-Cheung Ng; Eric Wong; Hung-Kwan So; Joseph Lau; Chun-Bong Chow; Wai-Hong Lee
Background: Measures of body size at birth are widely used for the evaluation of prenatal growth but limitations exist in their interpretation. Objective: To establish the percentile curves for the six common anthropometric indices (PI: ponderal index, BMI: body mass index, THR: thigh circumference\\/head circumference ratio, MAC\\/OFC: mid-arm circumference\\/head circumference, W\\/OFC: weight\\/head circumference, and W\\/L: weight\\/length) and determine the best
Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.
Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.
Simões, Bárbara dos Santos; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Pena, João Luiz; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de
The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33) were male and 43.1% (n =25) were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body fat in relation to BMI and WC. Studies need to be conducted with different ethnic groups in order to construct indicators for specific nutritional guidance of indigenous health services. PMID:23358766
Egle Perissinotto; Claudia Pisent; Giuseppe Sergi; Francesco Grigoletto; Giuliano Enzi
In clinical practice and epidemiological surveys, anthropometric measurements represent an important component of nutritional assessment in the elderly. The anthropometric standards derived from adult populations may not be appropriate for the elderly because of body composition changes occurring during ageing. Specific anthropometric reference data for the elderly are necessary. In the present study we investigated anthropometric characteristics and their relationship
Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144
Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf
Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110
Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho
Among several methods of diagnosis for nutritional status, two are more important: the Sufficiency range approach (SRA) and the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS). This research compared DRIS with SRA, the diagnostic method currently used by the citrus industry in São Paulo State, Brazil. The study was conducted in irrigated, commercial groves of “Valencia” sweet orange more than six
Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu
The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.
ALBULESCU, DANA; ILIESCU, ADRIANA
Body fat is an important determinant of nutritional status and health. This paper aims to demonstrate the existence of significant correlations between areas, or volumes of fat and anthropometric variables. PMID:25729592
Albulescu, Dana; Iliescu, Adriana
Body fat is an important determinant of nutritional status and health. This paper aims to demonstrate the existence of significant correlations between areas, or volumes of fat and anthropometric variables. PMID:25729592
Tan, Chang-Wei; Zhou, Qing-Bo; Qi, La; Zhuang, Heng-Yang
The correlations of rice plant nitrogen content with raw hyperspectral reflectance, first derivative hyperspectral reflectance, and hyperspectral characteristic parameters were analyzed, and the hyperspectral remote sensing diagnosis models of rice plant nitrogen nutritional status with these remote sensing parameters as independent variables were constructed and validated. The results indicated that the nitrogen content in rice plant organs had a variation trend of stem < sheath < spike < leaf. The spectral reflectance at visible light bands was leaf < spike < sheath < stem, but that at near-infrared bands was in adverse. The linear and exponential models with the raw hyperspectral reflectance at 796.7 nm and the first derivative hyperspectral reflectance at 738.4 nm as independent variables could better diagnose rice plant nitrogen nutritional status, with the decisive coefficients (R2) being 0.7996 and 0.8606, respectively; while the model with vegetation index (SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb) as independent variable, i. e., y = 365.871 + 639.323 ((SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb)), was most fit rice plant nitrogen content, with R2 = 0.8755, RMSE = 0.2372 and relative error = 11.36%, being able to quantitatively diagnose the nitrogen nutritional status of rice. PMID:18808018
Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna
The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient's life. PMID:24964516
Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled
Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...
Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen
Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional treatment, the patient should be followed up. No single marker can be used to monitor progress; interpretations will once again require examination of the patient's medical history, the taking of anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Depending on whether a patient is ambulatory or hospitalised, the follow-up assessment times and variables measured will differ. PMID:25719787
Farrell, Anthony P.
methods: defined by the acronym `ABCD' where A= Anthropometric; B=Biochemical; C= Clinical; D= Dietary and draw conclusions regarding nutritional status. 5. Conduct anthropometric measures such as height
Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…
A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran
Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm
Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier
In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide. PMID:25719783
Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho; Patrícia Soares Furno Fontes; Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas; Pedro Henrique Monnerat; Alexandre Gomes Fontes
This work was performed in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the objective to evaluate the nutritional status of yellow passion fruit plants along different phenological stages, using the DRIS method. Fifty-four passion fruit cultivated areas with an annual yield productivity ranging from 6.95 to 33.8 t ha year and average productivity of 16.9 t ha year were selected
Slade, Alexander N; Kim, Hyun
Dietary modification has been shown to substantially reduce blood pressure among people with hypertension. This article uses data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cross-sections of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the extent to which a hypertension diagnosis can influence individuals' dietary choices. Several models were estimated to clarify the association of a hypertension diagnosis with dietary factors related to hypertension management. A comparison group of individuals at risk for developing hypertension was used. Results suggest that individuals who received a recent diagnosis of hypertension are more likely to have lower intakes of some dietary factors important in blood pressure management, including sodium. The results also highlight a discrepancy between added salt use and dietary sodium intake. While more recent hypertensive patients tended to consume lower levels of dietary sodium, patients diagnosed longer ago tended to use less added salt. Given that those diagnosed were more likely to have lower blood pressure profiles and improved diets, especially close to the time of diagnosis, the results of this study underscore the need for a prompt and accurate diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:24512360
Shalini Gupta; Mia K. Markey; Alan C. Bovik
We present a novel anthropometric three dimensional (Anthroface 3D) face recognition algorithm, which is based on a systematically\\u000a selected set of discriminatory structural characteristics of the human face derived from the existing scientific literature\\u000a on facial anthropometry. We propose a novel technique for automatically detecting 10 anthropometric facial fiducial points\\u000a that are associated with these discriminatory anthropometric features. We isolate
The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Features of Electromyography Signal for Human anthropometric variables to calibrate EMG recognition system automatically/semi-automatically is proposed EMG signals and twelve related anthropometric variables. The strong and significant associations
E Valletta; M Fornaro; M Cipolli; S Conte; F Bissolo; C Danchielli
More than 20 years of serological approach to diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) has deeply changed the classical clinical presentation of the disease, and some reports indicate that CD and obesity can coexist in both childhood and adolescence. We reviewed clinical records of 149 children with CD followed in our institution between 1991 and 2007, considering weight, height and body
The Nutritional Status of American Children: An Overview The National Nutrition Surveys Clinical Findings Anthropometric Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biochemical Findings Dietary Intakes Independent Nutrition Studies . Statement..., age, income, and place-of-residence), clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary assessments were conducted in the national surveys. It has been observed that varying standards used to establish "low" or "deficient" ratings for biochemical...
Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek
When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion and maintenance. These too depend on appropriate choice of device, skilled implantation and correct positioning of the catheter, adequate stabilization of the device (preferably avoiding stitches), and the use of infusion pumps, as well as adequate policies for flushing and locking lines which are not in use. PMID:19464090
Campbell, Rosalind F; Augustine, Titus; Hurst, Helen; Pararajasingam, Ravi; van Dellen, David; Armstrong, Sheilagh; Bartley, Carol; Birtles, Linda; Summers, Angela
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis in which gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms reduce appetite and dietary intake. Adequate nutrition is important, especially if surgery is required. Although the incidence of EPS is low, the present report is able to detail preoperative nutrition status and treatment in a large cohort of patients from a national EPS referral center. ? METHODS: Of 51 patients admitted to this EPS specialist center hospital for their first peritonectomy in the study period, 50 had a preoperative dietetic assessment, and 49 underwent upper-arm anthropometry. ? RESULTS: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 20.6 kg/m(2). Mean weight loss was 14% of body weight in the preceding 6 months, with 35 of 50 patients losing more than 10%. On anthropometry, 25 of 49 patients were below the 5th percentile for mid-arm circumference (MAC), 17 of 49 were below for triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and 21 of 49 were below for mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Mean handgrip strength (HGS) was 60% of normal, with 43 of 49 patients being below 85% of normal. Appetite was poor in 21 of 50 patients, and 37 of 50 had upper and 40 of 50 had lower GI symptoms. By subjective global assessment, 27 of 51 patients were graded as severely malnourished, and 5 of 51, as well-nourished. Mean serum albumin was 28 g/L and did not correlate with BMI, MAC, TSF, MAMC, or HGS. In most patients, C-reactive protein was elevated (mean: 111 mg/L). Preoperative parenteral nutrition was given to 46 of 51 patients for a mean of 21 days. ? Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the poor nutrition status of patients admitted for EPS surgical intervention. Anthropometrics reveal depleted fat and lean body mass in EPS patients, which might be a result of anorexia and inflammation, and the reason that albumin was not an accurate marker of nutrition. Poor nutrition status is likely to negatively affect outcome in this patient group. ? CONCLUSIONS: Early recognition of GI symptoms may herald a diagnosis of EPS. Optimization of preoperative nutrition status with intensive nutrition support is needed. PMID:24584612
Delhaye, Myriam; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Cesmeli, Ercan; Pelckmans, Paul; Putzeys, Virginie; Roeyen, Geert; Berrevoet, Frederik; Scheers, Isabelle; Ausloos, Floriane; Gast, Pierrette; Ysebaert, Dirk; Plat, Laurence; van der Wijst, Edwin; Hans, Guy; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Deprez, Pierre H
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in a progressive and irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. Clinicians should attempt to classify patients into one of the six etiologic groups according to the TIGARO classification system. MRI/MRCP, if possible with secretin enhancement, is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of early-stage disease.In CP, pain is the most disabling symptom, with a significant impact on quality of life. Pain should be assessed using the Izbicki score and preferably treated using the "pain ladder" approach. In painful CP, endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered as early as possible. This procedure can be combined with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the presence of large (> 4 mm), obstructive stone(s) in the pancreatic head, and with ductal stenting in the presence of a single main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with a markedly dilated MPD. Pancreatic stenting should be pursued for at least 12 months in patients with persistent pain relief. On-demand stent exchange should be the preferred strategy. The simultaneous placement of multiple, side-by-side, pancreatic stents can be recommended in patients with MPD strictures persisting after 12 months of single plastic stenting. We recommend surgery in the following cases: a) technical failure of ET ; b) early (6 to 8 weeks) clinical failure ; c) definitive biliary drainage at a later time point; d) pancreatic ductal drainage when repetitive ET is considered unsuitable for young patients; e) resection of an inflammatory pancreatic head when pancreatic cancer cannot be ruled out; f) duodenal obstruction. Duodenopancreatectomy or oncological distal pancreatectomy should be considered for patients with suspected malignancy. Pediatricians should be aware of and systematically search for CP in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain. As malnutrition is highly prevalent in CP patients, patients at nutritional risk should be identified in order to allow for dietary counseling and nutritional intervention using oral supplements. Patients should follow a healthy balanced diet taken in small meals and snacks, with normal fat content. Enzyme replacement therapy is beneficial to symptomatic patients, but also in cases of subclinical insufficiency. Regular follow-up should be considered in CP patients, primarily to detect subclinical maldigestion and the development of pancreatogenic diabetes. Screening for pancreatic cancer is not recommended in CP patients, except in those with the hereditary form. PMID:24761691
Zhao, Ruijiao; Li, Minzan; Li, Shuqiang; Ding, Yongjun
In order to rapidly and accurately acquire winter wheat growing information and nitrogen content, a non-destructive testing method was developed combined with multi-spectral imaging technique and remote sensing technology to research wheat growing and nutrition status. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image collecting platform was developed to acquire visible image and NIR image synchronously, meanwhile, the canopy spectral reflectance and the nitrogen content of wheat leaves were measured and analyzed to research the characteristics of the canopy spectral reflectance. Secondly, using calibration panels the experiential linear calibration model was established between image gray value and spectral reflectance. Thirdly, NIR image was processed to segment wheat canopy from soil and then gray value of wheat leaves was achieved by image processing of Red, Green, and Blue channels. Finally, the gray value of wheat leaves was transformed into spectral reflectance by aforementioned experiential linear model, and the vegetation index were calculated and analyzed to research the winter wheat growing and nitrogen content status. Experiment results showed that it was reasonable to diagnose nitrogen content of winter wheat based on multi-spectral imaging system and experiential linear model. There existed remarkable correlation between vegetation index (NDVI, GNDVI) and nitrogen content of winter wheat, and the correlation coefficients (R2 ) were 0.633 and 0.6.
Lagerstedt, S A; Hinrichs, D R; Batt, S M; Magera, M J; Rinaldo, P; McConnell, J P
We have developed a capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the quantitative determination of C8-C26 total fatty acids in plasma. Following hydrolysis, hexane extraction, and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide, fatty acid esters are analyzed in two steps: a splitless injection and a second, split injection (1:100) for the quantitation of the more abundant long-chain species. Fourteen saturated and 25 unsaturated fatty acids are quantified by selected ion monitoring in ratio to 13 stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. Calibrations exhibit consistent linearity and reproducibility. Intraassay (n = 17) and interassay (n = 12) CVs ranged from 2.5 to 13.2% and from 4.6 to 22.9%, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 76 to 106%. Reference ranges were established for four age groups (<1 month, 1 month to 1 year, 1-17 years, >18 years) and compared to specimens from patients with nutritional deficiency of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and peroxisomal disorders. Retrospective evaluation of the concentration of linoleic acid in 35 cases with a diagnosis of essential fatty acid deficiency previously made by gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) found a specificity and sensitivity of only 55 and 50%, respectively, for the GC/FID method when compared to GC/MS. PMID:11350181
Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...
Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.
In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.
Chen, Yan; Yao, Wan-zhen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases worldwide. Nutritional depletion is a common problem in COPD patients and also an independant predictor of survival in these patients. Many data are helpful for determining nutritional depletion, including anthropometric measurement, laboratory markers, body composition analysis (fat-free mass and lean mass), and body weight. The mechanism of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD is still uncertain. It may be associated with energy/metabolism imbalance, tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammation, and leptin/orexin disorders. In patients with nutritional depletion, growth hormone and testosterone can be used for nutritional therapy in addition to nutrition supplementation. PMID:15562780
Zehner, Gregory F.
Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.
STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence information, along with all anthropometric parameters, is intro- duced in the multiple linear regression
I. E. Savel’eva; A. N. Novosel’skii; I. A. Senitskii; S. N. Bushkov
Motor and posture disorders are the main morpho? functional defects in patients with cerebral insult. Correct diagnosis and recovery of patients suffering from cerebral vascular catastrophe directly depend on adequate evalua? tion of the patient’s degree of motor dysfunction [9?11]. Earlier, the degree of vascular catastrophe and efficacy of recovery in patients with cerebral insult was assessed using anthropometric examination
Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A
The incidence of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is on the rise; therefore, well-timed screening is important. Given that this is a nutritionally vulnerable population, it is imperative to conduct a detailed nutritional assessment so that timely and intensive interventions can be recommended. This review article summarizes the research, focusing on the nutritional status of individuals with ASDs based on their anthropometric measurements, biomarkers, and dietary assessments. Research examining anthropometric measurements reveals an abnormally accelerated rate of growth among children with autism but shows inconsistent findings on the prevalence of overweight/obesity in comparison with typically growing children. Although dysregulated amino acid metabolism, increased homocysteine, and decreased folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as possible biomarkers for an early diagnosis of ASDs, research investigating their association with age, gender, severity, and other comorbid psychiatric/nonpsychiatric disorders is lacking. There is consensus that children with autism have selective eating patterns, food neophobia, limited food repertoire, and sensory issues. Although inadequate micronutrient but adequate macronutrient intakes are increasingly reported, there are inconsistent results about the extent and type of nutrient deficiencies. Identification and development of nutritional assessment indicators that serve as early warning signs during routine practice beginning at birth and extending throughout the child's growth are necessary. With this population aging, there is also a dire need to study the adult population. A more vigorous role by nutrition professionals is warranted because management of potential comorbidities and contributory factors may be particularly problematic. PMID:26178024
Justice, Anne E; Rubicz, Rohina C; Chittoor, Greetha; Jantz, Richard; Crawford, Michael H
Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979...
High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar. PMID:16923242
Reitmeyer, Peter B.
A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. REII'MEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. ~YER Approved as to style and content by: Newton C. Ellis (Chair of Committee) Dick B. Simmons (Member) Waym . Johnston ( ember) G...
Kim, Seong Eun
Nutritional screening and assessment in patients with malnutrition is the critical first step for nutritional care. Although nutritional assessment is a rigorous process that includes obtaining diet and medical history, current clinical status, physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratory data, and often functional and economic information, it is a very effective and worthy practice in terms of reducing various complications, morbidity, mortality and total medical costs. Systematic approaches with appropriate tools for nutritional screening and assessment are needed based on the clinical situations in each institute. PMID:26087687
Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C
The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804
In this article I examine the operational implications of the findings reported in 'Entitlements, Coping Mechanisms and Indicators of Access to Food: Wollo Region, Ethiopia, 1987-88' (Kelly, 1992). The usefulness of anthropometric and other indicators for early warning and relief planning in Wollo is assessed by comparing the findings of Save the Children Fund's nutritional surveillance programme with those of the Early Warning and Planning Service of the Ethiopian government's Relief and Rehabilitation Commission. Case studies are used to illustrate the value of anthropometric and other indicators for targeting relief food and monitoring its effects. The costs of monitoring various indicators are then considered, and the cost of the Save the Children Fund programme is compared with that of other programmes. It is argued that in Wollo, anthropometric surveillance is a cost-effective means of improving early warning, planning, targeting and monitoring. PMID:20958757
Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics from Kinect Videos Brent,quc,firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. For person identification, motion and anthropometric bio- metrics are known to be less sensitive method that uses motion and anthropometric biometrics acquired from an inexpensive Kinect RGBD sensor
Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception. B. Tehard1 , M Objective: To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements in 1990. Subjects: 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91
Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone
We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints
T. Reilly; J. Bangsbo; A. Franks
This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer playershave to adapt to the physical demandsof the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess
M. Tayyar Kalcioglu; M. Cem Miman; Yuksel Toplu; Cengiz Yakinci; Orhan Ozturan
Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal the anthropometric growth of auricula from birth to the age of 18 years and to bring out the dynamics of ear growth. Material and methods: A total of 1552 children in 50 groups were evaluated. Six surface measurements were performed directly on the right auricle of the subjects: the length from
Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.
The orolabial region frequently undergoes significant changes following trauma, orthognathic surgery or orthodontics. Ethnicity, age and gender specific normative data are needed during the planning phase before surgical interventions in this region. In 2008 the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery published anthropometric lip measurements of Chinese children; however such reference data for Chinese young adults are currently unavailable. Therefore this cross-sectional study using 3-D facial photographs acquired from 103 healthy Chinese young adults with Class I skeletal pattern was conducted to deliver normative data for this age group. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these 3-D images and linear, angular measurements as well as proportions were calculated. It was found that all orolabial measurements were significantly higher in males other than the labiomental angle. No gender differences were found in the anthropometric proportions. This study established the orolabial anthropometric normative data for Chinese young adults. These norms can be used to objectively evaluate the morphology of the lips during diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of treatment outcomes. PMID:24094549
Damien C. Croteau-Chonka; Amanda F. Marvelle; Ethan M. Lange; Nanette R. Lee; Linda S. Adair; Leslie A. Lange; Karen L. Mohlke
Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first
Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A
This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players. PMID:11043893
Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.
An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.
Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko
Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167
Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862
Eric Benefice; Selma J. Luna Monrroy; Ronald W. Lopez Rodriguez
To study associations between nutritional status and mercury exposure among communities of the Beni River. Cross-sectional survey of mothers and their children from 15 riverside Amerindian communities in the Beni River valley (Amazonian Bolivia). Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. A total of 556 people were measured. Anthropometric indices of nutrition were calculated after measurements
National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…
Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Subash, Selvaraju; Mahmood, Lubna; Kumar, Parvathy R
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been considered as a serious public health problem. Each year, traumatic brain injuries are contributing to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability and deaths and it can be classified according to the severity into penetrating and closed head injury. Symptoms, beside to be unconscious can be defined as vomiting, nausea, headache, dizziness, lack of motor coordination, difficulty in balancing, blurred vision and lightheadedness, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, fatigue and lethargy as well as changes in sleep patterns. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients mostly have a complex metabolic alterations including aberrant cellular metabolism, abnormal metabolic processes, changes in hormones functions and inflammatory cascade. The TBI patient's status needed to be assessed medically and nutritionally since the medical status of the patients can affect the nutrition part. Data from the four assessment tools are needed to be correctly used and interpreted in order to make a proper nutritional diagnosis, clinical assessment, biochemistry as well as anthropometric measurements. Regardless the methods used for assessing TBI patients, having adequate intake and medical care can lead to a reduction in hospital costs, numbers of day hospitalized, numbers of hours of mechanical ventilation and in the overall infection rates. PMID:26027152
Carlo Agostoni; Irene Axelson; Virginie Colomb; Olivier Goulet; Berthold Koletzko; Kim F. Michaelsen; John W. L. Puntis; Jacques Rigo; Raanan Shamir; Hania Szajewska
The reported prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals ranges from 15% to 30% of patients, with an impact on growth, morbidity and mortality. Major deficits in nutrition care have been highlighted in European hospitals, and the implementation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) has been suggested as a means to improve malnutrition diagnosis and nutrition care for hospitalized patients.
Jae-Moon Bae; Jong-Wan Park; Han-Kwang Yang; Jin-Pok Kim
. A number of causes of malnutrition after total gastrectomy have been proposed. The purpose of this study was to\\u000a assess nutritional status and to determine the cause of malnutrition after total gastrectomy. We studied 20 gastric cancer\\u000a patients who had undergone total gastrectomy and immmunochemotherapy and 6 normal controls. Nutritional status was assessed\\u000a by dietary history, anthropometric methods, and
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study between various anthropometric characteristics and breast cancer. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort.87) might possibly be confined to obese women. Among postmenopausal women, all anthropometric measurements
Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers’ education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention. Trial Registration number Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775 PMID:22625878
Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A
The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes. PMID:24094549
GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),
Dilek K. Av?ar; Ahmet C. Ayg?t; Erol Benlier; Hüsamettin Top; O?uz Ta?k?nalp
Background: Anthropometric measurements and proportions of the human body have made a significant contribution to the science of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Objective: The present study was performed to measure anthropometric breast values in Turkish female students and compare them with those of women in other nations.Methods: The study included 385 female undergraduate student volunteers between the ages of 18
Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam
Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767
Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa
The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…
Zehner, Gregory Franklin
Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.
Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom
Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the PsycINFO and PubMed databases related to nutritional status of adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities. The authors used key terms for nutrition, secondary conditions, and intellectual and developmental disability and categorized literature pertaining to nutrition-related studies of adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities as follows: dietary intake studies, anthropometric assessments of nutritional risks, biochemical indexes, and clinical evaluations. PMID:19489663
Kwang, Ang Yee; Kandiah, Mirnalini
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with cancer in palliative care and to examine the interrelationship between objective and subjective nutritional assessment measures. Patients' nutritional status in a palliative care unit of a Malaysian government hospital and a hospice facility were assessed using anthropometric measurements, weight loss at 1/6 months, and the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Moderate-to-severe malnutrition was observed in a range from 31% to 69% using both measurements. Common nutritional impact symptoms were pain, xerostomia, and anorexia. Patient-generated subjective global assessment scores were significantly correlated with anthropometric measurements (P < .050). The PG-SGA is equally informative as objective indicators and is recommended as a quickly applied tool for nutritional status assessment of patients with cancer in palliative care. PMID:19959839
Chauliac, Michel; And Others
Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…
Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...
The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.
SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus
OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people
Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498
The aim of the study is to follow the growth dynamics of cranial volume from birth to 18 years of age among 1623 central Indian subjects. Anthropometric technique was adopted to estimate the cranial volume using maximum length, width and auricular height of head. The mean cranial volume at birth is 376 cc in male and 308 cc in female i.e. 28% and 26% of the 18 years old volume. Within a year the volume reaches 65% in male and 59% in female of the adult size due to very rapid growth during the first six months after birth. The adult cranial volume at 18 years is 1329 cc in males and 1193 cc in females, approximately 3.5 and 4 times of the birth size respectively. The cranial volume reaches its adult size in females at 16 years of age and a year later in males. The present study has generated metrical norms for all growing ages and also the growth dynamics for cranial volume of Indian subjects which will be useful to physicians as a guideline in correcting cranial deformity. PMID:21315671
Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ?7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755
Olof Heimbürger; Abdul Rashid Qureshi; William S. Blaner; Lars Berglund; Peter Stenvinkel
We studied 115 patients (69 men, 46 women) with chronic renal failure (CRF) aged younger than 70 years close to the start of dialysis therapy to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and study the relationship between various nutritional parameters in these patients. Nutritional status was classified by means of subjective global assessment. Anthropometric measurements (AMs) were performed, and hand-grip strength
Nancy P. Moreno
In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.
Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769
Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.
Houtkooper, Linda; And Others
This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…
Nikhar, H. S.; Meshram, S. U.; Shinde, G. B.
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disorder in India and the rural and urban areas experience distinctly different healthcare facilities. In view of this, a comparative study of SCD-SS pattern children of age 8–15 years from rural and urban areas of Wardha district of Central India was carried out using anthropometric and hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected using standard methods and the results showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the mean values for body weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood corpuscles (WBC). Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS 18.0 software. Individuals were screened by solubility test method. Sickle cell patterns (AS and SS) were determined by using electrophoresis technique. RESULT: The SCD-SS children from rural were significantly underweight than those from the urban area of Wardha district. BMI is a good indicator of nutritional status and BMI values of SCD children have less than desired. CONCLUSION: The study highlights an urgent need to conduct integrated investigations for SCD population of rural areas covering clinical, nutritional, and social aspects. PMID:22754219
Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos
Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126
Patil, Virendra C.; Parale, G. P.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Patil, Harsha V.
Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ?45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21584164
Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.
Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…
Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar
Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…
LINDA HELLER; SARAH FOX; KIMBERLY J HELL; JOSEPH A CHURCH
Objective To produce a simple and effective instrument to evaluate and monitor the nutritional risk of children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Design The test instrument was developed in consultation with 5 physicians, 5 nutritionists, and 5 social workers with expertise in caring for HIV-infected children. Patient information was collected through medical record review for 19 sociodemographic, 10 anthropometric,
Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…
Christopher W. Thane; Christopher J. Bates; Ann Prentice
Associations between oral contraceptive pill (OC) use and vitamin, mineral and lipid status were examined in 117 postmenarcheal 16-to-18-year-old British girls, from the 1997 National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4 to 18 years. Thirty-nine were taking OCs at the time of blood, anthropometric and sociodemographic assessment, while seventy-eight were not. After adjusting for age, body mass
Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.
Denne, Scott C
Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706
E. L. Achadi; M. J. Hansell; N. L. Sloan; M. A. Anderson
Pregnant and non-pregnant women in Indramayu, West Java were examined for nutritional status, using anthropometric indicators. For the pregnant women, longitudinal data on nutritional status, iron consumption and weight gain were examined in relation to neonatal weight and length. Comparing the non-pregnant women's average nutritional status with reference tables for height, weight and MUAC, they placed at the 25th percentile
DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data B. Nácher, S foot anthropometric measures or by analyzing 3D foot shapes  . 3D foot shape models form another anthropometric measures had the greatest relevance for shoe fitting, and by Mochimaru et al , Luximon et al
(appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements, the science dedicated to the measurement of the human face. Anthropometric studies like [11, 12] report statis
Sex of Preceding Sibling and Anthropometrics of Subsequent Offspring at Birth and in Young is associated with anthropometrics of the subsequent child at birth and in young adulthood. This population- gest that even though the sex of the previous child is associated with the anthropometrics
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Anthropometric and behavioral patterns associated with weight maintenance after1 an obesity Objective To identify anthropometric and behavioral characteristics associated with28 weight maintenance inclusion and end of follow-up. Anthropometric and behavioral characteristics33 were compared between groups
H. D. Singh; K. Meenakshi
Summary Anthropometric measurements comprising height, weight, sitting height, arm span, horizontal, vertical and circumferential\\u000a chest dimensions, taken in 255 school boys from a lower middle class urban population were statistically analysed. The data\\u000a have been tabulated, and the interrelationships between the various measurements examined and discussed.
Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley
This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…
Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg
In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,
Alex F. Roche; Roger M. Siervogel; Paul Webb
Measurements relevant to body fatness are made commonly in clinical settings. However, associations between these measurements and body fatness are poorly known and procedures are needed to facilitate the interpretation of these measurements. Consequently, data from 405 white children and adults aged 6 to 49 yr were used to calculate correlations between selected anthropometric measurements and estimates of percentage body
H. I. Castellucci; P. M. Arezes; C. A. Viviani
Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical–functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of
LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN
Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.
Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott
This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…
Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...
Smith, Scott M.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.
Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda
The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation. PMID:23822693
Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L
The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation. PMID:17467380
Badjatia, Neeraj; Vespa, Paul
The metabolic response to injury is well described; however, very little is understood about optimal markers to measure this response. This summary will address the current evidence about monitoring nutritional status including blood glucose after acute brain injury (ABI). An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the testing, utility, and optimal methods to measure nutritional status and blood glucose levels in the neurocritical care population. A total of 45 articles were included in this review. Providing adequate and timely nutritional support can help improve outcome after ABI. However, the optimal content and total nutrition requirements remain unclear. In addition, how best to monitor the nutritional status in ABI is still being elucidated, and at present, there is no validated optimal method to monitor the global response to nutritional support on a day-to-day basis in ABI patients. Nitrogen balance may be monitored to assess the adequacy of caloric intake as it relates to protein energy metabolism, but indirect calorimetry, anthropometric measurement, or serum biomarker requires further validation. The adverse effects of hyperglycemia in ABI are well described, and data indicate that blood glucose should be carefully controlled in critically ill patients. However, the optimal frequency or duration for blood glucose monitoring after ABI remains poorly defined. There are significant knowledge gaps about monitoring nutritional status and response to nutritional interventions in ABI; these need to be addressed and hence few recommendations can be made. The optimal frequency and duration of blood glucose monitoring need further study. PMID:25208674
The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.
Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M; Intaranont, K
For the design of farm machinery, body dimension data is essential. There are little such anthropometric data available on agricultural laborers from developing countries. This research, therefore, aimed to collect anthropometric data of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand. Forty-four physical dimensions of both 50 men and 50 women agricultural laborers were measured. These laborers were selected randomly from two provinces in the central plains of Thailand. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were determined. No significant difference was observed in most of the body dimensions of men and women laborers in different age groups used in this study. Body dimensions of length were in constant proportion to stature. The body dimensions of Thai laborers obtained in this study were also compared with the data of body dimensions from some Asian as well as Western countries. PMID:7844358
Lucas, B L; Bernardino-Júnior, R; Lopes-Júnior, I; Gonçalves, L C; Gomes, V L
The absence of a reliable method to assess the proper dimension of artificial teeth can lead to errors that reduce aesthetic outcomes of the dental treatment. Previous studies indicate facial anthropometric parameters as guides to estimate the width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Nasal width, distance between the medialis angles of the eyes and mouth width were measured in young subjects Brazilian as well as the width of their six maxillary anterior teeth. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p < or = 0.05). The distance between the medialis angles of the eyes is a reliable anthropometric method to indicate the width of artificial teeth similar to the natural extracted. PMID:22852522
K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual
Larraine Huston Presley; William W Wong; Noreen M Roman; Saeid B Amini; Patrick M Catalano
Objective: To construct a model to estimate maternal body composition in late gestation using anthropometric measurements.Methods: Twenty healthy pregnant women at 30 weeks’ gestation had estimates of body composition using hydrodensitometry, with corrections for residual lung volume, and total body water using H218O (development group). Total body water was estimated from 18O abundances measured by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Maternal age,
Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin
Darrall-Jones, JD, Jones, B, and Till, K. Anthropometric and physical profiles of English academy rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2086-2096, 2015-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ? 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 ± 7.1; 18s = 183.5 ± 7.2; 21s = 186.7 ± 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 ± 12.8; 18s = 88.3 ± 11.9; 21s = 98.3 ± 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 ± 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 ± 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 ± 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players. PMID:25647656
M. A. Townsend; D. McCammond; G. Lie
Experimental strain\\/time results are presented for unprotected and protected human and anthropometric model skulls under impact\\u000a loading. Using a hockey puck as the projectile, the purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of helmet suspensions\\u000a and the likelihood of skull fractures with varying conditions of head protection. An experimental arrangement is described,\\u000a and the strain-gauge technique yields reliable,
Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D.
Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger were used to measure early-life nutritional deficiencies. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that both anthropometric measures and self-report markers of early-life nutritional status were significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline for both men and women after controlling for age and ethnicity. Adjustments for childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status, adulthood health, and lifestyle habits had little effect on these associations except for the effect of hunger among men. Results from multinomial logistic regression models show that during the three-year follow-up period, arm length was significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment after controlling for various confounders in men, but not in women. Our findings suggest that early-life nutritional deprivation may contribute to cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults. PMID:20591545
Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952
Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J
The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995
Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C
The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854
Forster, Sarah; Gariballa, Salah
Background Undenutrition is known to be prevalent and largely unrecognised in older patients; however, aberrations in indicators of nutritional status may simply reflect effects of age and/or functional disability. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the effect, if any of age on nutritional status in older patients. Design 445 randomly selected hospitalised patients consented to nutritional status assessment derived from anthropometric, haematological, and biochemical data within 72 hours of admission. Nutritional status was compared between those age < 75 years and those aged 75 years or more. Using multiple regression models, we measured the association between age and nutritional assessment variables after adjusting for disability, chronic illness, medications, smoking and tissue inflammation. Results Body weight, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin, serum albumin and plasma ascorbic acid were all significantly lower in people aged ? 75 years compared with those < 75 years of age. Although riboflavin (vitamin B2), 25OH VitD3, red-cell folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were lower in those aged ? 75 years, differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for disability and co-morbidity in a multivariate analysis, age alone had a significant and independent effect on important anthropometric and biochemical nutritional assessment variables. Conclusion Increasing age is independently associated with poor nutritional status. This may partly explain the poor clinical outcome in older patients. PMID:16253135
Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 ? 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 ? 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543
John Komlos; Peter Coclanis
Examines the height of students who attended The Citadel, the military academy in Charleston in the late-19th and the first half of the 20th century. Shows a long stagnation in the biological standard of living in this part of the South until the 1910s, when it began to increase substantially.
Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa
Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910
Campbell, T Colin
Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857
This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.
Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; ?uri?, Goran; Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje
Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10?mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828
Carol J. Boushey
Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as
Greco, Deborah S
This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990
Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.
A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.
Chesak, D. D.
Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.
A. S. DAY; K. E. WHITTEN; M. SIDLER; D. A. LEMBERG
SUMMARY Background At least 25% of individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) have onset of disease in childhood. Almost all children with CD have nutri- tional impairments, such as weight loss or stunting, at diagnosis or sub- sequently. Nutritional therapy (exclusive enteral nutrition) is established as a valid and effective treatment in paediatric CD. The advantages of this approach are
Petriu, Emil M.
Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active Appearance Model Marius D. Cordea and Emil M. Petriu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract and statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial-types. The 3-D anthropometric
Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz
Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584
Metin Tuna; Kenan Melemez
In this study, the necessary anthropometric measurements of classroom furniture used in Turkish higher education were carried out. The static anthropometric measurements of 13 dimensions from 1049 students were obtained while they are standing and sitting. The data obtained was analyzed to determine the limit values to be used in classroom and laboratory design. The dimensions of school desks and
GTC Ko; JCN Chan; CS Cockram; J Woo; Gary TC Ko
OBJECTIVE: It is important to determine what values of simple anthropometric measurements are associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension to provide an indication for further detailed investigations. In this analysis, we aimed to assess which anthropometric cutoff values are best at predicting the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria in Hong
M. Dursun Kaya; A. Samet Hasiloglu; Mahmut Bayramoglu; Hakki Yesilyurt; A. Fahri Ozok
Eighteen anthropometric measurements were taken in standing and sitting positions, from 387 subjects between 15 and 17 years old. “Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)” was used to estimate anthropometric measurements as an alternative to stepwise regression analysis. Six outputs (shoulder width, hip width, knee height, buttock-popliteal height, popliteal height, and height) were selected for estimation purpose. The results showed that
Shuh-Ping Sun; Ching-Jung Wu
This paper describes the full size solid 3D Anthropometric Model using in the positioning and verification process for radiation treatment planning of the skull of cancer patients in radiotherapy. In order to obtain a full scale 3D, solid Anthropometric Model, data is first collected through computed tomography and optical scanning. Through surface reconstruction, a model is made of the patients
W. E. Botha; R. S. Bridger
This study examined the anthropometry and anthropometric fit of a group of nurses in Western Cape private hospitals. Anthropometric variables were measured using a sample of nurses and a correlation matrix generated. All nurses were given a questionnaire concerned with operational problems in the work environment and musculoskeletal pain. The nurses reported numerous problems in the working environment, including lumbar
White, Melinda; Lawson, Karen; Ramsey, Rebecca; Dennis, Nicole; Hutchinson, Zoe; Soh, Xin Ying; Matsuyama, Misa; Doolan, Annabel; Todd, Alwyn; Elliott, Aoife; Bell, Kristie; Littlewood, Robyn
Background: Pediatric nutrition risk screening tools are not routinely implemented throughout many hospitals, despite prevalence studies demonstrating malnutrition is common in hospitalized children. Existing tools lack the simplicity of those used to assess nutrition risk in the adult population. This study reports the accuracy of a new, quick, and simple pediatric nutrition screening tool (PNST) designed to be used for pediatric inpatients. Materials and Methods: The pediatric Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA) and anthropometric measures were used to develop and assess the validity of 4 simple nutrition screening questions comprising the PNST. Participants were pediatric inpatients in 2 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 1 regional hospital. Results: Two affirmative answers to the PNST questions were found to maximize the specificity and sensitivity to the pediatric SGNA and body mass index (BMI) z scores for malnutrition in 295 patients. The PNST identified 37.6% of patients as being at nutrition risk, whereas the pediatric SGNA identified 34.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the PNST compared with the pediatric SGNA were 77.8% and 82.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of the PNST at detecting patients with a BMI z score of less than -2 was 89.3%, and the specificity was 66.2%. Both the PNST and pediatric SGNA were relatively poor at detecting patients who were stunted or overweight, with the sensitivity and specificity being less than 69%. Conclusion: The PNST provides a sensitive, valid, and simpler alternative to existing pediatric nutrition screening tools such as Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth (STRONGkids), and Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) to ensure the early detection of hospitalized children at nutrition risk. PMID:25096546
Dorothee Volkert; Wolfgang Kruse; Peter Oster; Günter Schlierf
Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were
Skrinjari?, Ilija; Skrinjari?, Kristina; Vrani?, Dubravka Negoveti?; Majstorovi?, Martina; Glavina, Domagoj
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by clinical manifestations of severe hypodontia or anodontia, hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis, and specific facial appearance. Affected males show complete expression of clinical features of this condition. Their mothers, who are gene carriers, express only some signs, which are usually very mild. Currently available clinical methods are not sufficient for routine identification of the HED heterozygous gene carriers. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the facial characteristics of HED patients and their mothers and to evaluate the usefulness of craniofacial pattern profile analysis (CFPP) in the diagnosis of this syndrome and the detection of gene carriers. In this study six affected males and their mothers were evaluated. Z-scores for each variable were calculated and compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Anthropometric analysis showed a specific dysmorphic pattern in CST patients that includes decreased skull base width (t-t: -1.67 Z); decreased forehead width (ft-ft: -1.8 Z), decreased midface depth (sn-t: -2.02 Z), markedly decreased total facial height (n-gn: -3.4 Z), and markedly decreased maxillary arc (t-sn-t: -2.5 Z). Gene carriers showed a similar tendency in their pattern profiles. They showed the same tendency towards lower Z-values for forehead width, facial height, and mouth width. The values for these measurements were between those of the affected and healthy controls. The most pronounced findings were increased head width (eu-eu: +2.83 Z), increased lower face width (go-go: +2.06 Z), and reduction of total facial height (n-gn: -0.95 Z). They also displayed increased nose width (al-al: +2.41 Z) and increased biocular distance (ex-ex: +2.01 Z). When used in conjunction with other methods the anthropometrics pattern profile analysis can considerably enhance detection of gene carriers for HED and increase objective assessment of the craniofacial region in HED patients. PMID:14746168
Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte
Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290
Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti
Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24353140
Orejas, G; Santos, F; Málaga, S; Rey, C; Cobo, A; Simarro, M
Nutritional status was evaluated in 15 children (11 males) with moderate chronic renal failure (CRF). Two 3-day prospective dietary records, anthropometric measures and biochemical determinations were performed 3 months apart. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid intakes, expressed as percentages of international recommendations, were 87 +/- 14, 223 +/- 42, 73 +/- 12, 110 +/- 27, 55 +/- 31, 129 +/- 51 and 111 +/- 26%, respectively. The relative distribution of calories was 15 +/- 2% from proteins, 48 +/- 5% from carbohydrates and 37 +/- 5% from lipids. Anthropometric indices, expressed as standard deviation score, were: weight -0.50 +/- 0.8, height -0.94 +/- 1.3, growth velocity -0.61 +/- 1.8, triceps skinfold thickness -0.30 +/- 0.6, subscapular skinfold thickness -0.19 +/- 0.8, mid-arm muscle circumference 0.38 +/- 0.3 and body mass index -0.22 +/- 1.0. Serum concentrations of albumin, total protein, transferrin, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 and blood lymphocyte counts were within normal limits. The mean serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration, expressed as standard deviation score, as 0.74 +/- 1.5. No anthropometric or biochemical signs of malnutrition were found in children with moderate CRF. However, their dietary intake of calories and carbohydrates was low and the protein and saturated fatty acid intake excessively high. PMID:7742223
Varela, P; Marcos, A; Ripoll, S; Requejo, A; Herrera, P; Casas, A
Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to lead to modifications of immune function and interrelationships among malnutrition, anergy and drug addiction have been shown, the aim of this work was to assess the nutritional status of 36 male heroin addicts under a period of detoxication (3 months). They were divided into two groups: (1) HIV negative (n = 20) and (2) HIV positive (n = 16); heights, weights and serum albumin concentration were measured and immune function was tested, using delayed hypersensitivity skin tests containing 7 antigens. No significant differences in anthropometric measurements were found between both groups, but anthropometric improvement was shown in every patient after the detoxication period. Serum albumin, often used as a classical index of malnutrition, remained within the normal values in both groups. The whole response to skin tests was depressed in both groups and no significant differences were shown between them. Therefore, these results might suggest that in spite of the apparent anthropometric recovery and the normal values of albumin, a subclinical malnutrition was indicated by the depressed immune function, which was more noticeable in the HIV-positive group. PMID:2387276
Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)
An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.
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Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady
To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD. PMID:25758871
Desport, J-C; Couratier, P
During ALS, malnutrition may occur. The causes are multiple. A reduction in caloric and protein intakes, due to swallowing disorders, play a major role. Moreover, (2/3) of patients develop an hypermetabolism of unknown cause, leading to an increase in resting energy expenditure. Malnutrition, whose prevalence is 10-55 percent, is an independant significant prognostic factor for survival. Nutritional assessment is recommanded every 3-6 months at least, and more often if needed. After a simple clinical examination, nutritional assessment includes the measurement of weight (W) and height (H), in order to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI=W/H(2)). BMI<18.5 (age: 18-65ys) or<20kg/m2 (age>65ys) indicates malnutrition. A weight loss more than 5 to 10 percent of usual weight in the last six months is another malnutrition criterion. The measurement of skinfolds and the calculation of mid arm muscle circumference give informations on respectively fat mass and fat-free mass, but their interest is mainly during the follow-up, or for triceps skinfold when included in a validated bioimpedance formula. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a simple bedside technique, recently validated for measurement of fat-free mass in ALS patients. The BIA phase angle could be an easy obtained parameter of severity. Dietary interview is important when patients still use oral route, but is difficult if they have elocution or writing problems. Indirect calorimetry and dual X-ray absorptiometry give reliable informations on respectively energy expenditure and body compartments, but remain scarcely used. Additional methods, like swallowing tests, psychological, digestive or respiratory assessments are often useful for optimal nutritional prescriptions. We recommand as minimal nutritional assessment a systematic clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and bioimpedance evaluation. PMID:17128107
Allen, M S
An understanding of carbohydrate nutrition is essential to optimize production of dairy cattle. Two rations, both of which appear to be balanced, may have dramatically different results when fed to high-producing dairy cattle. Carbohydrates directly affect microbial protein production and therefore protein nutrition of dairy cattle. Energy intake can be maximized by considering the amount and type of carbohydrate in the ration: 1. The fiber level of the ration should be evaluated. NDF levels should be between 25 and 30% for high-producing cows in early lactation. Within this range, less fiber is required with adequate forage particle length and high frequency of grain feeding, and when buffers are fed and slowly fermented NSC sources are included in the ratio. For mid- and late-lactation cows, fiber levels are higher, ranging between 30 and 36% NDF depending upon the energy required to support milk production and restoration of body condition. 2. Provide adequate effective fiber. There should be some forage particles 1.5 in long in the ration. Limit most high-fiber byproducts to 25% of fiber requirements. 3. Feed highly digestible fiber sources. Differences in fiber digestibility of 30% will result in over 4 Mcal of NEL per day with 15 lb NDF intake. In addition, highly digestible fiber has less gut fill effect, possibly increasing dry matter intake. 4. Consider site of starch digestion. Slowly degraded starch sources such as sorghum may require steam flaking to increase ruminal fermentation. Other situations may require the addition of a slowly degraded starch source. 5. Increase frequency of concentrate feeding. Feed grain at least four times per day or include in a total mixed ration. 6. Include buffers. Under some situations (corn silage, early lactation) buffers allow more grain to be fed. 7. Add fat. Fat supplementation to milking cows has become a common practice in high-producing herds. Fat has about three times the energy of cracked corn and is often used to replace a portion of the grain to increase the energy density of the ration. It is important to realize that fat can cost up to two to three times more per megacalorie of energy than grain. Before fat is added to the ration, less expensive ways to increase energy density (listed previously) should be thoroughly explored. PMID:1654174
Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Saima; Aik, Saw; Zaman, Tunku Kamarul; Lestrel, Pete E
Age at menarche has been shown to be an important indicator for diseases such as breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to document secular trends in age at menarche and their association with anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors in university students in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 995 students from Rajshahi University using a stratified sampling technique between July 2004 and May 2005. Trends in age at menarche were examined by linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association of age at menarche with adult anthropometric measures and various socio-demographic factors. The mean and median age of menarche were 13.12+/-1.16 and 13.17 years, respectively, with an increasing tendency among birth-year cohorts from 1979 to 1986. Menarcheal age was negatively associated with BMI (p<0.01), but positively associated with height (p<0.05). Early menarche was especially pronounced among students from urban environments, Muslims and those with better educated mothers. Increasing age at menarche may be explained by improved nutritional status among Bangladeshi populations. Early menarche was associated with residence location at adolescence, religion and mother's education. PMID:20529410
Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes
Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is
Anis Chaouachi; Matt Brughelli; Gregory Levin; Nahla Ben Brahim Boudhina; John Cronin; Karim Chamari
The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric, physiological, and performance characteristics of an elite international handball team. Twenty-one elite handball players were tested and categorized according to their playing positions (goalkeepers, backs, pivots, and wings). Testing consisted of anthropometric and physiological measures of height, body mass, percentage body fat and endurance ([Vdot]O2max), performance measures of speed (5, 10,
Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas
Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms. PMID:23386941
Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon
This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212
Villamor, Eduardo; Bosch, Ronald J
Abstract Background: Anthropometric studies often include replicates of each measurement to decrease error. The optimal method to combine these measurements is uncertain. Aim: To identify the optimal method to combine replicate measures for analysis. Methods: The authors carried out 10?000 Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effect of six approaches to combine replicate measurements in a hypothetical two-group intervention study (n?=?100 per arm) in which the outcome, infant length at age 1 year, was measured two or three times. One group had a true value with a normal distribution N (mean?=?76, SD?=?2.4?cm). Statistical power was estimated to detect a 1?cm difference between the groups, based on a t-test. Results: Under a realistic scenario with a measurement error distribution N (0, 0.8), highest power was reached by use of the mean and the median of pairwise averages. However, when a portion of the data (?2%) were contaminated by greater error (e.g. due to data entry), the median of three measurements outperformed all other methods while the mean had the lowest performance. Conclusion: Obtaining three rather than two measures and using the median of the three replicates is a safe and robust approach to combine participants' raw data values for use in subsequent analyses. PMID:25426678
Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979
Knechtle, Beat; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph; Zingg, Matthias
Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance. When all variables were investigated comparatively, body fat and running speed during training were usually the most important influencing factors. For longer running performances (over 6 hours or 100 km, respectively), the aspects of experience (number of successfully finished races) and personal best times were, however, far more important than training volume or morphological characteristics such as body fat. It was also shown that ultra runners prepare differently (lower running speed and higher running volume) as runners competing over shorter distances such as half-marathon and marathon. PMID:26098073
Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Hagemeister, Christoph; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
Before undergoing repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, most patients are worried about their postoperative appearance. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the selection of the surgical approach to the inferior orbita and resulting eyelid deformities. We present a photo-assisted postoperative evaluation of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair based on reference anthropometric data. Two hundred and twenty-one patients underwent zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. An analysis of standardized postoperative photographs included measurements of eye fissure width and height, lid sulcus height, upper lid height, upper and lower coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, and whether a transconjunctival or a subciliary approach was performed. Surgery per se significantly influenced eyelid deformities as measured by its impact on eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show and ectropion. The surgical approach selected significantly affected eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show, indicating distortion of the lower eyelid. Investigations regarding orbital fractures should clearly differentiate the type of fracture. The subciliary approach included the highest risk of postoperative lower eyelid deformity in zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. The standardized measurements described here are accurate and objective to evaluate postoperative results. PMID:23218980
Mortenson, Patricia A; Steinbok, Paul
The treatment of positional plagiocephaly is controversial. A confounding factor is the lack of a proven clinically viable measure to quantify severity and change in plagiocephaly. The use of anthropometric measurements is one proposed method. In this study, the reliability and validity for this method of measurement were investigated. Two clinicians independently recorded caliper measurements of cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) for infants referred for plagiocephaly or torticollis, and an unbiased observer recorded visual analysis scores during the same visit. CVA scores were assigned into three predetermined severity categories (normal CVA < 3 mm, mild/moderate CVA
... Those Blind From Birth Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) by James Garrity, MD NOTE: ... Optic Neuropathies) Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia (nutritional amblyopia) is damage to ...
Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years. PMID:16572719
, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important
National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.
This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…
Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.
Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…
James R. Marshall; Peter Boyle
Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and oral cancer is reviewed. Ecologic and case-control studies provide most of the evidence regarding the nutritional epidemiology of oral cancer. The ecologic evidence is that the considerable geographic variation in the incidence of oral cancer is consistent with variation in nutrition. Because incipient oral cancer is likely to affect the diets of
McAfee, Donald C.
Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)
Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.
This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa
Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262
Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Antierens, Annick; Sackl, Anita; Staderini, Nelly; Captier, Valerie
Currently there is no consensus on how to identify pregnant women as acutely malnourished and when to enroll them in nutritional programmes. Médecins Sans Frontières Switzerland undertook a literature review with the purpose of determining values of anthropometric indicators for acute malnutrition that are associated with adverse birth outcomes (such as low birth weight (LBW)), pre-term birth and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). A literature search in PUBMED was done covering 1 January 1995 to 12 September 2012 with the key terms maternal anthropometry and pregnancy. The review focused on the humanitarian context. Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) was identified as the preferential indicator of choice because of its relatively strong association with LBW, narrow range of cut-off values, simplicity of measurement (important in humanitarian settings) and it does not require prior knowledge of gestational age. The MUAC values below which most adverse effects were identified were <22 and <23 cm. A conservative cut-off of <23 cm is recommended to include most pregnant women at risk of LBW for their infants in the African and Asian contexts. PMID:23787989
Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.
During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.
Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y
OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921
Brown, Phil; Lyson, Mercedes; Jenkins, Tania
In the past two decades, research on the sociology of diagnosis has attained considerable influence within medical sociology. Analyzing the process and factors that contribute to making a diagnosis amidst uncertainty and contestation, as well as the diagnostic encounter itself, are topics rich for sociological investigation. This paper provides a reformulation of the sociology of diagnosis by proposing the concept of 'social diagnosis' which helps us recognize the interplay between larger social structures and individual or community illness manifestations. By outlining a conceptual frame, exploring how social scientists, medical professionals and laypeople contribute to social diagnosis, and providing a case study of how the North American Mohawk Akwesasne reservation dealt with rising obesity prevalence to further illustrate the social diagnosis idea, we embark on developing a cohesive and updated framework for a sociology of diagnosis. This approach is useful not just for sociological research, but has direct implications for the fields of medicine and public health. Approaching diagnosis from this integrated perspective potentially provides a broader context for practitioners and researchers to understand extra-medical factors, which in turn has consequences for patient care and health outcomes. PMID:21705128
Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem
Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084
Agrawal, Girdhar G; Asthana, Akash; Maurya, Amit
The purpose of the present study was to compare the somatometric measurements among hard core criminals, petty criminals and community people. Using standard anthropometric procedures, somatometric dimensions were studied on 250 subjects each from the three groups: (i) experimental (hard core criminal) group, (ii) control-I (petty criminal) group, and (iii) control-II (community people) group. Univariate analysis of variance was used for making comparisons of somatometric measurements between these groups in the univariate case. Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to develop a model based on measurements that classifies the cases into groups. The study revealed that the somatometric measurements such as morphological total facial height (p < 0.01), physiognomic total facial height (p = 0.015), nasal length (p = 0.001), height of lower face (p = 0.001), nasal depth (p = 0.002), sitting height vertex (p = 0.011), bigonial breadth (p < 0.001), maximum head breadth (p = 0.001), morphological upper facial height (p < 0.001), and physiognomic ear breadth (p = 0.039) were significantly different between the three groups. Morphological upper facial height, physiognomic total facial height, nasal length and height of lower face could be used as identifying factors for hard core criminals. Morphological total facial height, physiognomic upper facial height, physiognomic ear breadth, and sitting height were found different significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control-II group. The QDA provided an overall 72.4% correct classification of cases and 74.5%, 69.6%, and 72.9% correct classification for the experimental, control-I and control-II groups, respectively. The blurred distinction of the three groups could be explained by using the QDA model. PMID:21068476
Background and purpose Malnutrition is a common problem in patients who are hospitalized in surgical and medical wards. Surgical patients, geriatric populations and individuals with severe illness are more vulnerable to malnutrition during their hospitalization course. The purpose of this study was evaluation of parenteral nutrition services in a referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Medical records of 72 patients who received parenteral nutrition during one year period in different surgical and medical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were reviewed retrospectively by clinical pharmacists. Criteria for initiation of parenteral nutrition, selection of appropriate formulation and monitoring parameters were assessed based on the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations. Results Based on the patients' anthropometric parameters and serum albumin levels, 4.2%, 75% and 20.8% of the patients were well-nourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished respectively at the hospital admission and before nutritional support. Adequate calorie, protein, carbohydrate and lipid supports were achieved in 21.1%, 32.4%, 23.7% and 10.5% of the patients respectively. About 91% of the patients experienced at least one complication of the nutritional support. Conclusion In this evaluation, several errors in assessment, establishing goals, and monitoring of parenteral nutrition regimens have been detected. Approximately all of the patients did not receive to the trace elements supports goals. PMID:23351175
García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos
The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083
Antonios H Tzamaloukas; Glen H Murata; Dorothy J Vanderjagt; Robert H Glew
Estimates of body water, fat-free mass, and body fat in patients on peritoneal dialysis by anthropometric formulas.BackgroundAnthropometric formulas that are used to estimate body water in peritoneal dialysis patients can also be used to estimate fat-free mass and body fat. Evaluation of body composition by the anthropometric formulas rests on two assumptions: (1) fat contains no water, and (2) the
Background Walking for exercise remains the most frequently reported leisure-time activity, likely because it is simple, inexpensive, and easily incorporated into most people’s lifestyle. Pedometers are simple, convenient, and economical tools that can be used to quantify step-determined physical activity. Few studies have attempted to define the direct relationship between dynamic changes in pedometer-determined steps/day and changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several descriptive indicators of pedometer-determined steps/day for predicting changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes using data from a community-based walking intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American population. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether treating steps/day data for implausible values affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced changes in clinical and anthropometric outcomes. Methods The data used in this secondary analysis were collected in 2010 from 269 participants in a six-month walking intervention targeting a reduction in blood pressure. Throughout the intervention, participants submitted weekly steps/day diaries based on pedometer self-monitoring. Changes (six-month minus baseline) in anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat [%BF], fat mass) and clinical (blood pressure, lipids, glucose) outcomes were evaluated. Associations between steps/day indicators and changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes were assessed using bivariate tests and multivariable linear regression analysis which controlled for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Significant negative bivariate associations were observed between steps/day indicators and the majority of anthropometric and clinical outcome changes (r = -0.3 to -0.2: P < 0.05). After controlling for covariates in the regression analysis, only the relationships between steps/day indicators and changes in anthropometric (not clinical) outcomes remained significant. For example, a 1,000 steps/day increase in intervention mean steps/day resulted in a 0.1% decrease in %BF. Results for the three pedometer datasets (full, truncated, and excluded) were similar and yielded few meaningful differences in interpretation of the findings. Conclusions Several descriptive indicators of steps/day may be useful for predicting anthropometric outcome changes. Further, manipulating steps/day data to address implausible values has little overall effect on the ability to predict these anthropometric changes. PMID:23153060
Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette
The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Vanderpool, John Mark
: Ulijaszek, S. J., Johnston, F. E., & Preece, M.A. (Eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frisancho, A.R. (1990). Anthropometric Standards for the Assessment of Growth...
The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.
Hadzihalilovi?, Jasminka; Redzi?, Amira; Terzi?, Rifat; Jusupovi?, Fatima; Hadzihalilovi?, Amir; Osmi?, Munevera
Birth order and its effect on growth and development of children and youths have rarely been studied so far. The objective of this research was an analysis of the birth order effects on some anthropometric properties of the boys 11-16 years old. The sample consisted of 748 boys from the Tuzla region. As the sample included very few boys born as the third, forth, or fifth child, we decided to consider only the differences in the mean values for some anthropometric parameters between the groups of the first- and the second-born. Measurements were taken according to IBP and the following parameters were investigated: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper arm circumference, upper leg circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, length and width of head. We established that in most generations the firstborn boys have larger mean values for most anthropometric variables in comparison to the second-born. PMID:15629024
Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Corrêa, Umberto César; Böhme, Maria Tereza S
Kick performance, anthropometric characteristics, slalom, and linear running were assessed in 49 (24 elite, 25 nonelite) postpubertal indoor soccer players in order to (a) verify whether anthropometric characteristics and physical and technical capacities can distinguish players of different competitive levels, (b) compare the kicking kinematics of these groups, with and without a defined target, and (c) compare results on the assessments and coaches' subjective rankings of the players. Thigh circumference and specific technical capacities differentiated the players by level of play; cluster analysis correctly classified 77.5% of the players. The correlation between players' standardized measures and the coaches' rankings was 0.29. Anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities do not necessarily differentiate players at post-pubertal stages and should not be overvalued during early development. Considering the coaches' rankings, performance measures outside the specific game conditions may not be useful in identification of talented players. PMID:20681343
Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil
Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947
Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S
The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077
of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective
Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)
A Berber; R Gómez-Santos; G Fanghänel; L Sánchez-Reyes
OBJECTIVE: To determine values of simple anthropometric measurements which are associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia and to assess anthropometric cut-off values for predicting the likelihood of these chronic conditions in a Mexican population.DESIGN AND SETTING: The data were obtained from PRIT (Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in General Hospital Workers) surveys from 1994
S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee
The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements
Diego A. S. Silva; Tânia R. B. Benedetti; Elisa P. Ferrari; Simone T. Meurer; Danielle L. Antes; Analiza M. Silva; Diana A. Santos; Catarina N. Matias; Luís B. Sardinha; Filomena Vieira; Edio L. Petroski
The objective of this study was to describe the anthropometric profiles of elite older triathletes participating in the 2009 Ironman Brazil and to compare their somatotype, anthropometric and body composition characteristics with those of elite young triathletes and older non-athletes. The sample consisted of 64 males, divided into three groups: (1) older triathletes (n = 17), (2) young triathletes (n = 24), and (3)
Seid, Abdu Kedir
In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status. PMID:22856686
ZHANG, SHAN-SHAN; TANG, ZHENG-YI; FANG, PING; QIAN, HONG-JIE; XU, LEI; NING, GUANG
The prognosis for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remains poor. Nutritional status has not been identified as one of the factors affecting the outcome of DFUs. Therefore, indicators correlated with nutritional status and outcome were analyzed to investigate their relationship. A total of 192 hospitalized patients with Wagner grade 1–5 ulcers and 60 patients with Wagner grade 0 ulcers (all had type 2 diabetes) were assessed by the following: subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and physical examinations to evaluate nutritional status, severity of infection and complications. Patient outcome was recorded as healing of the ulcer and the patients were followed up for 6 months or until the wound was healed. The percentage of malnutrition was 62.0% in the DFU patients. The SGA was closely correlated with infection (r=0.64), outcome (r=0.37) and BMI (r=?0.36), all P<0.001. The risk of poor outcome increased with malnutrition [odds ratio (OR), 10.6, P<0.001]. The nutritional status of the DFU patients was independently correlated with the severity of infection and outcome (both P<0.001) and Wagner grades and nutritional status (SGA) were independent risk factors for patient outcome (both P<0.001). Nutritional status deteriorated as the severity of the DFU increased, and malnutrition was a predictor of poor prognosis. PMID:23251271
The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.
Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen
Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503
Das, Nilay Kanti; Sengupta, Sujit Ranjan
Diagnosis of arsenicosis relies on both clinical and laboratory criteria, but principally it can be diagnosed on the basis of its cutaneous manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations (melanosis, keratosis, and cutaneous cancers) are essential clues in the diagnosis, and trained dermatologists or arsenic experts are able to clinically confirm a case even without laboratory backup. Although systemic manifestations are not considered as diagnostic hallmarks, yet their presence serves as important telltale signs in arriving at the diagnosis. In countries where laboratory facilities are available, measuring the level of arsenic in drinking water (consumed in the last 6 months), urine, hair, and nails is of immense value. Newer biomarkers of arsenic exposure are being explored to provide early information about arsenic intoxication, of which urinary porphyrin level, blood metallothionein have shown promising results. Controlling the problem of arsenicosis depends on various factors, of which the most important is cessation of intake of arsenic-contaminated water. Deep wells, traditional dug wells, treatment of surface water, rainwater harvesting, and removing arsenic from the contaminated water by arsenic removal plant or arsenic treatment unit are the available options for providing arsenic-free drinking water. The role of nutrition and antioxidants in preventing the onset of symptoms of arsenicosis is also of importance. Nonspecific therapies (e.g., keratolytics for hyperkeratosis) cannot also be ignored and serve as palliative measures. The persons affected need to be followed up at regular intervals to detect the onset of cancers (if any) at the earliest. Role of counseling and education should never be underestimated since absence of public awareness can undermine all efforts of mitigation measures. PMID:19171979
Kong, Pui W.; de Heer, Hendrik
This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957
Mark S. Gold
It is estimated that 10 million persons in me United States have at least one mental disorder and at least one substance-related disorder in any given year. Dual disorders are common in psychiatry, but misdiagnosis may be even more common. Drug and alcohol testing should be expanded from routine use in the Olympics and intercollegiate athletics to psychiatric diagnosis of
In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794
Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…
Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and bladder cancer is reviewed. A role of diet and nutrition in bladder carcinogenisis is plausible since most substances or metabolites, including carcinogens, are excreted through the urinary tract. Ecologic studies on populations have found positive correlations between fats and oils and bladder cancer, but these are reflected only partly in the international
Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others
The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…
This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....
Melvin H. Williams
Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on
Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric
Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). PMID:23404678
Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.
Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions
Arya, A; Devi, R
The impact of maternal literacy status on the nutritional status of pre-school children in Parbhani was studied. Results revealed that the children of literate mothers had better anthropometric measurements than children of illiterate mothers. Nutrient deficiency signs especially of protein energy malnutrition were more predominant among the children of illiterate mothers. Food consumption pattern was better in children with literate mothers as compared to children of illiterate mothers. The consumption of milk and milk products, fruits, sugar and jaggery was significantly greater in children with literate mothers. PMID:1879909
Laven, G T; Brown, K C
Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided. PMID:4040716
Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André
Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700
Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.
Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431
Muslu, Gonca Karaya??z; Beytut, Dilek; Kahraman, Ay?e; Yard?mc?, Figen; Ba?bakkal, Zümrüt
Aim: This study was performed to determine the nutritional style in parents who had children aged between 3 and 6 years and the effective factors. Material and Methods: The sample number of this descriptive study was calculated with the sample formula for unknown population and the parents of 300 children aged between 3 and 6 years who attended a nursery school in the province of ?zmir constituted the sample. The sample was reached in two periods. “The Sociodemographic Data Form” and “the Parent Nutritional Style Scale” were used as data collection tools. Written approval was obtained from the scientific ethics committee of the Ege University, Faculty of Nursery (B.30.2.EGE.0.82.00.00/29-288). The heights and weights of the children were measured by the investigators with certain measurement tools. The body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) was calculated for each child. The children whose body mass index standard deviations were between +2 and ?2 standard deviation were considered to have normal weight. The Auxology program was used to obtain these data. The body mass indexes of the parents were calculated according to the height and weight values stated by themselves. In analyses of the data, student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of two groups. Variance analysis and Kruskal-Wallis variance were used for multiple comparisons; Bonferrroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Shefee test were used for advanced analysis. Results: It was found that the variables including the age, education level, number of children, working status of the mothers and the perception of the child’s weight by the mother affected the nutritional style of the parents. The mean “emotional” and “instrumental” nutrition subdimension scores of the mothers who were young, who had an education of primary school and who were housewifes, the mean “encouraging nutrition” subdimension scores of the mothers who had small for gestational age babies and the mean “emotional” nutrition sub-dimension scores of the mothers who perceived their babies’ weights as lower than normal were found to be higher (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the nutritional style in relation with the child’s BMI SDS and the mother’s own BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional styles of parents are affected by some sociodemographic and anthropometric properties, but the relation with the child’s weight should be demonstrated by observational studies.
Craig S. Wong; Debbie S. Gipson; Daniel L. Gillen; Scott Emerson; Thomas Koepsell; Donald J. Sherrard; Sandra L. Watkins; Catherine Stehman-Breen
We evaluated the association between anthropometric measurements and death among pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using data from the Pediatric Growth and Development Special Study (PGDSS) from the US Renal Data System. Height, growth velocity, and body mass index (BMI) were used for the analysis of 1,949 patients in the PGDSS. To standardize these measurements, SD scores (SDSs)
Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah
An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis
Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance. PMID:22436534
A Molarius; JC Seidell
In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they
We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...
Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo
The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
therapy (ART) is a critical step. In sub-Saharan Africa, few people have access to plasma viral load (VL of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. This is consideredPage 1 Early anthropometric and immunological success of antiretroviral therapy do not predict
Gongbing Shan; Christiane Bohn
As a result of migration and globalization, the requirement for anthropometrical data of distinct races and gender has augmented whilst the availability remained minimal. Therefore, several sets of estimation equations, which depend on gender, race, body height (BH), and body mass (BM), were established in this study to fulfill this necessity. The method consisted of: (a) an inexpensive device to
Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan
Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 184.108.40.206 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802
J Viswanathan; A S Nageswara; S Baskar
Profiling can be a valuable means of identifying talent, strengths and weaknesses, assigning player positions and helping in the optimal design of training programmes. The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric profile of elite national basketball players. A squad of youth national championship basketball players (n = 44) provided informed consent to participate in this study. Using ISAK
is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which
HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company
Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.
The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…
Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo
Perroni, F, Vetrano, M, Camolese, G, Guidetti, L, and Baldari, C. Anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players: Differences among categories, subcategories, and playing position. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2097-2104, 2015-Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ? 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ? 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p < 0.01) components, whereas no differences in mesomorphy. Analyzing the interaction between subcategories and playing position factors, a significant effect was found only in the endomorphy component (p = 0.05). The analysis of anthropometric characteristic of Italian young soccer players indicates that players have high muscularity value and low adiposity. This study showed the presence of somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence. PMID:25734780
Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…
Palermo, Karen R.
A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…
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Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.
Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799
Penniston, Kristina L
Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494
Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J
Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102
Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Aguilar, Nora Luz; Restrepo, Beatriz Elena; Vanegas, Marcela; Alzate, Sandra; Martínez, Mónica; Gamboa, Sonia Patricia; Castaño, Eliana; Barbosa, Janeth; Román, Juliana; Serna, Ángela María; Hoyos, Gloria Marcela
Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p= 0.363). For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%), followed by diarrhea (8.3%); an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05). For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest incidence (22.9%), followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%); all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05). Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an association with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits. PMID:24893056
A Papadopoulou; A MacDonald; M D Williams; P J Darbyshire; I W Booth
Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric
This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...
Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540
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Nutrition as a treatment component for schizophrenia is a novel concept. A brief introduction outlines the need for physicians to become nutritionally minded, since the processing of food has deteriorated its quality. The elements of good nutrition are described. There are several etiologies for the schizophrenia syndrome. It is suggested that these include Vitamin B-3 and B-6 dependency, mineral deficiency, particularly zinc, and cerebral reactions (termed allergy). The treatment based upon these ideas includes good nutrition (junk-free diet), megadoses of some vitamins, minerals, attention to certain foods which produce psychosis in a few; all in a judicious combination with standard psychiatric therapy. Such a program will improve the recovery rate over standard therapy alone. PMID:20469184
During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.
SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science
... hunger and food insecurity in seniors while promoting socialization, health, well-being and delayed adverse health conditions. ... and Nutrition Information Center. Access curricula, lesson plans, research, participant materials, and professional development tools specifically for ...
... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...
Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A
It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760
Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Dalton, Susanne O; Gunter, Marc J; Wark, Petra A; Norat, Teresa; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michalis; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Quiros, J Ramon; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda
General and abdominal adiposity are associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of these exposures on cancer survival has been less studied. The association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric characteristics and CRC-specific and all-cause death was examined among 3,924 men and women diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2009 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over a mean follow-up period of 49 months, 1,309 deaths occurred of which 1,043 (79.7%) were due to CRC. In multivariable analysis, pre-diagnostic BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52) and all-cause (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.56) death relative to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19) and all-cause death (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.20); and every 10 cm increase in waist circumference was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16) and all-cause death (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18). Similar associations were observed for waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Height was not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause death. Associations tended to be stronger among men than in women. Possible interactions by age at diagnosis, cancer stage, tumour location, and hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women were noted. Pre-diagnostic general and abdominal adiposity are associated with lower survival after CRC diagnosis. PMID:24623514
Kapil, U; Chaturvedi, S; Nayar, D
Currently major nutrition supplementation programs in India are: 1) Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS); 2) Mid-day meal Programs (MDM); 3) Special Nutrition Programs (SNP); 4) Wheat Based Nutrition Programs (WNP); 5) Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP); 6) Balwadi Nutrition Programs (BNP); 7) National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Program (NNAPP); 8) National Program for Prevention of Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency; and 9) National Goiter Control Program (NGCP). The history of the respective programs, their beneficiaries, objectives, activities, organization, and evaluation are detailed. The ICDS beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and women aged 15-44 years, who are provided the following: supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-ups; referral services; treatment of minor illnesses; pre-school education to children aged 3-6 years. The MDM program's intended beneficiaries are children attending the primary school. Children belonging to backward classes, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe families are given priority. The SNP is to provide supplementary nutrition and health care services including supply of vitamin A solution and iron and folic acid tablets to pre-school children, and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor groups in urban slums and tribal areas. The ANP strives to make people conscious of their nutritional needs and to provide supplementary nutrition to children aged between 3-6 years and to pregnant and lactating mothers. The beneficiaries of the WNP scheme are children of pre-school age and nursing and expectant mothers in areas with high infant mortality such as urban slums and backward rural areas. The program of BNP aims to supply about one-third of the calorie and half of the protein requirements of pre-school children between the age of 3-5 years to improve the nutritional status. The NNAPP scheme beneficiaries are children in the 1-5 age group and pregnant and nursing mothers, female acceptors of terminal methods of family planning and IUDs. The NGCP aims to supply iodized salt to the entire country by 1992. PMID:1291517
Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Meléndez, A; Turrero, E; Gaspar, M J; González-Gross, M; Garrido, G; Chamorro, M; Díaz-Albo, E; Moreiras-Varela, O
The present study analyzes the influence of the nutritional status on the functional capability of 11 institutionalized elderly living in Madrid (Spain). Nutritional status was evaluated by dietetic, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical data and functional status was evaluated considering adiposity, strength in hands and legs bent and stretched and flexibility. The most important nutritional problems that conditional functional wastages are obesity, hypercholesterolemia and protein and micronutrient deficiency. The adverse influence of obesity and hypercholesterolemia on the functional capacity of the elderly is shown by the inverse relationship between flexibility and strength in hands and legs with the adiposity degree, with the thickness of skin folds and the cholesterolemia. In reference to the diet's influence, there are positive correlations between food intake and most of the nutrients with hand and legs strength, and there are statistical significances for proteins, iron, zinc, magnesium and pyridoxine, and also for vitamin C, niacin, thiamin, folic acid and vitamin E. For blood values, the mayor correlation exists between functional parameters and iron, ferritin and vitamin C levels. Our results contribute to confirm the influence of nutrition on the functional capacity of the influence of nutrition on the functional capacity of the elderly and manifest the necessity of improving the elderly's diet, to prevent micronutrient deficiency and also the necessity of increasing their physical activity. Both measures will mean an important help for sanitary and functional improvement of the elderly. PMID:1341853
Roberts, M A; Mutch, D M; German, J B
Nutrition is traditionally a multidisciplinary field applying principles of molecular biochemistry and statistical epidemiology to integrative metabolism and population health. Genomics, with its global perspective, is now reinventing the future of human metabolic health. Creative experimental designs are addressing metabolic questions in nutrition ranging from energy regulation to aging, and from mechanisms of absorption to the interspecies molecular crosstalk of bacteria and human cells within the intestine. PMID:11604331
Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy
Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344
It is important that patients receive adequate nutrition while in hospital. Reports and research over the past 10 years have highlighted the problems in the NHS of managing the nutritional needs of patients (King's Fund, 1992; McWhirter and Pennington, 1994; Edington et al, 2000). This article describes a successful pilot study addressing nutrition at the ward level. It resulted from a multidisciplinary team forming to share their specific nutritional concerns; through creative thinking they devised a new role of nutrition coordinator. In the study a healthcare assistant was used from the existing ward establishment and given one-week intensive multidisciplinary induction before commencing the role in the wards. The main focus of the role was to facilitate, rather than undertake, the nutritional care of patients throughout their stay. Following a 6-month trial, the role demonstrated a significant impact on nutritional screening, nutritional service, patients' perceptions of their nutritional care, and staff satisfaction. PMID:14581841
Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew
Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850
Riosmena, Fernando; Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.
Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former’s community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role. PMID:22962496
Dufour, D L; Staten, L K; Reina, J C; Spurr, G B
To better understand how women respond to conditions of urban poverty in a developing country a sample of 85 women living in Cali, Colombia was studied. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were normal for the group. However, many women indicated that they did not always have sufficient money to purchase food, and described the strategies they used when financial resources were inadequate. These strategies included changes in meal composition, reductions in food portion size, and reductions in the number of meals eaten. Evidence of the use of these strategies was identified in 17.1% of all diet records (n = 509). The adequate nutritional status of this group of women suggests that their strategies were usually successful in maintaining adequate energy intake, but the frequent use of these strategies suggests that the women are potentially at risk for undernutrition. PMID:9225497
Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus
PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.
) this study will incorporate this into the investigation of the ‘dark triad’ of personality: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. The study aims to assess associations between the ‘dark triad’ and various anthropometric measurements indicative...
Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc
This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.
Gill, K S
India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051
Wahlqvist, M L; Hsu-Hage, B H; Lukito, W
Trials of nutritional intervention in a wide range of health and disease states, preventive and therapeutic, are required. Not only has the emergence of chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) with acknowledged nutritional pathogenesis created this imperative need, but so also have other conditions which, previously, had not been regarded as nutritionally based. Among the latter are health problems associated with ageing: the menopause, a decline in immune function, and a decline in cognitive function. At the same time, there is a new set of materno-foetal and infant nutrition issues for investigation which relate to new food exposures and the long-term effects of nutritionally mediated gene expression. The emergence of the new food science of phytochemicals with human biological importance also sets the scene for their evaluation in traditional diets and novel foods. Such trials are more complex than comparable pharmacotherapeutic studies because of the complexity of food chemistry, as well as the food behavioural changes which may accompany a nutritional intervention, and the general problem of there not being a 'gold standard' for food intake methodology. Choice of study population is also a key issue in relation to the extrapolation of findings from a particular trial, with population representativeness being an advantage. In order to obtain useful information on manageable sample sizes, either intermediate end-points (short of morbidity and mortality) need to be studied or high-risk groups (such as the aged) need to be recruited. There are some unique ethical issues which must inform clinical nutrition trials. These include certain preventive imperatives like the right to be fed, the risks in disruption of food cultures and the need for food security and sustainability. Rapid changes in the food supply do, however, make such trials more important, while the value of food-health knowledge that cannot be obtained by trial must still be appreciated. PMID:24394168
TS Han; G McNeill; JC Seidell; MEJ Lean
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20–51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19–85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra-abdominal fat volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Aberdeen and cross-sectional areas at L4-L5 level by computerised
Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard
ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another
Karla P. Simmons; Cynthia L. Istook
With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non-contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body-scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of
Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George
Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.
Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A
Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions. PMID:23957005
Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli
OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837
Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul
Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544
Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D
The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109
Popkin, B M
This article presents an overview of nutrition transition and experiences in China and Russia with monitoring of economic and health changes. Fogel (1994) showed that improvements in nutrition were associated with significant shifts in economic productivity. Over the past 300 years, the pace of dietary change has increased to some extent worldwide. Dietary changes are evident in changes in average stature and body composition and parallel major changes in health status. The nutrition transition follows the pattern of collecting food, famine, receding famine, degenerative disease, and behavioral change. The author's first proposition is that nutritional trends and dietary change are associated with population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution. Urban population has a distinctly different diet from rural population. Urban diets include superior grains, more milled and polished grains, higher fat content, more animal products, more sugar, and more prepared and processed food. Urban and rural diets are farther apart in low-income countries. The author's second proposition is that diet and activity are affected by income, patterns of work, and socioeconomic changes. Women's role changes affect household food preparation. Income allows for the purchase of goods or services that affect diet. Income increases are related to greater expenditures on food. The third proposition is that diet changes are associated with changes in knowledge and access to mass media. The last proposition is that interaction between epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic changes determines the nature and pace of nutrition transition. PMID:12178476
Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Marulanda, María Inés; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193
Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193
Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (? =?0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (?=?0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (? =?0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (?=?0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; ?=?0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (?=?0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (?=?0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (?=?0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (?=?0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited. PMID:22723451
Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry
Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others
"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…
Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.
Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…
Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R; Alt, Kurt W; Bagic, Ivana; Baltadjiev, Georgi; Cunha, Eugenia; Cvicelová, Marta; Davies, Scott; Erasmus, Ilse; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Hajnis, Karel; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, Arianne; Khomyakova, Irena; Kumi, Ashizava; Kgamphe, J Stranger; Kayo-daigo, Nakamura; Le, Thuy; Malinowski, Andrzej; Negasheva, Marina; Manolis, Sotiris; Ogetürk, Murat; Parvizrad, Ramin; Rösing, Friedrich; Sahu, Paresh; Sforza, Chiarella; Sivkov, Stefan; Sultanova, Nigar; Tomazo-Ravnik, Tatjana; Tóth, Gábor; Uzun, Ahmet; Yahia, Eman
When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions exhibited the greatest variations in identical and contrasting measurements in comparison to NAW. Nose heights and widths contrasted sharply: in relation to NAW the nose was very or extremely significantly wide in both sexes of Asian and Black ethnic groups. Among Caucasians, nose height significantly differed from NAW in three ethnic groups, with one shorter and two greater. In the Middle Eastern groups nose width was identical to those of NAW but the height was significantly greater. The present study, conducted by investigators working separately across the world and with small samples of the population, is clearly preliminary in nature and extent. Yet it may fulfill its mission if medical and anthropological investigators continue the work of establishing normative data of the face. These data are urgently needed by medical professionals but have been lacking up till now in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa. PMID:16077306
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton
Till, K, Jones, B, Darrall-Jones, J, Emmonds, S, and Cooke, C. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1713-1722, 2015-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 ± 8.4, U17 = 81.3 ± 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 ± 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 ± 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 ± 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 ± 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development. PMID:25474341
Corbee, Ronald Jan; van Kerkhoven, Wim
A good intake of fluids and essential nutrients in the first fourteen days is of vital importance to recuperating animals. Moreover, it is important to encourage cats and dogs to eat after illness or surgery, in order to promote optimal functioning of the gut and the immune system. Enteral nutrition is to be preferred to nasogastric feeding or parenteral nutrition. In the first stage of recovery, during the first 24 to 48 hours, it is important to feed the gut' with nutrients, and thereafter, in the second stage of recovery (after day 3), the calorie intake can be increased. Timely nutritional support with nutraceuticals, such as arginine, glutamine, taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotic fibres, can considerably shorten the recovery period of cats and dogs after illness or surgery PMID:22734193
KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... or the flu. With the right balance of nutrition, extra fat and calories , and prescribed supplements, though, ...
Orosz, Susan E
Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. PMID:25155663
The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.
Basil J. Kanao; Osama S. Abu-Nada; Baker M. Zabut
Aim This study was conducted to investigate anthropometric nutritional indicators that correlated with sociodemographic and economic\\u000a factors among preparatory school-aged children (PSC) in the Gaza Strip.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods The study subjects were chosen purposively from three different sociodemographic and economic areas in the Gaza Strip: the\\u000a Jabalia refugee camp (JRC), Gaza City (GC), and Al-Garrara village (GV). They were selected randomly
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
Powers, Margaret A.
Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)
Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.
This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…
Braga, Patrícia Déa; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Cade, Nágela Valadão
This article presents results of a research of nature quanti-qualitative on nutrition and adolescents of Centro Salesiano do Menor, located in Vitória (ES). The aim of this study was to know the nutritional profile and expectations of the adolescents in relation the changes in the nutritional profile. Structured interview with subjective and objective questions was realized with 43 adolescents 14 to 17 years old and collected anthropometric date to valuation of the state nutritional according to the body mass index (BMI). Fragments of the speeches were selected and transcripts in the text as form of briefing of the open answers. The majority (86%) was classified as eutrófica and had disclosed to dissatisfaction with the body and a great concern with the beauty. The results had evidenced the importance given to the aesthetic one, as the main reason to desire a corporal change. Difficulties had been told in what it says respect to the alimentary control and the accomplishment of physical activity. Feeling of discrimination of the society to that they do not correspond to the beauty standard appeared in the answers of the adolescents. One concludes that the adolescents present perception of its weight not have correspondence with the found results of BMI and low self-esteem, desiring changes. PMID:18813456
Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948
Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole
The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…
B. C Keller
The dietary supplement industry is growing in dynamic ways. There are broad ranges of ingredients that have established health benefits, and use of nutritional supplements is at an all time high. Most attention in the literature has been on treatment benefits and ingredient claims. Select researchers are now focusing on routes of administration, efficiency of absorption, absorption criteria, improving bioavailability
Shona L. Halson
Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a
Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...
It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...
The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...
F. E. Hytten
Epidemiological evidence shows that women living in affluent circumstances have bigger babies with a lower mortality than underpriviliged women. How much of that effect is due to nutrition alone is not known but supplementary feeding in pregnancy of chronically ill nourished women does appear to increase mean birth weight, and famine conditions in a basically well nourished community reduce the
Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa
What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and
Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others
Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…
Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro
Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult
Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.
The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all
Laurence N. Kolonel
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and prostate cancer is reviewed. Little is known about the etiology of prostate cancer, despite its prominence as the leading cancer among men in the United States. Rational mechanisms for dietary influences on prostate carcinogenesis, including effects on production or metabolism of androgenic hormones, have been proposed, but because few suitable animal models
Suminori Kono; Tomio Hirohata
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and stomach cancer is reviewed. Stomach cancer shows a distinct international variation and dramatic worldwide decline. These descriptive features suggest that dietary factors are important in determining the risk of stomach cancer. The authors assessed relevant data regarding specific dietary hypotheses in the etiology of stomach cancer. A negative association with fresh vegetables
Tryfiates, G.P. (Dept. of Biochemistry, West Virginia Univ., Medical Center, Morgantown, WV (US))
This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.
K. K. Cheng; N. E. Day
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and esophageal cancer is reviewed. Results from ecologic, case-control, cohort, and intervention studies are included. Most of the findings pertain more to squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is supported by a large body of evidence, especially from case-control studies. The effects of
Geoffrey R. Howe; J. David Burch
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and pancreatic cancer is reviewed. A number of epidemiologic studies of diet and cancer of the pancreas have been reported including descriptive, case-control, and cohort studies. Overall, fairly consistent patterns of positive associations with the intake of meat, carbohydrates, and dietary cholesterol have been observed. Consistent inverse relationships with fruit and vegetable intakes
Regina G. Ziegler; Susan Taylor Mayne; Christine A. Swanson
Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and lung cancer is reviewed. Observational studies of diet and lung cancer, both prospective and retrospective, continue to suggest strongly that increased vegetable and fruit intake is associated with reduced risk in men and women; in various countries; in smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers; and for all histologic types of lung cancer. Prospective studies
Holly A. Hill; Harland Austin
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and endometrial cancer (EC) is reviewed. Obesity is an important determinant of EC, probably because of its effect on the hormonal milieu of both pre-and postmenopausal women. However, epidemiologic studies of body fat distribution and EC are inconsistent, as are the data pertaining to the relation between body fat distribution and sex hormones.
John D. Potter
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not
David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and breast cancer is reviewed. After several decades of study, many aspects of the role of diet in breast cancer etiology are still unclear. Results from large prospective studies do not support the concept developed from animal and ecologic evidence that dietary fat intake in mid-life is associated with breast cancer risk. Thus,
Many factors can modify nutritional status in cancer patients, including cachexia, nausea and vomiting, decreased caloric intake or oncologic treatments capable of determining malabsorption. Cachexia is a complex disease characterized not only by a poor intake of nutrients or starvation, but also by metabolic derangement. Nausea and vomiting may limit the nutrient intake and are most often the consequences of
Manjarrez, C; Birrer, R
Athletes and physicians alike are often poorly informed about nutrition. Myths abound, some of them potentially harmful. Common errors include a disproportionately high intake of proteins (especially by weight lifters), vitamins and minerals in excess of the recommended dietary allowances, poorly designed weight gain or loss programs, and various food fads. PMID:6637741
Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie
One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…
Briley, Margaret; McBride, Andrea M.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
The child-care facility is rapidly growing into the role of gatekeeper on food intake for children. This article describes guidelines for children's nutritional needs, what children are actually eating, how to make menus more nutritious (including recipes), how to strengthen menus and keep food costs low, and the use of food banks. (EV)
Beasley, Kevin J
Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted. PMID:24901412
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.
Iannotti, Lora; Lesorogol, Carolyn
Milk has been integral to pastoralist nutrition for thousands of years, but as communities move toward settled livelihoods, milk consumption is dropping with only minimal evidence for the health and nutrition implications. This longitudinal study aimed to first test whether increased dependency on agriculture reduced household milk production and consumption, and ultimately, nutrient adequacy among the Samburu pastoralists. Second, we investigated whether household milk availability affected child milk intakes and anthropometry. Socioeconomic and dietary intake data were collected from households (n?=?200) in 2000, 2005, and 2010, and anthropometric measures and individual child milk intakes in 2012. Nutrient intakes were assessed by the probability of nutrient adequacy method, and generalized least-squared regression modeling with mixed effects was applied to identify predictors of milk consumption. Milk contributed 10% of energy intakes, below maize (52%) and sugar (11%), but over one-half of critical micronutrients, vitamins A, B12 , and C. Livestock holdings and income increased the likelihood of higher milk intakes (overall adj R(2) ?=?0.88, P?0.001). Undernutrition was widely prevalent among young children: stunting (30.6%); underweight (23.9%); and wasting (8.6%). There was evidence for a previously described Nilotic body type in the youth, who were taller and thinner than the international reference. Milk consumption at the household level was positively associated with higher body mass index z scores among youth (P?0.001). Programming for livestock development may better ensure micronutrient nutrition in Samburu, while deeper investigation into the diet and growth patterns of pastoralists could provide insight into leaner and taller anthropometrics for other populations globally. PMID:24942144
Fiorentino, Marion; Bastard, Guillaume; Sembène, Malick; Fortin, Sonia; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques
Background Urban areas in West Africa are not immune to undernutrition with recent urbanization and high food prices being important factors. School children often have a poor nutritional status, potentially affecting their health and schooling performance. Yet, generally school children do not benefit from nutrition programs. The objective of the study was to assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status of children from state schools in the Dakar area. Methods School children (n?=?604) aged from 5 to 17 y (52.5% girls, 47.5% ?10 y) were selected through a two-stage random cluster sample of children attending urban primary state schools in the Dakar area (30 schools × 20 children). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age2 z-scores) and thinness (BMI-for-age2 z-scores, WHO 2006, and three grades of thinness corresponding to BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 in adults) were calculated from weight and height. Hemoglobin, plasma concentrations of ferritin (FER), transferrin receptors (TfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), and zinc, and urinary iodine concentrations were measured. Correction factors were used for FER and RBP in subjects with inflammation determined with C-reactive protein and ?1-acid-glycoprotein. Results 4.9% of children were stunted, 18.4% were thin, 5.6% had severe thinness (BMI-for-age3 z-scores). Only one child had a BMI-for-age>2 z-scores. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was 14.4%, 39.1% and 10.6% respectively. 3.0% had vitamin A deficiency, 35.9% a marginal vitamin A status, and 25.9% zinc deficiency. Urinary iodine was <50 µg/L in 7.3% of children and ?200 µg/L in 22.3%. The prevalence of marginal vitamin A, zinc deficiency, high TfR was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05). Height-for-age and retinol were significantly lower in participants ?10 y and <10 y respectively. Conclusion Undernutrition, especially thinness, iron and zinc deficiencies in school children in the Dakar area requires special targeted nutrition interventions. PMID:24391938
Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Guglielmo, Luiz G A; Santos, Bruno V; Hernandez, Sara G; da Silva, Sérgio G; de Campos, Wagner
Dellagrana, RA, Guglielmo, LGA, Santos, BV, Hernandez, SG, da Silva, SG, and Campos, W. Physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power characteristics correlates with running performance in young runners. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1584-1591, 2015-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power variables and a 5-km time trial (5kmT) in young runners. Twenty-three runners volunteered to participate in this study. Height, body mass, body fat, and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured. The subjects underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), velocity at ventilatory threshold (VVT), running economy (RE), velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and peak velocity (PV). Peak torque, total work, and power were measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s and 240°·s angular velocities. Right and left knee flexor and extensor torques were evaluated. Finally, the participants performed a 5kmT. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the variables that significantly related to 5kmT. Strength and muscle power variables did not correlate with 5kmT. However, most physiological variables were associated with 5kmT. Velocity at ventilatory threshold alone explains 40% of the variance in 5kmT. The addition of the RE at speed 11.2 km·h (RE11.2) and FFM to the prediction equation allowed for 71% of the adjusted variance in 5kmT to be predicted. These results show that strength and muscle power variables are not good predictors of 5kmT; however, the physiological variables presented high prediction capacity in the 5kmT. Moreover, the anthropometric measures showed significant influence in performance prediction. PMID:26010795
Shilpi Gupta; Satwanti Kapoor
The aim of the study was to determine the cut-offs of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in an endogamous North\\u000a Indian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data from 578 adult Aggarwal Baniya subjects (271 men\\u000a and 307 women, mean age: 43.4 ± 5.3 and 38.7 ± 4.9 respectively) using multistage, stratified sampling method. Individual\\u000a body weight, height, waist circumference (WC),
Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757
Ghazi, Ladan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Abbasi Fard, Salman; Sadeghi, Motahhareh; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Lökk, Johan
This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess nutritional status of Iranian population and to compare its psychometric properties between patients suffering from a chronic disease, healthy elderly and younger adults. As a group of elderly with a chronic disease, 143 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and as the control group, 467 healthy persons were enrolled. The Persian-translated version of MNA was filled-up through interviews together with anthropometric measurements. Cronbach's ? coefficient of entire MNA was 0.66 and 0.70 in healthy individuals and PD patients, respectively. The total MNA score could significantly discriminate the ones with BMI ? 24kg/m(2) in both groups. In general, MNA was a valid and reliable tool for nutritional assessment. We acknowledge study limitations including lack of serum measurements and a selection bias towards mild-to-moderate PD. MNA is a more reliable tool in older healthy individuals and rather younger elderly with PD. PMID:25714475
Nesheim, Malden C
In this biographical article, I describe the evolution of my career in nutrition from an early period as an animal nutritionist interested in amino acid metabolism and genetic variation in nutrient requirements to an involvement in human nutrition and international public health. The career changes were in some respects a mirror of the evolution of nutritional science in my lifetime. I spent my entire career at Cornell University in what I think of as three distinct phases. As a researcher and teacher in the Poultry Science Department, I was able to do research in animal nutrition and witness the rapid industrialization of the production of poultry meat and eggs, helped by the findings of the era of nutrient discovery in nutritional science. Later I had the opportunity to lead the reorganization of human nutrition at Cornell during a period when research in nutritional science turned away from identifying new nutrients and became increasingly concerned with the roles of diet and chronic disease. During this period my research focus evolved as I became interested in aspects of international nutrition problems, particularly the influence of parasitic infections on child health and nutrition. I also became involved nationally in nutrition issues through participation in organizations such as the National Nutrition Consortium, the Food and Nutrition Board, and National Institutes of Health study sections at a time of great ferment in nutrition about the relationship of dietary patterns to health. Finally, I became provost of Cornell University and involved in the administration of a major research university. I describe my career in the context of my origins and early education springing from life on a sustainable family farm in rural Illinois. PMID:22404121
Giusti, V; Clarisse, M; Di Vetta, V
The gastric pacemaker is a new obesity treatment, which pleases by its simplicity and obvious lack of complications on the nutritional level. Its long-term efficacy is however to be confirmed and the criterions of the patients' selection to be defined. The rimonabant is a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CBI receptor, able to reduce the quantity of the total food intake, and especially the greasy one. The first results on the short term look promising. The multiplication of food pyramids is the consequence of the scientific knowledge development in the nutritional field. On this basis, new pyramids are adapted, depending on the therapeutic objectives (weight loss, cardiovascular risk) and allowing either quantity or quality food. The taking charge of patients in group and according to the therapeutic education criterions makes easy a relation between the medical team and patients and allows these latters a better awareness of their disease and its long term treatment. PMID:15773199
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases. PMID:24527414
Nutrition.gov is a government-based website that is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Using scientific research, this site helps consumers understand what they should know when purchasing and/or eating food. "In the News" and "Spotlight" sections located on the main page are updated regularly to give users the most recent information about eating healthy, nutritional foods. The site is designed for searching by subject or audience, and provides in-depth data about food as well as simple tips for eating healthy. The site also provides information on Food Safety regulations as well as the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. The MyPyramid link also provides a section "For Professionals," designed to provide information specifically for use in developing education materials.
Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.
Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N
The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject. PMID:11220000
Badaruddoza; Kaur, Punarjot
Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric characteristics was investigated among the Lobana (a tribal origin) population in Punjab, a North Indian state. A total of 505 individuals comprised the study sample, constituting 116 families of 3 generations. The study represents a multivariate model analysis, which includes family data with respect to blood pressure phenotypes and other metric measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and 4 skinfold measurements. A higher correlation for almost all sets of anthropometric variables with blood pressure was found among the offspring generation as compared with the parental and grandparental generations. The study confirmed that the familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric measurements is strong in the offspring generation. The findings suggest that sharing a household environment has a significant effect on familial aggregation especially for systolic blood pressure. PMID:20566522
Barry, Kristina Marie
The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...
J. J. Robinson
Through their influence on embryonic and early fetal development dietary nutrients affect the size, vigour and viability of the newborn and, in the case of sheep, adult ovulation rates. Nutritional regimens that impair post-natal growth reduce ovarian follicular development and delay puberty but have little, if any, effect on either N-methyl-D-aspartate stimulated GnRH release or the pituitary content of gonadotrophins.
Beyond our inherited genetic make-up environmental factors are central for health and disease and finally determine our life\\u000a span. Amongst the environmental factors nutrition plays a prominent role in affecting a variety of degenerative processes\\u000a that are linked to aging. The exponential increase of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in industrialized nations as\\u000a a consequence of a long-lasting caloric supernutrition is an
Joan M. Eckerson
\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry
MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Dreosti, I E
Advances in trace element research over the last decade have done much to elucidate the function of these nutrients at the biochemical level. Five new trace elements have been identified and the general relevance of microelements in human nutrition has undergone reassessment. Deficiencies of iodine, iron and fluorine remain important problems and necessitate supplementation. Suboptimal nutrition in chromium, copper, selenium, zinc and possibly vanadium has been suggested, and these elements are generally acknowledged to be of concern in human nutrition. Genetic factors and other "conditioning" agents have been implicated in the aetiology of a number of trace element deficiencies in apparently well nourished communities. Tissues under anabolic stress have been recognized to be especially sensitive to trace element deficits, and the particular vulnerability of the fetus has been demonstrated on a number of occasions. In practical dietary terms, the loss of microelements during the refining and processing of food has been widely illustrated. Also, the generally lower levels of trace elements in plant material and the lower availability of minerals from these food sources has been well established. Of the newer trace element deficiencies, zinc impoverishment appears to be especially important, as a state of physiological zinc deficiency rapidly follows dietary insufficiency, and the consequences on all growing tissues are particularly serious. In general, recent developments suggest that marginal deficiencies of microelements are more widespread in human nutrition than was previously appreciated. Greater attention to trace element status seems to be indicated in circumstances in which physical condition and vigour are unaccountably poor and especially in situations accompanied by active anabolism. PMID:7421677
Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella
About 17 million persons die in cardiovascular disease yearly in the world. Most part of this disease can be prevented by the elimination of primary risk factors, thus by the abolishment of unhealthy nutrition, physical inactivity and by the absence of smoking. The cost-effective national program, as well as the life style with decreasing individual risk factors can give a trend to decrease the cardiovascular mortality. Individually the usual blood pressure and cholesterol control, the inhibition of obesity and the life style without smoking are able to decrease the organic changes, which produce the lethal consequences of this disease. The different kinds of diets can significantly influence the development of human diseases. The Western diet has atherogenic effect, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The Mediterranean diet beneficially influences the life expectancy at birth. The Far-East Japanese diet could specially be important from the viewpoint of nutrition, because the longest life expectancy at birth and the smallest cardiovascular mortality can be found there. The quality nutrition factors (vitamins, vitamin like materials, polyphenols in wine and fruit juices, trace elements, omega-3 fatty acids) play an important role in the decreasing of oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16981422
Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218
Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598
López, Pilar Montero; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; López, Santiago Rodríguez
This study applied a gender perspective to establish some of the anthropometric, body composition, health and socio-cultural determinants of active ageing. The variable 'active ageing' (presence/absence) was created based on cognitive and disability/illness/physical functioning, subjective health, satisfaction with life and productive activity performed, and used in predictive models to establish its relationship with anthropometric variables, physical health indicators and educational level. The sample consisted of 456 home-living individuals (169 men and 287 women; age range 54-75 years) from Madrid and Toledo in Spain. The women had a higher prevalence of obesity than the men (37.6% vs 29.0%), significantly greater fat accumulation in the abdominal area and worst perceived health (p=0.003). The frequency of active agers is higher in men than in women (38.4% vs 21.9%; p<0.001). Men and women were found to have distinctive ageing patterns. Health factors condition the presence of active ageing in women, while education factors are also relevant in men. PMID:21729364
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R
This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585
Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.
This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612
Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin
Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722
Ghasempour, Hadi; Rajabi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Nikro, Hossein
Background: In gymnastics, wrists are under considerable force that causes various injuries. The influences of various risk factors have not been studied sufficiently to date to reduce the wrist injuries of gymnasts. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and the wrist injuries of elite male gymnasts who took part in the Iranian Premier League and Division One in 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation study concerning the injuries of 43 elite male gymnasts. The extent of their wrist injuries was determined by a questionnaire and interviews. Also, their anthropometric characteristics were collected according to the criteria established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Event tree analysis and the Spearman rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the gymnasts, 53.5% experienced wrist injuries over the past year, and the rate of wrist injuries was three per gymnast for one year. The incidents of skin and muscular injuries were the most prevalent type of injuries followed by Injuries to ligaments and bones respectively. Body weight was the only anthromopetric characteristic of the participants that was found to have a significant positive relationship with wrist injuries (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gymnasts and their coaches should pay special attention to gymnasts’ weight as an intrinsic risk factor and take the required actions to prevent wrist injuries. PMID:25763171
Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Canal-Macias, Maria Luz; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D
The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present reference curves for this population. Healthy children (n = 245), aged 4-16 years, were included (124 girls and 121 boys). Phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements were performed using DBM Sonic Bone Profiler and McCue CUBA Clinical ultrasound devices, respectively. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by anthropometric methods. Fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass (FFM) and total body water (TBWater) were evaluated by bioelectrical impedance measurements using a Holtain body composition analyzer. Food intake was evaluated by a 7-day food record. A gender analysis revealed that Ad-SoS and BUA parameters increased significantly with age and that both positively correlated with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM and TBWater. For both genders, Ad-SoS showed significant and positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM, BUA and TBWater. PMID:21822585
Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M
The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890
S. K. Pingleton
Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease. S.K. Pingleton. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1996. ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment and management is an important therapeutic modality in patients with respiratory disease. Malnutrition adversely affects res- piratory function. Nutritional therapy for the spontaneously breathing patient should include an appropriate diet plus the consideration of nutritional supplements. Complete nutritional support should be undertaken with enteral
Bal, Zeynep; Tutal, Emre; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir
Background: There is no consensus on the type, time of initiation, or duration of use of enteral nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to compare the effects of a renal-specific oral nutrition supplement (RS-ONS) and a standard recommended nutrition regime on biochemical and nutrition markers in malnourished patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Methods: Sixty-two malnourished patients with CKD, divided into experimental (RS-ONS; n = 32; mean [SD] age, 62.0 [11.3] years; 55.2% female) and control (CON; n = 30; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [12.3] years; 31% female) groups, were evaluated for anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Results: Mean (SD) serum albumin levels were significantly increased in the RS-ONS group from 3.5 (0.3) g/dL at baseline to 3.7 (0.2) g/dL at 6 months (P = .028). Significantly fewer patients had serum albumin levels of <3.5 g/dL after month 6. Dry weight of patients significantly increased in the RS-ONS but decreased in the CON groups (P < .001 for each). Percent change from baseline revealed negative results for bioelectrical impedance analysis (P < .001) in the CON group. Malnutrition inflammation score at 6 months (P = .006) and erythropoietin (EPO) dose requirements were higher in the CON group (P = .012). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consuming RS-ONS improves serum albumin and anthropometric measures, as well as reduces EPO dose, in patients with CKD. PMID:24436491
Shoma Berkemeyer; Thomas Remer
The role of elevated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the causation of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, and kidney stones is currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary organic acid anion excretion, a major component of NEAP, is predicted primarily by anthropometric- (OAanthro) or diet- (OAdiet) based estimates. Dietary intakes, anthropometric data, and 24-h urinary
Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein
Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1?hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-? and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725
The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25569622
...Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to good health, including the importance of consuming fruits and vegetables. (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into...
...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...
...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...
...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...
...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...
Florian J. Schweigert
Nutritional proteomics or nutriproteomics is the application of proteomics methodology to nutrition-related research but also represents the interaction of bioactive food ingredients with proteins, whereby the interaction with proteins occurs in two basically specific ways. Firstly, the effect of nutrients on protein expression, which can be monitored by protein mapping, and secondly, the interaction of nutrients with proteins by post-translational
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.
There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310
Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.
This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…
The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189
The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189
Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O
This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania.
Galy, O; Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O
This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337
The seventeenth edition of the The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy is available free at the Website of Merck and Co., Inc. This 1999 centennial edition of the Manual has been edited by Mark H. Beers and Robert Berkow and includes contributions from hundreds of experts in the medical field. Users will find over 300 chapters on medical diseases, disorders, and related drug information in 23 specialty areas that include Nutritional Disorders, Cardiovascular Disorders, Infectious Diseases, Gynecology/ Obstetrics, Clinical Pharmacology, and Poisoning. Entries for each disease or disorder provide information such as causes and risk factors, symptoms and diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The Manual is searchable by keyword and includes hyperlinks to chapters, topics, diagrams, and tables throughout the text. A print or palm pilot version can be ordered at the site.
This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.
Bentley, G R; Aunger, R; Harrigan, A M; Jenike, M; Bailey, R C; Ellison, P T
Many agricultural populations are subject to chronic or seasonal undernutrition, reproductive women and children often being most vulnerable. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data on food consumption, food distribution practices, food taboos, garden sizes and work effort to show how Lese horticulturalist women living in the Ituri Forest of northeast Democratic Republic of Congo attempt to alleviate nutritional stress. The Lese experience an annual hunger season when approximately one quarter of the population suffer from energy deficiency. Nutritional intake is also compromised by a complex system of food taboos against meat from wild forest animals. Anthropometric data collected over several years suggest that Lese women suffer from nutritional stress more than men during the hunger season. They also have more food taboos particularly during pregnancy and lactation. Their low fertility is compounded by nutritional stress. Despite these inequities, Lese women use several strategies to improve their food intake. Since they are responsible for all household cooking, they manipulate food portions. During the hunger season, they snack frequently, and increase their consumption of palliative foods. Women with more food taboos plant larger gardens to supplement their diet with vegetable foods. Although this results in their consumption of more daily protein, they work harder compared to women with smaller gardens. Women cheat in their adherence to specific food taboos by actively discounting them, or by eating prophylactic plants that supposedly prevent the consequences (usually illness) of eating tabooed foods. In addition, women resort to subterfuge to access desirable resources. Lese women do not reduce work effort during the hunger season, but adapt physiologically by reducing resting metabolic rates during periods of weight loss. These results point to the ability of Lese women to minimize the ecological and cultural constraints on their nutrition. More data, however, are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of these strategies. PMID:10048774
This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters.
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60?mol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 ?mol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944
Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita
Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circumference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treatment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970
Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study consisting of 18,109 healthy women who participated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged ...
Enzo Bonora; Rocco Micciolo; Abraham A. Ghiatas; Jack L. Lancaster; Abdalmajed Alyassin; Michele Muggeo; Ralph A. Defronzo
The aim of the study was to generate equations predicting visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue (AT) from simple anthropometric measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure VAT and SAT cross-sectional areas at the level of L4 in 49 subjects (19 men and 30 women) with a large range of age and body mass index (BMI).
A method has been developed for the precise determination of anthropometric dimensions from the video images of four different body configurations. High precisionis achieved by incorporating techniques for finding the location of object boundaries with sub-pixel accuracy, the implementation of calibration algorithms, and by taking into account the varying distances of the body segments from the recording camera. The system
Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including 18,109 healthy women aged 49-83 y who participated in the Swedish Mammography Coh...
Helen C Laura; Ana B Menezes; Ricardo B Noal; Pedro C Hallal; Cora L Araújo
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004,
John M. Flack; John H. Kvasnicka; Julius M. Gardin; Samuel S. Gidding; Teri A. Manolio; David R. Jacobs
Objective To describe the epidemiology of echocardiographic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and its anthropometric, physiologic, and psychobehavioral correlates with a cross-sectional analysis at 4 urban clinical centers. Patients A biethnic, community-based sample of 4136 young (aged 23 to 35 years) adult participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who had echocardiograms during their third examination
Ira Daniel Turkat; Phillip J. Brantley; Keith Orton; Henry E. Adams
The literature on diagnosis of head pain associated with psychological factors indicates that these diagnoses rely almost exclusively on self-report criteria. The reliability of self-report criteria for diagnosis of headache has not been previously reported. The present study investigated the reliability of headache diagnosis based on the criteria suggested by the Ad Hoc Committee on Classification of Headache. The results
S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA
Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The
Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid
The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing
Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Hakim Hammoudi; Lamia Rouached; Louis-Georges Soler
The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of nutritional policies on the behavior of firms, particularly in terms of food quality and prices, and to assess the potential impacts of such policies from a public health point of view. We determine how new products that are nutritionally improved can emerge in a market where incumbent firms offer
Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.
This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…
The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...
Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.
Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…
Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.
This instructional handbook is one of series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit uses advertisements for products low in cholesterol as a link to a discussion of the nutrient, fat. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the students, and factual nutrition…
Evans, T. N.
Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…
James P Knochel
Continued technological improvements in the quality of nutritional formulations and techniques for parenteral administration have resulted in a major improvement in patient care. The ability to provide all necessary nutrients by intravenous infusion, so-called total parenteral nutrition (TPN), has sustained life and growth in patients who otherwise would have died. Most adult patients who derive benefit from this procedure are
Megan A. McCrory; Nancy C. Wright; David D. Kilmer
Both rapidly progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (SP-NMDs) are associ- ated with loss of skeletal muscle, gain of excess body fat, and changes in energy metabolism and physical activity over time. This article re- views several nutritional techniques and their adequacy in monitoring changes in the nutritional status of these individuals as the diseases
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.
Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…
Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping
As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.
Hufschmidt, H J
Taking anthropometric mean values of the European population as a standard, we examined some proportions in representative sculptural and pictorial works of art. We established that the classical antique sculptures and those of Michelangelo and his school conform very closely to the European norm. Mid-Italian wooden crucifixes of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and early medieval European paintings of the Corpus Christi, on the other hand, display quite different proportions: exaggerated length of forearms, or torsos that are stunted in relationship to the legs. Proportions similar to these can be found in the art of the New Kingdom of the Egyptians, reflecting the physique of the Nubian population. We discussed the extent to which an artistic proportion is conditioned by style, imitation, racial aesthetic ideals, or anatomy of the ambient population. PMID:339875
Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E
Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069
Williams, Clyde; Serratosa, Luis
What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in the evening. The combination of a high-carbohydrate pre-match meal and a sports drink, ingested during the match, results in a greater exercise capacity than a high-carbohydrate meal alone. There is evidence to suggest that there are benefits to a pre-match meal that is composed of low-glycaemic index (GI) carbohydrate foods rather than high-GI foods. A low-GI pre-match meal results in feelings of satiety for longer and produces a more stable blood glucose concentration than after a high-GI meal. There are also some reports of improved endurance capacity after low-GI carbohydrate pre-exercise meals. The physical demands of soccer training and match-play draw heavily on players' carbohydrate stores and so the benefits of good nutritional practices for performance and health should be an essential part of the education of players, coaches, and in particular the parents of young players. PMID:16766498
Over the past several decades, the incidence of atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies has increased dramatically. Although atopic diseases have a clear genetic basis, environmental factors, including early infant nutrition, may have an important influence on their development. Therefore, attempts have been made to reduce the risk of the development of allergy using dietary modifications, mainly focused on longer breast-feeding and delayed introduction or elimination of foods identified as potentially most allergenic. Recently, there is also an increasing interest in the active prevention of atopy using specific dietary components. Many studies have shown that breast-feeding may have the protective effect against future atopic dermatitis and early childhood wheezing. Concerning complementary feeding, there is evidence that the introduction of complementary foods before 4 months of age may increase the risk for atopic dermatitis. However, there is no current convincing evidence that delaying introduction of solids after 6 months of age has a significant protective effect on the development of atopic disease regardless of whether infants are fed cow's milk protein formula or human subject's milk, and this includes delaying the introduction of foods that are considered to be highly allergic, such as fish, eggs and foods containing peanut protein. In conclusion, as early nutrition may have profound implications for long-term health and atopy later in life, it presents an opportunity to prevent or delay the onset of atopic diseases. PMID:21880163
The nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease is complex because nutrition is composed of a large number of factors which are susceptible to interfere with each other and to affect the coronary risk after a long period of exposure. The methodology of nutritional studies relies on known and validated enquiry techniques, but they are difficult to perform in the general population. The lipid nutritional hypothesis of coronary disease was centred on cholesterol and the saturated fatty acids. This lipid theory has allowed great advances in the pathophysiological and therapeutic areas. The concepts of a French paradox and global diet have allowed research in nutritional epidemiology to be refocused on other nutrients (lipids and non-lipids) and on alimentary fashions and lifestyle in general. The success of proposed diets at the population level depends strictly on correctly validated scientific data, and on the cultural and social context of where the prevention messages warrant dissemination. PMID:14655545
Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges
The effect of consumers' compliance with nutritional recommendations is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we adapt a model of consumer behaviour under rationing to the case of linear nutritional constraints. Dietary adjustments are derived from information on consumer preferences, consumption levels, and nutritional contents of foods. A calibration exercise simulates, for different income groups, how the French diet would respond to various nutrition recommendations, and those behavioural adjustments are translated into health outcomes through the DIETRON epidemiological model. This allows for the ex-ante comparison of the efficiency, equity and health effects of ten nutritional recommendations. Although most recommendations impose significant taste costs on consumers, they are highly cost-effective, with the recommendations targeting salt, saturated fat, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) ranking highest in terms of efficiency. Most recommendations are also economically progressive, with the exception of that targeting F&V. PMID:25443618
Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim
The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764
In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the national or international level. As the mother is the primary caregiver, most of the obstacles to care are the constraints to the mothers, the most common characteristic of which being the low status of women in many societies. More studies are required to better understand the causal relationship between care and nutrition. Methods to measure the qualitative aspects of care and indicators that capture the complexity of care must be developed and cross-culturally tested. These will also be useful to design and monitor more effective interventions incorporating care. These programmes should first identify and support the good traditional care practices rather than simply ask for change; the activities proposed should not break the balance between the time women spend on care and the time they spend on work. Therefore one must be sure that enough resources are available. Finally, to achieve sustainable changes a participatory and comprehensive approach is definitely needed. PMID:11943643
Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T
The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity. PMID:19437058
Schreiner, P J; Pitkäniemi, J; Pekkanen, J; Salomaa, V V
We examined the repeatability of near-infrared interactance (NIR) body fat determination as compared with that of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist girth. Thirty-nine volunteers (16 men, 23 women) had percent body fat (%BF) measurements made with a portable NIR device as well as the standard anthropometric indices of height, weight, waist girth, and hip circumference. Frame size and physical activity levels were also determined. For each participant, three independent measurements of each index were made by two trained readers during a 2-week period. The two readers varied significantly in their measurement of %BF and hip circumference. The variability in %BF was largely due to differences between the first and the second measurements, and only for one of the readers. Second and third measurements were not statistically significantly different for either reader, suggestive of a training effect. Variance component calculations revealed that the reliability of NIR is 95.3%, compared with 99.9% for BMI; 93.4% for waist girth; and 82.4% for WHR, with the majority of the remaining variance accounted for by the method itself. We conclude that the NIR method has good repeatability, with low intra- and interobserver variability, provided that readers are carefully trained. However, the NIR device offers little advantage in reliability over conventional measures of adiposity such as waist girth or BMI, and requires additional input of weight, height, frame size, physical activity level, age, and gender data to calculate %BF. Associations of NIR and other anthropometric indices with cardiovascular risk factors in this population will provide additional insight into the merit of NIR body fat assessment. PMID:7490599
Ou, Langbo; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Yang, Tianjun; Xie, Han; Tong, Yindong; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun
In order to investigate anthropometric effects of mercury (Hg) exposure, we examined the status of human prenatal exposure to Hg species, including total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg), in North China, as well as their potential effects on fetal and infant growth. Hg concentrations in various bioindicators were measured from 50 Chinese women and newborns in 2011. The participants were followed for 12 months to collect anthropometric information. Linear and two-level regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between Hg levels and body growth. The geometric mean levels of THg in the placenta, cord blood, fetal hair, and maternal blood, hair, and urine were 25.88 ?g/kg dry wt, 2.73 ?g/L, 572.98 ?g/kg, 2.29 ?g/L, 576.54 ?g/kg, and 0.58 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Nearly 100% of Hg presented as IHg in urine, and the percentage of IHg in other bioindicators was 14.86-48.73%. We observed significantly negative associations between Hg levels in some matrixes and anthropometry of neonates (weight and height) and infants (height) (p < 0.05). THg levels in maternal hair were also negatively associated with infant growth rate of weight during 12 months after delivery (p = 0.017). This study suggests that low-level prenatal Hg exposure could play a role in attenuating fetal and infant growth, and the effects of MeHg and IHg are different. PMID:25936461
Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao
Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161
Jelenkovic, Aline; Rebato, Esther
Obesity has become a public-health and policy problem in many parts of the world. Epidemiological and population studies in this field are usually based on different anthropometric measures; however, common genetic and environmental factors between these phenotypes have been scarcely studied. The objective of this article is to assess the strength of these factors on the covariation among a large set of obesity-related traits. The subject group consisted of 533 nuclear families living in the Greater Bilbao (Spain), and included 1,702 individuals aged 2-61 years. Detailed anthropometric measurements (stature, breadths, circumferences and skinfolds) were carried out in each subject. Bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were performed using a variance-components procedure implemented in the software SOLAR. The results revealed that the majority of these traits is affected by common genetic and environmental factors. All correlations were significantly different from 1 and varied from non-significant to very high (>0.90, P < 0.0001), with clearly lower pleiotropic effects among pairs including fat-distribution traits. Despite the strong common genetic effects detected among phenotypes determining the amount of body fat and mass, there is a residual genetic influence on the local fatness measures that cannot be explained exclusively by the genetic influence on overall fatness. Moreover, the observed relationships confirm a partially different genetic control of truncal and peripheral fat. In conclusion, our findings highlight the relevance of considering different types of traits in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as well as in the search for genes involved in its development. PMID:22708817
Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder
Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242
Pan, Wen-Harn; Hung, Yung-Tai; Shaw, Ning-Sing; Lin, Wei; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Chiu, Cheng-Fen; Lin, Meng-Chiao; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Hong, Chi-Min; Huang, Teng-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Tu, Su-hao; Chang, Ya-Hui; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Su, Shu-Chen
The purpose of the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) was to assess the diet, nutrition and health of persons aged 65 and above in Taiwan. A multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling scheme was used in the survey. The survey population was stratified into a total of 13 strata. The four strata of "Hakka areas", "Mountain areas", " Eastern areas", and "PengHu islands" were unique in their ethnicity or geographic locations. The remaining areas of Taiwan were stratified into "Northern", "Central", and "Southern" parts with these 3 strata, then each subdivided into a further 3 strata based on population density. The household interview of the survey was arranged such that effect of seasonal variation was taken into account. A total of 1,937 persons completed the interview and 2,432 persons completed the health exam. The following data were collected: (1) Interview data : household information, basic demographics, 24 hour dietary recall, food frequency and habit, knowledge, attitudes and practice, medical history, 36-item Short Form for generic health status, and physical activity. (2) Health exam data: blood sample for measurement of nutritional biochemical indicators and complete clinical chemistry profile, urine sample for urinary electrolytes, anthropometric measurements, ECG, blood pressure, body temperature, pulmonary function, and an osteoporosis assessment. Data from the survey were analyzed using SUDAAN to adjust for the design effect and to obtain unbiased estimates of the mean, standard error and confidence intervals. Survey respondents were slightly younger compared to non-respondents; however, after weighting and adjustment with SUDAAN, the education levels and ethnicity of respondents and non-respondents were similar indicating lack of bias. We anticipate that the results of this survey will be of benefit in understanding the nutritional status of the elderly, the relationship between nutrition and health, and factors influencing elderly persons' nutritional status. Furthermore, this information could be used in the development of public health nutrition policy aimed at improving the nutrition and health of the elderly in Taiwan. PMID:16169830
Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.
Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)
Nguyen, Nam Linh; Gelaye, Bizu; Aboset, Nigusu; Kumie, Abera; Williams, Michelle A.; Berhane, Yemane
Introduction To estimate the prevalence of parasitic infection and nutritional status, and to evaluate the extent to which the two are associated among schoolchildren in rural Ethiopia. Methods This is a cross sectional study of 664 students aged from 6 to 19 years old from Angolela, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the time of interview. Examinations of fecal samples for helminthic and protozoan parasitic infections were performed. Logistic regression procedures were employed to evaluate the association between stunting, underweightedness, and wasting with parasitic infections. Results One-third of the participants were found to have a protozoan infection, while 7.1% were found to have a helminthic infection. Approximately 11% of the students were stunted, 19.6% were wasted, and 20.8% were underweight. Severely underweight boys were 3.88-times more likely than boys of adequate weight (OR=3.88, 95%CI: 1.12–13.52) to be diagnosed with protozoan infections. Among girls, those who were severely stunted were approximately 12 times (OR=11.84, 95%CI: 1.72–81.62) as likely to be infected with a helminthic parasite, than those who were not. Overall, there was a deficit in normal growth patterns as indicated by lower than average anthropometric measures. Discussion and conclusion There is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Stunting, wasting, and underweightedness were also prevalent, and showed patterns of associations with intestinal parasitic infections. Efforts should be made to strengthen and expand school and community-based programs that promote inexpensive, though effective, practices to prevent the spread of parasitic diseases. Initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also needed. PMID:23362622
Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny
Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434
Teotia, M; Teotia, S P
Nutritional rickets is caused by vitamin D deficiency due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Neonatal rickets occurs only in infants born to mothers with very severe osteomalacia. Calcium deficiency alone does not cause mineralisation defects. It only causes osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism with raised plasma, 1,25 (OH)2D and osteocalcin. Low 25-OHD, increased IPTH, increased alkaline phosphatase in plasma and decreased calcium and increased hydroxyproline in urine are diagnostic of rickets. Low or undetectable plasma levels of 25-OHD, in presence of high plasma 1,25(OH)2D and IPTH are often observed during treatment with vitamin D. Even the marginal intakes of fluoride (> 2.5 mg/day) cause rickets in calcium deficient children. Indian children often need high dose of vitamin D due to severely depleted D stores, high IPTH and severe bone disease (radiologic and histomorphometric) for treatment. PMID:10771831
State core objective: Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...
Bullard, J A
The importance of good nutrition cannot be over emphasized for both the athlete and the non-athlete. The difference is essentially in the number of calories. Both need a well balanced diet, normally taken as three meals a day. Modifications on the day of participation require planning as well as understanding. Many myths have developed from a false impression that some advantage will be gained over an opponent or that performance will be enhanced. Scientific evidence does not support these claims. The physician should be aware of the recommendations contained in the Canadian Food Guide for the basic diet. He should also be prepared to discuss variations in dietary habits which have entered the sports scene. PMID:20469286
Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.
Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.
Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.
The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…
Rhode Island, University of
of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http
Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...
), Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section, to improve nutrition and physical activity behaviors related to address the complex issues in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer prevention. The CenterMay 2003 Portrayals of Nutritional Practices and Exercise Behavior In Popular American Films, 1991
Arizona, University of
and resources available to combat malnutrition will be evaluated. The role of world food production, food - infection interactions. 3. Describe the nutrition transition and factors affecting it. 4. The role of women in nutrition and how nutrition affects women 5. Determine the effect of governmental policies on nutritional
Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.
Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…
Chiotoroiu, S M; Noaghi, M; Stefaniu, G I; Secureanu, F A; Purcarea, V L; Zemba, M
Part of the large group of nutritional and toxic optic neuropathies, tobacco-alcohol optic neuropathy is a disease often underdiagnosed or detected at a stage when the full recovery of vision is not possible. This article summarizes its signs and symptoms, describes the pathophysiological processes involved and provides the necessary information for diagnosis and treatment of the entity previously known as tobacco-alcohol amblyopia, reporting in the end, a challenging case along with its findings. PMID:25713605
Olsen Jr., Dan R.
requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 20132014 curricular year. Nutritional science
Olsen Jr., Dan R.
requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 20142015 curricular year. Nutritional science
Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena
In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…
Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. PMID:24439821
Robert Brodschneider; Karl Crailsheim
Adequate nutrition supports the development of healthy honey bee colonies. We give an overview of the nutritional demands\\u000a of honey bee workers at three levels: (1) colony nutrition with the possibility of supplementation of carbohydrates and proteins;\\u000a (2) adult nutrition and (3) larval nutrition. Larvae are especially dependant on protein and brood production is strongly\\u000a affected by shortages of this
15 Silviculture Forest Productivity and Nutrition Fire and Fuel Load Management Tree crops for bio to place compartments in a soil water availability class even if they are situated in areas remote from
Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...
In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.
Reber, Robert J.
Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)
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Martin-Prével, Y.; Delpeuch, F.; Traissac, P.; Massamba, J. P.; Adoua-Oyila, G.; Coudert, K.; Trèche, S.
The effects of the January 1994 devaluation of the African Financial Community (CFA) franc on the nutritional situation of the populations concerned has been little documented. We report in this article on two nutritional cross-sectional surveys that were conducted before and after this devaluation (1993 and 1996) in two districts of Brazzaville, Congo. The surveys involved a representative sample of 4206 households with a child aged 4-23 months. Complementary feeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children and their mothers were compared, adjusting for changes in household socioeconomic characteristics. The results show a decline in the quality of the first complementary foods offered to the infants, i.e. less frequent use of special transitional foods and imported complementary flours (of higher nutritional quality), and preparation of less nutritious local gruels. Overall, the nutritional situation had deteriorated, with greater levels of stunting and wasting among children, mothers with lower body mass index, and infants with reduced birth weights. Increased food prices would appear to be the direct cause of the decreased quality in complementary feeding, but factors other than the devaluation have also had an impact on household welfare. The influence of these factors on nutritional-status is discussed. PMID:10686745
Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh
The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet with low iron and calcium intakes. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated to healthier lifestyle practices and lower TC. A comparable nutrient intake and lifestyle between pre and postmenopausal women suggested that health changes associated with menopause was largely independent of diet. PMID:16837432
...Watkins, Under Secretary, Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services, has certified...Order 12372 The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children...children, Maternal and child health, Nutrition education, Public assistance...
Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y
Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985
Brinton, Louise A.
Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. Methods In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case–control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case–control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design–specific (case–control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). Conclusions Consistent findings across case–control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles of endogenous hormones. PMID:24552677
Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ? 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202
Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318
Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes
A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323
Toni, Silvia; Morandi, Riccardo; Busacchi, Marcello; Tardini, Lucia; Merlini, Luciano; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Pellegrini, Massimo
Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31?±?9?years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the "gold standard" method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient -0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients. PMID:25477818
Toni, Silvia; Morandi, Riccardo; Busacchi, Marcello; Tardini, Lucia; Merlini, Luciano; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Pellegrini, Massimo
Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31?±?9?years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the “gold standard” method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient ?0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients. PMID:25477818
Ludwig, M; Vetter, H
Leg swelling is often of edematous nature. The most important differential diagnosis lies in the distinction between venous or lymphatic forms of edema. An increased vascular permeability and alterations in blood composition have also to be taken into account. A particular entity is the lipedema. Next to an accurate history, specific inspection and palpatory criteria permit to distinguish the various forms. Tests for venous function, laboratory and technologically investigative techniques increase diagnostic accuracy. Lymphedema can only be diagnosed by an exact clinical diagnosis. PMID:2678371
Uramowska-Zyto, Barbara; Koz?owska-Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata
The aim of this study was analysis of nutrition behaviour of families with low income living in village and town. The interviews concerning socio-economical conditions, actual nutrition behaviour and selected health indicator of respondents were carried in 13 rural and 14 Warsaw families. Respondents were for the most part women 34-44 years old with elementary education. Rural families were mainly numerous families, half of Warsaw families consists of mother lonely bringing children up. The main sources of living were allowances from social welfare and rents. One can observe in both kinds of families pro-healthy nutrition behavior: daily drinking milk by children, frequent consumption of poultry, using margarine and vegetables oil, and in rural families eating breakfast and several meals everyday. Negative aspects of nutrition were: small consumption of vegetables and fruits, fishes, and in town also dairy products and insufficient number of daily meals. Half of respondents both in village and town has proper BMI index. One can observe in rural families more tendency toward healthy nutrition behavior than in Warsaw families. Modeling healthy nutrition behavior in poor families (especially in town) can be realised by centers of social welfare. PMID:14531088
Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Meininger, Cynthia J; Spencer, Thomas E
Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the impact of maternal nutrition on both fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Promoting optimal nutrition will not only ensure optimal fetal development, but will also reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:15333699
Slavin, Joanne L
In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health. PMID:25889246
Hugeng, W Wahab
An important problem to be solved in modeling head-related impulse responses (HRIRs) is how to individualize HRIRs so that they are suitable for a listener. We modeled the entire magnitude head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), in frequency domain, for sound sources on horizontal plane of 37 subjects using principal components analysis (PCA). The individual magnitude HRTFs could be modeled adequately well by a linear combination of only ten orthonormal basis functions. The goal of this research was to establish multiple linear regression (MLR) between weights of basis functions obtained from PCA and fewer anthropometric measurements in order to individualize a given listener's HRTFs with his or her own anthropomety. We proposed here an improved individualization method based on MLR of weights of basis functions by utilizing 8 chosen out of 27 anthropometric measurements. Our objective experiments' results show a superior performance than that of our previous work on individualizing minimum phase HRIRs and a...
George Havenith; Henk van Middendorp
Summary An experiment was set up to quantify the relative influence of fitness, acclimatization, gender and anthropometric measures on physiological responses to heat stress. For this purpose, 12 male and 12 female subjects were exposed to a neutral [ambient temperature (T\\u000aa) 21°C, relative humidity (r.h. 50%)], a warm, humid (T\\u000aa 34°C, r.h. 80%) and a hot, dry (T\\u000aa
W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; R-S Lin; W-Y Shau; K-C Huang
BACKGROUND: The increased health risks associated with obesity have been found to occur in Asians at lower body mass indices (BMIs). To determine the optimal cut-off values for overweight or obesity in Taiwan, we examined the relationships between four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: The data were collected from four health-screening centers from 1998 to 2000 in Taiwan. Included
Tim Gabbett; Boris Georgieff; Nathan Domrow
The aim of this study was to determine whether physiological, anthropometric, and skill test results could discriminate between junior volleyball players of varying ability. Twenty-eight junior volleyball players competed for selection in a talent-identification volleyball programme. Participants underwent measurements of stature, standing reach stature, body mass, skinfold thickness, overhead medicine ball throw, vertical jump, spike jump, 5-m and 10-m speed,
Laviano, Alessandro; Gori, Chiara; Rianda, Serena
Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:24484940
The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.
Moltchanova, E; Eriksson, J G
Changes in anthropometrics often reflect changes in living conditions, and one's characteristics at birth may be associated with future health. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The study participants, thus, comprised all 13,345 live births recorded in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Adult characteristics of the clinical subsample comprised of 2003 individuals, alive during 2003, were also analyzed. Linear Regression analysis with seasonal terms was applied to see whether clinically and statistically significant trends can be found in maternal age, height and body mass index (BMI) at pregnancy; gestational age, birth weight, ponderal index and sex ratio; and adult height, BMI and fat percentage. Statistically significant trends were found in maternal age and maternal BMI with abrupt changes between 1941 and 1944. Gestational age increased by an average of 0.11% per year (P<0.0001), and the proportion of premature births dropped from 7.9% in 1934 to 4.5% in 1944 (P<0.0001). In the clinical sample, a statistically significant, although small, average annual increase of 0.1% in adult heights was detected (P=0.0012 for men and P=0.0035 for women). In conclusion, although no significant changes were found in either neonatal or adult anthropometrics of babies born in Helsinki between 1934 and 1944, there were abrupt changes in the characteristics of their mothers. PMID:25711942
Sano, Daniela Tiemi; de Melo, Luciana Valentini; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Sanchez, Ana Paula Galli
Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It is characterized by usually asymptomatic keratotic papules along the borders of the hands and/or feet. The main differential diagnosis is acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa, which differs from the former only by not presenting elastorrhexis in histopathological examination, thus requiring this exam for a correct diagnosis. PMID:25184932
Nogueira, Jamile Lima; Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo
This paper is a systematic review of scientific papers that studied postpartum weight retention. The identification of the studies was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs and Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases between 2000 until 2013. The main information evaluated was: author, year of publication, sample size, year of data collection, losses and analysis thereof, age, follow-up time, weight in the baseline and in the postpartum, assessment methods of weight retention and main results. Twenty studies were selected, of which 25% (n = 5) were national. Regarding the mode of analysis, in some works the result was analyzed in different ways as continuous and categorical. Of the selected papers, 45% (n = 9) analyzed the retained weight only continuously, 5% (n = 1) only categorically and 40% (n = 8) both ways. One of the studies used distribution in percentiles and the other evaluated continuously, categorical and by indicators of absolute and relative weight reduction. In conclusion, the results found reveal a lack of well-defined information about the forms of anthropometric measurements of women after delivery, indicating the need for developing national proposals, consistent with the reality of our population. PMID:25715134
Keogh, Justin W L; Weber, Clare L; Dalton, Carl T
The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective testing battery for female field hockey by using anthropometric, physiological, and skill-related tests to distinguish between regional representative (Rep, n = 35) and local club level (Club, n = 39) female field hockey players. Rep players were significantly leaner and recorded faster times for the 10-m and 40-m sprints as well as the Illinois Agility Run (with and without dribbling a hockey ball). Rep players also had greater aerobic and lower body muscular power and were more accurate in the shooting accuracy test, p < 0.05. No significant differences between groups were evident for height, body mass, speed decrement in 6 x 40-m repeated sprints, handgrip strength, or pushing speed. These results indicate that %BF, sprinting speed, agility, dribbling control, aerobic and muscular power, and shooting accuracy can distinguish between female field hockey players of varying standards. Therefore talent identification programs for female field hockey should include assessments of these physical parameters. PMID:12955867
Chernick, V; Childiaeva, R; Ioffe, S
Anthropometric data and computerized electroencaphalogram analysis during quiet, indeterminate, and active sleep were obtained from infants of mothers of four groups: (1) heavy drinking mothers (greater than 2 ounces of alcohol per day); (2) nondrinking mothers; (3) smoking, nondrinking mothers; (4) nonsmoking, nondrinking mothers. Infants in groups 1 and 2 were matched as closely as possible for postconceptional age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Infants in groups 3 and 4 were matched similarly. Infants of alcoholic mothers had a significantly lower birth weight, length, and head circumference than those from the matched control group. Infants of smoking mothers had lower birth weights and lengths than infants of nonsmoking mothers, but head circumference was identical. Hypersynchrony of the electroencephalogram was seen only in "alcoholic" infants, and power spectral density analysis revealed that the average integrated power was significantly increased in quiet, active, and indeterminate sleep. The greatest increase in electroencephalogram power (212%) was seen in active sleep, and this analysis clearly separated 15 of 17 alcohol-exposed infants from the control infants. These data suggest that alcohol has a specific toxic effect on the fetal brain that is not linked with smoking habits. The neonatal electroencephalogram is affected even in the absence of dysmorphology and thus may be the most sensitive indicator of fetal alcohol toxicity. PMID:6846423
Mirkov, Dragan M; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Koprivica, Vladimir J; Jaric, Slobodan
The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to explore distinctive anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of young soccer players between the age of 11 and 14 and to reveal the performance at the age of 11, which contributes to the later success. Male players of the best national male squads of the 'cadet league' (14 years of age; n = 26) were annually tested starting from the age of 11 for body size and composition, flexibility, power, coordination, and agility. Randomly selected untrained but physically active age-matched boys (n = 63) were also tested over 4 consecutive years. The results revealed no difference between 2 groups regarding the body size and composition (p > 0.05). The differences in flexibility emerged only at the later age, whereas the differences regarding the explosive power (as assessed by various jumps) were moderate and partly inconsistent. The most prominent advantage of the soccer players over the control subjects during the entire tested age period appeared to be movement agility and coordination (p < 0.01). Therefore, the explosive muscle power and, in particular, the agility and coordination characterize elite soccer players of 11-14 years of age but not the body size and body composition. In addition, the agility and coordination could be among the crucial factors of future success in 11-year-old players and, therefore, should be used for early selection. PMID:20885193
Rowe, Elizabeth; Van Horn, Andrew; Rockwell, L Christie
Several studies demonstrate that human ovarian function is responsive to the energetic environment, which has led to the development of theoretical models that explain this phenomenon. Although many genes are involved in ovarian hormone production, the possibility that genetic polymorphism may affect ovarian response to energetic conditions has not been considered. Cytochrome P450c17? is an enzyme that produces androgen precursors used to make estrogens during ovarian steroidogenesis, and is encoded by the CYP17 gene. A functionally significant variant within the promoter region of CYP17 has been linked to variation in steroid production, and some evidence suggests that this polymorphism could alter transcription of CYP17 in an insulin-dependent manner. We tested the hypothesis that the CYP17 variant affected the relationship between anthropometric measurements and salivary estradiol in healthy women in the United States (n?=?28). PCR-RLFP analysis was used to genotype women for the genetic variant, and estradiol was assayed from saliva by EIA. Moderated regression analysis of these preliminary data revealed a significant interaction between waist-to-hip ratio and CYP17 genotype (P?=?0.004). Our study provides evidence that gene-environment interactions should be considered in future adaptive models for human ovarian function. Moreover, our results stand to illuminate possible associations between this genetic variant and reproductive disease. PMID:25448501
The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738
Petinataud, D; Berger, S; Contet-Audonneau, N; Machouart, M
Onychomycosis is a frequent cause of nail infections due to dermatophytes. Molds and yeast may also be responsible of these pathologies. Antifungal treatments are frequently given without a mycological diagnosis, partly because of the requisite time for obtaining the biological results. The mycological diagnosis requires a direct microscopic examination and a culture in order to accurately identify the fungal genus and species. Nevertheless, this conventional diagnosis is often time consuming due to the delay of fungal cultures and presents disadvantages that make it not sufficient enough to give a precise and confident response to the clinicians. Therefore additional tests have been developed to help distinguish onychomycosis from other nail disorders. Among them, molecular biology techniques offer modern and rapid tools to improve traditional microbiological diagnosis. In this review, we first present the conventional diagnosis methods for onychomycosis and then we describe the main molecular biology tools and the currently available commercial kits that allow a rapid detection of the pathology. PMID:25458365
Gapparova, K M; Nikitiuk, D B; Za?nudinov, Z M; Tserekh, A A; Chekhonina, Iu G; Golubeva, A A; Sil'vestrova, G A; Rusakova, D S; Grigor'ian, O N
Under steady state conditions in 66 athletes involved in weightlifting, bodybuilding, judo and taekwondo have studied features of the metabolic status. Data on matter-of-fact nutrition, body weight content within the inter-competition period, energy exchange, clinical and biochemical indices and physical acceptability indices were analyzed. As a result, the decrease indexes of metabolism at all the sportsmen and high-level caloric value at sportsmen who are engaged in weightlifting, which corresponds their energy expenditures, was revealed. PMID:22379870
Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay; A. B. Biswas
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 tribal children aged 6–59 months using two-stage sampling in Bankura-I Block\\u000a of Bankura district, West Bengal, India, to assess their nutritional status and its relation with household food security.\\u000a Weight and height\\/length were measured and analyzed as per new WHO Growth Standards. Mothers of the study children were interviewed\\u000a to obtain relevant information.
Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee
North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202
Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min
North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202
Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C
Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. PMID:21034991
Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.
Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.
With our present knowledge of total, intravenous nutrition it is now possible to eliminate, or greatly reduce, the incidence of malnutrition, as a complication of various medical and surgical conditions in modern hospitals. There is a tendency to include supplementary or total intravenous nutrition in the feeding program of the hospital, to ensure that the patients get an adequate daily amount of nutrients. The trend in the development of intravenous nutrition is, to supply all nutrients in the same proportions as those in which they enter the general circulation following a well-balanced oral food intake. Various mixtures of amino acids have been used as part of a complete intravenous nutrition. All studies in this field indicate a trend to use those amino acids mixtures which contain the essential and the nonessential L-amino acids in the same proportions as are found in the aminogram of proteins with high biological value. There is a trend to include fat, as fat emulsion (soybean oil-egg yolk-phospholipid emulsion), for intravenous nutrition, in an amount corresponding to about 40 energy percent as both the source of energy and of essential fatty acids for the body. To make an intravenous nutrition as complete as possible, all essential minerals should be included. Phosphorus is of special interest here as it aids in the prevention of hypophatemia and tissue anoxia caused by deficiency of diphosphateglycerate in the erythrocytes. Zinc may also be mentioned because of its importance for wound healing. There is also a tendency to include all the 13 necessary vitamins in an intravenous feeding program. In this connection vitamin K1 is of special importance. If patients on intravenous nutrition are treated with antibiotics, this may result in a change in the intestinal flora and a loss of intestinal vitamin K production, causing vitamin K deficiency, with severe or fatal bleeding. Consequently, vitamin K1 should be given daily to every patient on intravenous alimentation. The future trend in parenteral nutrition will also be to use this method for exact nutrition balances. In this way it will be possible to determine the endogenous loss via feces, as well as to study the requirements of nutrients in different conditions. PMID:820331
Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill
The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate. PMID:23336562
Darke, S J
The first comprehensive nutrition policy was put into action during the Second World War, 1939-1945. Basic foodstuffs were shared fairly in the light of what was known about physiological needs. The policy was highly successful and nutritional status improved. From the mid 1940s onwards, a nutrition policy, based on physiological needs, was pursued in the context of the welfare state and the National Health Service. The end of rationing in 1954 was followed by a free choice of foods in a period of affluence. The choice was evidently not always nutritionally sound, since this diet appears to be at least in part related to the increased incidence of certain diseases. In a democratic society, a nutrition policy must be one of sound education so that individuals make a wise choice of foods. Their choice creates demand and indirectly influences food production both from agricultural production and from the food industry. The education which underlies choice should be based on scientific fact and sound physiological principles rather than on fashionable hypotheses. PMID:583283
to nutrition science, emphasizing physiological and biochemical interactions between food and the human bodyNutrition and Health 255 Online Fall 2014 Course Syllabus Course Description An introduction. Explores the relationship between foods, nutrition, and disease promotion/ prevention. Applies nutrition
Payne, Judith S.; And Others
Describes microcomputer applications in three nutrition courses, Introductory Nutrition, Nutrition for Elementary Teachers, and Nutrition through the Life Cycle. Apple's Diet Analysis Program is used to make nutrient analysis stimulating and interesting. (SK)
Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.
The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting. (JMT)
... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Pneumocystis pneumonia Diagnosis and Testing P. jirovecii cysts in a ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...
Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah
Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR?=?0.57;95%CI:0.43?0.76;p?0.0001) and men (OR?=?0.67;95%CI: 0.51?0.87;p?=?0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR?=?0.71;95%CI:0.54?0.93;p?=?0.005) and women (OR?=?0.79;95%CI:0.59?1.05;p>0.05) who consume ?1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ?1 portion was associated with obesity (OR?=?1.51;95%CI:1.00?2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR?=?1.65;95%CI:1.08?2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23593300
Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam
Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578
Harald Kotzmann; Alice Schmidt; Piero Lercher; Ernst Schuster; Georg Geyer; Herwig Frisch; Walter H. Hörl; Gert Mayer; Anton Luger
Background\\/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) resistance leads to enhanced protein catabolism and contributes to the malnutrition of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). In short-term trials anabolic effects of rhGH therapy have been demonstrated in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Methods: This study was initiated to determine the effects of 12 months of rhGH therapy on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function as well
Abdeen, Ziad; Jildeh, Christine; Dkeideek, Sahar; Qasrawi, Radwan; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Al Sabbah, Haleama
Background. A cross-sectional survey was designed to provide a baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity and their associations among adults in Palestine. Methods. A random representative sample of 3617 adults aged 18–64 years was collected between October 1999 and October 2000. Results. The prevalence of overweight was 35.5% in women and 40.3% in men, obesity was 31.5% in women and 17.5% in men. Adults aged 45–54 years old were significantly more likely to be obese (29.2% in men and 50.2% in women) or overweight (48.1% in men and 37.2% in women). When compared with women, men showed significantly more normal BMI level (40.5% versus 31.6%; P < 0.05). Cut-off points for a high waist circumference and high waist-to-hip ratio identified 57.8% and 47.2% of the population, respectively, to be at an increased and high risk for cardiovascular disease. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, educational level, and marital status) were also found to be significantly related to BMI. Conclusion. Obesity and overweight are enormous public health problems in Palestine. Population-based research at the national level to investigate the social and cultural factors associated with high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian adults should be implemented. PMID:22523663
Fernandes, Maria F; Sharma, Sandeep; Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Auguste, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie
The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact on energy metabolism, in turn, plays an important role in the control of food reward. Feeding modulates the release of metabolic hormones that have an important influence on central controls of appetite. Nutrients themselves are also an essential source of energy fuel, while serving as key metabolites and acting as signalling molecules in the neural pathways that control feeding and food reward. Along these lines, this review discusses the impact of nutritionally regulated hormones and select macronutrients on the behavioural and neural processes underlying the rewarding effects of food. PMID:24070891
Bener, Abdulbari; Hoffmann, Georg F.
Objective. This study describes the magnitude and characteristics of nutritional rickets and associated risk factors among children in Qatar. Subjects. A consecutive sample of 730 healthy subjects who visited the primay health care clinics were approached and 540 (73.9%) subjects gave consent. Mehods. Nutritional rickets diagnosis was based on clinical radiologic and biochemical parameters and normalization of alkaline phosphatase level after 6 weeks course of daily vitamin D therapy. Results. The study revealed that 23.9% of the studied children had nutritional rickets. The mean ± SD age of those with rickets (3.76 years ± 1.51) was slightly higher than those without rickets (3.57 years ± 1.45). Family history of vitamin D deficiency (44.2%; P = .001) and diabetes mellitus (53.5%; P = .002) were significantly higher in rachitic children than in nonrachitic children. The children with rickets spent a significantly shorter average duration (26.86 minutes ± 19.94) under the sun than those without rickets (30.59 minutes ± 15.72; P < .001). A significantly larger proportion of rachitic children was afflicted with vitamin D deficiency (75.2% versus 62.2%; P < .001), secondary hypothyroidism (100% versus 7.5%; P = .009) and muscular weakness (56.6% versus 26.3%; P < .001). Conclusion. The most important risk factors were low vitamin D and calcium intakes, lack of exposure to sunlight, prolonged breast feeding without supplementation of vitamin D. PMID:21048925
This article was prepared as a starter for Ralph Nader's campaign for better nutrition in school cafeterias. The ideas suggested were not too costly and were designed to provide sound nutrition for students. (Editor/RK)
Cartwright, A. Lee
The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics, but proper nutrition can help an animal achieve that genetic potential. This publication outlines four principles critical to developing a nutrition program for show...
Hubbard, Glenda T.
Presents an analysis of literature on nutrition for school counselors interested in exploring how behavior and learning problems can be related to diet. Provides guidelines for implementing nutritional strategies, some basic recommendations, and suggested readings. (LLL)
Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...
Frank, Gail C.; And Others
This article describes the history of the school nutrition program and how it has adapted to meet the needs of today's students. The modern menu is more healthful, and nutrition education complements food choices. (Author/MT)
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...