Sample records for anthropometric nutritional diagnosis

  1. The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Akinyemi

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS\\/WH O reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on

  2. Nutritional Assessment of Macronutrients in Primary School Children and its Association with Anthropometric Indices and Oral Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayed Jalal Pourhashemi; Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Banafsheh Golestan

    2007-01-01

    Childhood nutrition is known to have a considerable impact on children's health. Protein and fat are the two most important macronutrients with high impact on children's growth and energy provision. The aim of the present study is the assessment of children's nutrition based on energy, protein and fat intake with respect to their anthropometric and oral health. A total of

  3. The association between nutritional conditions during World War II and childhood anthropometric variables in the Nordic countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Angell-Andersen; S. Tretli; R. Bjerknesz; T. Forsén; T. I. A. Sørensen; J. G. Eriksson; L. Räsänen; T. Grotmol

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Background: The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. Methods: Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the

  4. Dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection in a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Janjetic, Mariana A; Mantero, Paula; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Balcarce, Norma; Zerbetto de Palma, Gerardo; Catalano, Mariana; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Boccio, José R; Goldman, Cinthia G

    2015-04-01

    It has been postulated that Helicobacter pylori infection could affect growth and appetite, consequently influencing body weight. Therefore, the association between H. pylori infection and the dietary and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status of a paediatric population were investigated. A total of 525 children (aged 4-16 years) who were referred to the gastroenterology unit of the Sor Maria Ludovica Children's Hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina, were enrolled and completed an epidemiological questionnaire. H. pylori infection was diagnosed using the 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT). Height and weight were assessed for calculation of anthropometric indicators. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Data analysis was performed using a ?2 test, a Student's t test, a Mann-Whitney U test and linear and logistic regressions. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 25·1 % (with a mean age of 10·1 (sd 3·1) years). A tendency towards lower energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes was observed in infected patients; however, it was not associated with H. pylori infection in any of the evaluated age groups (4-8, 9-13 and 14-16 years). Underweight, stunting, overweight and obesity were also not associated with the infection. Although height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z scores tended to be lower in infected patients, the differences between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative children were not statistically significant. In conclusion, H. pylori infection was not associated with dietary intake or with anthropometric indicators in the present population of children with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, an increased sample size would be needed to confirm the observed tendency towards lower dietary intake and lower anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in H. pylori-infected children. PMID:25761510

  5. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

  6. Coffee?Tree Floral Analysis as a Mean of Nutritional Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herminia E. P. Martinez; Ronessa B. Souza; Javier Abadía Bayona; Víctor Hugo Alvarez Venegas; Manuel Sanz

    2003-01-01

    Plant part analysis for evaluating the nutritional state of the crops is a practice commonly used. The analysis of flowers can allow an earlier diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies, excesses or unbalances, which facilitates its correction before the occurrence of irreversible losses in productivity and quality. The objective of this study were to determine the coffee tree (Coffea arabica L.) flower

  7. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

  8. Biomarkers identified by urinary metabonomics for noninvasive diagnosis of nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maoqing; Yang, Xue; Ren, Lihong; Li, Songtao; He, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Lin, Liqun; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional rickets is a worldwide public health problem; however, the current diagnostic methods retain shortcomings for accurate diagnosis of nutritional rickets. To identify urinary biomarkers associated with nutritional rickets and establish a noninvasive diagnosis method, urinary metabonomics analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with nutritional rickets in 200 children with or without nutritional rickets. The pathophysiological changes and pathogenesis of nutritional rickets were illustrated by the identified biomarkers. By urinary metabolic profiling, 31 biomarkers of nutritional rickets were identified and five candidate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis were screened and identified by quantitative analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. Urinary levels of five candidate biomarkers were measured using mass spectrometry or commercial kits. In the validation step, the combination of phosphate and sebacic acid was able to give a noninvasive and accurate diagnostic with high sensitivity (94.0%) and specificity (71.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of the pathway analysis of biomarkers, our urinary metabonomics analysis gives new insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of nutritional rickets. PMID:25051233

  9. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  10. Weight-based nutritional diagnosis of Mexican children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Results Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down’s syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN) than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB), especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down’s syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. Conclusions This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life. PMID:22559790

  11. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  12. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Pearson

    2007-10-12

    3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Updated September 27, 2010 Nutrition is a tool that you can use to improve your overall health and quality of life. You’ve probably heard conflicting information about nutrition and breast cancer. You may wonder whether the ...

  14. [Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient's life. PMID:24964516

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  16. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal Dysphagia and its nutritional and respiratory complications in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration-half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  17. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Huish

    2009-11-02

    Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

  18. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  19. Vecuronium: an anthropometric comparison.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T; Aun, C S; Oh, T E

    1992-09-01

    This study set out to determine if there was any resistance to vecuronium in Nepalese studied in Nepal compared with Nepalese, Chinese and European patients studied in Hong Kong. The four groups, each of 10 male and 10 female patients, were intubated 60 s after administration of 0.1 mg.kg-1 vecuronium. The Nepalese patients in Nepal had significantly less satisfactory intubating conditions (p = 0.002). Similarly, male patients had significantly less satisfactory conditions than female patients (p = 0.004). Some anthropometric measurements were significantly different between the patients in Nepal and those in Hong Kong. There were also sex-related anthropometric differences. It is suggested that differences in response to vecuronium could be explained by differences in distribution volume and muscle mass. PMID:1357999

  20. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  1. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Moffat

    2010-12-13

    Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

  2. Physical Activity and Anthropometric Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine D. Henderson; Jennifer Prescott; Leslie Bernstein

    \\u000a Physical activity and certain anthropometric factors have been proposed as independent risk factors for breast cancer. Increased\\u000a physical activity appears to be associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and this association is independent of the influence\\u000a of anthropometric factors on risk. Conversely, anthropometric factors such as body mass index (BMI), weight change, and height\\u000a appear to have effects on breast

  3. Anthropometric 3D Face Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini Gupta; Mia K. Markey; Alan C. Bovik

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel anthropometric three dimensional (Anthroface 3D) face recognition algorithm, which is based on a systematically\\u000a selected set of discriminatory structural characteristics of the human face derived from the existing scientific literature\\u000a on facial anthropometry. We propose a novel technique for automatically detecting 10 anthropometric facial fiducial points\\u000a that are associated with these discriminatory anthropometric features. We isolate

  4. Malnutrition in geriatric patients: diagnostic and prognostic significance of nutritional parameters.

    PubMed

    Volkert, D; Kruse, W; Oster, P; Schlierf, G

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were diminished. 44% were anergic. Judgement of nutritional status by clinical impression resulted in 22% being deemed undernourished. Clinical diagnosis of undernutrition was associated with low anthropometric measurements (p less than 0.05 for all parameters) and a high prevalence of low biochemical values (p less than 0.05 for albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, vitamin A, vitamin B1). The mean values of all anthropometric variables, plasma proteins, vitamins A and C were significantly lower in patients who died within the following 18 months compared to survivors. The greatest prognostic significance was related to the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition. We conclude that clinical assessment is useful for the evaluation of nutritional status in geriatric patients and the best of numerous nutritional parameters to estimate risk of long-term mortality. PMID:1510351

  5. Anthropometric Decline of the Roman Empire? Regional differences and temporal development of the quality of nutrition in the Roman provinces of Germania and Raetia from the first century to the fourth century AD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikola Koepke

    This interdisciplinary study examines nutritional status during the antiquity namely from the first century to the fourth century AD in the North Western Roman provinces in comparison with anthropological and demographic measures. In recent research, the variation in average height is often employed as an indicator of the quality of nutrition, because biological research has shown that quantitative und qualitative

  6. [Nutritional and disease diagnosis in institutionalized children. Day care center Elisio Teixeira Leite, Perus, SP 1993].

    PubMed

    Bertho, M P; Estima, S de L; Fujimori, E; de Oliveira, I M

    1995-08-01

    As a part of one survey about health conditions in institutionalized children, the nutritional status were evaluated. Data were obtained through antropometric assessment in a sample of 111 pre-school children matriculated in a small official day-care center in Perus-SP. According to Gomez, 50.0% of all that children were classified as malnourished, 23.4% of them in the I degree; 22.4% in II degree and only 4.3% in III degree. Taking into account the Waterlow's classification there was a highest frequency of cronic-actual malnutrition (30.8%) concentrated in children between 12-48 months of age. Additionally, these children presented highest incidence of infective-respiratory and intestinal diseases. These evidences lead on to the improvement of the follow-up of children growth and food consumption, specially that under 24 meses, to attempt for an early identification of malnutrition, thus increasing the chance of nutritional recuperation. PMID:8715588

  7. Public Health Nutrition (PUB HLTH 413) Winter 2008 PUB HLTH 413 Public Health Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    in problem based learning with annotated bibliographies, completion of two exercises, three oral Assessment of Nutritional Status Anthropometric Measurements Biomarkers Physiological Measurements January 21 Goiter February 18 ­ Professor Moran Cardiovascular Disease February 25 ­Professor Moran Obesity

  8. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  9. The Effect of Dietary Behavior Modification on Anthropometric Indices in Obese Adolescent Female Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raheleh Sabet-Sarvestani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is currently the most prevalent nutritional disease of children and adolescents, prevention and treatment of which, is required. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dietary behavior modification on anthropometric indices in the obese adolescent female students of Shiraz, 2007. Methods: In this Quasi-experimental research, 53 obese adolescent girls (BMI>95th percentile), aged 11 to

  10. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurto?lu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  11. Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Hanson; Lena Sperling; Gunvor Gard; Staffan Ipsen; Cindy Olivares Vergara

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18–65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study

  12. Anthropometric characteristics of four Polish children with mucopolysaccharidosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis relates to a group of seven prevalent types of disorders that are categorized on the basis of specific enzyme deficiency or the major symptoms, or both. A typical clinical presentation includes such symptoms and characteristics as short stature, facial dysmorphism, skeletal deformities, pulmonary dysfunction, joint stiffness and contractures, myocardial hypertrophy, neurological symptoms, and mental retardation. Case presentation The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed anthropometric assessment in four cases of children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I and II types aged from 4 to 13 years from the Podkarpacie Province (south-eastern Poland). Anthropometric assessment included several parameters and indices related to body structure. All examined patients are characterized by severely disordered physical growth in comparison with the Polish norms presented in the reference charts. Conclusions Examined children with MPS are characterized by especially low values relating to longitudinal and transversal parameters of body build. Anthropometric data could be used in early diagnosis of MPS and assessment of results of its treatment. PMID:23815875

  13. Nutritional Status of Jenukuruba Tribal Children in Mysore District, Karnataka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Jai Prabhakar; M. R. Gangadhar

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 135 Jenukuruba tribal children belonging to 6+ to 10+ age group through purposive sampling method. Anthropometric measurements and Clinical observation techniques were used to analyse the nutritional status. Assessment of nutritional status using WHO recommended anthropometric indicator and Z-score interpretation revealed, high prevalence of mild (41.5%) and severe (6.7%) stunting, more prevalence of mild

  14. Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM?+?CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM?+?CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM?+?CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM?+?CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p?diagnosis was lower in the T1DM?+?CD than the T1DM group (p?=?0.009). At two years, height velocity and change in BMI z-scores were similar in all groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c between the T1DM?+?CD and T1DM groups before or after CD diagnosis. More children with T1DM?+?CD had raised tTg levels one year after CD diagnosis than CD controls (CDx to CDx?+?1 yr; T1DM?+?CD: 100% to 71%, p?=?0.180 and CD: 100% to 45%, p?nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM?+?CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet. PMID:24885742

  15. Heritability of anthropometric phenotypes in caste populations of Visakhapatnam, India

    E-print Network

    Arya, Rector; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste ...

  16. [Diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A and nutritional anemia status in the population of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive reactions) than in school children (25.9% of positive reactions). The causes of the different reactions are now under study. PMID:3435214

  17. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  18. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Foley; S R Bird; J A White

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and

  19. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  20. A knowledge based anthropometric data associate

    E-print Network

    Reitmeyer, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    . . 132 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Fractions of stature used to estimate anthropometric parameters. . . 18 Table 2. Derived equations for parameter estimates for males. . . . . 33 Table 3. Derived equations for parameter estimates for females.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Parameters applicable to sitting workstations. . . . . Figure 2. Parameters applicable to standing workstations. . . . Page 19 20 Figure 3. Parameters applicable to both sitting and standing workstations. . . 21...

  1. Challenges in the application of anthropometric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiner Bubb

    2004-01-01

    Traditional anthropometry is characterized by measuring distances, circumferences and weights. All these values are one-dimensional. A further area of anthropometric research is measuring of human forces. These values must also be indicated as one-dimensional measures. All the called values show, according to the human variability, various distributions. In order to simplify the indication of this distribution, the 5th, 50th and

  2. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  3. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  4. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  5. EFFECT OF WOMEN'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS ON FERTILITY: STUDY OF A NON-INDUSTRIAL POPULATION IN ORISSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satyajeet Nanda

    The current paper examines plausible causal relationship if any, between women's nutritional status and fertility, among Scheduled Tribes, more or less a non- industrial rural population, in Orissa, an eastern Indian state. The variables on nutritional status of women were studied from primary data collected using anthropometric tools and techniques. For analysis, besides frequency distribution, separate ANOVA tests have been

  6. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review data on nutrition and liver transplantation.

  7. Evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Giuliana Bastos; Macedo, Alessandra; Nakasato, Miyoko; Bruno, Maria Lúcia Mendes

    2009-12-01

    A retrospective study using anthropometric data to assess the evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight. We included patients with an initial body mass index (BMI) < 17 kg/m(2) (malnourished, n = 10) or > 27 kg/m(2) (overweight, n = 20). Each patient subsequently had three appointments with a nutritionist (nutritional interventions). In the malnourished group, there were no significant post-intervention changes in the anthropometric variables. In the overweight group, however, nutritional intervention had a positive impact on weight, BMI and waist circumference. PMID:20126924

  8. Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Bale; D Bradbury; E Colley

    1986-01-01

    Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The

  9. An anthropometric analysis of elite Australian track cyclists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. McLean; Anthony W. Parker

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted on 35 elite male Australian track cyclists having a mean age of 22.6 years and who had been competing on average for 9 years. The relationship of anthropometric parameters to both bicycle saddle height and cycling performance was also investigated. Subjects were allocated, for purposes of comparison, to an endurance or sprint group on the

  10. Anthropometric Breast Measurement: A Study of 385 Turkish Female Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilek K. Av?ar; Ahmet C. Ayg?t; Erol Benlier; Hüsamettin Top; O?uz Ta?k?nalp

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements and proportions of the human body have made a significant contribution to the science of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Objective: The present study was performed to measure anthropometric breast values in Turkish female students and compare them with those of women in other nations.Methods: The study included 385 female undergraduate student volunteers between the ages of 18

  11. Anthropometrical parameters and markers of obesity in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E L B Novelli; Y S Diniz; C M Galhardi; G M X Ebaid; H G Rodrigues; F Mani; A A H Fernandes; A C Cicogna; J L V B Novelli Filho

    2007-01-01

    Summary The present study was undertaken to determine anthropometrical parameters in male adult Wistar rats. We tested the hypothesis that the anthropometrical index may identify obesity and may predict its adverse effects on lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats. Two experimental protocols were performed. In the first experiment, 50 male Wistar rats, 21 days old and fed a control

  12. Nutrition, morbidity, and survival in South African children with Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Wessels, G; Hesseling, P B; Van Ommeren, K H; Boonstra, V

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-nine children with Wilms' tumor (WT) were divided into a normal or poorly nourished group according to anthropometric parameters. The 2 groups were compared for morbidity and survival. There was no difference in the median age or stage of disease in the 38 well nourished and 21 poorly nourished children. There was no difference in the number of children in the normal or poorly nourished group who developed a raised urea or creatinine level, febrile episodes, severe stomatitis, varicella, or upper or lower respiratory infections, or who needed intravenous antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, or red cell and platelet transfusions. Projected survival rate was 56 and 74% for normal and poorly nourished children, respectively (p = .3). Poor nutrition at diagnosis, as determined by anthropometry, had no effect on the morbidity of treatment or survival in children with WT. Based on these results, selective dietary supplementation instead of routine intensive parenteral nutritional support for all children with WT is recommended in countries with limited resources. PMID:10407868

  13. Prediction of fasting plasma glucose status using anthropometric measures for diagnosing type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Ku, Boncho; Nam, Jiho; Pham, Duong Duc; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that body fat distribution and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Prediction of type 2 diabetes using a combination of anthropometric measures remains a controversial issue. This study aims to predict the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) status that is used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by a combination of various measures among Korean adults. A total of 4870 subjects (2955 females and 1915 males) participated in this study. Based on 37 anthropometric measures, we compared predictions of FPG status using individual versus combined measures using two machine-learning algorithms. The values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the predictions by logistic regression and naive Bayes classifier based on the combination of measures were 0.741 and 0.739 in females, respectively, and were 0.687 and 0.686 in males, respectively. Our results indicate that prediction of FPG status using a combination of anthropometric measures was superior to individual measures alone in both females and males. We show that using balanced data of normal and high FPG groups can improve the prediction and reduce the intrinsic bias of the model toward the majority class. PMID:24608055

  14. Nutritional Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

  15. Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Brundrett

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive appraisal of the mycorrhizal literature provides data for 336 plant families representing 99% of flowering\\u000a plants, with regard to mycorrhizas and other nutritional adaptations. In total, arbuscular (AM), orchid, ectomycorrhizas (EM)\\u000a and ericoid mycorrhizas and nonmycorrhizal (NM) roots occur in 74%, 9%, 2%, 1% and 6% of Angiosperm species respectively.\\u000a Many families of NM plants have alternative nutritional

  16. Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

  17. Maternal autonomy and child nutrition : Evidence from rural Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Dancer; Anu Rammohan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main determinants of child nutrition in rural Nepal, focusing on the influential role of maternal autonomy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses data from the 2006 Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) to estimate econometric models using OLS and logit techniques. The dependent variables are the two anthropometric measures of child

  18. Maternal autonomy and child nutrition: Evidence from rural Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Rammohan Diane Dancer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main determinants of child nutrition in rural Nepal, focusing on the influential role of maternal autonomy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses data from the 2006 Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) to estimate econometric models using OLS and logit techniques. The dependent variables are the two anthropometric measures of child

  19. Anthropometric characteristics of elite cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Stuelcken, Max; Pyne, David; Sinclair, Peter

    2007-12-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current anthropometric profiles of elite Australian female and male cricket fast bowlers and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. The participants were 26 female (mean age 22.5 years, s = 4.5; height 1.71 m, s = 0.05; body mass 66.2 kg, s = 7.5) and 26 male (mean age 23.9 years, s = 3.5; height 1.88 m, s = 0.05; body mass 87.9 kg, s = 8.2) fast bowlers. The anthropometric profiles included the measurement of skinfolds, and segment lengths, breadths, and girths. A series of derived variables assessing the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, the bivariate overlap zone, relative body size and proportionality, and somatotype were also calculated. The male bowlers had larger length, breadth, and girth measurements than their female counterparts. There were differences in proportionality between the sexes, with only the male bowlers exhibiting characteristics that could be considered "large" relative to height. The female bowlers had a higher sum of seven skinfolds (P < 0.001), were more endomorphic (F(1,50) = 30.18, P < 0.001), and less mesomorphic (F(1,50 = 10.85, P < 0.01) than the male bowlers. These reference data should be useful to practitioners and researchers interested in cricket. Further research is needed to clarify why only male fast bowlers had variables that were proportionally large relative to height. PMID:17852680

  20. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic disorders and nutritional status with the occurrence of ATD. PMID:25614676

  1. Nutrition Transition, Socioeconomic Differentiation, and Gender Among Adult Xavante Indians, Brazilian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Welch; Aline A. Ferreira; Ricardo V. Santos; Silvia A. Gugelmin; Guilherme Werneck; Carlos E. A. Coimbra

    2009-01-01

    High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are increasingly common among indigenous Amazonian societies experiencing\\u000a greater involvement in market economies. An important factor in such nutritional transition is internal socioeconomic differentiation,\\u000a which partially accounts for fatness frequencies. We report the results of a diachronic anthropometric comparison and cross-sectional\\u000a anthropometric and socioeconomic survey of Xavante adults from a single, large community.

  2. Anthropometric indices and life style practices of the indigenous Orang Asli adults in Lembah Belum, Grik of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Hayati Mohd; Ching, Ting Siew; Ibrahim, Roshita; Lola, Safiih

    2007-01-01

    A nutritional status survey of Orang Asli (Aboriginal) adults in Lembah Belum, Grik, has been conducted involving a total of 138 subjects. Jahai (58.7%) was the main ethnic group as compared to that of Temiar (41.3%). Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) characteristics, the majority (63.2%) of the respondents were normal, 26.7% underweight and 10.1% were either overweight or obese. However, by using two different indices of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, 1.6% and 10.8% of the total respondents revealed abdominal obesity, respectively. Measurement of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) indicated that about 40% showed nutritional insufficiency whereas 0.8% showed over-nutrition. Body fat classification revealed that 53.4% of the respondents were thin, 45.8% at normal level and only 0.8% were obese. Student's t-test revealed a significant difference in anthropometric indices of body weight, height, MUAMC, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and body fat according to gender. Meanwhile, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in body weight, waist circumference, WHR and body fat according to different age categories. It was also found that those who smoked had lower BMI compared with non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher BMI and WHR among the respondents. Pearson's correlation test between anthropometric measurements and socio-economic and demographic factors showed that ethnic group was the strongest variable. PMID:17215180

  3. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Daniël; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 ± 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533

  4. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Duncan; L Woodfield; Y al-Nakeeb

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players.Method: Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using

  5. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  6. The Correlation of Prenatal Zinc Concentration and Deficiency with Anthropometric Factors

    PubMed Central

    Norrozi, Mansoreh; Moosavi, Rayhaneh Miri

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of serum zinc in pregnant women in different gestational ages and correlation with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors in Iranian women referring to prenatal care public health clinics. Materials and methods We analyzed the zinc concentrations in plasma samples obtained at different gestational ages from 961 women and recorded BMI at the first trimester in pregnant women who were screened for a trial designed to evaluate the zinc concentration. Subjects were from different socio economical backgrounds and attended public health clinics for their prenatal care. All analyses were performed by SPSS (version 16). P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results The results showed that after plasma zinc concentrations were adjusted with Parity, weight (early pregnancy), BMI (at early pregnancy), age and educational statues. Plasma zinc deficiency declined as gestational age progressed, however it was not significant. There was no significant correlation between zinc concentration, anthropometric, method of contraception and socio factors. However, there were significant relation between parity (p = 0.007) and weight at early pregnancy (p= 0.039) with serum zinc levels. Conclusion We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations decreased during the late first trimester to the early third trimester and with parity. These findings may indicate that the deficient levels of zinc in the latter third of pregnancy suggest a tendency for insufficient maternal nutrition. However larger studies are required to support this finding. PMID:24971129

  7. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  8. Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification?

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

  9. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  10. Nutrition Frontiers

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

  11. Anthropometric Measures and their Relation to Incident Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae Hee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relation between anthropometric measures and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Design Prospective cohort study. Participants We included 78,777 women in the Nurses Health Study and 41,352 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods Females and male health professionals were prospectively followed during the periods 1980–2004 and 1986–2004, respectively. Eligible participants were 40+ years old, did not have POAG at baseline and reported receiving eye examinations during follow-up. Information regarding anthropometric measures, potential confounders and ophthalmic status was updated using biennial questionnaires. During follow-up, 980 self-reported POAG cases were confirmed with medical record review. Main outcome measures Multivariable rate ratios (MVRR) of POAG and their 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]. Results There was no significant relation between cumulatively averaged body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 and POAG overall (p for trend = 0.06). However, in relation to POAG with intraocular pressure (IOP) < 22 mm Hg at diagnosis, each unit increase in BMI was associated with a 6% reduced risk in women (MVRR = 0.94 [0.91–0.98]; p=0.01) but not for men (MVRR = 1.02 [0.96–1.09]; p=0.57); this gender difference was significant (p-heterogeneity =0.03). In multivariable analyses to explore the independent effects of height and weight, weight (as height-adjusted weight residuals; p for trend = 0.002), but not height (p for trend = 0.10) appeared to account for most of the inverse association between BMI and POAG with IOP ? 21 mm Hg at diagnosis in women. There was no association between BMI and POAG with IOP > 21 mm Hg at diagnosis for either gender (p for trend ? 0.26). Among women, analyses found that the relations between anthropometric parameters and the two POAG subtypes (POAG with IOP ? 21 mm Hg versus POAG with IOP > 21 mm Hg when diagnosed) were significantly different (p ? 0.0001). Conclusions Among women, higher BMI was associated with a lower risk of POAG with IOP ? 21 mm Hg at diagnosis. The factors contributing to this tendency may yield insight into the pathogenesis of POAG. PMID:20382429

  12. Mission Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    swinward

    2010-04-12

    Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

  13. Nutrition Expert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

  14. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  15. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ?7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  16. Interrelationships Between Anthropometric Variables and Overweight in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To answer the questions: how does body mass index (BMI) correlate to five overweight related anthropometric variables during different ages in childhood, and which anthropometric variables contribute most to variation in BMI during childhood? Methods Data on BMI, height (H), sitting height (SH), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to sitting height ratio (WSHtR), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and triceps skinfold (TSF), from 4,576 Norwegian children 4.00–15.99 years of age, were transformed to standard deviation scores (SDS) and studied using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Results The correlations between BMI SDS and the standardized anthropometric variables were in general strong and positive. For all variables, the correlations were weakest in the youngest age group and highest between 7 and 12 years. WC SDS and WHtR SDS were most strongly correlated with BMI SDS through all ages and in both sexes. A model with seven anthropometric variables adjusted for age and sex explained 81.4% of the variation in BMI SDS. When adjusted for all other variables, WC SDS contributed most to the variation in BMI SDS (b?=?0.467, CI [0.372, 0.562]). Age group, but not sex, contributed significantly to variation in BMI SDS. Conclusion The interrelationships between BMI SDS and five standardized overweight related anthropometric variables were dependent on age, being weakest in the youngest age group. Independent of sex and age, WC SDS was in this study superior to other anthropometric variables in contributing to variation in BMI SDS during childhood. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:502–510, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24782200

  17. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  18. Nutritional Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

  19. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  20. [Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet. PMID:23175415

  1. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  2. Relationships among anthropometric and stroking characteristics of college swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grimston, S K; Hay, J G

    1986-02-01

    A theoretical model was developed to identify anthropometric variables relevant to success in swimming. Frontal areas, cross-sectional areas (XSA), and lengths of body segments were measured on twelve members of a men's college team using a photographic procedure. Motion-picture films were taken of the subjects competing in freestyle events and were analyzed to determine the average stroke length (SL), average stroke frequency (SF), and average stroking speed (S). Correlation and multiple regression procedures were used to determine the relationships among the anthropometric variables and SL, SF, and S, respectively. Of the 21 anthropometric variables selected with the aid of the theoretical model, 6 were found to be significantly related to one or more of the measures of swimming performance when the influence of event distance was partialled out (P less than or equal to 0.05). The anthropometric variables characterizing the subjects accounted for 89% (SL), 41% (SF), and 17% (S) of the variances in the measured characteristics of their strokes. The axilla XSA was shown to have the largest influence on both SL and SF, accounting for 57% of the variance in the SL and 24% in the SF. These results suggest that although S is little influenced by the physique of a swimmer, the combination of SL and SF used to attain a given S is very much a function of his physique. PMID:3959866

  3. Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Maud

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for

  4. Truck driver anthropometric data: Estimation of the current population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda A. Kinghorn; Alvah C. Bittner

    1995-01-01

    A challenge facing designers of commercial trucks and other commercial vehicles has been a lack of current operator anthropometric data on which to base design decisions. Existing data suffer from a number of limitations including those related to secular size changes, ethnic and gender composition shifts, and excessive standard errors (S.E.) of percentiles estimates. These and other limitations point out

  5. Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of Chinese Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.

  6. Anthropometric characteristics and gait transition speed in human locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davor Šentija; Marija Rakovac; Vesna Babi?

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and the preferred transition speed (PTS) in human locomotion, in both genders. Previous studies exploring body measures as possible determinants of the PTS were biased toward longitudinal body dimensions, while the relationship between the PTS and transverse body dimensions has so far not been examined. Longitudinal and

  7. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  8. A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing!

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limited body of research suggests that ongoing maintenance enteral nutrition (MEN) can be beneficial in maintaining disease remission in Crohn’s Disease (CD). We aimed to assess how achievable MEN is and whether it helps to prolong remission. Methods Patients newly diagnosed with CD in 2010 and 2011 who commenced exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for 8 weeks were followed up for a year post diagnosis. All patients who took EEN were encouraged to continue MEN post EEN. Data on azathioprine use was also collected. Categorical variables were compared using chi–square/Fischer’s exact test. Medians were expressed along with complete data ranges. Results 59 patients (34 male, median age 11.07 years, range 2.5-16.33 years) were identified. 11/59 (18%) had a poor response to EEN and were switched to steroids. 48/59 patients completed 8 weeks EEN and achieved clinical remission/response. 46/48 patients received Modulen IBD®, 29/48 (60%) consumed EEN orally and 19/48 (40%) via NGT. 15/48 (31%) patients were able to continue MEN post EEN completion. MEN was consumed for a mean of 10.8 months (range 4–14 months). 14/15 patients drank MEN and 1/15 had MEN via NGT. Remission rates at 1 year in patients continuing MEN were 60% (9/15) compared to15% (2/13) in patients taking no treatment (p?=?0.001) and 65% (13/20) in patients taking azathioprine (p?=?0.14). Conclusion A sub group of patients can continue MEN as a maintenance treatment and this seems a useful strategy, especially in those who are not commencing azathioprine. PMID:24645851

  9. Predictors of survival in terminal-cancer patients with irreversible bowel obstruction receiving home parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Pasanisi; Andrea Orban; Luca Scalfi; Lucia Alfonsi; Lidia Santarpia; Enzo Zurlo; Angela Celona; Adelaide Potenza; Franco Contaldo

    2001-01-01

    Clinical, anthropometric, hematologic, and biochemical variables, evaluated immediately before starting nutritional treatment, were related to survival in 76 terminal-cancer patients with irreversible bowel obstruction receiving home parenteral nutrition. At baseline, abnormally low values were observed in the following percentages of patients: 40.8% for body mass index, 59.2% for serum albumin, 84.2% for hemoglobin, 48.7% for lymphocyte count, and 60% for

  10. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OFHELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTED CHILDREN IN GUATEMALA AS COMPARED WITH UNINFECTED PEERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORGE M. QUINONEZ; FRANCISCO CHEW; OLGA TORRES

    1999-01-01

    The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the nutritional status of children in a developing country was studied using a cross-sectional design. Children attending an all-girl public school in inner Guatemala City, Guatemala were evaluated to acquire sociodemographic information and anthropometric nutritional parameters (weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA)), and detect H. pylori-specific serum IgG antibodies. Of 211 children 5-10 years

  11. Growth and nutritional status in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wioleta Um?awska; Charles Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Growth retardation, delayed puberty and malnutrition are frequently observed in children suffering from cystic fibrosis. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate growth and nutritional status in children with cystic fibrosis on the basis of body proportions and body mass index. Subjects and methods: Anthropometric data were collected from the medical histories of 62 patients treated in

  12. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  13. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  14. Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenmei Zhang; Danan Gu; Mark D. Hayward

    2010-01-01

    Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger

  15. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  16. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  17. Nutrition Cafe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

  18. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  19. Nutritional Science

    Cancer.gov

    This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.

  20. Anthropometric Measurements for Assessment of Body Fat in Young People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sirbu; D. Curseu; M. Popa

    \\u000a Excessive body fat is associated with various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy. The\\u000a aim of our study was to assess body fat mass by anthropometric measurements and to compare the results with those obtained\\u000a by bioelectrical impedance

  1. Parenteral Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian S. Jackson; Alan L. Buchman

    Parenteral nutrition becomes necessary when the gastrointestinal tract has insufficient function as to afford sufficient fluid,\\u000a electrolyte and nutrient absorption. Indications for this therapy include prolonged postoperative ileus, prolonged intestinal\\u000a obstruction, short bowel syndrome, various malabsorptive disorders, proximal enteric fistulas for which an enteral feeding\\u000a tube cannot be placed distal to, severe acute pancreatitis and severe mucositis\\/esophagitis. Parenteral nutrition, although

  2. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  3. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  4. Does being an orphan decrease the nutritional status of Luo children?

    PubMed

    Zidron, Amy M; Juma, Elizabeth; Ice, Gillian H

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is creating a generation of orphaned children in Africa. The number of orphans will continue to increase long after the HIV/AIDS crisis has peaked; therefore, it is important to determine how best to assist these children. Current studies investigating the impact of orphanhood have conflicting results and conclusions. Several studies report that orphans are at a disadvantage and are more likely to suffer from malnutrition, whereas other studies report no difference between the nutritional status of orphans and nonorphans. Four hundred eleven Luo children (mean age 9 +/- 1 years) were recruited to participate in a study investigating the impact of orphanhood on nutritional status. Participants underwent an interview, anthropometric measurements, testing for anemia, a clinical history, and a physical exam. Anthropometric variables and hemoglobin level were compared across groups using a t-test. The reference population used for comparison of anthropometric variables is the 2000 CDC growth reference data. All analyses were gender specific, and the effect of length of orphanhood was also investigated. The data presented here suggest that there is no significant difference between the nutritional status of orphaned and nonorphaned Luo children. This study supports research indicating there is little, if any, difference in nutritional indicators between orphans and nonorphans. Orphans may live in households with higher socioeconomic statuses than nonorphans. Luo orphans may not be at higher risk for poor nutritional status than nonorphans; therefore, interventions targeted at this age group should include both orphaned and nonorphaned children. PMID:19309681

  5. Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2014-07-01

    Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

  6. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

  7. Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer; Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

    1995-06-30

    Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

  8. Nutritional intake and physical performance capacity in Flemish schoolchildren (seven to12 years): issues for responsible marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Deriemaeker; J. Taeymans; D. Aerenhouts; M. Hebbelinck; P. Clarys

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – It is the aim of the present paper to describe the nutritional intake, the physical performance capacity and certain anthropometric variables of a group of schoolchildren (n=297) aged seven to 12 years. The findings on this population may be used to give advice in specific marketing situations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The subjects were asked to complete a three-day food

  9. Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Hendriek C. Boshuizen; John Whittaker; Antonio Agudo; Paolo Vineis; Paolo Boffetta; Majken K. Jensen; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjønneland; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Manuela M Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Naomi E Allen; Timothy J Key; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Georgia Kyriazi; Stavroula Soukara; Antonia Trichopoulou; Salvatore Panico; Domenico Palli; Sabina Sieri; Rosario Tumino; Petra H M Peeters; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Frederike L Büchner; Inger Torhild Gram; Eiliv Lund; Eva Ardanaz; María-Dolores Chirlaque; Miren Dorronsoro Iraeta; Maria-José Sánchez Pérez; José Ramón Quirós; Göran Berglund; Lars Janzon; Torgny Rasmuson; Lars Weinehall; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression

  10. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, M J; Woodfield, L; al?Nakeeb, Y

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Method Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath?Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using a leg and back dynamometer, low back and hamstring flexibility was assessed using the sit and reach test, and the vertical jump was used as a measure of lower body power. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using the 20?m multistage fitness test. Results Setters were more ectomorphic (p<0.05) and less mesomorphic (p<0.01) than centres. Mean (SD) of somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) for setters and centres was 2.6 (0.9), 1.9 (1.1), 5.3 (1.2) and 2.2 (0.8), 3.9 (1.1), 3.6 (0.7) respectively. Hitters had significantly greater low back and hamstring flexibility than opposites. Mean (SD) for sit and reach was 19.3 (8.3)?cm for opposites and 37 (10.7)?cm for hitters. There were no other significant differences in physiological and anthropometric variables across playing positions (all p>0.05). Conclusion Setters tend to be endomorphic ectomorphs, hitters and opposites tend to be balanced ectomorphs, whereas centres tend to be ectomorphic mesomorphs. These results indicate the need for sports scientists and conditioning professionals to take the body type of volleyball players into account when designing individualised position specific training programmes. PMID:16799112

  11. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  12. Relationship between dietary intake and use of protease inhibitors with anthropometric and biochemical parameters of lipodystrophy in people living with hiv.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tatiane Andreza Lima; Barboza, Renata Rangel; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; de Medeiros, Rafaela Catherine da Silva Cunha; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Souza, Hunaway Albuquerque Galvão; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by redistribution of body fat and disorders of glicidic and lipid metabolism. Although its etiology is related to infection and drug therapy, there is little evidence regarding the nutritional disturbances on this association. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary intake and use of protease inhibitors (PIs) with anthropometric and biochemical parameters in HIV positive patients. The study included 50 patients. A questionnaire about socioeconomic status, lifestyle and infection history was taken. In addition, it was conducted the evaluation of dietary intake (frequency questionnaire), anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, corrected arm muscle area) and biochemistry tests (glycemia and lipid profile). Only 37% of the sample was classified as "good food consumption", 54% were overweight or obese and 66% presented high waist circumference. The group with good food consumption had higher HDL-C (p=0.04) levels than the group with poor food consumption. Patients taking PIs presented VLDL-C (p=0.023) and triglycerides (p=0.024) levels significantly higher. These results indicated the necessity for continuous monitoring of HIV-positive patients and non-pharmacological interventions such as nutrition education and practice of physical exercises. PMID:25335684

  13. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

  14. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584

  15. Do swimming exercises induce anthropometric changes in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Peczak-Graczyk, Alicja; Waade, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of regular participation in school swimming lessons on anthropometric variables and postural defect occurrence in junior high school students. An intervention group (n?=?116) and a control group (n?=?114) of boys and girls aged 13.4?±?0.3 years had an equal physical education obligatory course requirement at school, with the intervention group additionally participating in swimming class once a week for 2 years. Anthropometric variables were recorded in both groups 3 times between autumn 2006 and 2008, and a clinical examination was conducted twice during this same period of time. Students from the intervention group had lower body mass than their peers in the control group at the end of the course (ANOVA, P?

  16. Anthropometry, nutrition status and thymic size of Gypsy newborns from southwestern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Varga, I; Toth, F; Uhrinova, A; Nescakova, E; Pospisilova, V; Polak, S

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy population represents a specific minority in Slovakia that differs from the majority population by its origin and genetic markers, as well as by generally lower social and economic status and lower hygienic standards of living. The aim of the present work is the analysis of anthropometric dimensions and indexes, as well as of thymus size, in the group of Gypsy and non-Gypsy newborns from the Southern Slovakia. Our group of 212 physiological newborns consisted of 33 Gypsy and 179 non-Gypsy newborns. All newborns were underwent anthropometric examination and their thymus size was assessed by ultrasonography and calculated as so-called Thymic Index". Gypsy newborns show statistically significant lower anthropometric dimensions (birth weight and birth body length, head and chest circumference) when compared to non-Gypsy newborns, however, they do not differ in the values of nutritional status indicators (arm circumference, Quételet index and Rohrer index). They do not differ even in the thymus size that can be regarded as a "barometer" of the nutrition and of some negative stimuli. In spite of generally deficient nutrition and lower health status of the Gypsy minority in Slovakia, we did not find any significant differences in the indicators of nutritional status or in thymus size (Tab. 2, Ref. 34). PMID:19634577

  17. Seminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics"

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    and politics: Part 2 Unit 3 Food aid: World Food Program, North Korea 2/13 Intersection of nutrition and politics: Part 3 Unit 4 Food assistance: SNAP, World Bank, Haiti 2/20 Intersection of nutritionSeminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics" Thursday 2:00 ­ 3:30pm Davison 216 Instructor: Daniel

  18. The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function

    E-print Network

    Jornsten, Rebecka

    The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24.D., Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University Title and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition

  19. [Preoperative nutrition in abdominal surgery: recommendations and reality].

    PubMed

    Cristaudi, A; Cerantola, Y; Grass, F; Demartines, N; Hubner, M; Schaefer, M

    2011-06-22

    Malnutrition concerns up to 50% at in-hospital admission. Its diagnosis and treatment are fundamental parts of the surgical approach because nutritional status directly influences the clinical outcome. The Nutritional Risk Score (NRS-2002) represents the recommended screening tool by the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN). Patients with a score > or = 3 and aged > 70 years old, should receive a nutritional support during 7-14 day before surgery. Depending on patient's clinical conditions, the enteral route of administration should be preferred. Despite strong evidence in favor of nutritional supplementation, much effort must be done to implement these supportive strategies in the everyday clinical practice. PMID:21815536

  20. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  1. Biology of the Tribal Groups of Rajasthan, India: 2. Physical Growth and Anthropometric Somatotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Bhasin; Sweta Jain

    In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate adolescent physical growth and anthropometric somatotypes of the tribal groups of Rajasthan. Cross-sectional data on 2928 samples belonging to adolescent (8 + to 18 + ) and adult (19 & above) age groups were collected during the year 1999-2001 for various anthropometric measurements, which included height, weight, diameters, skinfolds

  2. Nutrition Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  3. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  4. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  5. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  6. Nutrition care activities and DRGs.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, S A; Himburg, S P

    1987-11-01

    The recent passage and implementation of the prospective payment system (PPS) for Medicare inpatient services have had a strong impact on dietitians practicing in southern Florida. Because several local hospitals service regions in which 90% of the population is 65 years old or older, the annual revenues from Medicare have been reduced. The hospitals still have to meet basic overhead costs and profit margins. This has resulted in the elimination of several dietetic positions. Therefore, dietitians need to establish a cost-benefit justification for the nutrition care and support of patients. This study is the initial phase of a plan to define the nutrition care services the dietitian provides and to identify the most frequently occurring diagnosis related grouping (DRG) categories. For 3 weeks, 31 dietitians maintained logs that detailed dietetic intervention and treatment for each of the 3,827 patients seen. The nutrition care activities reported most frequently by dietitians were basic services, hospital visit and reassessment, initial consultation, and screening to rule out malnutrition. The mean time spent in all nutrition care activities ranged from 13 to 33 minutes. The most frequently occurring DRGs were those for diabetes, heart failure, circulatory disorders, specific cerebrovascular accident, and transient ischemic attacks. Overall, the type of nutrition care activities and the time spent in those activities were significantly different among the hospitals studied. The differences reflect the philosophies of each facility. The types of DRG categories observed reflect the age of the population served. PMID:3117866

  7. Maternal and Child nutrition

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

  8. Observing anthropometric and acanthosis nigrican changes among children over time.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group differences in height, weight, body composition, and the amount of change in these variables over time were explored. Our findings demonstrated that children who maintain or gain the AN marker had the greatest height, weight, and body composition changes over time. It is apparent that the AN marker does disappear in some children and that this is associated with lower weight gain and body composition loss. If interventions can be developed targeting children who present with the marker, it is likely that their risk of developing type 2 diabetes could be reduced. PMID:23598567

  9. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24353140

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and anthropometric indicators in male children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E P; Minatto, G; Berria, J; Silva, S F Dos S; Fidelix, Y L; Ribeiro, R R; Santos, K D; Petroski, E L

    2014-12-01

    Background/objectives:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body image dissatisfaction and body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) and to identify which of these anthropometric indicators are more strongly associated, and finally to estimate the prevalence of overweight and high body adiposity in male children and adolescents, according to maturational stages.Subjects/methods:Overall, 1499 students aged from 7 to 17 years from Cascavel, PR, Brazil, were evaluated. Body image was self-rated through the body silhouette scale. Body weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured and BMI and BF% were calculated. Sexual maturity was self-assessed by the development of pubic hair. Data analysis used the Fisher exact test, the ?(2)-test and multinomial logistic regression.Results:Body image dissatisfaction because of excess weight was associated with BMI and BF%, whereas in prepubertal students, this association did not remain in the adjusted analysis. In pubescent students, both BMI (odds ratio (OR)=5.25, confidence interval (CI) 95%=3.06-9.01) and BF% (OR=2.42, CI 95%=1.60-3.66), and in post-pubescent students for BMI (OR=3.77, CI 95%=1.33-10.70), the association remained. Body image dissatisfaction because of thinness was associated only with BF% in pubescent (OR=0.50, CI 95%= 0.33-0.75) and post-pubescent students (OR=0.38, CI 95%= 0.16-0.94).Conclusions:Body image dissatisfaction was associated with BMI and BF%, especially in pubescent and post-pubescent students.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.252. PMID:25469465

  11. Three-dimensional anthropometric analysis of the Chinese nose.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhao, Yimin; Bai, Shizhu; Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Information about normal nasal dimensions is essential to rhinoplasty, but reports of anthropometric measurements of the Chinese nose are limited. Three-dimensional (3D) measuring apparatuses have been introduced into craniofacial anthropometry and have demonstrated advantages over conventional methods. This study aims to introduce a new 3D method for anthropometry and to provide guidance for plastic surgeons treating the Chinese nose. A total of 289 young Chinese adults (146 males and 143 females) were recruited for this study and a 3D stereo photogrammetry system (3DSS -II, Shanghai Digital Manufacturing Corporation, China) was used to acquire their facial image data. Geomagic Studio 10.0 software was used to process the data and to realign the images in a unified co-ordinate system. For each image, the co-ordinate values of 17 landmarks of the nose were collected, and the mean was calculated for males and females separately. Points based on the mean co-ordinate values were used to establish 3D stereo models. Subsequently, nasal parameters--including nine linear measurements, three angular measurements and seven proportions--were obtained by analysing these models. The 3D stereo models representing the Chinese male and female nasal shapes were built and the nasal parameters were acquired. Some differences between male and female nasal shapes were identified. This study describes a new method for 3D anthropometric analysis of the nose; the method would be applicable to anthropometry of other parts of the body as well. The 3D models of Chinese noses built in this study will provide very useful guidance for plastic surgeons in clinical practice. PMID:20056506

  12. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  14. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010

    Cancer.gov

    Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

  15. Nutrition.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...

  16. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

  17. Nutritional status of patients hospitalized in pediatric clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tülay ERKAN; Sema YALVAÇ; Süheyla ALTAY; Fügen ÇULLU ÇOKU; Ahmet AYDIN; Tufan KUTLU

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of children at the moment of their hospitali- zation and to investigate whether there is a relation between the diagnosis and nutritional status. Methods: Patients hospitali- zed in the Children's Clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (exc- luding emergency, newborn intensive care and newborn special care units) between December

  18. Obesity and nutrition in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study IV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Guillaume; L Lapidus; A Lambert; D-M Guillaume

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the association between nutritional and familial factors and obesity in boys and girls.Design: Randomized, cross-sectional population study.Setting: Province de Luxembourg, Belgium.Subjects: One thousand and twenty-eight boys and girls in age strata 6–8, 8–10 and 10–12 y, comprising 70.3% of primary cohort.Methods: Examinations included anthropometric measurements and questionnaires covering familial, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. A three day dietary

  19. Systematic review: nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: NUTRITION IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN’S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. DAY; K. E. WHITTEN; M. SIDLER; D. A. LEMBERG

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Background At least 25% of individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) have onset of disease in childhood. Almost all children with CD have nutri- tional impairments, such as weight loss or stunting, at diagnosis or sub- sequently. Nutritional therapy (exclusive enteral nutrition) is established as a valid and effective treatment in paediatric CD. The advantages of this approach are

  20. Evaluation of nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaynar, k; Songul Tat, T; Ulusoy, S; Cansiz, M; Ozkan, G; Gul, S; Bektas, O

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to investigate nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients by using anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Methods: Data from the last 6 months of 22 adult hemodialysis patients with a mean age of 61 ± 14 years were analyzed retrospectively. Dialysis vintage, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), serum biochemical parameters, mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were determined as mean and standard deviation. Correlations between the variables were computed by coefficient p of Pearson. Results: We found significant positive correlations: age of patients versus C-reactive protein, MAMC versus LDL-Cholesterol, MAMC versus body mass index, albumin versus hemoglobin. There were also significant negative correlations: age versus serum creatinine, age versus albumin, age versus intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), dialysis vintage versus MAMC. Conclusion: In conclusion, age seem to be negatively associated with iPTH and albumin. As dialysis vintage increases, muscle mass seems to decrease. PMID:23935290

  1. A Simple Nutrition Screening Tool for Pediatric Inpatients.

    PubMed

    White, Melinda; Lawson, Karen; Ramsey, Rebecca; Dennis, Nicole; Hutchinson, Zoe; Soh, Xin Ying; Matsuyama, Misa; Doolan, Annabel; Todd, Alwyn; Elliott, Aoife; Bell, Kristie; Littlewood, Robyn

    2014-08-01

    Background: Pediatric nutrition risk screening tools are not routinely implemented throughout many hospitals, despite prevalence studies demonstrating malnutrition is common in hospitalized children. Existing tools lack the simplicity of those used to assess nutrition risk in the adult population. This study reports the accuracy of a new, quick, and simple pediatric nutrition screening tool (PNST) designed to be used for pediatric inpatients. Materials and Methods: The pediatric Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA) and anthropometric measures were used to develop and assess the validity of 4 simple nutrition screening questions comprising the PNST. Participants were pediatric inpatients in 2 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 1 regional hospital. Results: Two affirmative answers to the PNST questions were found to maximize the specificity and sensitivity to the pediatric SGNA and body mass index (BMI) z scores for malnutrition in 295 patients. The PNST identified 37.6% of patients as being at nutrition risk, whereas the pediatric SGNA identified 34.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the PNST compared with the pediatric SGNA were 77.8% and 82.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of the PNST at detecting patients with a BMI z score of less than -2 was 89.3%, and the specificity was 66.2%. Both the PNST and pediatric SGNA were relatively poor at detecting patients who were stunted or overweight, with the sensitivity and specificity being less than 69%. Conclusion: The PNST provides a sensitive, valid, and simpler alternative to existing pediatric nutrition screening tools such as Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth (STRONGkids), and Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) to ensure the early detection of hospitalized children at nutrition risk. PMID:25096546

  2. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  3. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Prentice

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence on diet and nutrition relating to osteoporosis and provide recommendations for preventing osteoporosis, in particular, osteopototic fracture. Approach: Firstly, to review the definition, diagnosis and epidemiology of osteoporosis, to discuss the difficulties in using bone mineral density to define osteoporosis risk in a world-wide context and to propose that fragility fracture should be considered as

  4. LabNotes - Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    2006-10-15

    An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

  5. Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew John Barlow; Malcolm Findlay; Karen Gresty; Carlton Cooke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17

  6. The relationship between anthropometric factors and body-balancing movements in postural balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Kejonen; Kari Kauranen; Heikki Vanharanta

    2003-01-01

    Kejonen P, Kauranen K, Vanharanta H. The relationship between anthropometric factors and body-balancing movements in postural balance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:17-22. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and body-balancing movements when standing on 2 legs with eyes open and eyes closed. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A university physiatry laboratory. Participants: One hundred randomly selected subjects (50 men, 50

  7. Food Acquisition Habits, Nutrient Intakes, and Anthropometric Data of Havasupai Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDA A. VAUGHAN; DANIEL C. BENYSHEK; JOHN F. MARTIN

    1997-01-01

    Objective To describe the dietary patterns, anthropometric data, and food sources of Havasupai adults (?18 years old) and determine the effect of age and gender.Design Dietary intakes (one 24-hour recall), anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) and demographic data, including sites of food purchases, were obtained. Food sources of selected nutrients were calculated from diet recalls.Setting\\/subjects 92

  8. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  9. The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn. PMID:25246836

  10. Beverage consumption and anthropometric outcomes among schoolchildren in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Makkes, Sabine; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Groeneveld, Iris F; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2011-10-01

    This analysis explores the clustering of beverage patterns in a single day in private vs. public school children in urban Guatemala. This study is based on measurements taken from 356 third- and fourth-grade pupils from the highland city of Quetzaltenango. Height, weight and body mass index were assessed, and one day's intake of all foods and beverages using a pictorial workbook and dietician assisted recall. Mean differences in beverage consumption were compared for private vs. public school children and by anthropometric outcomes (stunting, overweight and obesity). Plain water was consumed by 30.9% of the children on the day intakes were measured, with higher proportions of water drinkers among private school children. Children having reported water intake on that day consumed 154 fewer kcal (-7.7%) compared with the energy intake of children not having reported water intake (P = 0.02). Significantly more children of high socio-economic status (SES) consumed dairy, fruit juice, commercial fruit juice, fruit drink and soda whereas low SES children consumed thin gruels and infusions. A key result from this study is the finding of a lower energy intake shown by children reporting water intake. PMID:21902808

  11. Age at menarche of university students in Bangladesh: secular trends and association with adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Saima; Aik, Saw; Zaman, Tunku Kamarul; Lestrel, Pete E

    2010-09-01

    Age at menarche has been shown to be an important indicator for diseases such as breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to document secular trends in age at menarche and their association with anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors in university students in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 995 students from Rajshahi University using a stratified sampling technique between July 2004 and May 2005. Trends in age at menarche were examined by linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association of age at menarche with adult anthropometric measures and various socio-demographic factors. The mean and median age of menarche were 13.12+/-1.16 and 13.17 years, respectively, with an increasing tendency among birth-year cohorts from 1979 to 1986. Menarcheal age was negatively associated with BMI (p<0.01), but positively associated with height (p<0.05). Early menarche was especially pronounced among students from urban environments, Muslims and those with better educated mothers. Increasing age at menarche may be explained by improved nutritional status among Bangladeshi populations. Early menarche was associated with residence location at adolescence, religion and mother's education. PMID:20529410

  12. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  13. Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

    Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

  14. Carbohydrate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Allen, M S

    1991-07-01

    An understanding of carbohydrate nutrition is essential to optimize production of dairy cattle. Two rations, both of which appear to be balanced, may have dramatically different results when fed to high-producing dairy cattle. Carbohydrates directly affect microbial protein production and therefore protein nutrition of dairy cattle. Energy intake can be maximized by considering the amount and type of carbohydrate in the ration: 1. The fiber level of the ration should be evaluated. NDF levels should be between 25 and 30% for high-producing cows in early lactation. Within this range, less fiber is required with adequate forage particle length and high frequency of grain feeding, and when buffers are fed and slowly fermented NSC sources are included in the ratio. For mid- and late-lactation cows, fiber levels are higher, ranging between 30 and 36% NDF depending upon the energy required to support milk production and restoration of body condition. 2. Provide adequate effective fiber. There should be some forage particles 1.5 in long in the ration. Limit most high-fiber byproducts to 25% of fiber requirements. 3. Feed highly digestible fiber sources. Differences in fiber digestibility of 30% will result in over 4 Mcal of NEL per day with 15 lb NDF intake. In addition, highly digestible fiber has less gut fill effect, possibly increasing dry matter intake. 4. Consider site of starch digestion. Slowly degraded starch sources such as sorghum may require steam flaking to increase ruminal fermentation. Other situations may require the addition of a slowly degraded starch source. 5. Increase frequency of concentrate feeding. Feed grain at least four times per day or include in a total mixed ration. 6. Include buffers. Under some situations (corn silage, early lactation) buffers allow more grain to be fed. 7. Add fat. Fat supplementation to milking cows has become a common practice in high-producing herds. Fat has about three times the energy of cracked corn and is often used to replace a portion of the grain to increase the energy density of the ration. It is important to realize that fat can cost up to two to three times more per megacalorie of energy than grain. Before fat is added to the ration, less expensive ways to increase energy density (listed previously) should be thoroughly explored. PMID:1654174

  15. The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

  16. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  17. Nutritional status and delayed mortality following early exposure to measles.

    PubMed Central

    Aaby, P.; Andersen, M.; Knudsen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Community studies in Guinea-Bissau have found that exposure to measles prior to 6 months of age is associated with delayed mortality later in childhood. In an attempt to understand the underlying mechanism, we examined the role of pre-exposure nutritional status and the impact of exposure to measles on growth and subsequent mortality in these outbreaks. Though exposed children were lighter than controls, there was no association between pre-exposure weight-for-age and subsequent mortality adjusting for age. Although exposure was strongly associated with excess mortality, it did not have a negative impact on growth. Adjustment for state of nutrition did not alter the mortality ratio (MR) between 6 and 59 months of age for exposed children and controls; exposed children examined anthropometrically between 6-17 months had a MR of 3.70 compared with controls. This trend was the same for anthropometric measurements obtained at 18-59 months of age. Among the controls, there was a significant association between weight-for-age and subsequent mortality to the age of 5 years. However, for exposed children there was no association; the relation between weight-for-age and subsequent mortality was significantly different for exposed children compared with controls (tests for interaction between exposure and anthropometric measurements at 6-17 months: P = 0.05). Growth faltering as a consequence of early exposure to measles does not explain the marked excess mortality among these children. Further studies of the process underlying delayed mortality after early exposure to measles are warranted. PMID:8972679

  18. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa

    2015-02-28

    Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262

  19. Anthropometric and Biochemical Profile of Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Predialysis Pediatric Interdisciplinary Program

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa R.; Soares, Cristina B.; Magalhães, Juliana O.; de Barcelos, Isabella Peixoto; Cerqueira, Debora C.; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    This is longitudinal retrospective observational cohort study that evaluated anthropometric and biochemical variables of children and adolescents admitted to a Predialysis Interdisciplinary Management Program (PDIMP) responsible for the follow-up of children and adolescents at stages 2 to 4 of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at a tertiary center. One hundred thirty-eight patients with CKD on predialysis treatment with median age at admission of 9 years and the median follow-up time of 5 years were evaluated. Seventy-four (53%) had CKD stage 3 at admission and 70 (51%) reached CKD stage 5 at the end of the follow-up. There was no significant difference between the mean initial and final hemoglobin and serum albumin. However, the final serum bicarbonate presented a significant improvement. Analyses stratified according to clinical variables of interest showed a significant improvement in body mass index (BMI) Z score, especially in the subgroup of children admitted under two years of age. In relation to stature-for-age Z score, data show a significant improvement in stature SD at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study showed improvement of nutritional status of CKD patients and that the deterioration of renal function was not correlated with BMI-for-age Z score. PMID:25629088

  20. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  1. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  2. [How much nutrition matters for children].

    PubMed

    Catassi, Carlo; Gatti, Simona

    2015-02-01

    Overweight/obesity is a growing epidemic in the Western world and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Doctors are going to play a major role as they are being called on to adapt their practices to confront it. In particular, nutrition seems to be at the core of obesity in children. The ascending trend of this phenomenon in pediatric age, with inherent healthcare implications, was already reported in epidemiological studies of the mid '90s. Public health programs of primary prevention should be stimulated and recommended, with the aim of promoting diet and lifestyle changes in the general population. In addition, accurate anthropometric measurements should be performed for use by pediatricians, who should focus efforts on preventing obesity during infancy and childhood. Nutrition plays such a pivotal role that it may be considered a valuable treatment strategy for multiple pediatric conditions, including celiac disease, Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, galactosemia, congenital deficiency of urea cycle enzymes. In view of all this, it would be advisable that food science be given higher relevance in medical education. PMID:25734596

  3. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  4. Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

  5. Nutrition Training Opportunities

    Cancer.gov

    Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.

  6. Nutrition Therapy Services (Medical)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Nutrition therapy services (medical) How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers medical nutrition therapy services and certain related services. A registered ...

  7. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually discuss ... some resources to help you answer these questions: Nutrition, Exercise and Prostate Cancer Guide By culling data ...

  8. [Nutritional status, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk in lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivore].

    PubMed

    Fernandes Dourado, Keila; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Rojas, Hernando Flores; Simiões, Shirley Kelly dos Santos; de Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess socioeconomic characteristics, dietary intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk (using anthropometric indicators of central obesity) in lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for gender and age) in order to increase the power of the statistical tests. The sample was made up of 87 individuals (58.6% males; 29 vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians) with a mean age of 40 +/- 13 years. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only the number of residents per household differed between groups, with a greater percentage of homes with five or more residents in the vegetarian group. Concerning lifestyle, the groups differed with regard to smoking habits (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of smokers among the non-vegetarians. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the anthropometric variables studied. Concerning dietary intake, no difference between groups was found with regard to total calorie intake, but the consumption of proteins, total lipids, saturated fat and cholesterol was higher among the non-vegetarians, whereas carbohydrate and fiber intake was higher among the vegetarians. The results of the present study suggest that, although a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is considered healthier due to the lower consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, there are no significant differences in nutritional status or anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk when lifestyle and total calorie intake are similar. PMID:21614817

  9. Health and Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Haslam

    2007-11-26

    I\\'ve included a few awesome websites to help you learn more about nutrition. Check them out here. Nutrition Cafe On Nutrition Cafe first click on the flash version, then you can play a number of fun games that help with learning about nutrition. Make sure to try out Grab a Grape. This has good facts about food and bone building. It has good information and ...

  10. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  11. Nutrition Connections has the help

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-SNAP. 8/12 Visit us at: extension.unh.edu NutritionNutrition Connections has the help you need... Eat HEaltHiEr and SavE MonEy Nutrition Connections Nutrition Connections is a program of the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. Nutrition

  12. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  13. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  14. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  15. Food & Nutrition Resource Guide

    E-print Network

    4-H Food & Nutrition Resource Guide Developed by: 4-H Food & Nutrition Issue Group Renee Sanders System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating #12;Food of the resources used everyday for the 4-H Food & Nutrition project. This resource guide provides information

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and motor skills in talent selection and development in indoor soccer.

    PubMed

    Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Corrêa, Umberto César; Böhme, Maria Tereza S

    2010-06-01

    Kick performance, anthropometric characteristics, slalom, and linear running were assessed in 49 (24 elite, 25 nonelite) postpubertal indoor soccer players in order to (a) verify whether anthropometric characteristics and physical and technical capacities can distinguish players of different competitive levels, (b) compare the kicking kinematics of these groups, with and without a defined target, and (c) compare results on the assessments and coaches' subjective rankings of the players. Thigh circumference and specific technical capacities differentiated the players by level of play; cluster analysis correctly classified 77.5% of the players. The correlation between players' standardized measures and the coaches' rankings was 0.29. Anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities do not necessarily differentiate players at post-pubertal stages and should not be overvalued during early development. Considering the coaches' rankings, performance measures outside the specific game conditions may not be useful in identification of talented players. PMID:20681343

  17. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  18. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  19. Prognostic Indices of Poor Nutritional Status and Their Impact on Prolonged Hospital Stay in a Greek University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tsaousi, Georgia; Stavrou, George; Tsouskas, John; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Background. To ascertain the potential contributors to nutritional risk manifestation and to disclose the factors exerting a negative impact on hospital length of stay (LOS), by means of poor nutritional status, in a nonselected hospitalized population. Materials and Methods. NutritionDay project questionnaires were applied to 295 adult patients. Study parameters included anthropometric data, demographics, medical history, dietary-related factors, and self-perception of health status. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) were calculated for each participant. MUST score was applied for malnutrition assessment, while hospital LOS constituted the outcome of interest. Results. Of the total cohort, 42.3% were at nutritional risk and 21.4% malnourished. Age, gender, BMI, MUST score, autonomy, health quality, appetite, quantity of food intake, weight loss, arm or calf perimeter (P < 0.001, for all), and dietary type (P < 0.01) affected nutritional status. Poor nutrition status (P = 0.000), deteriorated appetite (P = 0.000) or food intake (P = 0.025), limited autonomy (P = 0.013), artificial nutrition (P = 0.012), weight loss (P = 0.010), and arm circumference <21?cm (P = 0.007) were the most powerful predictors of hospital LOS >7 days. Conclusion. Nutritional status and nutrition-related parameters such as weight loss, quantity of food intake, appetite, arm circumference, dietary type, and extent of dependence confer considerable prognostic value regarding hospital LOS in acute care setting. PMID:24779021

  20. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    PubMed Central

    García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083

  1. Anthropometric profiles of elite older triathletes in the Ironman Brazil compared with those of young Portuguese triathletes and older Brazilians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego A. S. Silva; Tânia R. B. Benedetti; Elisa P. Ferrari; Simone T. Meurer; Danielle L. Antes; Analiza M. Silva; Diana A. Santos; Catarina N. Matias; Luís B. Sardinha; Filomena Vieira; Edio L. Petroski

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the anthropometric profiles of elite older triathletes participating in the 2009 Ironman Brazil and to compare their somatotype, anthropometric and body composition characteristics with those of elite young triathletes and older non-athletes. The sample consisted of 64 males, divided into three groups: (1) older triathletes (n = 17), (2) young triathletes (n = 24), and (3)

  2. Nutrition in the Management of the Cancer Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Rock

    \\u000a Attention to nutritional status is important in the management of the cancer patient, across the spectrum from the initial\\u000a phases of treatment and recovery through the long-term continuum of care. Maintaining good nutritional status during the initial\\u000a post-diagnosis treatment phase may enable the successful completion of prescribed treatments and improve the quality of life\\u000a of the patient. Following initial treatment,

  3. VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA

    PubMed Central

    Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). PMID:23404678

  4. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  5. Association of Childhood and Adolescent Anthropometric Factors, Physical Activity, and Diet with Adult Mammographic Breast Density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Sellers; C. M. Vachon; V. S. Pankratz; C. A. Janney; Z. Fredericksen; K. R. Brandt; Y. Huang; F. J. Couch; L. H. Kushi; J. R. Cerhan

    2007-01-01

    Early-life exposures may influence the development of breast cancer. The authors examined the association of childhood and adolescent anthropometric factors, physical activity levels, and diet with adult mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Women in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study cohort who had undergone mammograms but had not had breast cancer (n ¼ 1,893) formed

  6. Extracting Main Modes of Human Body Shape Variation from 3-D Anthropometric Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zouhour Ben Azouz; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage; Marc Rioux

    2005-01-01

    Characterizing the variations of the human body shape is fundamentally important to many applications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technology makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than the traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract new measurements

  7. Anthropometric and training characteristics of female marathon runners as determinants of distance running performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bale; Sarah Rowell; Elizabeth Colley

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how female marathon runners of varying standards differed in body composition and physique and in their training regimes, and secondly to develop predictors of distance running performance from the anthropometric and training variables. Female marathon runners (n = 36), all participants in a national 10 mile (16 km) road racing championship, were

  8. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K L Quarrie; P Handcock; A E Waller; D J Chalmers; M J Toomey; B D Wilson

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before

  9. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  10. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  11. Early anthropometric and immunological success of antiretroviral therapy do not predict virological success in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    therapy (ART) is a critical step. In sub-Saharan Africa, few people have access to plasma viral load (VL of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. This is consideredPage 1 Early anthropometric and immunological success of antiretroviral therapy do not predict

  12. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  13. Harmonization Process and Reliability Assessment of Anthropometric Measurements in the Elderly EXERNET Multi-Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Albers, Ulrike; Mata, Esmeralda; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Aznar, Susana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, Jose A.; Ara, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Background The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. Purpose To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. Materials and Methods A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. Results For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. Conclusion The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population. PMID:22860013

  14. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  15. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid (354 women and 58 men) frequency matched by gender and five-year age group. Thyroid cancer was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but no inverse dose-response relationship

  16. Utility of anthropometric measures in a multiethnic population: their association with prevalent diabetes, hypertension and other chronic disease comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Heather P; Smith, Lisa V; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratios, waist-to-height ratios, and chronic disease extent, as confirmed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, and/or two or more other chronic conditions as defined by a composite indicator 'comorbidity'. To account for race/ethnicity, age, gender, and cigarette smoking frequency, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were generated and reported for each of the regression analyses. Whereas being overweight was associated with hypertension alone (aOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.12-3.94), obesity was associated with hypertension (aOR 5.04; 95% CI 2.80-9.06) as well as diabetes (aOR 5.28; 95% CI 2.25-12.3) and comorbidity (aOR 3.69; 95% CI 2.02-6.77). In whites and African-Americans, BMI and WC were positively related to diabetes, hypertension and comorbidity. In Hispanics, BMI and WC were also positively related to diabetes and comorbidity, but only the former measure was associated with hypertension (p < 0.050). In Asians, BMI was not a significant predictor of diabetes, hypertension and/or comorbidity. Collectively, the findings suggest that BMI is not universally informative and waist circumference and its derivatives may represent a viable, more racially/ethnically appropriate alternative for use with selected minority groups. PMID:24132872

  17. Nutrition News Focus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Written by David M. Klurfeld, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Wayne State University in Detroit, this free, daily newsletter offers concise nutrition tips and analyses of breaking nutrition news. Nutrition News Focus aims at delivering information that ordinary people can use and understand, with a minimum of jargon and no tolerance for "mumbo-jumbo." Users can subscribe to the newsletter at the site. Subscribers receive one short mailing per day, with the topic briefly described and followed by analysis. Old newsletters are added to the archive two weeks after publication, and users can browse the archive by issue date or topic.

  18. Nutrition for Everyone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins and Minerals Fruits and Vegetables Nutrition Information How Many Fruits and Vegetables Do You ...

  19. Dietary assessment and self-monitoring with nutrition applications for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice. PMID:22958633

  20. Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

  1. Nutrition and You: Trends 2011

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Webinar Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation (PDF) Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ... survey, Nutrition and You: Trends 2008. Read More Media Meet Our Spokespeople expand/collapse Spokespeople Schedule an ...

  2. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates. You might see ... the first ingredient listed than any other ingredient. Nutrition Facts Label. At the top of the Nutrition ...

  3. Health and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia: do maternal characteristics matter?

    PubMed

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2013-03-01

    In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status. PMID:22856686

  4. Nutritional status and spousal empowerment among native Amazonians.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Patel, Ankur; Reyes-García, Victoria; Seyfried, Craig F; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Researchers and development organizations have shown interest in individual empowerment because it presumably improves well-being. Estimates of empowerment's effects on well-being contain biases from the potential endogeneity of empowerment. Using data from a sexually egalitarian and highly autarkic society of foragers and horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane', we overcome the problems that this poses by: (1) matching spouses' responses to the same questions about who makes decisions or who breaks ties in 10 domains to improve accuracy in measures of empowerment; and (2) using parental attributes of spouses as instrumental variables for spousal empowerment. Outcomes include two anthropometric indices of short-run nutritional status: body-mass index and age and sex-standardized z scores of mid-arm muscle area. The amount of empowerment of household heads did not affect their nutritional status or other indicators of their well-being, such as income, wealth, expenditures, happiness, social capital, or self-perceived health. It also did not affect the nutritional status of their offspring. Nor did it affect the difference in income, wealth, or monetary expenditures between spouses. The insubstantial effects persisted with other definitions of empowerment or types of regressions. We end with a discussion of why empowerment, despite its popularity in development discourse, has such tenuous links with objective indicators of well-being, and the implication of this finding for future studies of empowerment's effects. PMID:16697508

  5. Assessment of the nutritional status of urban homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Luder, E; Boey, E; Buchalter, B; Martinez-Weber, C

    1989-01-01

    Homeless people eat foods at municipal and charity run shelters, fast-food restaurants, delicatessens, and from garbage bins. Data on the adequacy of the diets and the nutritional status of homeless persons are sparse. Therefore, nutritional indicators of 55 urban homeless subjects were assessed, and a high prevalence of risk factors was identified. Although 93 percent of subjects reported that they obtained enough to eat, a low dietary adequacy score of 10.1 (norm = 16) indicated that the quality of the diet was inadequate. Diet records showed a high intake of sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Serum cholesterol levels above the desirable limit of 200 mg per dl were prevalent. Anthropometric measurements were significantly different from percentile distributions of the U.S. population (P less than .001). Triceps skinfold measurement was above the 95th percentile in 25 percent of subjects. Upper arm muscle area, which reflects lean body mass, was below the 5th percentile in 23.3 percent of women and 44 percent of the men. These decreased levels of lean body mass and increased levels of body fat, together with the elevated serum cholesterol levels and the shortages of essential nutrients in the diet, may place the homeless at risk of developing nutrition-related disorders. PMID:2508173

  6. Nutritional status in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Komindr, S; Thirawitayakom, J; Taechangam, S; Puchaiwatananon, O; Songchisomboon, S; Domrongkitchaiporn, S

    1996-09-01

    Hitherto, there has been no systematic evaluation of the nutritional status of HD patients in Thailand. 27 patients awaiting renal transplantation, 19 M 8 F, age 47.2 +/- 8.6 y (mean +/- SD), underwent HD at Ramathibodi Hospital. Dietary assessment revealed the average daily intake of men and women to be respectively 1571 +/- 314 and 1379 +/- 403 kcal, 47 +/- 11 and 42 +/- 14 g protein. Anthropometric data showed that mean of BMI, percent ideal body weight (%IBW), percent standard triceps skinfold thickness (%TSF) and percent arm muscle circumference (%std MUAMC) to be 20.5 +/- 2.6 kg/m2, 90 +/- 12, 75 +/- 30 and 100 +/- 13, respectively. However, 37%, 56% and 70% of these patients had BMI, BW and MUAC less than the minimal cut-off levels. These data reflect the importance of energy depletion in these patients. The average serum albumin was 39 +/- 6 g/L while 52% suffered from low albumin levels. TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG were 4.34 +/- 1.34, 2.9 +/- 1.06, 0.89 +/- 0.33 and 1.10 +/- 0.67 mmol/L while 15% had high TC, LDL-C and 58% had low HDL-C levels. Only one patient was suffered from hypertriglyceridemia. Whereas inadequate thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol status were present in 4-30%, toxic levels of serum retinol were seen in almost all patients. Low serum zinc and copper levels were also present. This study disclosed a wide spectrum of nutritional problems usually overlooked in CRF patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Whereas zinc supplementation may be needed, vitamin A supplementation in these patients should be discouraged. PMID:8886340

  7. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  8. Future of enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been agreement that enteral nutrition remains an excellent means of providing nutritional support to malnourished patients with normal or near normal gastrointestinal function, it is clear that areas of controversy do exist, and attention needs to be directed towards these in the future. PMID:3098637

  9. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  10. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  11. Vegetarian Nutrition online

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

    1995-01-01

    Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

  12. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  13. Sports Nutrition Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after

  14. Nutrition and Athletics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

  15. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

  16. Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    : Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications are strongly advised to have regular access to a high-speed Internet connection. #12;Applied Positive Deviance Certificate from Tufts and United Nations University Positive Deviance (PD) is a behavioral and social change

  17. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  18. On nutritional pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Reid

    1971-01-01

    The problem associated with pollution, and more specifically, nutritional pollution are approached from the concept of energy residuals expended by increasing elevation of life style. More specifically, residuals are characterized as biodegradable, bacterial, conserved, thermal, sediments and aggregated entrophication—or nutritional pollution. The streams or river response to nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorous) is formulated in terms of stream character, population

  19. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception through the postpartum period. This practice paper supports the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' position paper "Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy Outcome" published in the July 2014 Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:25699300

  20. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  1. National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

  2. Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

  3. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    , Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun ResearchThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California

  4. HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

  5. usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5 Gorecki, BSP 1969, and look to our successes. We have created the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition

  6. Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

  7. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Adedeji G.; Egwu, Michael O.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP. PMID:21747972

  8. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Adedeji G; Egwu, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6-14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP. PMID:21747972

  9. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

  10. The Evolutionary Significance of Anthropometric Variables on the ‘Dark Triad’ of Personality: Psychometrically Measured Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. 

    E-print Network

    Ponce, Carmen

    2012-11-28

    ) this study will incorporate this into the investigation of the ‘dark triad’ of personality: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. The study aims to assess associations between the ‘dark triad’ and various anthropometric measurements indicative...

  11. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  12. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

  13. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyo Yokota; Larry G. Berglund; Gaston P. Bathalon

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has\\u000a been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol\\u000a 104:297–302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S.\\u000a Army male soldiers were evaluated.

  14. Brief Communication: Associations of Serum TRAIL Concentrations, Anthropometric Variables, and Serum Lipid Parameters in Healthy Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Weon Choi; Jung Soo Song; Soo Hwan Pai

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), anthropometric variables, and lipid parameters, we measured serum TRAIL concentrations, body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), and serum lipid profiles in 207 healthy adults. There were no significant differences in serum TRAIL concentrations between men and women, nor between elderly persons and middle-aged subjects. However, men

  15. Body measurement techniques : Comparing 3D body-scanning and anthropometric methods for apparel applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla P. Simmons; Cynthia L. Istook

    2003-01-01

    With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non-contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body-scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of

  16. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (T(c)) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured T(c) of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m(-2) walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378?±?32 w·m(-2) for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1). PMID:21573821

  17. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  18. The longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 year) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of pre-season over a six year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n=35; Under 17-18, n=44; Under 18-19, n=35; Under 19-20, n=16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds) and physical (10 and 20 m sprint, 10 m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1-RM squat, bench press and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated significant annual (e.g., Body mass, U16 = 76.4±8.4, U17 = 81.3±8.3 kg; p<0.001, d=0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1±3.8, Under 19 = 52.1±5.3 cm; p<0.001, d=1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared to the other ages (e.g., 1-RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5±19.5 vs U18-19 = 4.8±6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training programme within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development. PMID:25474341

  19. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  20. Muscle Function in Saudi Children and Adolescents: Relationship to Anthropometric Characteristics During Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid S. Almuzaini

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine isokinetic strength and endurance, isometric strength, and anaerobic power for untrained healthy Saudi children and adolescents. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of age in relation to anthropometric characteristics on strength and anaerobic perfor- mances. Forty-four (untrained) 11- to 19-year-old boys were grouped by age: 11-13 years, 14-16

  1. Intramyocellular Lipids: Anthropometric Determinants and Relationships with Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Insulin Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLAUS THAMER; JURGEN MACHANN; OLIVER BACHMANN; MICHAEL HAAP; DOMINIK DAHL; BEATE WIETEK; OTTO TSCHRITTER; ANDREAS NIESS; KLAUS BRECHTEL; ANDREAS FRITSCHE; CLAUS CLAUSSEN; STEPHAN JACOB; FRITZ SCHICK; HANS-ULRICH HARING; MICHAEL STUMVOLL

    The existence of metabolically relevant intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) as assessed by the noninvasive 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been established. In the present studies, we analyzed the relationships between IMCL in two muscle types (the predominantly nonoxidative tibialis muscle (tib) and the predominantly oxidative soleus muscle (sol)) and anthropometric data, aerobic capacity (VO2max, bicycle ergometry, n 77) and insulin sensitivity

  2. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of maternal anthropometric measurements as predictors for dystocia in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh; Poorjavad, Munira; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dystocia is one of the important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. This study was aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of maternal anthropometric measurements as predictors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 447 nulliparous women who referred to Omolbanin hospital. Several maternal anthropometric measurements such as height, transverse and vertical diameters of Michaelis sacral rhomboid area, foot length, head circumference, vertebral and lower limb length, symphysio-fundal height, and abdominal girth were taken in cervical dilatation ? 5 cm. Labor progression was controlled by a researcher blind to these measurements. After delivery, the accuracy of individual and combined measurements in prediction of dystocia was analyzed. Dystocia was defined as cesarean section and vacuum or forceps delivery for abnormal progress of labor (cervical dilatation less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, and during the second stage, beyond 2 h or fetal head descend less than 1 cm/h). Results: Among the different anthropometric measurements, transverse diameter of the Michaelis sacral rhomboid area ?9.6 cm, maternal height ? 155 cm, height to symphysio-fundal height ratio ?4.7, lower limb length ?78 cm, and head circumference to height ratio ? 35.05 with accuracy of 81.2%, 68.2%, 65.5%, 63.3%, and 61.5%, respectively, were better predictors. The best predictor was obtained by combination of maternal height ?155 cm or the transverse diameter of the Michaelis sacral rhomboid area ?9.6 cm and Johnson's formula estimated fetal weight ?3255 g, with an accuracy of 90.5%, sensitivity of 70%, and specificity of 93.7%. Conclusions: Combination of other anthropometric measurements and estimated fetal weight with maternal height in comparison to maternal height alone leads to a better predictor for dystocia. PMID:24554954

  4. 2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.

    PubMed

    2011-12-01

    Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. PMID:22616443

  5. Growth curves of anthropometric indices in a general population of French children and comparison with reference data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Heude; A Kettaneh; B de Lauzon Guillain; A Lommez; J-M Borys; P Ducimetière; M-A Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background:The description of growth patterns of the different anthropometric measurements mainly used in epidemiological studies is useful to better understand the development of obesity in children and its consequences.Objective:Our aim was to establish growth curves of anthropometric indices in a general population of French children born during the 1980s and to compare them with the French reference curves based on

  6. Nutrition and fluid management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Management of fluid intake and nutrition is an essential component of nursing care and should be practised skilfully by all nurses and nursing students. This requirement forms the basis of the fourth essential skills cluster, nutrition and fluid management. The essential skills clusters stipulate key skills and behaviours to be demonstrated to meet the standards for registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. This article, the fourth in a series on the essential skills clusters, discusses the core aspects of nutrition and fluid management and emphasises their importance in recovery from illness and in maintaining optimal health. PMID:25828020

  7. WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lisa; Becvarova, Iveta; Cave, Nick; MacKay, Clayton; Nguyen, Patrick; Rama, Betina; Takashima, Gregg; Tiffin, Ross; van Beukelen, Peter; Yathiraj, S

    2011-08-01

    Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration, and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. PMID:23705173

  8. Prediction of rowing ergometer performance from functional anaerobic power, strength and anthropometric components.

    PubMed

    Akça, F?rat

    2014-06-28

    The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

  9. The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  11. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

  12. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    PubMed Central

    Akça, F?rat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

  13. Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Alghamdi, Mansour S; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  14. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  15. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  16. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  17. Dual Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Gold

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that 10 million persons in me United States have at least one mental disorder and at least one substance-related disorder in any given year. Dual disorders are common in psychiatry, but misdiagnosis may be even more common. Drug and alcohol testing should be expanded from routine use in the Olympics and intercollegiate athletics to psychiatric diagnosis of

  18. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Antila, H M; Salo, M S; Näntö, V; Nikkanen, V; Kirvelä, O

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. PMID:1419104

  19. Nutrition Aspects of Liver Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette M. Hasse

    Because the liver performs hundreds of metabolic functions, nutritional status and nutrient metabolism are altered in individuals\\u000a with liver disease. This chapter reviews relationships between nutritional status and liver disease, describes effects of\\u000a malnutrition and nutrition support on outcomes, and defines nutrition therapies for patients with liver disease.\\u000a \\u000a Objective nutrition assessment parameters are often confounded by symptoms of liver disease;

  20. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  1. FAO: Food and Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.

  2. Stars in Nutrition & Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Soy and Cancer: Wish You Were Young Again Star Speaker Stephen Barnes, PhD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama Meeting Date Monday, October 04, 2010

  3. Team Nutrition: Educator Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-26

    How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

  4. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is most important during the initial phase ... recommendation is to avoid the foods highest in copper content: organ meats, shellfish, chocolate, nuts, and mushrooms. ...

  5. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...

  6. Nutrition 9-12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

  7. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  8. Nutrition for Older Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print Email The Difference ... mind sharp and extend quality of life. Older men need: Calcium and Vitamin D Older adults need ...

  9. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  10. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...

  11. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  12. Nutrition and Bone Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Shock; J. Johnson; M. H. Harlan

    1997-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: Fifth graders wil1 be able to select appropriate foods to maximize bone mass.Nutrition and Bone Health is the topic of a nutrition education curriculum for fifth graders based on a collaborative project funded by NASA through the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. The multi-disciplinary undertaking has many facets. It began with a group of Arkansas educators touring NASA's Johnson

  13. Overview of geriatric nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Curran

    1990-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of optimal nutritional status in the long-term care setting may enhance the quality of life for\\u000a geriatric patients. The elderly are at increased risk for poor nutrition due to age-related physiological and psychosocial\\u000a changes, as well as the added toll of chronic disease. All of these may have a negative impact on adequate food intake. Health\\u000a care

  14. Nutrition and Genomics Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.

  15. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  16. Pre-diagnostic anthropometry and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis in Western European populations.

    PubMed

    Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Dalton, Susanne O; Gunter, Marc J; Wark, Petra A; Norat, Teresa; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michalis; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Quiros, J Ramon; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2014-10-15

    General and abdominal adiposity are associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of these exposures on cancer survival has been less studied. The association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric characteristics and CRC-specific and all-cause death was examined among 3,924 men and women diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2009 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over a mean follow-up period of 49 months, 1,309 deaths occurred of which 1,043 (79.7%) were due to CRC. In multivariable analysis, pre-diagnostic BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52) and all-cause (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.56) death relative to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19) and all-cause death (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.20); and every 10 cm increase in waist circumference was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16) and all-cause death (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18). Similar associations were observed for waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Height was not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause death. Associations tended to be stronger among men than in women. Possible interactions by age at diagnosis, cancer stage, tumour location, and hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women were noted. Pre-diagnostic general and abdominal adiposity are associated with lower survival after CRC diagnosis. PMID:24623514

  17. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

  18. Characteristics and determinants of child nutritional status in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Leslie, J; Moock, P R

    1984-01-01

    Herein, we examine characteristics and determinants of child malnutrition in the districts of Bara and Rautahat of the Terai region of Nepal. The sample studied consists of 510 rural children ranging in age from 3 to 10 yr. The Nepali children were found to have one of the highest reported prevalences of stunting (65% were less than 90% National study for Health Statistics median height for age). The study children were also 1 to 1.5 kg lighter when compared to US children of the same height. Fat deposits, as measured by anthropometric variables and Hb levels were also very low. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, district of residence, household income, breast-feeding, and several specific food items were significant predictors of nutritional status. Association with other factors such as caste and parental schooling, were not evident in multiple regressions. Boys were as likely to be malnourished as girls. Prolonged breast-feeding was associated with greater fat stores, but with reduced stature and low Hb values. Both landholdings and household income were found to be positively and significantly associated with almost all measures of nutritional status. PMID:6691295

  19. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  20. Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

  1. Anthropometric profile, vertical jump, and throwing velocity in elite female handball players by playing positions.

    PubMed

    Vila, Helena; Manchado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nuria; Abraldes, José Arturo; Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio; Ferragut, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Women's handball is a sport, which has seen an accelerated development over the last decade. Although anthropometric and physical characteristics have been studied for male sports teams, in women's handball, studies are scarce. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to describe the anthropometric characteristics, throwing velocity, hand grip, and muscular power of the lower limbs in female handball players and second, to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (center, back, wing, pivot, and goalkeeper). A total of 130 elite female Spanish handball players participated in the study (age 25.74 ± 4.84 years; playing experience 14.92 ± 4.88 years). Anthropometric assessment was performed for all the subjects following the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocols. Furthermore, all the subjects performed a vertical jump test (squat jump and countermovement jump). Hand grip and throwing velocity in several situations were also assessed. A 1-way analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test were used to study the differences among individual playing positions. Wings were less heavy, shorter, and showed a smaller arm span than did goalkeepers, backs and pivots (p ? 0.001). Additionally, pivots were heavier than centers. Backs and pivots exhibited higher muscular mass than did wings. Total players' somatotype was mesomorphy endomorphy (3.89-4.28-2.29). Centers showed higher throwing velocity levels than did wings in 9-m throws from just behind the line, with a goalkeeper. Backs exhibited higher hand-grip values than did wings. Statistical differences have been established between wings and other specific playing positions, especially with pivot and backs. Coaches can use this information to select players for the different specific positions. PMID:21997459

  2. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Anthropometric Clinical Indicators of Visceral Fat in Adults and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Eickemberg, Michaela; Moreira, Pricilla de Almeida; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is associated with higher occurrence of cardiovascular events. There are few studies about the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators, using Computed Tomography (CT) as the gold standard. We aimed to determine the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators for discrimination of visceral obesity. Methods Cross-sectional study with 191 adults and elderly of both sexes. Variables: area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) identified by CT, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Conicity index (C index), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI). ROC analyzes. Results There were a strong correlation between adiposity indicators and VAT area. Higher accuracy of C index and WHtR (AUC?0.81) than the LAP and the VAI was observed. The higher AUC of LAP and VAI were observed among elderly with areas of 0.88 (CI: 0.766–0.944) and 0.83 (CI: 0.705–0.955) in men and 0.80 (CI: 0.672–0.930) and 0.71 (CI: 0.566–0.856) in women, respectively. The cutoffs of C index were 1.30 in elderly, in both sexes, with sensitivity ?92%, the LAP ranged from 26.4 to 37.4 in men and from 40.6 to 44.0 in women and the VAI was 1.24 to 1.45 (sens?76.9%) in men and 1.46 to 1.84 in women. Conclusion Both the anthropometric indicators, C Index and WHtR, as well as LAP and VAI had high accuracy in visceral obesity discrimination. So, they are effective in cardiovascular risk assessment and in the follow-up for individual and collective clinical practice. PMID:25078454

  3. Anthropometrics to Identify Overweight Children at Most Risk for the Development of Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Labyak, Corinne A.; Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Colee, James; Mathews, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric that correlates more strongly with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic disease risk in adults compared with body mass index (BMI). However, little research has evaluated this measurement in children. Objective To evaluate SAD as a measure of cardiometabolic risk compared with other anthropometrics in overweight/obese children. Methods This study was a cross-sectional subset analysis of 8- to 12-year-old overweight/ obese children. SAD was compared to BMI, waist circumference (WC), BMI z-score, and percent body fat to determine which measurement was most closely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. A total cardiometabolic risk score comprising all biochemical markers and blood pressure was also compared to these same anthropometrics. Results Overweight/obese children (n = 145, mean age 10 ± 1.4 years, mean BMI percentile 97.9 ± 0.02) were included in the analysis. SAD correlated with the greatest number of biochemical markers/blood pressure values including triglycerides (r = .18, P = .03), HgbA1c (r = .21, P = .01), and systolic blood pressure (r = .38, P < .0001). SAD was more strongly correlated to total risk score (r = .25, P = .002) than WC (r = .22, P = .006), BMI (r = .17, P = .04), BMI-z (r = .18, P = .03), and percent body fat (r = .18, P = .03). Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate SAD in overweight/obese American children as a marker of cardiometabolic disease risk. The results suggest a slightly stronger correlation between SAD and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese children; however, all correlations were weak. As this was a pilot study, additional research is needed prior to recommending the use of this measurement in clinical practice. PMID:25485038

  4. Impact of urbanization on obesity, anthropometric profile and blood pressure in the Igbos of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekezie, Jervase; Anyanwu, Emeka G; Danborno, Barnabas; Anthony, Ugochukwu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertension in developing setting is often attributed to westernization of life style and stresses of urbanization, some of these increases have been noted in Nigeria. Aim: This is a study on rural-urban differences on the blood pressure, obesity and anthropometrics among a major ethnic group in Nigeria. Patients and Method: A total of 325 men and 242 women aged 20 to 80 years, of the Igbo ethnicity were selected for this study. The samples were selected from the rural and urban subgroups of the Igbo population. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist- hip ratio, waist-height ratio, waist circumference, triceps, subscapular, calf and sum of the three skin fold thicknesses and other anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Result: Blood pressure correlated with age and most of the anthropometric parameters (p< 0.05 ). All adiposity and blood pressure indicators were higher in the urban than in the rural sample. Women showed higher predisposition to both general and abdominal obesities in both samples. High blood pressure occurred more often in the urban sample than the rural. Urban men had the highest mean blood pressure (p< 0.05). High blood pressure appeared much connected with the pressures of city life. Regression formulae were derived for all the adiposity measures of Igbos in both rural and urban locations. Conclusion: High rates of obesity and hypertension are noted among Igbos in both rural and urban areas. This is especially in the urban setting. The finding is indicative of a low level of attention on hypertension and obesity in the Igbos. The data reported here call for intervention programs on the risks, preventions and management of obesity and obesity related conditions. PMID:22558602

  5. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair José

    2012-01-01

    Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management. PMID:22826639

  6. Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and ?2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ? 23) and lean (18.5 ? BMI ? 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979

  7. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amitabha

    2010-12-01

    One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia. PMID:21369420

  8. [Application of anthropometric methods in comparative identification based on monitoring recordings].

    PubMed

    Kempi?ska, Agnieszka; Szyd?owski, Lukasz

    2005-01-01

    In recent years more and more often cases have occurred concerning identification of suspects of various crimes for eg. car theft from parking lots in front of supermarkets or money from ATMS. It often happens that such places are monitored twenty-four hours a day. Still, both the quality of cameras and their location in the wrong places cause the recordings to be illegible. In the present pager, we present two cases of this type, where by applying computer graphics and anthropometric methods contributed to identification of law-breakers. PMID:15984114

  9. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez?Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. Methods A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. Results There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p?=?0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p?=?0.000; p?=?0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. Conclusions When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players. PMID:17957016

  10. Anthropometric variation and the genetic structure of the Jirels of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Williams-Blangero, S; Blangero, J

    1989-02-01

    Anthropometric measurements (head length, head breadth, bizygomatic diameter, minimum frontal diameter, head circumference, and stature) for 526 adult Jirels are utilized to establish the pattern of phenotypic relationships between seven villages in eastern Nepal. An analytical framework is provided that justifies the interpretation of biological distances as minimum genetic distances. Using this approach, estimates of the minimum pairwise genetic distances between villages and the minimum FST for the population are derived from the purely phenotypic data. The FST obtained in this way is consistent with results obtained from other data available for this population, confirming the utility of phenetic analysis of quantitative traits for elucidating genetic structure. PMID:2707782

  11. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  12. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  13. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  14. Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry

  15. Doorway to Nutrition: A Nutrition Education Program for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche

    The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…

  16. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

  17. Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch (ENGB)

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch (ENGB) NICHD Report to the NACHHD Council June .............................................................................. 6 CHILDHOOD OBESITY)................................................... 23 NUTRITION RESEARCH

  18. Contents Special Issue on Public Nutrition

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    The aims and content of public nutrition —John B. Mason............................................................................ 281 Why public nutrition? —Jean-Pierre Habicht................................................................................................... 286

  19. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  20. MSc Nutrition for Global Health

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    MSc Nutrition for Global Health The Mission of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine for Global Health 2009. formerly MSc Public Health Nutrition (PHN) #12;Aims and Objectives This course trains

  1. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  2. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  3. Clinical avian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. PMID:25155663

  4. Anthropometric and Micronutrient Status of School-Children in an Urban West Africa Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dakar (Senegal)

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Bastard, Guillaume; Sembène, Malick; Fortin, Sonia; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban areas in West Africa are not immune to undernutrition with recent urbanization and high food prices being important factors. School children often have a poor nutritional status, potentially affecting their health and schooling performance. Yet, generally school children do not benefit from nutrition programs. The objective of the study was to assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status of children from state schools in the Dakar area. Methods School children (n?=?604) aged from 5 to 17 y (52.5% girls, 47.5% ?10 y) were selected through a two-stage random cluster sample of children attending urban primary state schools in the Dakar area (30 schools × 20 children). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age2 z-scores. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was 14.4%, 39.1% and 10.6% respectively. 3.0% had vitamin A deficiency, 35.9% a marginal vitamin A status, and 25.9% zinc deficiency. Urinary iodine was <50 µg/L in 7.3% of children and ?200 µg/L in 22.3%. The prevalence of marginal vitamin A, zinc deficiency, high TfR was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05). Height-for-age and retinol were significantly lower in participants ?10 y and <10 y respectively. Conclusion Undernutrition, especially thinness, iron and zinc deficiencies in school children in the Dakar area requires special targeted nutrition interventions. PMID:24391938

  5. Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics

    E-print Network

    Engel, Robert

    1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition The Department of Family, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences of Queens College of The City University of New York

  6. College Students' Nutrition Information Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann A. Hertzler; Robert B. Frary

    1995-01-01

    Nutrition information networks accessible to or being accessed by college students were studied. Data were collected on the types of networks, the extent of their use, and the relationship of use tofood behavior. Undergraduate students (179 men, 300 women) in an introductory nutrition class rated their perceived use of nutrition information networks; provided frequency-of-use responses to a survey offood choicesfat

  7. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  8. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  9. Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

    2007-01-01

    Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

  10. Nutritional problems in children with neuromotor disabilities: an Italian case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Several neuromotor disorders share exclusive, although often overlooked, nutritional problems. The objective of this study is therefore to delineate the frequency of malnutrition, evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional care, and identify issues needing to be possibly strengthened when caring for these patients into a general pediatrics department. Patients and methods The study included 30 patients, 21 males and 9 females, aged between 2 and 15 years, affected by cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, and severe psychomotor developmental delay. Nutritional status was assessed by a dietary questionnaire administered to parents to investigate feeding difficulties; 3 days food diary to quantify daily calorie intake; anthropometrical (weight, height/length, body mass index percentiles, plicometry, specific body segments measurement) and blood (blood count, serum iron, albumin, transferrin, calcium, phosphorus) parameters. Results More than 44% individuals of the study population was at risk of malnutrition, according to feeding difficulties, progressive depletion of weight, reduced daily calorie intake, reduced albumin and transferrin levels. This occurred despite a massive caregivers commitment, as documented by almost universal parental constant assistance during their long-duration meals. Conclusions Our results individuate the nutritional aspect being still a problem in the care of children with severe neuromotor disability. PMID:25000975

  11. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

  12. Anthropometric indices of obesity and the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Safarian, Mohammad; Esmailee, Habibollah; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rajabi-Moghadam, Maryam; Gholami, Arezoo; Reza Oladi, Mohammad; Ferns, Gordon A

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome are increasing globally. The present study was conducted in an attempt to define optimal cutoff values for several anthropometric variables in an Iranian population, as these may vary with ethnicity. Iranian subjects (2483 men and 2445 women), aged 15-65 years, were recruited using a cluster-stratified sampling method from rural and urban areas within the Khorasan province. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to define optimal anthropometric cutoff values. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome were 28, 5.5, 67, and 39.9%, respectively. The gender-specific cutoff values for waist:height ratio to predict hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome among men were 0.52 (sensitivity = 66%; specificity = 66%), 0.54 (sensitivity = 65%; specificity = 65%), 0.50 (sensitivity = 58%; specificity = 57%), and 0.53 (sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 70%), and for women were 0.59 (sensitivity = 61%; specificity = 61%), 0.61 (sensitivity = 64%; specificity = 64%), 0.57 (sensitivity = 61%; specificity = 61%), and 0.59 (sensitivity = 77%; specificity = 77%) (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between waist:height ratio and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Waist circumference cutoffs were higher for women than men for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. PMID:19526180

  13. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  14. Relationship between Anthropometric Factors, Gender, and Balance under Unstable Conditions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Cu?, Mutlu; Dülgero?lu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788

  15. Correlation between elite male Iranian gymnast’s wrist injuries and their anthropometric characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Hadi; Rajabi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Nikro, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: In gymnastics, wrists are under considerable force that causes various injuries. The influences of various risk factors have not been studied sufficiently to date to reduce the wrist injuries of gymnasts. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and the wrist injuries of elite male gymnasts who took part in the Iranian Premier League and Division One in 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation study concerning the injuries of 43 elite male gymnasts. The extent of their wrist injuries was determined by a questionnaire and interviews. Also, their anthropometric characteristics were collected according to the criteria established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Event tree analysis and the Spearman rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the gymnasts, 53.5% experienced wrist injuries over the past year, and the rate of wrist injuries was three per gymnast for one year. The incidents of skin and muscular injuries were the most prevalent type of injuries followed by Injuries to ligaments and bones respectively. Body weight was the only anthromopetric characteristic of the participants that was found to have a significant positive relationship with wrist injuries (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gymnasts and their coaches should pay special attention to gymnasts’ weight as an intrinsic risk factor and take the required actions to prevent wrist injuries. PMID:25763171

  16. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  17. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  18. Resolution Influence on 3D Anthropometric Data Clustering for Fitting Design.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jianwei; Li, Zhizhong; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-10-01

    Sizing based on 3D anthropometric data may lead to significant improvement in fitting comfort of wearing products. However, the required computational load is a common problem in 3D data processing. In a previous study, wavelet analysis was adopted to establish a multi-resolution description of 3D anthropometric data to reduce computational load and modeling complexity. K-means clustering was subsequently performed on the decomposed 3D samples. This study further examines the influence of decomposition level on clustering results. As a case study, 378 face samples, 447 head samples and 432 upper head samples were analyzed. Cluster membership variation on five different resolution levels was examined by using Cluster Membership Accuracy Rate (CMAR), which denotes the clustering consistency on the decomposed levels compared with the clustering results on the original data sets. For the face data sets, the CMAR values on the five decomposition levels are 100, 99.21, 97.88, 93.92 and 93.39%, respectively; for upper heads, the CMAR values are 99.3, 99.1, 98.4, 92.1 and 84.3%, respectively; while for whole heads, the CMAR values are 99.3, 98.2, 95.1, 85.5 and 77.9%, respectively. These results indicate that clustering on the third decomposition level is proper for face and head scans in reducing computational load while maintaining at least 95% clustering accuracy. PMID:19834268

  19. ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  20. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets. PMID:25683535

  1. Metabolomic (anthropometric and biochemical) indexes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the use of combination of international standardized anthropometric parameters, along with biochemical parameters (metabolomic indexes) to identify metabolic syndrome (MetS), in persons with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 42 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities (aged 13-30years) who attend special schools in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. The study included anthropometric (using the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry recommendations) and biochemical measures, and their combinations as metabolomic-indexes, that can significantly predict MetS occurrence in this vulnerable population. Waist circumference (WC) and relaxed arm circumference, both adjusted for height, have the highest correlation with MetS (R2=0.23-0.47, p<0.01). Besides body mass index (BMI) and WC we propose other indicators such as, skinfolds, hip circumference and relaxed arm circumference, all of them adjusted by height in order to better define the presence of MetS in persons with intellectual disabilities. PMID:25124697

  2. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  3. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

  4. Nutrition: What is Food?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2010-05-24

    Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

  5. Nutrition on match day

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

    2006-01-01

    What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

  6. Nutrition for distance events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

  7. Nutrition of Penaeus japonicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Teshima

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of larval and juvenile Penaeus japonicus, referring to past studies briefly and focusing on recent studies on proteins, lipids, and other essential nutrients. Also, the quantitative requirements of nutrients in crustacean species were critically evaluated in relation to net nutrient intake in P. japonicus. Like fish and other vertebrates, larval and

  8. Nutrition and pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Prentice

    2004-01-01

    Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

  9. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  10. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

  11. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  12. Nutrition in Team Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

  13. NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...

  14. NUTRITION AND FEEDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

  15. Nutrition and psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janelle R. Ricketts; Marti J. Rothe; Jane M. Grant-Kels

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation may provide a viable treatment alternative in patients with psoriasis. Randomized, controlled trials have shown the effectiveness of topical vitamin A and D derivatives, intravenous ?-3 fatty acids, oral inositol, and various combined therapies. Dual therapies of ultraviolet B phototherapy and fish oil, retinoids and thiazolidinediones, and cyclosporine and a low-calorie diet were effective in the treatment of

  16. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  17. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  18. Nutrition: What are Nutrients?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

  19. Iron nutrition in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

  20. Nutrition and colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Potter

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not

  1. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  2. Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

  3. Director of Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

    2005-01-01

    sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

  4. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  5. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or specialist can help you make the right decision. Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local Support For Healthcare Providers Support & Care Publications Related news January 21, ...

  6. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  7. Nutrition and Athletic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

  8. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  9. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

  10. Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

  11. Biotechnology and potential nutritional implications for children.

    PubMed

    Young, A L; Lewis, C G

    1995-08-01

    The tools of biotechnology have enormous potential to develop new, safe, and nutritious foods and food products that could benefit the immediate and long-term nutritional and health needs of the pediatric population. This is especially true as more emphasis is placed on the prevention, rather than the treatment, of chronic degenerative and metabolic diseases. But the promise of biotechnology for nutritional and health benefits of children's diets must be accepted with cautious optimism. Many advances in food technology and nutritional composition of food animals and plants have already been made through biotechnology, but they represent only the beginning of the necessary research. These advances have been based on relatively little knowledge of basic human nutritional needs, particularly during the dynamic pediatric period of growth and development. More importantly, these advances have been predicated with no understanding of dietary nutrient interactions. Changing nutrient composition of foods through biotechnology may alter nutrient interactions, nutrient-gene interactions, nutrient bioavailability, nutrient potency, and nutrient metabolism. Biotechnology has the potential to produce changes in our foods and in our diet at a pace far greater than our ability to predict the significance of those changes on pediatric nutrition. The Human Genome Project, which relies on biotechnology, will revolutionize science and medicine. Pediatrics will be one of the first medical specialties to benefit from the outcome of this project as recombinant DNA manipulations will replace diet therapies for treating metabolic diseases. Somatic gene therapy eventually may be the ideal means for diagnosis, treatment, and cure of inherited diseases and metabolic disorders; however, many problems exist, especially in situations in which nutrients are involved in the complex regulation of gene expression. DNA and genes themselves do not determine the fate of an individual. The genetic material provides the potential for the individual, but this potential can be modified by environmental factors. The interaction of nutrients with genes is a major determinant in the final outcome of the individual. Biotechnology promises children a more productive and better quality of life, but achieving the full potential of this promise demands a continued diligent search for knowledge of nutrition and nutrient-gene interactions. PMID:7610020

  12. Can anthropometric measurements and diet analysis serve as useful tools to determine risk factors for insulin-resistant diabetes type 2 among white and black Americans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G Allen; J. C Allen; L. C Boyd; B. P Alston-Mills

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveCentral obesity is implicated in the development of insulin resistance by increasing insulin demand and eventually leading to hyperinsulinemia. Anthropometric measurements have been helpful in determining the risk factors in developing diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study we investigated whether anthropometric measurements differ among diabetics of different races. We also evaluated whether nutrient intake of these individuals was related

  13. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

  14. Case report: Enteral nutritional supplement as a likely cause of false-positive galactomannan testing?

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tong-Yong; Kang, Mei-Ling; Tan, Ban-Hock; Ngan, Cecilia Cheng-Lai

    2013-01-01

    The detection of galactomannan (GM) in the serum of in immunocompromised patients is widely used for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. We report a case of a false-positive GM test presumably caused by the enteral nutritional supplement given to a non-neutropenic patient with intestinal graft-versus-host disease after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of false-positive GM results in patients on nutritional supplements. PMID:24567893

  15. Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

  16. Foundations of Nutrition Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McKay, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

  17. USDA: Food & Nutrition Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

  18. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396. PMID:21936938

  19. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra Jr, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil. PMID:24714954

  20. Recent Illness, Feeding Practices and Father's Education as Determinants of Nutritional Status among Preschool Children in a Rural Nigerian Community.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Titilola B; Yakubu, Alhassan M

    2015-04-01

    Good nutrition is necessary for the growth and development of preschool children. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, data on the determinants of their nutritional status are lacking. A cross-sectional survey of 366 preschool children was conducted in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and information about feeding practices, immunization and parental education was obtained from their mothers. Fifty-two percent were stunted, 30% were underweight and 25% were wasted. Recent history of diarrhea was associated with wasting (OR = 2.66, p < 0.001). Children whose fathers had postsecondary education were less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.45, p = 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.37, p = 0.005). Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, preventing recurrent diarrhea and including fathers in community interventions will improve the health of children in this community. PMID:25491039

  1. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format. PMID:2071796

  2. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  3. Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has\\u000a clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D\\u000a supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition\\u000a to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as

  4. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  5. School Meal Nutritional

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    School Meal Nutritional Information #12;Portion Total Component Size Cals Fiber G Protn G Carb G.82 6.25 Grain/Meat-2 Items Chicken Alfredo(Red.-Fat)&Rotini 1 cup 488 6.20 23.72 25.00 10.00 Grain-1 Item Turkey Deli Meat 1.5 oz. 59 0.28 9.68 2.39 0.94 Meat-1 Item Fish Shapes 3 oz. 180 1.15 9

  6. EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study consisting of 18,109 healthy women who participated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged ...

  7. Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giampietro; A. Pujia; I. Bertini

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric features and body composition of athletes practising karate at a high and medium competitive level. Our study was carried out on a sample of 35 subjects practising karate and aged from 16.0 to 32.5 years. This sample was divided into two groups: group 1 ( n=14 elite athletes) and group

  8. Sex-specific differences of subacromial space width during abduction, with and without muscular activity, and correlation with anthropometric variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Graichen; Harald Bonel; Tobias Stammberger; Karl-Hans Englmeier; Maximilian Reiser; Felix Eckstein

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine sex-specific differences of the subacromial space width during active and passive arm abduction and to analyze the correlation of this space with general and regional anthropometric variables. Fourteen healthy subjects (7 men, 7 women) were examined with an open magnetic resonance system at 30[deg ] and 90[deg ] of abduction (with and

  9. EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including 18,109 healthy women aged 49-83 y who participated in the Swedish Mammography Coh...

  10. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  11. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-08-20

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of the present study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13014 subjects participated in the present study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. Logistic regression (LR) and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p = <0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol. The best indicator for HDL and LDL might differ according to the type of cholesterol and the gender. In women, but not men, age was the variable that strongly predicted HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings provide new information for the development of better initial screening tools for HDL and LDL cholesterol. PMID:25148675

  12. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations. PMID:20034316

  13. [Anthropometric data on newborn infants: comparative study of two ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related. PMID:1456623

  14. Assessment of pulmonary function in local healthy Nepalese men of Dharan and it's anthropometric correlation.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Rajesh; Sinha, Meenakshi; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Bhattacharya, Soumya

    2007-09-01

    Healthy non smoking male subjects (n = 150) aged 18-40 years were subjected to pulmonary function testing to establish linear multiple regression model. Pulmonary parameters were considered as independent variables and physical parameters (age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) and anthropometric parameters (skin fold thickness (SFT), mid arm circumference and abdominal girth) were taken as dependent variables. This study was undertaken to determine correlation coefficients between dependent variables and different pulmonary independent variables and to derive regression equations or prediction formulae in order to find out the expected normal values for the different lung function tests in a given individual. Present study revealed that the upper body fat distribution, as reflected by biceps skin fold thickness and mid arm circumference, is a significant predicator of ventilatory function. PMID:18092439

  15. Financial and nutrition outcomes for patients placed on enteral nutrition versus oral intake

    E-print Network

    Barry, Kristina Marie

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and performance related predictors of success in adolescent pole vaulters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Knowlton, R G; Hetzler, R K; Woelke, P L

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anthropometric characteristics of skilled adolescent pole vaulters and to examine the strength of anthropometric and physical performance variables in predicting vaulting performance (N = 87; age group range 13-18 years). The vaulting height of the subjects ranged from 1.98 to 4.72m (mean 3.58 +/- s.d. 0.536m). The vaulters were classified as ectomorphic mesomorphs with an average somatotype of 1.6-4.2-3.5 (s.d. +/- 0.38-0.94-1.00). One way analysis of variance showed that while measures of stature, physical performance and vault performance significantly increased (p < 0.05) across age groups, somatotype and sum of skinfolds remained stable. Stepwise regression analysis showed the best predictor of vaulting performance was hand grip height (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that grip height was strongly correlated to vault height (r = 0.88), age (r = 0.72), body mass (r = 0.71), standing long jump (r = 0.69), running speed (r = 0.69), biceps girth (r = 0.66), standing height (0.65), calf girth (0.61) and pull-ups (r = 0.44). It was concluded that the somatotype of skilled young pole vaulters is similar to that of junior Olympic and adult Olympic vaulters, and that this somatotype is a selective factor for this event as early as thirteen years of age. Proficiency in pole vaulting is best predicted by grip height, which is strongly correlated to stature and simple field measures of leg speed and power, and upper body muscular endurance. These findings may be applied to the selection and training of young pole vaulters. PMID:7967587

  17. Genome-wide association of anthropometric traits in African- and African-derived populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun J.; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Lettre, Guillaume; Butler, Johannah L.; Hackett, Rachel; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Guiducci, Candace; Berzins, Ilze; Nguyen, Thutrang T.; Feng, Tao; Luke, Amy; Shriner, Daniel; Ardlie, Kristin; Rotimi, Charles; Wilks, Rainford; Forrester, Terrence; McKenzie, Colin A.; Lyon, Helen N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified common variants that are associated with a variety of traits and diseases, but most studies have been performed in European-derived populations. Here, we describe the first genome-wide analyses of imputed genotype and copy number variants (CNVs) for anthropometric measures in African-derived populations: 1188 Nigerians from Igbo-Ora and Ibadan, Nigeria, and 743 African-Americans from Maywood, IL. To improve the reach of our study, we used imputation to estimate genotypes at ?2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also tested CNVs for association. No SNPs or common CNVs reached a genome-wide significance level for association with height or body mass index (BMI), and the best signals from a meta-analysis of the two cohorts did not replicate in ?3700 African-Americans and Jamaicans. However, several loci previously confirmed in European populations showed evidence of replication in our GWA panel of African-derived populations, including variants near IHH and DLEU7 for height and MC4R for BMI. Analysis of global burden of rare CNVs suggested that lean individuals possess greater total burden of CNVs, but this finding was not supported in an independent European population. Our results suggest that there are not multiple loci with strong effects on anthropometric traits in African-derived populations and that sample sizes comparable to those needed in European GWA studies will be required to identify replicable associations. Meta-analysis of this data set with additional studies in African-ancestry populations will be helpful to improve power to detect novel associations. PMID:20400458

  18. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist – hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 ± 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 ± 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 ± 11.187) than the control group (74.886 ± 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 ± 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 ± 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 ± 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 ± 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist – hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI.

  19. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  20. Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    Wedin, William K; Diaz-Gimenez, Lizmer; Convit, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR) and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents. Research design and methods Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition) were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age. Results The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity. Conclusion WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant. PMID:22924001

  1. Agreement between cranial and facial classification through clinical observation and anthropometric measurement among envigado school children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the agreement between cranial and facial classification obtained by clinical observation and anthropometric measurements among school children from the municipality of Envigado, Colombia. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among 8-15-year-old children. Initially, an indirect clinical observation was made to determine the skull pattern (dolichocephalic, mesocephalic or brachycephalic), based on visual equivalence of right eurion- left eurion and glabella-opisthocranion anthropometric points, as well as the facial type (leptoprosopic, mesoprosopic and euryprosopic), according to the left and right zygomatic, nasion and gnation points. Following, a direct measurement was conducted with an anthropometer using the same landmarks for cranial width and length, as well as for facial width and height. Subsequently, both the facial index [euryprosopic (?80.9%), mesoprosopic (between 81% - 93%) and leptoprosopic (?93.1%)] and the cranial index [dolichocephalic (index???75.9%), mesocephalic (between 76% - 81%), and brachycephalic (?81.1%)] were determined. Concordance between the indices obtained was calculated by direct and indirect measurement using the Kappa statistic. Results A total of 313 students were enrolled; 172 (55%) were female and 141 (45%) male. The agreement between the direct and indirect facial index measurements was 0.189 (95% CI 0.117-0261), and the cranial index was 0.388 (95% CI 0.304-0.473), indicating poor concordance. Conclusions No agreement was observed between direct measurements conducted with an anthropometer and indirect measurements via visual evaluation. Therefore, the indirect visual classification method is not appropriate to calculate the cranial and facial indices. PMID:24886038

  2. Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

  3. Evaluation of anthropometric accuracy and reliability using different three-dimensional scanning systems.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O; Ren, Yijin

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of standard anthropometric linear measurements made with three different three-dimensional scanning systems namely laser surface scanning (Minolta Vivid 900), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), 3D stereo-photogrammetry (Di3D system) and to compare them to physical linear measurements. The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The reliability and accuracy were assessed by means of a series of 21 standardized, linear facial measurements derived from 15 landmarks taken both directly on the face with a set of digital callipers and indirectly from a three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue surface models derived from CBCT, laser surface scans and 3D photographs. Statistical analysis for the reliability was done by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Accuracy was determined by means of the absolute error (AE) and absolute percentage error (APE) by comparison of the 3D measurements to the physical anthropometrical measurements. All the 3D scanning systems were proved to be very reliable (ICC>0.923-0.999) when compared to the physical measurements (ICC; 0.964-0.999). Only one CBCT measurement (t-g) and one Di3D measurement (t-sn left) had a mean AE of more than 1.5mm. There are clear potential benefits of using 3D measurements appose to direct measurements in the assessment of facial deformities. Measurements recorded by the three 3D systems appeared to be both sufficiently accurate and reliable enough for research and clinical use. PMID:20951517

  4. Long-Term Oral Nutrition Supplementation Improves Outcomes in Malnourished Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Zeynep; Tutal, Emre; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no consensus on the type, time of initiation, or duration of use of enteral nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to compare the effects of a renal-specific oral nutrition supplement (RS-ONS) and a standard recommended nutrition regime on biochemical and nutrition markers in malnourished patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Methods: Sixty-two malnourished patients with CKD, divided into experimental (RS-ONS; n = 32; mean [SD] age, 62.0 [11.3] years; 55.2% female) and control (CON; n = 30; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [12.3] years; 31% female) groups, were evaluated for anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Results: Mean (SD) serum albumin levels were significantly increased in the RS-ONS group from 3.5 (0.3) g/dL at baseline to 3.7 (0.2) g/dL at 6 months (P = .028). Significantly fewer patients had serum albumin levels of <3.5 g/dL after month 6. Dry weight of patients significantly increased in the RS-ONS but decreased in the CON groups (P < .001 for each). Percent change from baseline revealed negative results for bioelectrical impedance analysis (P < .001) in the CON group. Malnutrition inflammation score at 6 months (P = .006) and erythropoietin (EPO) dose requirements were higher in the CON group (P = .012). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consuming RS-ONS improves serum albumin and anthropometric measures, as well as reduces EPO dose, in patients with CKD. PMID:24436491

  5. Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242

  6. [Artificial nutrition in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Harsányi, László

    2005-05-29

    Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Despite increasing knowledge and available guidelines in the fields of nutritional support in pancreatic diseases there do still exist a lot of controversies, aversions, delusions in the clinical work. Hungarian Society of Clinical Nutrition has already published it's own guideline on nutrition in pancreatic diseases in 2002. European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) also published a Consensus Statement based on the proposals of an international Consensus Conference with active Hungarian participation. The aim of this article is to clear up habitual considerations of some physicians and to share current knowledge from physiology/pathophysiology to quality control upon these guidelines, meta-analyses, and, the daily practice of Hungarian pioneers of nutrition support in pancreatic diseases. PMID:15997665

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nutrition Education for Improvement of Diet Quality and Inflammation in Iranian Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1?hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-? and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725

  8. [Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7997819

  9. Nutrition and the immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Klasing

    2007-01-01

    1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

  10. Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

  11. Nutrition survey in an elderly population following admission to a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Azad, N; Murphy, J; Amos, S S; Toppan, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in elderly patients in institutions has become an issue of clinical concern, but it remains largely unrecognized in acute care hospitals. The demonstrated benefits of intervention emphasize the need for routine nutritional assessment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to test the sensitivity and specificity of 3 nutrition screening tools. METHODS: Between July and November 1996 patients 65 years and older were consecutively recruited from the general medicine, orthopedics, general surgery and neurosciences services of The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus within 72 hours of admission. They were interviewed using 3 nutritional screening tools: one developed by Chandra and colleagues (Chandra), the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A detailed nutrition assessment was then undertaken, which included anthropometric assessment, laboratory tests, determination of risk factors and assessment of dietary intake. A dietitian blinded to the screening results classified each patient as being well nourished, at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was assessed, and screening results were compared with the results of the detailed nutrition assessment for sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (86 women) were recruited. Detailed nutrition assessments were completed for 152 patients, of which 62 (40.8%) were found to be well nourished, 67 (44.1%) at moderate risk for malnutrition and 23 (15.1%) malnourished. Matched comparisons showed that, of the 23 malnourished patients, 1 was found to be at high risk for malnutrition using the Chandra screening tool, 9 using the NSI and 4 using the MNA, giving sensitivities of 32%, 54% and 57%, and specificities of 85%, 61% and 69%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Given the high rate of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition in this study, admitting physicians need to be aware of this problem and its scope. The 3 screening tools tested performed poorly in comparison with the detailed nutrition assessment. This may have been because the score thresholds for the screening tools were set for screening purposes and because the screening tools were designed for different settings and a wider population. PMID:10497606

  12. Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition

  13. Nutritional Proteomics: Methods and Concepts for Research in Nutritional Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian J. Schweigert

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional proteomics or nutriproteomics is the application of proteomics methodology to nutrition-related research but also represents the interaction of bioactive food ingredients with proteins, whereby the interaction with proteins occurs in two basically specific ways. Firstly, the effect of nutrients on protein expression, which can be monitored by protein mapping, and secondly, the interaction of nutrients with proteins by post-translational

  14. Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

  15. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  16. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  17. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  18. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  19. NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

  20. NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

  1. NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

  2. NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

  3. NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

  4. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  5. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  6. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...

  7. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...

  8. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > Parents > Nutrition & Fitness Center > Special Dietary Needs > How to Read a ...

  10. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  11. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  12. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  13. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  14. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  15. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  16. University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure.............................................................................................................. 7 #12;University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure # Chemical Spills Page 3

  17. The changing nutrition scenario.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  18. Nutrition and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Janelle R; Rothe, Marti J; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation may provide a viable treatment alternative in patients with psoriasis. Randomized, controlled trials have shown the effectiveness of topical vitamin A and D derivatives, intravenous ?-3 fatty acids, oral inositol, and various combined therapies. Dual therapies of ultraviolet B phototherapy and fish oil, retinoids and thiazolidinediones, and cyclosporine and a low-calorie diet were effective in the treatment of psoriasis in randomized, controlled trials. This contribution also reviews the potential negative effect of alcohol and the potential positive effects of vitamin B(12), selenium, retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents, and a gluten-free diet in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:21034986

  19. Nutrition and You

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Parrish and Mrs. Neves

    2007-11-30

    Objectives: You will assess your own nutrition and health. You will also convert units in a recipe. You will need a computer with internet access and a printer to print off your personal eating plan. You will also need a paper and pen to record information. Materials Needed: computer with internet access printer paper and pen to record information Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). Calculate Your Body Mass Index What\\'s your body mass index? Assess an Adult\\'s Health with a given scenario. Calculator For BMI Describe the adult\\'s health status and suggested ...

  20. Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

  1. Nutrition of aging cats.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dottie; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle

    2014-07-01

    At least one-third of cats seen by veterinarians are mature, defined as 7 years of age or older, and approximately 13% of cats are geriatric, defined as 12 years of age or older. The article reviews physiologic differences between these life stages and relates the changes to nutritional needs. Geriatric cats have increased requirements for dietary energy and protein. Feeding management addresses what, when, how, and where food is provided. This article provides an update on diet-sensitive conditions, including cognitive dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, and hyperthyroidism. Although guidelines are provided, patients must be evaluated and fed according to their individual needs. PMID:24951345

  2. Nutrition Navigator: A Rating Guide to Nutrition Websites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Nutrition Navigator, published by the Tufts University School of Nutrition Science and Policy, is a database of evaluated and categorized nutrition-related web sites. Each site indexed by the Nutrition Navigator has been carefully evaluated by a nutritionist and rated numerically in various categories. The site reviews contain brief descriptions, an indication of the intended audience, and other information. These evaluations are searchable, but the search results are not returned in order of the numeric evaluation. The evaluations are, however, organized for browsing by interest category (Educator, Parent, Health Professional, etc.), and are arranged in order of numeric evaluation. The detailed, useful reviews outweigh any inconvenience experienced due to the limitations of this search engine. Although there are relatively few items in the database at present, as it grows it should become a highly valued nutrition metasite.

  3. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  4. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60?mol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 ?mol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  5. Food security and nutritional outcomes among urban poor orphans in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Holding, Penny A; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Ezeh, Alex C; Madise, Nyovani J; Kahurani, Elizabeth N; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-06-01

    The study examines the relationship between orphanhood status and nutritional status and food security among children living in the rapidly growing and uniquely vulnerable slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study was conducted between January and June 2007 among children aged 6-14 years, living in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard procedures and z scores generated using the NCHS/WHO reference. Data on food security were collected through separate interviews with children and their caregivers, and used to generate a composite food security score. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine factors related to vulnerability with regards to food security and nutritional outcomes. The results show that orphans were more vulnerable to food insecurity than non-orphans and that paternal orphans were the most vulnerable orphan group. However, these effects were not significant for nutritional status, which measures long-term food deficiencies. The results also show that the most vulnerable children are boys, those living in households with lowest socioeconomic status, with many dependants, and female-headed and headed by adults with low human capital (low education). This study provides useful insights to inform policies and practice to identify target groups and intervention programs to improve the welfare of orphans and vulnerable children living in urban poor communities. PMID:20945109

  6. The effect of the health care supply environment on children's nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, David R; Mock, Nancy B; Seiber, Eric E

    2002-04-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health infrastructure, personnel and services on children's nutritional status in rural Nepal. Data for the study come from the 1996 Nepal Living Standards Survey, which includes individual- and household-level information on children's nutritional status and its environmental and socioeconomic determinants, and community-level information on the availability of health care infrastructure, personnel and services. The study uses a structural modelling approach to assess the relative contributions of the health care supply environment on children's anthropometric status via the pathway of maternal and child health (MCH) service use. The findings suggest that improvements in the availability of outreach clinics and the structural quality of the closest public facility would be expected to have statistically significant and large effects on the use of MCH services, and that increases in MCH service use would have a statistically significant impact on weight-for-age, but not weight-for-height or height-for-age. The overall impact of the heath care supply environment on nutritional status is assessed through a series of policy simulations. PMID:11926453

  7. Women's strategies to alleviate nutritional stress in a rural African society.

    PubMed

    Bentley, G R; Aunger, R; Harrigan, A M; Jenike, M; Bailey, R C; Ellison, P T

    1999-01-01

    Many agricultural populations are subject to chronic or seasonal undernutrition, reproductive women and children often being most vulnerable. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data on food consumption, food distribution practices, food taboos, garden sizes and work effort to show how Lese horticulturalist women living in the Ituri Forest of northeast Democratic Republic of Congo attempt to alleviate nutritional stress. The Lese experience an annual hunger season when approximately one quarter of the population suffer from energy deficiency. Nutritional intake is also compromised by a complex system of food taboos against meat from wild forest animals. Anthropometric data collected over several years suggest that Lese women suffer from nutritional stress more than men during the hunger season. They also have more food taboos particularly during pregnancy and lactation. Their low fertility is compounded by nutritional stress. Despite these inequities, Lese women use several strategies to improve their food intake. Since they are responsible for all household cooking, they manipulate food portions. During the hunger season, they snack frequently, and increase their consumption of palliative foods. Women with more food taboos plant larger gardens to supplement their diet with vegetable foods. Although this results in their consumption of more daily protein, they work harder compared to women with smaller gardens. Women cheat in their adherence to specific food taboos by actively discounting them, or by eating prophylactic plants that supposedly prevent the consequences (usually illness) of eating tabooed foods. In addition, women resort to subterfuge to access desirable resources. Lese women do not reduce work effort during the hunger season, but adapt physiologically by reducing resting metabolic rates during periods of weight loss. These results point to the ability of Lese women to minimize the ecological and cultural constraints on their nutrition. More data, however, are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of these strategies. PMID:10048774

  8. The critically ill patient: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Forlaw, L

    1983-03-01

    The nutritional needs of critically ill patients are increased by the metabolic demands generated from injury and sepsis. Parenteral nutrition may be necessary initially to meet their nutritional requirements, with transition to enteral nutrition when their nutritional requirements can be met via the gastrointestinal tract. Meeting the nutritional needs of patients enhances their ability to tolerate the medical and surgical interventions necessary to promote resolution of their illness. PMID:6403928

  9. Nutritional interventions in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25569622

  10. Nutritional Interventions in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Bossola, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25569622

  11. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  12. Nutritional assessment of adolescent refugees--Nepal, 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-09-29

    During 1990-1993, 83,000 ethnic Nepalese fled from Bhutan to refugee camps in southeast Nepal after new citizenship policies were enacted by the Bhutanese government. Although annual nutrition surveys of children aged <5 years had been conducted by international agencies, no anthropometric assessment of adolescents had been performed since the refugees arrived in 1990. After withdrawal of a fortified cereal from their rations, the number of reported cases of angular stomatitis (AS) (i.e., thinning and/or fissuring at the angles of the mouth, a sign of possible vitamin deficiency) increased six-fold during December 1998-March 1999 (from 5.5 to 35.6 cases per 1000 refugees) (Santa Tamang, MD, Save the Children Fund, United Kingdom, personal communication, 1999). The highest rates of AS were found among children and adolescents. In October 1999, CDC was invited by the World Food Programme and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to assess the health status of adolescent refugees. This report summarizes the investigation, which indicated a high prevalence of low body mass index (BMI), anemia, low vitamin A status, and signs of micronutrient deficiencies among adolescent refugees. PMID:11032093

  13. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  14. Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    and Nutrition 7-17 Division Overview 7 Faculty Members 8-15 Fellows 16 Clinical Nursing and Nutrition Staff 17 gastroenterology. Our mission is to train the future academic and clinical leaders in pediatric gastroenterology is predominantly clinical with an exposure to a vast array of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. As well

  15. NUTRITION AND TOLERANCE TO ATABRINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. HEGSTED; F. J. STABE

    Little study has been made of the effect of continuous drug admin istration upon the nutritive requirements, or conversely, of the effect of nutritive state upon the ability of the animal to withstand phar macological agents. However, a survey of the literature reveals suf ficient evidence to indicate that the action of some drugs may depend to a certain extent

  16. Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Raubenheimer; S. J. Simpson

    1999-01-01

    We present and illustrate using data from insects an integrative approach to modelling animal nutrition. This framework enables the unification within simple geometrical models of several nutritionally relevant measures. These include: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required to be ingested and allocated to growth by an animal over a given time period (the intake and growth targets, respectively);

  17. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Rossi; Rosecler Elen Goya; Magna Aparecida; Veridiano Matayoshi; Carla Cristine; Cardoso Pereira; Juliana Bernardo da Silva

    ROSSI, L.; GOYA, R. E.; MATAYOSHI, M. A. V.; PEREIRA, C. C. C.; SILVA, J. B. Nutritional evaluation of taekwondo athletes. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 2, p. 159-166, 2009. This work aimed to evaluate food intake by Brazilian high-rank taekwondo athletes in order to assess nutritional adequacy and draw comparisons with other sport modalities of fight. The study

  18. Nutritional regulation of epigenetic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...

  19. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  20. CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

  1. Lynn Hellenga MSRD Nutrition Coordinator

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Lynn Hellenga MSRD Nutrition Coordinator Montana Nutrition and Physical Activity Program #12;www.montananapa.org 2 #12; Learning List two ways breastfeeding is thought to decrease obesity in childhood List's) Necrotizing Enterocolitis ( NEC) #12; Child long term Obesity Type 1 & 2 diabetes Asthma Childhood

  2. Nutritional issues in cancer management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

  3. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  4. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

  5. Nutrition and multiple gestation.

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    Multiple pregnancy represents a state of magnified nutritional requirements, resulting in a greater nutrient drain on maternal resources and an accelerated depletion of nutritional reserves. The accelerated starvation which occurs in pregnancy is exaggerated with a multiple gestation, particularly during the second half of pregnancy, with more rapid depletion of glycogen stores and resultant metabolism of fat between meals and during an overnight fast. A reduced glucose stream from mother to fetus results in slower fetal growth, smaller birth size, as well as a higher risk of preterm labor and preterm birth. For this reason, diet therapy with a diabetic regimen of 20% of calories from protein, 40% of calories from carbohydrate, and 40% of calories from fat may be particularly useful. Iron-deficiency anemia has also been linked to preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mobilization of maternal iron stores, in addition to an adequate amount and pattern of gestational weight gain (including BMI-specific weight gain goals by 20 and 28 weeks gestation), has been associated with significantly better fetal growth and longer gestations in twin pregnancies. Supplementation with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, as well as multivitamins and essential fatty acids may also reduce pregnancy complications and improve postnatal health for infants born from a multiple gestation. Diet therapy for women pregnant with multiples is an important component of effective prenatal care. PMID:16360494

  6. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. PMID:21346334

  7. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the national or international level. As the mother is the primary caregiver, most of the obstacles to care are the constraints to the mothers, the most common characteristic of which being the low status of women in many societies. More studies are required to better understand the causal relationship between care and nutrition. Methods to measure the qualitative aspects of care and indicators that capture the complexity of care must be developed and cross-culturally tested. These will also be useful to design and monitor more effective interventions incorporating care. These programmes should first identify and support the good traditional care practices rather than simply ask for change; the activities proposed should not break the balance between the time women spend on care and the time they spend on work. Therefore one must be sure that enough resources are available. Finally, to achieve sustainable changes a participatory and comprehensive approach is definitely needed. PMID:11943643

  8. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies. PMID:19138441

  9. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  10. Economic assessment of nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2015-01-01

    The effect of consumers' compliance with nutritional recommendations is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we adapt a model of consumer behaviour under rationing to the case of linear nutritional constraints. Dietary adjustments are derived from information on consumer preferences, consumption levels, and nutritional contents of foods. A calibration exercise simulates, for different income groups, how the French diet would respond to various nutrition recommendations, and those behavioural adjustments are translated into health outcomes through the DIETRON epidemiological model. This allows for the ex-ante comparison of the efficiency, equity and health effects of ten nutritional recommendations. Although most recommendations impose significant taste costs on consumers, they are highly cost-effective, with the recommendations targeting salt, saturated fat, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) ranking highest in terms of efficiency. Most recommendations are also economically progressive, with the exception of that targeting F&V. PMID:25443618

  11. INFLUENCE OF MILITARY TRAINING AND STANDARDIZED NUTRITION IN MILITARY UNIT ON SOLDIERS' NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, A; Bertrandt, J; K?os, A; K?os, K

    2014-09-29

    Despite suspension of conscription in Polish Army trainings of soldiers are still carried out. It is expected that they will be effective and will contribute to obtaining optimum level of psychophysical efficiency that enables fulfillment of military tasks.Total of 60 soldiers took part in the study. During the 9-month military service, soldiers had 200 hours of physical training as well as basic military training (shooting, drill, anti-chemical training, topography, general tactics and military equipment operation). The training lasted 8 hours every day.To assess fitness level four trials were done: long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups and 1000 meters run. Evaluation of food was based on the analysis of full board menus using the "Tables of composition and nutritional value of food products". Energy value was assessed and content of basic nutrients was calculated. Assessment of nutritional status was based on anthropometric measurements such as body height, body mass and thickness of four selected skin folds. Body height and body mass were the basis for the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation.Soldiers serving in the mechanized infantry unit, after completing the training got better results only in 1000 meters run (from 250.3 to 233.61 seconds). During the research an average energy value of a daily food ration planned for consumption was 4504 kcal. This value consisted of 13.2% of energy from protein, 31.9% of energy from fat and 54.9% from carbohydrates. In the course of military service percentage of subjects indicating overweight increased from 10.2% to 25.4%. PMID:25268293

  12. The relationship between DXA-based and anthropometric measures of visceral fat and morbidity in women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess accumulation of visceral fat is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. While computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard to measure visceral adiposity, this is often not possible for large studies - thus valid, but less expensive and intrusive proxy measures of visceral fat are required such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Study aims were to a) identify a valid DXA-based measure of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), b) estimate VAT heritability and c) assess visceral fat association with morbidity in relation to body fat distribution. Methods A validation sample of 54 females measured for detailed body fat composition - assessed using CT, DXA and anthropometry – was used to evaluate previously published predictive models of CT-measured visceral fat. Based upon a validated model, we realised an out-of-sample estimate of abdominal VAT area for a study sample of 3457 female volunteer twins and estimated VAT area heritability using a classical twin study design. Regression and residuals analyses were used to assess the relationship between adiposity and morbidity. Results Published models applied to the validation sample explained >80% of the variance in CT-measured visceral fat. While CT visceral fat was best estimated using a linear regression for waist circumference, CT body cavity area and total abdominal fat (R2?=?0.91), anthropometric measures alone predicted VAT almost equally well (CT body cavity area and waist circumference, R2?=?0.86). Narrow sense VAT area heritability for the study sample was estimated to be 58% (95% CI: 51-66%) with a shared familial component of 24% (17-30%). VAT area is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension (HT), subclinical atherosclerosis and liver function tests. In particular, VAT area is associated with T2D, HT and liver function (alanine transaminase) independent of DXA total abdominal fat and body mass index (BMI). Conclusions DXA and anthropometric measures can be utilised to derive estimates of visceral fat as a reliable alternative to CT. Visceral fat is heritable and appears to mediate the association between body adiposity and morbidity. This observation is consistent with hypotheses that suggest excess visceral adiposity is causally related to cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:23552273

  13. Anthropometric comparison of painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Yong; Hwang, Se Won; Hwang, Kun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers using anthropometry.Portraits of each theme were selected in modern novels, essays and picture books, and categorized portraits. A total of 52 samples were collected, including 20 beautiful women, 20 femme fatales, and 12 artists' mothers. In 5 persons, 17 anthropometric ratios including the alae-alae/zygion-zygion ratio were compared in a 15-degree oblique view and in anteroposterior view photographs, and they were proved to not differ significantly. To distinguish oblique portraits less than 15 degrees, we measured the exocanthion-stomion-exocanthion (ESE) angle in photographs of 5 volunteers. The mean ± SD of the ESE angle was 64.52 ± 4.87 in the 15-degree angle view and 57.68 ± 54.09 in the 30-degree angle view. Thereafter, if the ESE angle was greater than 65 degrees, we considered the portrait to have less than a 15-degree angle and included it in the samples.The ratio did not differ significantly in 11 anthropometric proportions. However, the remaining 5 proportions were statistically significant. Beautiful women had wider noses (85% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the femme fatale group (77%). Lips in the beautiful woman group are nicer and thicker (36% of lip's width) compared with the artists' mother group (27%). Femme fatales were relatively similar to beautiful women such as those women with nice and thick lips. However, the femme fatale group had an attractive midface ratio (36% of the total face height) that has been mentioned in the older literature, and the noses of the femme fatale group were narrower and sharper (77% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the beautiful women (85%). The artists' mother group has a relatively narrower upper face (29% of the total face height) and thinner lips (27% of the lip width) compared with the other 2 groups (36%).Proportions from works of art are more ideal and attractive than clinically measured proportions. The ideal ratios measured from historical portraits might be useful in planning facial surgeries. PMID:24220418

  14. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n ?=? 101, mean age ?=? 19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n ?=? 35), dance line (n ?=? 47), and majorettes (n ?=? 19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval ?=? 20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ? .01) and on the dieting (P ? .01), oral control (P ?=? .02), and bulimia (P ?=? .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P ?=? .01), self-reported weight (P ?=? .03), measured weight (P ?=? .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P ?=? .02), and calculated target weight (P ?=? .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  15. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. Methods In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case–control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case–control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design–specific (case–control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). Conclusions Consistent findings across case–control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles of endogenous hormones. PMID:24552677

  16. Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ? 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202

  17. Intestinal Parasitic Infection and Nutritional Status among School Children in Angolela, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Linh; Gelaye, Bizu; Aboset, Nigusu; Kumie, Abera; Williams, Michelle A.; Berhane, Yemane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To estimate the prevalence of parasitic infection and nutritional status, and to evaluate the extent to which the two are associated among schoolchildren in rural Ethiopia. Methods This is a cross sectional study of 664 students aged from 6 to 19 years old from Angolela, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the time of interview. Examinations of fecal samples for helminthic and protozoan parasitic infections were performed. Logistic regression procedures were employed to evaluate the association between stunting, underweightedness, and wasting with parasitic infections. Results One-third of the participants were found to have a protozoan infection, while 7.1% were found to have a helminthic infection. Approximately 11% of the students were stunted, 19.6% were wasted, and 20.8% were underweight. Severely underweight boys were 3.88-times more likely than boys of adequate weight (OR=3.88, 95%CI: 1.12–13.52) to be diagnosed with protozoan infections. Among girls, those who were severely stunted were approximately 12 times (OR=11.84, 95%CI: 1.72–81.62) as likely to be infected with a helminthic parasite, than those who were not. Overall, there was a deficit in normal growth patterns as indicated by lower than average anthropometric measures. Discussion and conclusion There is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Stunting, wasting, and underweightedness were also prevalent, and showed patterns of associations with intestinal parasitic infections. Efforts should be made to strengthen and expand school and community-based programs that promote inexpensive, though effective, practices to prevent the spread of parasitic diseases. Initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also needed. PMID:23362622

  18. Advances in clinical nutrition in GI surgery.

    PubMed

    Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik H; Irtun, Oivind

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses recent relevant advances to clinical nutrition regarding gastrointestinal disease surgery. Medline Ovid, EMBASE and Central were searched systematically in April 2014. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and observational studies evaluating nutritional support in gastrointestinal surgery published within 5 years. The review included 56 relevant studies. Themes were: nutrition screening and risk factors predict outcome; preoperative nutritional support; shortening fasting periods and including carbohydrate solutions; early nutrition after surgery; immune modulating nutrition; synbiotics, growth hormone, omega-3 and oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition in combination. Screening for nutritional risk is profound, with special focus on dietary intake in the past week. Age and severity of disease need to be included in the screening system. Patients at severe nutritional risk benefit from nutritional therapy before surgery. New standards are developing quickly and clinical guidelines on surgery should include updated knowledge within clinical nutrition. PMID:25339536

  19. Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Berbel, Marina Nogueira; de Góes, Cassiana Regina; Balbi, André Luis; Ponce, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients. PMID:25029579

  20. Total heart volume as a function of clinical and anthropometric parameters in a population of external beam radiation therapy patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadège Ilembe Badouna, Audrey; Veres, Cristina; Haddy, Nadia; Bidault, François; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Bridier, André; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine anthropometric parameters leading to the least uncertain estimate of heart size when connecting a computational phantom to an external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patient. From computed tomography images, we segmented the heart and calculated its total volume (THV) in a population of 270 EBRT patients of both sexes, aged 0.7-83 years. Our data were fitted using logistic growth functions. The patient age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area (BSA) were used as explanatory variables. For both genders, good fits were obtained with both weight (R2 = 0.89 for males and 0.83 for females) and BSA (R2 = 0.90 for males and 0.84 for females). These results demonstrate that, among anthropometric parameters, weight plays an important role in predicting THV. These findings should be taken into account when assigning a computational phantom to a patient.

  1. Anthropometric and physiological traits: age changes among the Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, northern West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subrata K; Pal, Baidyanath

    2003-12-01

    Data on anthropometric and physiological parameters were collected as a part of an ongoing biomedical research project on 197 adult Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India. The analysis of the present data focuses attention towards the nature and extent of changes in adulthood in respect of anthropometric and physiological traits. The results reveal that the height increases up to 35 years of age, then declines, weight decreases after 40 years of age, although males and females do not show similar results. Physiological parameters on the other hand reveal that the blood pressure increases with age and strength parameters i.e. grip strength and back strength declines after the age of 25 years or so. However, no generalization can be made out of this, because of the cross-sectional nature of the present study. PMID:14717537

  2. Sex differences in dieting trends, eating habits, and nutrition beliefs of a group of midwestern college students.

    PubMed

    Davy, Sarah R; Benes, Beverly A; Driskell, Judy A

    2006-10-01

    The influence of sex on dietary trends, eating habits, and nutrition self-assessment and beliefs of a group of college students at a large Midwestern university was investigated. A questionnaire was completed by 105 male and 181 female undergraduate students. Men had significantly higher (P<0.0001) height, weight, and body mass index values. Significantly higher percentages of women than men had tried a low-fat diet (P=0.0075) and a low-carbohydrate diet (P=0.0285). Significantly lower percentages of women than men had never tried a diet (P=0.0173). Significantly higher percentages of women than men reported gaining nutrition knowledge from family (P=0.0033) and magazines/newspapers (P=0.0345). Significantly higher percentages of women than men agreed that they had too much sugar in their diets (P=0.0157), that it is important to limit carbohydrate consumption (P=0.0077), that it is important to limit the amount of fat consumed to lose weight (P=0.0194), and that they needed to lose weight (P<0.0001). It is important to eat a variety of foods for good health according to 94.4% of subjects. Sex differences existed in these college students with regard to anthropometric measurements, certain choices of diets, some sources of nutrition knowledge, and some nutrition beliefs. PMID:17000202

  3. Anthropometric, Bone Age, and Bone Mineral Density Changes after a Family-Based Treatment for Obese Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antonio Bermudez de la Vega; M. Angeles Vázquez; Susana Bernal; F. Javier Gentil; Jose Gonzalez-Hachero; M. Jose Montoya; Ramón Pérez-Cano

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to identify anthropometric, bone age, and bone mineral density (BMD) changes after a family-based treatment\\u000a program for obese children. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 50 obese children (body mass index percentage\\u000a [BMI%] ?120%) aged 9.12 ± 1.72 years (range 6–13) at baseline. A family-based treatment program, based on inadequate feeding\\u000a style with progressive modification, aerobic

  4. The Relationship between Ball Speed and Anthropometrical Characteristics among Professional Baseball Pitchers: a Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Valandro; L. Colombo; H. Cao; F. Recknagel; S. Dun

    The fastest bowlers and pitchers, who are able to perform at levels that exceed those of their team-mates, should have a combination of optimal physical characteristics and techniques. The relationship between ball speed and anthropometrical characteristics of 48 professional baseball pitchers was investigated using a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (HEA). The average height and weight of the subjects were 191.4±4.7 cm

  5. Anthropometric and body build variables as discriminators of event participation in elite adolescent male track and field athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Housh; W. G. Thorland; G. O. Johnson; G. D. Tharp; C. J. Cisar

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which anthropometric and body build measures discriminated between elite adolescent male athletes competing in different track and field events. One hundred and six national?level Junior Olympic male athletes (mean age ± s.d. = 17.7±0.7 yr) volunteered as subjects. The sample included 26 middle distance runners, 24 sprinters\\/hurdlers, 39 jumpers

  6. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L C Mullany; G L Darmstadt; S K Khatry; S C LeClerq; J M Tielsch

    2007-01-01

    Background:Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants.Objective:To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants.Subjects and setting:Newborn infants (n=1640) born between March and June 2004

  7. Sex-specific relationships between adiposity and anthropometric measures and carotid intima-media thickness in Koreans: The Healthy Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y-M Song; K Lee; J Sung; Y S Kim; J Y Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:Increased adiposity, shorter stature, shorter leg length and carotid intima-media thickening are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study aimed to evaluate the sex-specific phenotypic and genetic associations between adiposity and anthropometric measures and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).Subjects\\/Methods:We measured IMT at common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation and internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT) using B-mode ultrasound, and adiposity and anthropometric measures,

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  9. Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children

    PubMed Central

    Minnes, Sonia; Robin, Nathaniel H.; Alt, April A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Satayathum, Sudtida; Salbert, Bonnie Anne; Ellison, Laurie; Singer, Lynn T.

    2008-01-01

    Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose-response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng/g of meconium and greater cocaine exposure predicted lower weight for height z score. Higher average alcohol exposure throughout pregnancy and 3rd trimester predicted lower head circumference and weight z scores, respectively. Severity of marijuana use also predicted lower height for age but greater weight for height. There was not an increased rate of minor anomalies among the PCE cohort, nor was a consistent phenotype identified. After controlling for covariates, higher average prenatal cigarette exposure predicted higher incidence of cranial facial abnormalities. First trimester alcohol exposure predicted greater rates of ear abnormalities and third trimester marijuana exposure predicted greater rates of chest and head shape abnormalities. These finding indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure has a negative effect on specific growth outcomes including standardized height and weight for height, but not a systematic pattern of structural abnormalities. PMID:16298510

  10. [Anthropometric and densitometric investigations into the prenatal development of the human pelvic bone].

    PubMed

    Sulisz, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the prenatal development and mineralization of ossification centres (OC) in the pelvic bone (ilium, ischium, and pubic bone) using radiography and optical density measurements. The material consisted of 90 human fetuses (29 males and 61 females) with a gestational age of 12 to 28 weeks. Both pelvic bones were obtained and radiographs directed at OC were taken. Analysis was done with a computer after digitalization of the radiographs. The area of each OC was determined. With prior standardisation, optical density of the radiographs was measured and mean density was calculated for each OC. OC appear in the ischium between week 12 and 16 and in the pubic bone between week 19 and 24 of gestation. The pelvic bone does not demonstrate sexual differences during prenatal development. Anthropometric findings regarding OC of the pelvic bone correlated positively with fetal age. The dynamics of OC formation varies, being fastest in the case of ilium in the direction from acetabulum to extension of the anterior margin of greater sciatic notch. The mineral density of the pelvic bone increases with age and the mineralization rate changes throughout fetal life. PMID:16871753

  11. [Anthropometric methods used in the evaluation of the postpartum weight retention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jamile Lima; Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scientific papers that studied postpartum weight retention. The identification of the studies was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs and Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases between 2000 until 2013. The main information evaluated was: author, year of publication, sample size, year of data collection, losses and analysis thereof, age, follow-up time, weight in the baseline and in the postpartum, assessment methods of weight retention and main results. Twenty studies were selected, of which 25% (n = 5) were national. Regarding the mode of analysis, in some works the result was analyzed in different ways as continuous and categorical. Of the selected papers, 45% (n = 9) analyzed the retained weight only continuously, 5% (n = 1) only categorically and 40% (n = 8) both ways. One of the studies used distribution in percentiles and the other evaluated continuously, categorical and by indicators of absolute and relative weight reduction. In conclusion, the results found reveal a lack of well-defined information about the forms of anthropometric measurements of women after delivery, indicating the need for developing national proposals, consistent with the reality of our population. PMID:25715134

  12. [Sports anthropological knowledge of relationships between individual hormone levels and anthropometric measuring values].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C

    1993-06-01

    As a tentative investigation of morpho-endocrinology, 92 male and 18 female long-distance runners (ages 21 to 72) were measured according to the standard anthropological techniques. 66 anthropometric parameters, the colours of hair and eyes were recorded. Seven growth factors were derived by means of factor analysis. The levels of 13 hormones were measured and morphological and endocrinological parameters were compared by means of correlation coefficients. So human growth hormone showed correlations to macrosomia and hyperplastic robustness. Estradiol was primarily related to the more feminine features of men, but also to leanness and slenderness of women. Testosterone exhibited significant correlations to mesomorphy and masculinity of males and leptomorphism and strength of females. Both sexes with higher insulin levels seemed to be more fat. Thyroxine (T4) showed a relation to endomorphy and leptomorphism of face, whereas Triiodothyronine (T3) exhibited correlations to ectomorphy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was paralleling mesomorphy of males and hyperplastic robustness of females. Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Prolactin were related to microsomia and hypoplasia. The T4 levels of the dark-haired athletes were significantly higher than the levels of the bright-haired. Several correlations between morphology and hormonal status have been shown, which may be interpreted as a permanent endocrine constitution paralleling the somatotypical body shape, outlasting growth. These correlations however should not be interpreted as causal, as further experimental studies are needed to ascertain such a link. PMID:8342008

  13. CYP17 genotype modifies the impact of anthropometric variation on salivary estradiol in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Van Horn, Andrew; Rockwell, L Christie

    2015-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that human ovarian function is responsive to the energetic environment, which has led to the development of theoretical models that explain this phenomenon. Although many genes are involved in ovarian hormone production, the possibility that genetic polymorphism may affect ovarian response to energetic conditions has not been considered. Cytochrome P450c17? is an enzyme that produces androgen precursors used to make estrogens during ovarian steroidogenesis, and is encoded by the CYP17 gene. A functionally significant variant within the promoter region of CYP17 has been linked to variation in steroid production, and some evidence suggests that this polymorphism could alter transcription of CYP17 in an insulin-dependent manner. We tested the hypothesis that the CYP17 variant affected the relationship between anthropometric measurements and salivary estradiol in healthy women in the United States (n?=?28). PCR-RLFP analysis was used to genotype women for the genetic variant, and estradiol was assayed from saliva by EIA. Moderated regression analysis of these preliminary data revealed a significant interaction between waist-to-hip ratio and CYP17 genotype (P?=?0.004). Our study provides evidence that gene-environment interactions should be considered in future adaptive models for human ovarian function. Moreover, our results stand to illuminate possible associations between this genetic variant and reproductive disease. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:665-670, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25448501

  14. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  15. Association of out-of-home eating with anthropometric changes: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Nago, Eunice S; Lachat, Carl K; Dossa, Romain A M; Kolsteren, Patrick W

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the association of out-of-home eating with anthropometric changes was examined. Peer-reviewed studies in eight databases were searched, and 15 prospective studies were included in the review. The quality of the data was assessed by considering risks of bias in sample selection, data collection methods, and the appropriateness of statistical tests. From this, seven studies, which used relatively large samples or had a follow-up period longer than 10 years, were retained for further analysis. It was concluded that eating out-of-home frequently, in the broad sense, is positively associated with the risk of becoming overweight or obese and weight change. With regard to specific out-of-home sources, the review shows that eating at fast-food outlets is associated with a greater increase in body weight and waist circumference over time than eating at restaurants and takeaway foods positively predict BMI change in women. More research is needed on out-of-home foods other than fast-foods and restaurant foods, such as street, canteen, and school foods. PMID:24499144

  16. Prenatal DDT exposure in relation to anthropometric and pubertal measures in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Gladen, Beth C; Klebanoff, Mark A; Hediger, Mary L; Katz, Solomon H; Barr, Dana B; Davis, Mark D; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2004-12-01

    DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), a pesticide once used widely in agriculture and now limited to public health use, remains a controversial chemical because of a combination of benefits and risks. DDT or its breakdown products are ubiquitous in the environment and in humans. Compounds in the DDT family have endocrine actions and have been associated with reproductive toxicity. A previous study reported associations between prenatal exposure to p,p -DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene] and increased height and weight in adolescent boys. We examined a group with higher exposures to see whether similar associations would occur. Our study group was 304 males born in Philadelphia in the early 1960s who had participated in a previous study. Anthropometric and pubertal measures from one to six visits during their adolescent years were available, as were stored maternal serum samples from pregnancy. We measured p,p -DDE, p,p -DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane], and o,p -DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] in the maternal serum. Outcomes examined in the boys were height, ratio of sitting height to height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, ratio of subscapular to the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, skeletal age, serum testosterone, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. No associations between prenatal exposure to any of the DDT compounds and any outcome measure were seen. PMID:15579424

  17. Correlation of the hand length and stature in adult Musahar females of Nepal; an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Basnet, K S; Dhungel, S; Panta, P P

    2012-03-01

    Stature of a person is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for establishing identification of unknown living or a dead person. A descriptive cross sectional study was done on 165 Nepalese adult Musahar females of Aurahi Village of Mahottari district, Nepal to predict the stature from their hand length. Measurement of stature and the length of both right and left hands taken with a standard standing height measuring instrument and a slide caliper respectively showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and hand lengths. The multiplication factor which was obtained by dividing the height of the subject by the respective hand lengths was found appropriate parameter to calculate the stature of a questioned person. The importance of the hand length alone will be of a great value for anthropologists and forensic experts. As an alternative method, the coefficient of regression and intercept which were obtained from the measured height and hand length were also proved to be equally valuable to estimate the height of a questioned person. PMID:23441496

  18. Cranio facial anthropometric measurements among Rai and Limbu community of Sunsari District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, O; Bhattacharya, S; Jha, N; Dhungel, S; Jha, C B; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, U

    2009-09-01

    Anthropometry is applied to obtain measurements of living subjects for identifying age, stature, and various dimensions related to particular race or an individual. Population based cross sectional study was carried out in Dharan and its neighbouring areas with the help of departments of Anatomy and Community Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan. This study included 444 healthy people aged 25-50 years belonging to pure race of Rai and Limbu communities. Head length, nasal ergonomics and total stature were measured for each selected individual. Student't' test was applied to identify significance of the variables. Except nasal breadth of Limbu, the results showed a significant variation (p < 0.001) in all parameters between male and female of both the communities. It was also revealed that Limnbu males and females were taller with larger head length, longer nasal length and nasal height. Similarly nasal breadths of Limbu females were broader where as in males, Rai had broader nose than that of the Limnbu. Therefore it was concluded that anthropometric measurements can play significant role in determining the sex and ethnicity of characteristic pure races of national importance. PMID:20334066

  19. Role of access to parks and markets with anthropometric measurements, biological markers, and a healthy lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mena, Carlos; Fuentes, Eduardo; Ormazábal, Yony; Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Palomo, Iván

    2014-09-19

    Background: This study examined the association between access to urban green spaces and markets with anthropometric measurements, biological markers, sociodemographic, and healthy lifestyle. Methods: Geographic information systems were used to establish a correlation between environmental features and cardiovascular risk parameters. A total number of 832 (age range 18-74 years) individuals were selected for this study. Results: Body mass index was significantly and positively related to the distance to parks (? = 0.079, p < 0.05), but negatively related to the distance to markets (? = -0.125, p < 0.05). In addition, waist circumference was similar and positively related to distance to parks (? = 0.097, p < 0.05) and negatively related to distance to markets (? = -0.092, p < 0.05). With respect to biochemical parameters, when there was an increase in the distance to markets, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and glycemia decreased. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest the importance of the role of environmental factors such as parks and markets in the development of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25236622

  20. Analysis of Experts’ Quantitative Assessment of Adolescent Basketball Players and the Role of Anthropometric and Physiological Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Štrumbelj, Erik; Er?ulj, Frane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated two questions: (1) can measurements of anthropometric and physiological attributes substitute for expert assessment of adolescent basketball players, and (2) how much does the quantitative assessment of a player vary among experts? The first question is relevant to the potential simplification of the player selection process. The second question pertains directly to the validity of expert quantitative assessment. Our research was based on data from 148 U14 female and male basketball players. For each player, an array of anthropometric and physiological attributes was recorded, including body height, body mass, BMI, and several motor skill tests. Furthermore, each player’s current ability and potential ability were quantitatively evaluated by two different experts from a group of seven experts. Analysis of the recorded data showed that the anthropometric and physiological attributes explained between 15% and 40% of the variance in experts’ scores. The primary predictive attributes were speed and agility (for predicting current ability) and body height and growth potential (for predicting potential ability). We concluded that these attributes were not sufficiently informative to act as a substitute for expert assessment of the players’ current or potential ability. There is substantial variability in different experts’ scores of the same player’s ability. However, the differences between experts are mostly in scale, and the relationships between experts’ scores are monotonic. That is, different experts rank players on ability very similarly, but their scores are not well calibrated. PMID:25414759

  1. Presurgical Cleft Lip Anthropometrics and Dental Arch Relationships in Patients With Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Adibfar, Alex; Tompson, Bryan D; Paedo, D; Daskalogiannakis, John; Fisher, David M

    2014-05-01

    Objective :? To investigate associations between anthropometric lip measurements and dental arch relationships in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP). Design :? Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients :? Children with CUCLP. Methods :? Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The dental arch relationships were evaluated on dental study casts (8.6 ± 0.9 years) taken prior to any orthodontic treatment and prior to alveolar bone graft, using the modified Huddart and Bodenham (MHB) scoring system. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and dental arch relationships was determined using linear regression analysis. Results :? In the 63 patients included in the study, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 87% and in transverse width in 86% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft-side lateral lip height were more likely to present with more negative MHB scores (r = .443; P < .001). Conversely, patients with less deficient cleft-side lateral lip transverse width more often presented with more positive MHB scores (r = .281; P = .025). Conclusions :? In patients with CUCLP, there is a wide variability in the degree of deficiency of the cleft-side lateral lip element, both in the vertical and in the transverse dimension. The extent of this deficiency may, in part, predict the resulting dental arch relationships. PMID:24805871

  2. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Nutrition is Important

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allison

    2010-06-17

    State core objective: Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

  4. Human milk: nutritional resource.

    PubMed

    Nichols, E L; Nichols, V N

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the nutritional value and components of human milk presents research findings on milk composition, including discussions of the influence of maternal diet and general health on milk production. The separate milk components considered include lipids, protein, carbohydrates, water, salt, calcium and phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, iodine, fluoride, vitamins D, K, A, E, C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folate, and cyanocobalamine. Other aspects considered include the differences in composition of colostrum and mature milk, caloric cost of human lactation, possible reasons for failure to thrive in nursing newborns, effects on lactation of maternal dietary supplementation, and the differences between dietary requirements of nonnursing and nursing women. The influence of different dietary patterns and malnutrition on the proportions of different components of milk is assessed. PMID:7033974

  5. [Nutrition in critical illness].

    PubMed

    Ökrös, Ilona

    2014-12-21

    Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients. PMID:25497155

  6. Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy. PMID:24443063

  7. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The seventeenth edition of the The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy is available free at the Website of Merck and Co., Inc. This 1999 centennial edition of the Manual has been edited by Mark H. Beers and Robert Berkow and includes contributions from hundreds of experts in the medical field. Users will find over 300 chapters on medical diseases, disorders, and related drug information in 23 specialty areas that include Nutritional Disorders, Cardiovascular Disorders, Infectious Diseases, Gynecology/ Obstetrics, Clinical Pharmacology, and Poisoning. Entries for each disease or disorder provide information such as causes and risk factors, symptoms and diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The Manual is searchable by keyword and includes hyperlinks to chapters, topics, diagrams, and tables throughout the text. A print or palm pilot version can be ordered at the site.

  8. Seasonal variation in the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 60 months in a resettlement village in West Timor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline; Ritchie, Brett; Tran, Cuong; Beggs, Sean; Lada, Christina Olly; Whetter, Kathryn; Cobiac, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional status using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropometry after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 ?mol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 ?mol/L). All children except one were positive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects depending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. PMID:23945416

  9. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  10. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  11. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  12. NUTRITION 203 as an STS course Principles of Human Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    system. Dial up not recommended. Resources on-line from Pearson publisher (information will be emailed). Additional suggested readings, general nutrition topics and resources: Food Marketing to Children and Youth

  13. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  14. Nutrition systems for pressure suits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

  15. Access Routes for Nutritional Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) and total\\u000a parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for\\u000a surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or\\u000a parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects\\u000a related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route,\\u000a whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks,\\u000a nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice.

  16. Food security and anthropometric failure among tribal children in Bankura, West Bengal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay; A. B. Biswas

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 tribal children aged 6–59 months using two-stage sampling in Bankura-I Block\\u000a of Bankura district, West Bengal, India, to assess their nutritional status and its relation with household food security.\\u000a Weight and height\\/length were measured and analyzed as per new WHO Growth Standards. Mothers of the study children were interviewed\\u000a to obtain relevant information.

  17. What is the Food and Nutrition Project?

    E-print Network

    'ers and other youth groups. · Design and create an exhibit on a food-nutrition related topic for a health fair about food safety; interview a public health inspector. · Research a food-related topic such as special, � basic nutrition, and � how nutrition affects health. · Food and Nutrition Educational Activity �

  18. CPH 560 INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    and resources available to combat malnutrition will be evaluated. The role of world food production, food - infection interactions. 3. Describe the nutrition transition and factors affecting it. 4. The role of women in nutrition and how nutrition affects women 5. Determine the effect of governmental policies on nutritional

  19. STUDY ABROADFOR NUTRITION MAJORS study abroad

    E-print Network

    John, Lizy Kurian

    STUDY ABROADFOR NUTRITION MAJORS study abroad #12;WHY YOU SHOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR NUTRITION MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Nutrition majors with access to interesting and relevant. It is possible for Nutrition students to go abroad for a semester and still graduate on time! WHAT YOU NEED

  20. NUTRITION MARKETING AND THE WORLDWIDE OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...