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Sample records for anthropometric nutritional diagnosis

  1. Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591

  2. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Studies carried out during the last decade have led to a better understanding of the value of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. The present report concentrates on data concerning 0-5-year-old children and examines the indices of weight and height and the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. The need for a reference population as well as for a standard or target is recognized and the advantages and disadvantages of local versus international reference populations are discussed. In the analysis of data, preference is given to the use of standard deviation (SD) scores and to the presentation of whole distributions. Cut-offs, for example -2SD, are needed for comparison of prevalences and for screening of populations. Sequential or serial measurements and the increasing use of growth velocities are discussed and their uses and difficulties are outlined. PMID:3493862

  3. Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory nutritional markers of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Prevalence and diagnostic use.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn; Phillips, Mary E; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) frequently occurs secondary to exocrine pancreatic disease (e.g. chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, cancer) or pancreatic/gastrointestinal surgery, resulting in the maldigestion of nutrients and consequently malnutrition. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the cornerstone of PEI management. Despite its clinical relevance, the diagnosis of PEI in clinical practice is challenging, as the current gold standard test is cumbersome, and alternatives have limited availability or accuracy. There is a need for accurate and easily applicable diagnostic modalities. We review the prevalence of clinical symptoms and changes in anthropometric measurements and laboratory nutritional markers indicative of malnutrition in patients with PEI, and the relevance of these findings in diagnosing PEI and monitoring PERT efficacy. Based on limited available evidence, assessment of clinical symptoms, body weight, body mass index and other anthropometric parameters are not sensitive methods for PEI diagnosis, owing to high variability and multiple confounding factors, but appear useful in monitoring PERT efficacy. Limited evidence precludes strong recommendations but suggests that serum levels of vitamin E, magnesium, and plasma proteins, notably retinol binding protein, albumin, and prealbumin, may have diagnostic utility in PEI. Studies show that assessment of changes in these and other nutritional parameters is helpful in monitoring PERT efficacy. Further research is needed to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters for PEI. Until such data are available, a nutritional evaluation including circulating vitamin E, magnesium, retinol binding protein, albumin, and prealbumin may be used to evaluate the probability of PEI in clinical practice when reliable pancreatic function tests are not available. PMID:26243045

  4. Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05). The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010) requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status. PMID:25136157

  5. An anthropometric and dietary assessment of the nutritional status of vegan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Purves, R

    1981-10-01

    The nutritional status of 23 vegan children between one and five years was assessed using anthropometric and dietary criteria. All of the children had been breastfed for at least the first six months of life and in most cases well into the second year. The majority of the children were growing normally but they did tend to be smaller in stature and lighter in weight when compared with standards. Energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were usually below those recommended. Their diets, however, were generally adequate but a few children had low intakes of riboflavin and vitamin B12. It is concluded that, provided sufficient care is taken, a vegan diet can meet the nutritional requirements of the preschool child. PMID:7288184

  6. [Toward an anthropometric diagnosis of osteopenia and a biochemical diagnosis of osteoporoses].

    PubMed

    Cointry, Gustavo R; Capozza, Ricardo F; Ferretti, Jose L; Frost, Harold M

    2003-01-01

    The current (metabolic) conception of bone-weakening diseases regards bone strength as determined by a systemically-controlled "mineralized mass" which grows until it reaches a peak and then is lost at individually-specific rates. This concept disregards bone biomechanics. Skeletons are structures, it reaches of which depends on the stiffness and the spatial distribution rather than the volume of the calcified material. Rather than allowing a systemic regulation of their "mass" as a way to optimize their strength, bones autocontrol their stiffness by orienting bone formation and destruction as locally determined by the directional sensing, by osteocytes, of the strains caused by mechanical usage (gravity, muscle contractions). Bone mass and strength are just side products of that control. Endocrine-metabolic systems modulate non-directionally the work of bone cells as required for achieving a mineral equilibrium, despite the biomechanical controls, and can determine osteopenias and osteoporoses. Osteoporoses are not "intense osteopenias" (as per the current WHO's conception) but "osteopenic bone fragilities" (as recently stated by the NIH). The diagnosis of osteopenia is an anthropometric problem that can be solved densitometrically; but that of bone fragility is a biomechanical matter that requires evaluation of bone material's stiffness and distribution by other means ("resistometry"). For therapeutic purposes, osteopenias and osteoporoses should be also evaluated according to the relationship between bone mass or strength and muscle mass or strength in order to distinguish between "mechanical" (disuse) and "metabolic" etiologies (intrinsic bone lesion, or systemic disequilibrium), in which the bone/muscle proportionality tends to remain normal or to deteriorate, respectively. PMID:14719319

  7. The impact of oedema on anthropometric measurements in nutritional surveys: a case study from Zaire

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Robert R.; Dikassa, Lusamba N.; Bertrand, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Six surveys for protein-energy malnutrition were carried out in sequence in Bas-Zaire beginning at the end of 1978 at the estimated height of the famine and continuing throughout the recovery period. Utilizing a stratified multi-stage sampling technique, over 1000 children aged 6 months to 6 years were measured anthropometrically and examined for the presence or absence of bilateral pedal oedema in each survey. The proportions of children who were less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height and who had oedema decreased, respectively, from 12.8% and 14.4% initially to 2.1% and 1.8% in the final survey. The proportion of oedematous children who were found to be not less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was high, varying from 71.7 ± 7.0% to 94.4 ± 10.6%. The importance of these findings for the interpretation of anthropometric data from nutritional surveys in developing countries is discussed. PMID:6609019

  8. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely. PMID:25420774

  9. Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nutritional status of preschool-age children (0-6 years old) in Cape Verde was assessed using anthropometric measurements in a survey that involved 17 017 children from all regions of the country. About 26% of the estimated population in the target age group was included. Data were collected through primary health care centres during the latter part of 1983. The nutritional indicators weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age were compared with reference data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Values of the indicators below -2 standard deviations of the median were considered to represent moderate undernutrition, while values below -3 standard deviations were taken to indicate severe malnutrition. The prevalence of low weight-for-height (wasting) was 2.5%, while that of severe wasting was 0.6%. The corresponding prevalences of low height-for-age and weight-for-age were 13.1% and 17.2%, respectively, with severe categories representing 2.3% and 6.1%, respectively, of the cases in the total sample. There is therefore a relatively strong tendency towards growth retardation or chronic, moderate nutritional deprivation in preschool-age children in Cape Verde, although there exist interregional variations. PMID:3262443

  10. Nutritional assessment and its correlation with anthropometric measurements in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Koor, Behrooz Ebrahimzadeh; Nakhaie, Mohammad Reza; Babaie, Saied

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problems in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is chronic malnutrition. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition using a subjective global assessment (SGA) in HD patients referred to the Valie ASR Hospital, Arak, Iran. In this descriptive analysis study, 190 HD patients were selected with random sampling. SGA and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed in all patients. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and t-tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 190 patients studied, 78 patients (41.1%) were male and 112 patients (58.9%) were female. Sixteen patients were detected to have adequate nutritional status (8.4%), 90 (47.4%) had mild malnutrition and 84 patients (44.2%) had moderate malnutrition. We found a significant negative correlation of SGA score with patient's weight (r = -0.147) and patient's body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.238). Also, it correlated significantly with duration of dialysis treatment (years) (r = 0.404). The SGA score showed a significant negative correlation with mid-arm circumference (MAC) (r = - 0.152). No significant correlation was found between SGA score and mid-arm muscle area. Our study showed that >50% of patients on maintenance HD had mild or moderate malnutrition. There was no case of severe malnutrition. Duration of dialysis treatment and some anthropometric indices (weight, BMI and MAC) also showed a significant correlation with SGA score, which are important to determine the nutritional status of HD patients. PMID:26178540

  11. The impact of a nutritional intervention on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the health Gym Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 ± 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme. PMID:26060972

  12. Anthropometric measures at multiple times throughout life and prostate cancer diagnosis, metastasis and death

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, A.; Poon, B.Y.; Thorek, D.L.J.; Mucci, L.A.; Evans, M.J.; Scardino, P.T.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Nilsson, P.; Manjer, J.; Bjartell, A.; Malm, J.; Vickers, A.; Freedland, S.J.; Lilja, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and anthropometrics (i.e. body measurements) were based on single measurements or obtained over limited time spans. Objective To study the association between anthropometrics measured at multiple time-points in life and their relation to later diagnosis, metastasis or death from PCa. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study includes 27,167 Swedish men enrolled in two population-based projects during 1974 – 96. PCa diagnosis up to Dec. 31st 2006, disease information, gestation time, anthropometrics at birth, military conscript testing, and adulthood were collected. 1355 PCa-cases were matched with 5271 controls. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Univariate conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether clinical diagnosis, metastasis, or PCa death were associated with low birth weight (weight < 2500 g), Small for Gestational Age, or with weight, length or BMI at birth, adolescence (age 16–22), or early middle age (age 44–50). Results and Limitation Apart from weight at adolescence, which was associated with an increased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.05 (1.01–1.09; P = 0.026)), pre-adulthood measurements were not associated with any PCa endpoint. Adulthood parameters were not associated with diagnosis. In contrast, weight and BMI at early middle age were significantly associated with metastasis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.13 (1.06–1.20; P<0.0001) and (OR (95%) 1.09 (1.05–1.14; P<0.0001) and death (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.11 (1.03–1.19; P=0.005) and (OR (95%) 1.08 (1.03–1.13; P=0.003), respectively. It remains unclear whether these results apply to men of non-Caucasian origin, in populations with active PCa screening programs, or in countries without socialized health-care. Conclusions The analyses of these large data sets demonstrate significant effects of body characteristics (with links to metabolic syndrome) when measured at early middle age are associated with PCa disease severity, metastatic progression and outcome. Conversely, measurements at birth or adolescence are not associated with PCa prevalence or outcome, Patient Summary Increased weight and BMI in adults is associated with a higher risk of PCa metastasis and death. PMID:25794458

  13. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  14. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  15. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  16. Anthropometrically determined nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren in Makurdi, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No information exists on the nutritional status of primary school children residing in Makurdi, Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data could serve as baseline data for future studies, as well as inform public health policy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among urban school children in Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods Height and weight of 2015 (979 boys and 1036 girls), aged 9-12 years, attending public primary school in Makurdi were measured and the body mass index (BMI) calculated. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age (WA) and height-for-age (HA) were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. The BMI thinness classification was also calculated. Results Underweight (WAZ < -2) and stunting (HAZ < -2) occurred in 43.4% and 52.7%, respectively. WAZ and HAZ mean scores of the children were -0.91(SD = 0.43) and -0.83 (SD = 0.54), respectively. Boys were more underweight (48.8%) than girls (38.5%), and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.024; p < 0.05). Conversely, girls tend to be more stunted (56.8%) compared to boys (48.4%) (p = 0.004; p < 0.05). Normal WAZ and HAZ occurred in 54.6% and 44.2% of the children, respectively. Using the 2007 World Health Organisation BMI thinness classification, majority of the children exhibited Grade 1 thinness (77.3%), which was predominant at all ages (9-12 years) in both boys and girls. Gender wise, 79.8% boys and 75.0% girls fall within the Grade I thinness category. Based on the WHO classification, severe malnutrition occurred in 31.3% of the children. Conclusions There is severe malnutrition among the school children living in Makurdi. Most of the children are underweight, stunted and thinned. As such, providing community education on environmental sanitation and personal hygienic practices, proper child rearing, breast-feeding and weaning practices would possibly reverse the trends. PMID:21974827

  17. Nutritional status of children and adolescents at diagnosis of hematological and solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was −2.82% in the hematologic group and −2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652

  18. Nutrition and education. IV. Clinical signs of malnutrition and its relationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical signs of malnutrition, and to measure the interrelationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters. A random sample of 550 Chilean elementary and high school graduates (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1) and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was chosen in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. SES was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale. Clinical signs of malnutrition were assessed according to Jelliffe. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: percentages of weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were compared with the WHO Tables; head circumference/age (HC/A) with the Tanner Tables, and branchial anthropometric parameters by applying the Frisancho norms. Standard procedures for the 24 hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO pattern. Educational achievement (EA) was measured through the Achievement Evaluation Program, (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. Results showed that apart from caries (87.5%), most prevalent clinical signs of malnutrition were dermatosis (13.4%), follicular hyperkeratosis type I (13.2%), nasolabial dyssebacea (7.9%), lustreless hair (7.7%), angular stomatitis (4.4%) and cheilosis (2.7%). The number of clinical signs of malnutrition was found inversely and significantly associated with SES, H/A, vitamin A and calcium intake, as well as with EA, besides registering a lower nutrient intake, specially for energy, riboflavin and niacin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1308641

  19. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, TE; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Subjects and Methods: Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of < 3 meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who “ate out” < 2 times/day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Conclusion: Findings should inform policy, via the “Health in All” policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments. PMID:26035813

  20. [Vitamin A deficiency and the anthropometric nutritional status of urban and rural marginalized children in the state of Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Daisy; Viloria-Castejón, Haydée; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Urrieta, Jesús R; Lobo, Pablo; Estévez, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    The present transversal study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of both vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and protein-energy malnutrition among children (24 to 85 months) from three urban slums (n = 173) in Maracaibo city, Zulia State, Venezuela and a rural slum area (n = 34), vieinal to Maracaibo, by measuring serum retinol and z score of anthropometric indices Height//Age (H//AZ); Weight//Age (W//AZ) and Weight//Height (W//HZ), compared to NCHS-WHO reference values. The Graffar's methodology adapted to Venezuela by Méndez Castellano (1986) confirmed the underprivileged socio-economic condition of the children population. For serum retinol analysis, peripheral venous blood was drawn and serum was treated according to the Bieri et al. (1979) technique and HPLC procedure. Values were recorded in microgram/dL. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info 2000, release 1.0 and SAS release 6.0 (1996) computer programs. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dL) in the total children population (n = 207) was 22.2%, being higher in urban children than in rural children (22.5% vs 20.5%). No clinical signs of VAD were detected in the children. The nutritional status analysed by Z score of anthropometric indices revealed that 27.4% of children suffered from undernutrition (Z score = -2 to > -3 SD), being 15.4% stunted, 9.6% wasted and 2.6% with acute protein-energy malnutrition. Neither severe malnutrition nor overweight were detected. According with the H//AZ index, 54.6% of children had adequate nutrition. However 23% of them suffered from VAD. In children at risk of developing undernutrition (Z score = -1 to > -2 SD), 20.9% had VAD and of the stunted children, 21.9% presented VAD. With W//AZ, 60.3%, 29.9% and 9.1% of children were with adequate nutrition, at risk, or wasted respectively; of each group, 25.6%, 17.7% and 15%, respectively had serum retinol values below 20 micrograms/dL. The Z score of W//HZ indicator revealed that 87.4%, 10.4% and 2.4% of children were in good nutrition, at risk, or with acute protein-energy malnutrition, respectively. In the three groups 22.1%, 23.8% and 20%, respectively were affected by VAD. These results indicate that VAD coexists indistinctly in healthy, adequately nourished children, as in those malnourished ones. Our VAD prevalence results and others from Venezuela, are higher than the criteria laid down by WHO and PAHO which warrant wide community intervention. This public health problem becomes more significant because children are apparently healthy and, if timely vitamin A supplementation is not given, any intercurrent infection is likely to worsen the vitamin A status, increasing the widely known consequences. PMID:12108030

  1. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity. PMID:19656810

  2. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  3. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly has a spatial dimension that is highly influenced by the degree of urbanity, which should be taken into consideration in policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26880073

  4. Assessment of Under Nutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) amongst Toddlers Residing in Urban Slums of Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Soni, G.P.; Jain, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Shubhra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several indicators have been used for measurement of under nutrition in the past. They are overlapping and none individually provide a comprehensive number of under nourished in the community. The effort has been to discuss the use of an alternative indicator of malnutrition – the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Aim To study the prevalence of under nutrition of Toddlers using CIAF and compare the prevalence of under nutrition obtained by primitive indicators and CIAF. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional community based study was carried out in urban slums of Raipur (C.G) during Jan 01,2014 to Sept 30, 2014 using sample size of 602. Slums were selected by multistage random sampling and the subjects were selected by convenient sampling, i.e. starting from a random point house to house survey was carried out until desired number of subjects (According to PPS) were covered assuming that slum population is evenly distributed. Attendant of Toddlers were interviewed with semi structured proforma and Height and Weight were measured by measuring tape and Salter’s weighing machine respectively. Informed consent was obtained. MS excel was used for data analysis after compilation. Results Girls and boys were 50% each. By CIAF the prevalence of under nutrition was found to be 62.1% while, Underweight, Stunting and Wasting showed it to be 45.2%, 46.6% and 17.8% respectively. Conclusion Primitive indices under estimate the burden of under nutrition and CIAF should be used a screening tool for assessing under nutrition. PMID:26393147

  5. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

  6. Biomarkers identified by urinary metabonomics for noninvasive diagnosis of nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maoqing; Yang, Xue; Ren, Lihong; Li, Songtao; He, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Lin, Liqun; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional rickets is a worldwide public health problem; however, the current diagnostic methods retain shortcomings for accurate diagnosis of nutritional rickets. To identify urinary biomarkers associated with nutritional rickets and establish a noninvasive diagnosis method, urinary metabonomics analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with nutritional rickets in 200 children with or without nutritional rickets. The pathophysiological changes and pathogenesis of nutritional rickets were illustrated by the identified biomarkers. By urinary metabolic profiling, 31 biomarkers of nutritional rickets were identified and five candidate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis were screened and identified by quantitative analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. Urinary levels of five candidate biomarkers were measured using mass spectrometry or commercial kits. In the validation step, the combination of phosphate and sebacic acid was able to give a noninvasive and accurate diagnostic with high sensitivity (94.0%) and specificity (71.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of the pathway analysis of biomarkers, our urinary metabonomics analysis gives new insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of nutritional rickets. PMID:25051233

  7. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

  8. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  9. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition Would you like to have more energy, stronger ... may be easier than you think! In our nutrition information section you can learn how to eat ...

  10. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  11. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.

  12. [Hyperspectral remote sensing diagnosis models of rice plant nitrogen nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Tan, Chang-Wei; Zhou, Qing-Bo; Qi, La; Zhuang, Heng-Yang

    2008-06-01

    The correlations of rice plant nitrogen content with raw hyperspectral reflectance, first derivative hyperspectral reflectance, and hyperspectral characteristic parameters were analyzed, and the hyperspectral remote sensing diagnosis models of rice plant nitrogen nutritional status with these remote sensing parameters as independent variables were constructed and validated. The results indicated that the nitrogen content in rice plant organs had a variation trend of stem < sheath < spike < leaf. The spectral reflectance at visible light bands was leaf < spike < sheath < stem, but that at near-infrared bands was in adverse. The linear and exponential models with the raw hyperspectral reflectance at 796.7 nm and the first derivative hyperspectral reflectance at 738.4 nm as independent variables could better diagnose rice plant nitrogen nutritional status, with the decisive coefficients (R2) being 0.7996 and 0.8606, respectively; while the model with vegetation index (SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb) as independent variable, i. e., y = 365.871 + 639.323 ((SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb)), was most fit rice plant nitrogen content, with R2 = 0.8755, RMSE = 0.2372 and relative error = 11.36%, being able to quantitatively diagnose the nitrogen nutritional status of rice. PMID:18808018

  13. Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity—The Dietitians Role

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2012-01-01

    Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

  14. [A protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic osteopathy in patients with home-based parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Enterría, P Gómez; González, L Laborda; Faedo, C Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Patients presenting severe intestinal failure submitted to a home-based parenteral nutrition program have increased risk for bone metabolism impairments. This decrease in bone quality has a multifactorial origin and may be already present when implementing nutritional support. There is the need for having available protocols allowing early diagnosis of osteo-metabolic disease and implementing adequate therapy to prevent fractures and improving the quality of life of these patients. PMID:17612377

  15. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH <90th percentile and BMI <5th percentile (P = .003 and P = .04, respectively). Infectious complications occurred more frequently in malnourished patients during first 3 months, and survival of children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children. PMID:26418028

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  17. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  18. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight. PMID:22776157

  20. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... required health education course in middle schools or high schools. • Among classes in which nutrition and dietary behavior ... 18.3 27.3 * Among elementary, middle, and high schools. † Among middle and high schools. 1 Selected changes ...

  1. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  2. SNCF experience in anthropometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

  3. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology

  4. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  5. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional treatment, the patient should be followed up. No single marker can be used to monitor progress; interpretations will once again require examination of the patient's medical history, the taking of anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Depending on whether a patient is ambulatory or hospitalised, the follow-up assessment times and variables measured will differ. PMID:25719787

  6. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  7. Dietary history and nutritional state in treated coeliac patients.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, B J; Bell, P M; Thomson, J M; Fee, D B; Wilson, E A; Love, A H

    1986-01-01

    The gluten content and nutritional adequacy of the diet of a group of adult coeliac patients supposedly following a gluten-free diet for at least one year were assessed. Results were considered in relation to the nutritional state of these patients, determined by anthropometric measurement, and the histological appearance of jejunal biopsies taken at the time of nutritional assessment. Imperfect gluten avoidance, mild malnutrition and mild histological abnormalities on jejunal biopsy were frequent findings. A careful dietary and nutritional assessment when considered in light of histological findings at jejunal biopsy helps to identify the causes of persisting symptoms or malnutrition in treated coeliac patients. A normal jejunal biopsy in a malnourished patient whose dietary compliance is good should prompt a search for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:3701766

  8. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  9. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  10. [The canopy and leaf spectral characteristics and nutrition diagnosis of tomato in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-jiao; Li, Min-zan; Yang, Ce; Yang, Wei; Sun, Hong

    2010-11-01

    A green house experiment was conducted to research the characteristics of tomato canopy spectral reflectance and leaf spectral reflectance under different nutrition treatments, and the relationships between spectral reflectance and the water content, chlorophyll content, as well as nitrogen content were analyzed. Substrate cultivation method was used to grow the plants. The substrate was made from a mixture of peat and vermiculite. Test area was prepared for four levels of nutrition to form nutritional stress. There were 12 seedlings under each nutritional condition and a total of 48 seedlings were planted for the experiment. The canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance were measured by an ASD handheld spectroradiometer and a FT-NIR spectrometer respectively. It was observed that the trend of tomato canopy reflectance was similar to each others. There was a reflection peak at about 550 nm, and the reflectance in the visible light region was lower than that in near-infrared region. The results of analysis also indicated that under different nutrient conditions, canopy spectral reflectance characteristics of tomato took on disciplinary change. At near-infrared bands, the reflectance gradually increased with adding nutrition, while reduced at visible light bands. The leaf spectral reflectance characteristics at near-infrared bands had the similar change with the canopy reflectance. There were four sensitive wavelengths of water at near-infrared bands: about 980, 1450, 1 930, and 2 210 nm, and the results of single linear regression (SLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) indicated that the reflectance at these sensitive wavelengths could be used to estimate the water content in tomato leaves. R2 were 0.5903 and 0.7437 respectively. NDCI as one of the most important spectral parameter was calculated by the spectral reflectance of 530 and 760 nm, and the result indicated that there existed a good correlation between NDCI and the nitrogen content, with R2 = 0.7511. Meanwhile, red edge inflection points were analyzed under four nutrition treatments based on the first derivative of canopy spectral reflectance. The analysis results illustrated that red edge inflection position moved to direction of red light (long wavelength) with the nutrition supply. PMID:21284192

  11. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  12. Genome health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics--diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome damage on an individual basis.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The term nutrigenomics refers to the effect of diet on gene expression. The term nutrigenetics refers to the impact of inherited traits on the response to a specific dietary pattern, functional food or supplement on a specific health outcome. The specific fields of genome health nutrigenomics and genome health nutrigenetics are emerging as important new research areas because it is becoming increasingly evident that (a) risk for developmental and degenerative disease increases with DNA damage which in turn is dependent on nutritional status and (b) optimal concentration of micronutrients for prevention of genome damage is also dependent on genetic polymorphisms that alter function of genes involved directly or indirectly in uptake and metabolism of micronutrients required for DNA repair and DNA replication. Development of dietary patterns, functional foods and supplements that are designed to improve genome health maintenance in humans with specific genetic backgrounds may provide an important contribution to a new optimum health strategy based on the diagnosis and individualised nutritional treatment of genome instability i.e. Genome Health Clinics. PMID:17693008

  13. Winter wheat nutrition diagnosis under different N treatments based on multispectral images and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruijiao; Li, Minzan; Li, Shuqiang; Ding, Yongjun

    2010-11-01

    In order to rapidly and accurately acquire winter wheat growing information and nitrogen content, a non-destructive testing method was developed combined with multi-spectral imaging technique and remote sensing technology to research wheat growing and nutrition status. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image collecting platform was developed to acquire visible image and NIR image synchronously, meanwhile, the canopy spectral reflectance and the nitrogen content of wheat leaves were measured and analyzed to research the characteristics of the canopy spectral reflectance. Secondly, using calibration panels the experiential linear calibration model was established between image gray value and spectral reflectance. Thirdly, NIR image was processed to segment wheat canopy from soil and then gray value of wheat leaves was achieved by image processing of Red, Green, and Blue channels. Finally, the gray value of wheat leaves was transformed into spectral reflectance by aforementioned experiential linear model, and the vegetation index were calculated and analyzed to research the winter wheat growing and nitrogen content status. Experiment results showed that it was reasonable to diagnose nitrogen content of winter wheat based on multi-spectral imaging system and experiential linear model. There existed remarkable correlation between vegetation index (NDVI, GNDVI) and nitrogen content of winter wheat, and the correlation coefficients (R2 ) were 0.633 and 0.6.

  14. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  15. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  16. Laboratory Testing for and Diagnosis of Nutritional Deficiencies in Pregnancy Before and After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Huizinga, Mary M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Bariatric surgery can reduce the risk of obesity-related complications of pregnancy, but may cause essential nutrient deficiencies. To assess adherence to laboratory testing guidelines, we examined frequency of testing for and diagnosis of deficiency during preconception and pregnancy using claims data in women with a delivery and bariatric surgery. Methods: Retrospective analysis of claims from seven Blue Cross Blue Shield plans between 2002 and 2008. We included women with a delivery and bariatric surgery within the study period. We used common procedural terminology (CPT) and ICD-9 codes to define laboratory testing and deficiencies for iron, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and thiamine. Using Student's t-test and chi-square testing, we compared frequency of laboratory tests and diagnoses during 12 months preconception and 280 days of pregnancy between women with pregnancy before versus after surgery. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate for predictors of laboratory testing. Results: We identified 456 women with pregnancy after bariatric surgery and 338 before surgery. The frequency of testing for any deficiency was low (9%–51%), but higher in those with pregnancy after surgery (p<0.003). The most common deficiency was vitamin B12 (12%–13%) with pregnancy after surgery (p<0.006). Anemia and number of health provider visits were independent predictors of laboratory testing. Conclusion: Women with pregnancy after bariatric surgery were tested for and diagnosed with micronutrient deficiencies more frequently than those with pregnancy before surgery. However, most laboratory testing occurred in less than half the women and was triggered by anemia. Increased testing may help identify nutrient deficiencies and prevent consequences for maternal and child health. PMID:24102519

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  18. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  19. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  20. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH OF CANDIDATES FOR SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    SILVEIRA, Thalita Morgana Guimarães; de SOUSA, Juliana Barbosa; STRINGHINI, Maria Luiza Ferreira; FREITAS, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; MELO, Paulla Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values ​​of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. Results The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (diagnosis of nutritional subjective assessment with anthropometric methods and strength of the handshake only at the non-dominant limb. PMID:25004287

  1. Nutritional status assessment in geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology Nutrition Work Group.

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26025067

  2. [Nutritional status assessment in Geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology NutritionWork Group].

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26388249

  3. [The role of the Consultative and Diagnostic Centre "Healthy Nutrition" in the diagnosis and nutritional prevention of non-communicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Yu; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Makurina, O N; Levin, L G; Soto, S Kh; Aristarkhova, T A; Korosteleva, M M; Denisova, N N; Solntseva, T N; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Redzyuk, L A; Polyakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of Institute of Nutrition the nutritional status of 3500 patients (mean age 48.4 ± 0.3 years) liv- ing in the Moscow region, using a system Nutritest IP-3, including genomic analysis has been examined. In the analysis of dietary intake by an average review, increased energy intake due to excess intake of the total (44.2% energy) and saturated fat (13.6%) has been shown. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese. Osteopenia was detected in 31.0% of men and 25.0% women, osteoporosis--20.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of the results of biochemical studies revealed increased cholesterol in 68.7% of patients, LDL cholesterol--at 63.9%, triglycerides-- at 22.5%, glucose--at 29.4%. The frequency of the occurrence of risk alleles of genes associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was: 47.8%--for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene), 8.3%--for polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3), 60.2%--for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2), 36.6%--for the rs5219 polymorphism in the gene of ATP-dependent potassium channel. PMID:25929022

  4. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  5. Better health data with a portable microcomputer at the periphery: an anthropometric survey in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, P.; Dupret, A.; Cutting, W. A. M.

    1987-01-01

    A portable microcomputer was programmed to record anthropometric nutritional data from children aged under 7 years in either a clinic or a population survey situation. An alarm sounds when the anthropometric measurements of a child are below a predetermined value; an immediate check thus avoids the need for subsequent data cleaning and discarding of doubtful information. Data cut-off points in the computer can be adjusted to suit the survey or service needs of the situation. A print-out at the end of the clinic session provides immediate feedback for the staff and a record of the nutritional status of the group. In Cape Verde, 14 670 children attending clinics were surveyed; 26% were identified as stunted, 3% as wasted, and 1% as stunted and wasted. While a portable microcomputer can improve precision, speed and motivation, nutrition surveys still depend on accurate scales, careful measurements and competent staff. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3322601

  6. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  7. Anthropometric indicators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Ana Carolina; Rosado, Lina; Rosado, Gilberto; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Franceschini, Sylvia; Geloneze, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    Some studies have analyzed the efficacy of anthropometric indicators in predicting insulin resistance (IR), for they are more economic and accessible. In this study, the objective was to discuss the measures and anthropometric indices that have been associated with IR. A bibliographic review was done, based on Scielo, Science Direct and Pubmed. Among these studies, waist and sagittal abdominal diameter presented better predictive capacity for IR, with more consistent results. The waist-to-thigh, waist-to-size, neck-to-thigh ratios, the conicity and the sagittal index have showed positive results; nevertheless, more studies are necessary to consolidate them as predictors to IR. The obtained results, with the use of body mass index and of the waist-to-hip ratio, were inconsistent. In the Brazilian population, the realization of studies evaluating the performance of these indicators in predicting IR is suggested, since the results of the studies conducted in other populations are not always applicable to ours, due to ethnic differences resulting from the great miscegenation in the country. PMID:20694396

  8. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The review utilizes data on three micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc and iron), anthropometrically defined undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and obesity to evaluate the effect on immune function, recovery of immune function in response to nutritional interventions, related health outco...

  9. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  10. Percentile distribution of anthropometric variables in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rached-Sosa, Ingrid; Henríquez-Pérez, Gladys

    2015-09-01

    Anthropometric indicators play an important role in the health status assessment of individuals and populations across the different vulnerable groups, due to which it is necessary to ascertain the percentile distribution of the weight, body mass index (BMI), and mid-arm, thigh, and calf circumferences in pregnant women for each week of gestational age. This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 4481 measurements of anthropometric variables obtained from 745 pregnancies out of 719 subjects aged between 19 and 39 years, who were well-nourished, healthy, without clinical edema in the third trimester, with single pregnancy, and validated gestational age. All evaluations were conducted at the Centro de Atencion Nutricional Infantil Antimano, CANIA, from 1998 to 2012. The anthropometric measurements were performed by standardized anthropometrists. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, bivariate correlations, and percentiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 97 were calculated for each gestational age, between the 8th and 37th weeks of gestation. The number of measurements performed for each studied variable ranged from a minimum of 101 and a maximum of 241 at each gestational week. The BMI and circumference behaviors showed increases as the gestational age advanced. The changes in the variables observed in the 50th percentile between weeks 8 thru 37 were: weight, 10.10 kg; BMI, 4.23 kg/m2; and circumferences (cm): mid-arm, 0.45; calf, 1.60; and thigh, 3.55. The results of this study provide the means to simplify the screening and follow-up of the nutritional status in an accurate manner at any stage of gestation until the 37th week. PMID:26821488

  11. Nutrition-related problems of pediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    González, L; Nazario, C M; González, M J

    2000-03-01

    Children with neuromuscular disorders have special health needs that place them at risk of nutritional problems. These needs may have detrimental effects on their development, immune and respiratory system. Identified nutrition-related problems are malnutrition, obesity, food intolerance, food allergies, drug-nutrient interactions, constipation and reflux. In order to improve the nutritional status of these patients, a nutritional assessment is recommended which should include anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. PMID:10761203

  12. Timing of Complementary Food Introduction and Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary STUDY (SNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Crume, Tessa L.; Crandell, Jamie; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana; Fangman, Mary T.; Pettitt, David J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; O'Connor, Rebecca; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5-month earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared to those who were not (9.0 0.2 vs. 9.5 0.1; p=0.02), independent of HLA-risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA-risk status found that children with a high risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age of diagnosis=9.3 0.1, 9.1 0.1 and 9.6 0.2 for introduction at ? 6 months, between 7 and 11 months, and ?12 months, respectively; p=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA-risk status. PMID:25117987

  13. Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).

    PubMed

    Crume, T L; Crandell, J; Norris, J M; Dabelea, D; Fangman, M T; Pettitt, D J; Dolan, L; Rodriguez, B L; O'Connor, R; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2014-11-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ⩽6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ⩾12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status. PMID:25117987

  14. [The Mini Nutritional Assessment of the elderly in the practice of a hospital geriatrics service: inception, validation and operational characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cuyac Lantigua, Magdalena; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2007-09-01

    The results of the administration of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of the Elderly to 197 patients (Women: 62.5%; Ages between 60-75 years: 55.4%; Older than 85 years: 9.7%; Whites: 73.7%) consecutively admitted to the Geriatrics Service of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital (La Habana, Cuba) are presented. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had between 2 - 7 concurrent health problems. Neoplasms and lymphoproliferative processes (22.8%), heart and blood vessels diseases (15.7%), and infections (12.2%) were prevalent. The state of nutritional anthropometric and biochemical markers was as follows: Body Mass Index < 21 kg x m(-2): 30.9%; Mid-arm Circumference <22 cm: 19.3%; Leg Circumference <31 cm: 42.6%; Serum Albumin <35 g x L(-1): 20.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the patients received scores <24 after administering the MNA. It is to be noticed that 19.3% of the patients was malnourished after receiving scores < 17. MNA scores <24 were concentrated in: Neurological disorders (80.0%), Neoplasms and lymphoproliferative processes (77.8%), heart and blood vessels diseases (74.2%), gastrointestinal disorders (70.6%), infections (69.7%), Diabetes mellitus (66.7%). Patients with the lowest scores also exhibited the lowest values of anthropometric and biochemical markers. MNA score was independent from the patient's sex, skin colour, or number of concurrent health problems. Age had not any influence upon MNA score, although lower scores were observed among the oldest patients. MNA scoring was 80.0% coincident with nutritional diagnosis independently done with anthropometric and biochemical markers used either separately or combined. Aging of the Cuban population, along with increased proportions of elder patients in hospital areas should lead to consider the nutritional status of patients older than 60 years as an important predictor of the success of medical interventions and the quality of medical assistance. PMID:18271404

  15. [Diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A and nutritional anemia status in the population of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive reactions) than in school children (25.9% of positive reactions). The causes of the different reactions are now under study. PMID:3435214

  16. Nutritional status of individuals with autism spectrum disorders: do we know enough?

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is on the rise; therefore, well-timed screening is important. Given that this is a nutritionally vulnerable population, it is imperative to conduct a detailed nutritional assessment so that timely and intensive interventions can be recommended. This review article summarizes the research, focusing on the nutritional status of individuals with ASDs based on their anthropometric measurements, biomarkers, and dietary assessments. Research examining anthropometric measurements reveals an abnormally accelerated rate of growth among children with autism but shows inconsistent findings on the prevalence of overweight/obesity in comparison with typically growing children. Although dysregulated amino acid metabolism, increased homocysteine, and decreased folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as possible biomarkers for an early diagnosis of ASDs, research investigating their association with age, gender, severity, and other comorbid psychiatric/nonpsychiatric disorders is lacking. There is consensus that children with autism have selective eating patterns, food neophobia, limited food repertoire, and sensory issues. Although inadequate micronutrient but adequate macronutrient intakes are increasingly reported, there are inconsistent results about the extent and type of nutrient deficiencies. Identification and development of nutritional assessment indicators that serve as early warning signs during routine practice beginning at birth and extending throughout the child's growth are necessary. With this population aging, there is also a dire need to study the adult population. A more vigorous role by nutrition professionals is warranted because management of potential comorbidities and contributory factors may be particularly problematic. PMID:26178024

  17. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  18. [Nutritional assessment for hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Henríquez Martínez, T; Armero Fuster, M

    1991-01-01

    A review of the following points was performed: Factors favouring the development and presence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. Useful parameters in nutritional evaluation. Types of malnutrition. The Chang nutritional evaluation protocol is used in our Hospital, which is simple, inexpensive, reliable, specific and easily reproduced. This is based on five variables (three anthropometric and two biochemical), randomized and based on reference tables and values. A study was made on data corresponding to 70 patients, in whom a prevalence of malnutrition was observed in critical patients. The patients were classified based on three different definitive possibilities (Marasmo, Kwashiorkor and combined), and three grades of malnutrition (slight, moderate and severe). PMID:2070010

  19. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  20. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  1. Making a nutritional assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Pencharz, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

  2. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  3. Exploring the multidimensional nature of anthropometric indicators for under-five children in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, Kakoli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional nature of the association of stunting, wasting, and underweight for children below 5 years of age in India using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (2005-2006). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to examine the association of the indicators. Additionally, log-linear model was used to find out the model of best fit to examine the nutritional status of children. It was found that underweight is associated with both stunting and wasting, whereas there was no consistent pattern of association between stunting and wasting. The results also confirmed that children suffered from multiple anthropometric failures. The results showed that height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age taken together give the model of best fit for analysis of nutritional status. The study concluded that the three indicators of nutritional status should be considered simultaneously to determine the percentage of undernourished children. PMID:26911220

  4. Parent perceptions of nutritional issues during their child's treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Baughcum, Amy E; Johnston, Amy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Hobart Davies, W; Mackner, Laura M; Noll, Robert B

    2006-07-01

    To examine family mealtime interactions, parental concerns about nutrition, and body mass index (BMI) among children with cancer who did not have primary central nervous system involvement. Parents of 95 children receiving treatment for cancer and 95 comparisons completed the About Your Child's Eating-Revised (AYCE-R) measure. Anthropometric data for children with cancer were obtained from medical charts at diagnosis and again when the AYCE-R was administered. No differences in mealtime interactions were found between children with cancer and comparisons, but parents of children with cancer reported greater concern about their child's weight. Anthropometric measures for children with cancer were consistent with national norms. However, children with cancer were somewhat underweight at diagnosis and became heavier over time. Lower BMI was associated with mother and father report of greater resistance from the child at mealtime, father report of his own aversion to family meals, and more severe treatment. The impact of cancer on family mealtime interactions and BMI appeared minimal during treatment. However, further longitudinal research is needed given the risk for late effects, such as growth problems and obesity, among cancer survivors. Families also may benefit from ongoing education to optimize healthy lifestyles among survivors. PMID:16825993

  5. Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤-2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with improved BMI/A. CONCLUSIONS: Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. PMID:25681074

  6. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Nalin, Tatiele; Castro, Kamila; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G.J.; Perry, Ingrid D.S.; Mainieri, Alberto Scofano; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation to toxic levels due to the low activity of phenylalanine-hydroxylase. PKU patients must follow a Phe-restricted diet, which may put them in risk of nutritional disturbances. Therefore, we aimed to characterize body composition parameters and nutritional status in Brazilian PKU patients also considering their metabolic control. Methods Twenty-seven treated PKU patients older than 5 years, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, were analyzed for anthropometric features and body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Patients' metabolic control was assessed by historical Phe levels. Results There was no effect of PKU type, time of diagnosis, or metabolic control for any analyzed parameter. About 75% of patients and controls were eutrophic, according to their BMI values. There were no difference between groups regarding body composition and other BIA-derived parameters. Conclusions Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population. PMID:27014574

  7. Anthropometric Indices in Children With Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    AMINZADEH, Vahid; DALILI, Setila; ASHOORIAN, Yalda; KOHMANAEE, Shahin; HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on reducing the risk of refractory seizure due to lipoid tissue factors. Materials & Methods This matched case-control study, consisted of cases (Patients with refractory epilepsy) and controls (Healthy children) referred to 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran during 2013-2014. Data were gathered by a form including demographic characteristics, type of epilepsy, predominant time of epilepsy, therapeutic approach, frequency of epilepsy, time of disease onset and anthropometric indices. We measured anthropometric indices and transformed them into Z-scores. Data were reported by descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t test and multinomial regression analysis test using SPSS 19. Results There was no significant difference between sex groups regarding anthropometric indices. Generalized and focal types of epilepsies were noted on 57.5% and 38.75% of patients, respectively. Daytime epilepsies happened in 46.25% of patients and 33.75% noted no predominant time for epilepsies. Clinicians indicated poly-therapy for the majority of patients (92.5%). The most common onset times for epilepsies were 36-72 months for 32.5% of patients. Lower onset time indicated lower frequency of refractory epilepsies. Although, there was significant difference between Zheight and predominant time of epilepsies but no significant relation was found between types of epilepsies and frequency of epilepsies with anthropometric indices. Using multivariate regression analysis by backward LR, Zweight and birth weight were noted as the predicting factors of refractory epilepsies. Conclusion This effect may be because of leptin. Therefore, researchers recommend further investigations regarding this issue in children with epilepsy. PMID:27057188

  8. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A

    2000-09-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players. PMID:11043893

  9. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  10. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  11. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries. PMID:20102048

  12. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  13. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as metabolic syndrome, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review data on nutrition and liver transplantation. PMID:25755385

  14. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational

  15. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  16. Nutritional survey of patients in a general surgical ward: is there an effective predictor of malnutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D; Smith, A D; McAllister, J; La Ferla, G

    1987-01-01

    A survey of patients in a general surgical ward was undertaken to establish biochemical and anthropometric standards which could be used to detect malnourished patients in hospital. Results of biochemical and anthropometric tests of nutritional status were compared with assessment by a clinician and the quick nutritional index of Seltzer. Triceps skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentrations indicated that 29% and 35% of patients, respectively, were undernourished compared with 16% by clinical assessment and 17% by the quick nutritional index. Significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between serum albumin and transferrin concentrations and arm muscle area were found for men but not for women. Poor nutritional specificity and sensitivity of some anthropometric and biochemical tests may account for the difference in the level of undernutrition found by these tests and clinical assessment. This shows the importance of the choice of test in influencing the level of undernutrition detected. PMID:3624502

  17. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  18. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  19. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer I. An assessment by dietary recall--compared with body mass index and body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D

    2010-11-01

    The nutritional status of children with cancer is clinically important. In an effort to separate the influences of disease and treatment, we studied children at the time of diagnosis. A total of 99 children underwent assessment by 24 hours dietary recall, measurement of body mass index (BMI), and analysis of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). The group averages for calorie intake and BMI were close to the median population norms but ranged widely among individuals. As a group the study participants exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake for protein. Nine children (9%) had a BMI nutritional status in individual children with cancer at diagnosis. However, DXA scans cannot be undertaken in a timely fashion on all children at this point. Alternative methods of assessment are being explored. PMID:20962676

  20. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic disorders and nutritional status with the occurrence of ATD. PMID:25614676

  1. Preschool vegetarian children. Dietary and anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J R; Hutton, C W; Stitt, K R

    1980-04-01

    Three-day dietary intakes were obtained on forty-eight preschool children between two and five years old, who had followed a vegetarian diet since birth. Intakes were calculated for food energy and selected nutrients. In addition, the children were measured for height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumference. Average dietary intakes of the children compared favorably with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Calcium was the only nutrient consumed in less than optimal amounts. Average intakes of the calculated amino acids were adequate when compared with available information. In general, anthropometric data were below the standards established by HANES findings, the National Center for Health Statistics, and available arm circumference data. PMID:7391470

  2. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  4. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics of elite cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Stuelcken, Max; Pyne, David; Sinclair, Peter

    2007-12-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current anthropometric profiles of elite Australian female and male cricket fast bowlers and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. The participants were 26 female (mean age 22.5 years, s = 4.5; height 1.71 m, s = 0.05; body mass 66.2 kg, s = 7.5) and 26 male (mean age 23.9 years, s = 3.5; height 1.88 m, s = 0.05; body mass 87.9 kg, s = 8.2) fast bowlers. The anthropometric profiles included the measurement of skinfolds, and segment lengths, breadths, and girths. A series of derived variables assessing the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, the bivariate overlap zone, relative body size and proportionality, and somatotype were also calculated. The male bowlers had larger length, breadth, and girth measurements than their female counterparts. There were differences in proportionality between the sexes, with only the male bowlers exhibiting characteristics that could be considered "large" relative to height. The female bowlers had a higher sum of seven skinfolds (P < 0.001), were more endomorphic (F(1,50) = 30.18, P < 0.001), and less mesomorphic (F(1,50 = 10.85, P < 0.01) than the male bowlers. These reference data should be useful to practitioners and researchers interested in cricket. Further research is needed to clarify why only male fast bowlers had variables that were proportionally large relative to height. PMID:17852680

  6. Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers’ education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention. Trial Registration number Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775 PMID:22625878

  7. Medical nutrition therapy of overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Copperman, Nancy; Jacobson, Marc S

    2003-02-01

    The long-term goal of medical nutrition therapy for adolescents who are overweight or at risk for becoming overweight is to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors. These behaviors will, in turn, improve metabolic parameters and self-esteem while helping the adolescent achieve and maintain a desirable body weight. The identification of anthropometric, metabolic, nutritional, and environmental risk factors present in the child and family will help formulate the medical nutrition intervention. A well-balanced diet that supports growth and development, aerobic exercise, and cognitive behavioral strategies are essential components of an intervention program. Frequent and long-term monitoring by a registered dietitian and pediatrician will reinforce lifestyle changes and support the adolescent and family in achieving realistic goals of weight loss or weight maintenance. This article covers the assessment and interventions necessary for successful nutrition therapy for obese and superobese adolescents. PMID:12529187

  8. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and

  9. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  10. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  11. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  12. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  13. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Danil; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533

  14. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose

  15. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  16. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  17. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are. PMID:11441457

  18. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, J P; Bird, S R; White, J A

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and Professional Cycling Association). The sprint cyclists were significantly shorter and more mesomorphic than the other three groups (p less than 0.05). The time trialists were the tallest, most ectomorphic group, having the longest legs (p less than 0.01), the highest leg length/height ratio (p less than 0.05) and the greatest bitrochanteric width (p less than 0.05). The pursuit and road cyclists were found to have similar physiques, which were located between those of the sprinters and time trialists. The biomechanical implications of these differences in physique may be related to the high rate of pedal revolutions required by sprinters and the higher gear ratios used by time trialists. PMID:2730997

  19. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  20. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  1. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:19906320

  2. May Underdiagnosed Nutrition Imbalances Be Responsible for a Portion of So-Called Unexplained Infertility? From Diagnosis to Potential Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Cinthya, Vescio; Valentini, Romina; Campagnaro, Tania; Marci, Roberto; Paola, Rossana Di; Alviggi, Carlo; Gangemi, Michele; Saccardi, Carlo; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether women affected by unexplained infertility may have undiagnosed dietary imbalances which negatively affect fertility. Secondarily, we investigated whether varying degrees of nutritional abnormalities may benefit from different periconceptional dietary supplementations, evaluating the most effective intervention in improving pregnancy rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We conducted a survey on 2 cohorts of patients (group A: unexplained infertility and group B: healthy first trimester spontaneous pregnancies) with the scope of investigating and comparing their dietary status discriminating women without dietary abnormalities (cohort 1) from those with abnormalities exclusively in micronutrient intake (cohort 2) or combined abnormalities in both micronutrient and macronutrient intake and associated obesity (cohort 3). All women included in group A were offered the opportunity to receive a prescription for one of the 3 designated daily dietary supplementation schemes (subgroups A1, A2, and A3) which were to be implemented in the 3 months immediately prior to beginning IVF treatment. When compared with fertile women, patients having unexplained infertility showed significant abnormalities in dietary habits. These differences ranged from a minimal imbalance in micronutrient intake (potentially avoidable with dietary supplementation) to severe combined macronutrient and micronutrient imbalance frequently associated with obesity (partially amendable by inositol supplementation and frequently requiring long-term dietary reeducation before establishment of fertility). Nutritional investigation and treatment may explain and resolve a portion of cases of unexplained infertility, improving the outcome of IVF treatment and, with minimal imbalances, likely restore spontaneous fertility. PMID:26692540

  3. Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

  4. Nutritional Assessment in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Najmeh; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zand, Farid; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the days of admission and discharge via a detailed nutritional assessment. Methods: Totally, 125 patients were followed up from admission to discharge at 8ICUs in Shiraz, Iran. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indices, and body composition indicators. Diet prescription and intake was also evaluated. Results: Malnutrition prevalence significantly increased on the day of discharge (58.62%) compared to the day of admission (28.8%) according to SGA (P<0.001). The patients’ weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference decreased significantly as well (P<0.001). Lean mass weight and body cell mass also decreased significantly (P<0.001). Biochemical indices showed no notable changes except for magnesium, which decreased significantly (P=0.013). A negative significant correlation was observed between malnutrition on discharge day and anthropometric measurements. Positive and significant correlations were observed between the number of days without enteral feeding, days delayed from ICU admission to the commencement of enteral feeding, and the length of ICU stay and malnutrition on discharge day. Energy and protein intakes were significantly less than the prescribed diet (26.26% and 26.48%, respectively). Conclusion: Malnutrition on discharge day increased in the patients in the ICU according to SGA. Anthropometric measurements were better predictors of the nutritional outcome of our critically ill patients than were biochemical tests. PMID:27217600

  5. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8 kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1 kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4 mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8 kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2 mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9 kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9 kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3 mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  6. [Decubitus ulcer and nutritional status: literature review].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lillian Dias; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand aspects related to the nutritional assessment of patients in risk for pressure ulcers, we reviewed the national and international literature indexed on Medline and LILACS bibliographic databases, from 1987 to 2001. The aim of this research was to investigate the knowledge production on pressure ulcers and nutritional status, as well as to learn about the authors and the publication focus. We concluded that patients in risk for pressure ulcers can be early identified based on nutritional assessment, including biochemical data, anthropometric evaluation, clinical data, diet history and energetic consumption. The alterations are frequent in elderly patients, hospitalized patients, patients with a chronic disease such as a vascular cerebral accident, cancer and spinal cord injury. PMID:16613396

  7. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  8. Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgery–An anthropometric appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

  9. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting. PMID:17786689

  10. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  11. Nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short- or long-term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and multiple sclerosis. Among the factors responsible for the high prevalence of VDD in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries is limited sunshine exposure due to individuals' spending more time indoors (watching television and working on computer) or avoiding sun exposure intentionally for fear of skin cancer. Traditional clothing (covering the entire body except the face and hands) further limits the exposure time to sunlight and, thus, decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal VDD and exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation were reported to be the most prominent reasons leading to NR. The diagnosis of NR is established by a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Recent reports draw attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) - the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium and to suppress excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone. This type of prevention will also reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effect of vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:21274312

  12. Ecological and geographic characteristics predict nutritional status of communities: rapid assessment for poor villages.

    PubMed

    Kusumayati, A; Gross, R

    1998-12-01

    The quality of poverty alleviation programmes relies heavily on appropriate targeting and priority setting. Major problems in assessing poverty include identification of the indicators of poverty and the methods used for its assessment. Nutritional status, expressed by anthropometric indices, has been proposed as a poverty indicator because of its validity, objectivity, reliability and feasibility. This study was conducted to explore the application of remote sensing to poverty mapping based on nutritional status at the community level. Relationships between the nutritional status within a community and the ecological characteristics of the community were investigated. Multiple linear regression tests were executed, and the resultant equations were tested for their validity in predicting communities with poor nutritional status. Among geographical and ecological indicators used, distance to the nearest market, main soil type, rice field area, and perennial cultivation area were found to be most useful predictors for the ranking of the communities by nutritional status. Among non-ecological determinants, food consumption, health service status and living conditions were also found as predictors. The highest correlation was found if total population was also taken into account in the regression model (R2 = 0.69; p < 0.0001). In the assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the eight models studied, 'undernutrition' was defined as a condition where a community belongs in the first quartile for nutritional status (highest prevalence of undernutrition), and the baseline nutritional survey was considered as a standard method for final diagnosis. Most models which included only ecological factors in the equations had lower sensitivity and specificity than models which included all determinant factors in the equations. All models which took into account the total population had higher sensitivity and specificity than those that did not take total population into account. The best model of those that took into account only the geographical and ecological characteristics of the community's living environment had similar sensitivity and specificity (80% and 94.1%, respectively) as the models that considered non-geographical and non-ecological variables in addition to geographical and ecological variables. In the case of West Sumatra, only four ecological and geographic characteristics were sufficient to predict poverty in village. Since these characteristics could be surveyed by remote sensing, it may well be possible to use remote sensing for a rapid method for poverty mapping. PMID:10346032

  13. Relation between index finger width and hand width anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Komandur, Sashidharan; Johnson, Peter W; Storch, Richard L; Yost, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Measures of hand and finger anthropometry are very important for designing many hand held devices as well as understanding anthropometric effects on the operation of such devices. Many historical datasets have measured and recorded gross hand dimensions but do not often record the finer dimensions of the hand such as finger anthropometry. Knowing the size and mass of fingers across genders can be critical to the design and operation of hand held devices. In this paper we compare two empirical linear models that predicts index finger width at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (a finger anthropometric measure) based on hand-width (hand anthropometric measure). This will be especially useful for deriving population measures of finger anthropometry from large historical data sets where only gross hand dimensions are available. PMID:19963979

  14. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  15. A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing!

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limited body of research suggests that ongoing maintenance enteral nutrition (MEN) can be beneficial in maintaining disease remission in Crohns Disease (CD). We aimed to assess how achievable MEN is and whether it helps to prolong remission. Methods Patients newly diagnosed with CD in 2010 and 2011 who commenced exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for 8weeks were followed up for a year post diagnosis. All patients who took EEN were encouraged to continue MEN post EEN. Data on azathioprine use was also collected. Categorical variables were compared using chisquare/Fischers exact test. Medians were expressed along with complete data ranges. Results 59 patients (34 male, median age 11.07years, range 2.5-16.33years) were identified. 11/59 (18%) had a poor response to EEN and were switched to steroids. 48/59 patients completed 8weeks EEN and achieved clinical remission/response. 46/48 patients received Modulen IBD, 29/48 (60%) consumed EEN orally and 19/48 (40%) via NGT. 15/48 (31%) patients were able to continue MEN post EEN completion. MEN was consumed for a mean of 10.8months (range 414months). 14/15 patients drank MEN and 1/15 had MEN via NGT. Remission rates at 1year in patients continuing MEN were 60% (9/15) compared to15% (2/13) in patients taking no treatment (p?=?0.001) and 65% (13/20) in patients taking azathioprine (p?=?0.14). Conclusion A sub group of patients can continue MEN as a maintenance treatment and this seems a useful strategy, especially in those who are not commencing azathioprine. PMID:24645851

  16. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  17. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  18. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  19. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  20. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  1. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  2. Nutritional considerations in the management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Slowie, L A; Paige, M S; Antel, J P

    1983-07-01

    This study examines the nutritional status of patients with ALS based on data derived from a dietary history, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical assessment. Twenty patients, 11 men and 9 women, were studied to determine nutritional status in order to differentiate appropriate therapy and monitor prognosis. The study suggests that nutritional support of these patients may help allay weight loss and retard muscle atrophy. Nutritional management involves (a) early detection and correction of inadequate nutrient intake, particularly of kilocalories; (b) concurrent modification in consistency of food intake with development of bulbar involvement; and (c) determination of optimal time to institute alternate feeding routes in cases of bulbar involvement. PMID:6863783

  3. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  4. A comparison of five anthropometric indices for identifying factors of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R

    1987-08-01

    Five anthropometric indices--weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight velocity, and height velocity--are compared for identifying factors of nutritional status of children. Data come from Matlab, the field station of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Weights and heights on approximately 1,400 children aged 12-60 months were taken 11 times at two-month intervals. Dwelling floor space, a proxy for socioeconomic status, is considered a long-term factor; the 1974-1975 Bangladesh famine, a medium-term factor; and season, a short-term factor of nutritional status. The figures of the indices by socioeconomic status at different times show their power to identify the factors visually; the regression analyses test statistical significance of the factors; and the standardized regression coefficients provide relative power of the indices to identify the factors. Weight-for-age and height-for-age appear best for identifying long- and medium-term factors; weight velocity, for identifying short-term factors. Weight-for-height is third in identifying long- and medium-term factors, second for identifying short-term factors. Height velocity identifies short-term factors only. The effect of short-term factors on height velocity appears approximately four months later than it appears on weight velocity. This study clarifies why certain indices do not predict mortality in this study population and others. PMID:3605054

  5. Consistent improvement in the nutritional status of Colombian children between 1965 and 1989.

    PubMed

    Mora, J O; de Paredes, B; de Navarro, L; Rodríguez, E

    1992-01-01

    Three national anthropometric surveys carried out in Colombia in 1965-1966, 1977-1980, and 1986-1989 provide a reasonably standardized basis for comparing the nutritional status of infants and young children in those years. That comparison, presented here together with appropriate socioeconomic data, indicates marked reduction of malnutrition paralleling strong socioeconomic gains. PMID:1600432

  6. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  7. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  8. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  9. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.

  10. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-Gonzlez, Agustn; Zazpe-Garca, Itziar; Mar-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Surez-Varela, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD

  11. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  12. Anthropometric characteristics account for time to exhaustion in cycling.

    PubMed

    Basset, F A; Billaut, F; Joanisse, D R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between the phenotypic and anthropometric characteristics and the cycling time to exhaustion (Tlim) at the maximal aerobic power output (Pmax). 12 (7 men, 5 women) physically-active participants performed a square-wave test at Pmax to determine the maximal time limit. Muscle histochemistry, enzymatic activities and buffer capacity were determined from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, lean body mass (LBM) by hydrostatic weighing, and total (TV) and lean (LV) volumes of the thigh by anthropometric measurements. The mean (±SD) Tlim was 235±84 s (score range: 108-425 s). No relationship was found between Tlim and any muscle phenotypes. However, we observed a strong, linear relationship between Tlim and LBM (r=0.84, P<0.05). Thigh TV and LV displayed weaker correlation coefficients with Tlim (r=0.66 and r=0.73, respectively; P<0.05). We further estimated the femur length and found this measure to correlate with Tlim (r=0.81, P<0.05). This study suggests that muscle phenotypes may not be representative of Tlim. Rather, anthropometric characteristics account for such performance by conferring a biomechanical advantage in cycling. We conclude that, in addition to metabolic factors, anthropometric characteristics with reasonable accuracy predict Tlim in cycling, and may account for the large inter-subject variability observed in previous studies. PMID:24977949

  13. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group

  14. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  15. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  16. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management is to observe the quality improvement in the discharge reports for the patients admitted, including the nutritional diagnosis within the section for the main diagnosis, and also the administration of artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral) in the section on procedures. With all of these measures we will improve the quality of the hospitals' information systems and contribute directly to ensuring that our activities in clinical nutrition have an impact on the overall results of the hospital when measured in terms of effectiveness, efficacy or quality. PMID:15211719

  17. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jrgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with significant undernutrition, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 26 and 611?months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  18. Position specific differences in the anthropometric characteristics of elite European Super League rugby players.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James C; Routledge, Harry E; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby league is a collision sport which traditionally adopts a large emphasis on lean muscle mass. Currently there is limited research on the anthropometry of European Super League players. The aim of this study was to assess body composition using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans to identify the typical profile of elite rugby league players. One hundred and twelve players from five different clubs competing in the European Super League were recruited for the study. DXA scans were performed and the total mass, lean mass, fat mass and percentage body fat were reported for each positional group. For the Fullback and Wingers, Centres, Half Backs, Hookers, Props and Back Row Forwards the mean (SD) body fat percentage was 13 (2.1), 13 (2.4), 12 (3.4), 15 (3.9), 16 (4.3) and 15 (2.1)%, respectively, and total mass was 86 (8.2), 91 (6.6), 81 (8), 84 (9.5) 102 (8.5) and 93 (5.5) kg, respectively. Despite small to very large inter positional differences in all anthropometric variables (effect sizes = -0.08 to 2.56), particularly between the Prop and the other playing positions, there was large intra-position variation in body fat, lean mass and total mass making a standardised position specific profile difficult to establish. When used with other key performance indicators, these data provide the first multi-team anthropometric profile of elite Super League players that can be used to guide individualised training and nutrition practices for current and aspiring athletes. PMID:25600232

  19. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  20. Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (≥9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p = 0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men. PMID:24516542

  1. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. Nutritional epidemiology during school age.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Vania, A; Mariani, P; Pitzalis, G; De Pascale, A; Monti, S; Falconieri, P; Bonamico, M; Imperato, C

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional research covers different fields, two of which are of particular interest: evaluation of the nutritional status, and epidemiology of food consumption. For many years, studies in these fields have been promoted by our research group, which bases its methodology on anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurements, and check of nutritional habits. Our studies involve more than 2500 subjects from pre-school age to adolescence. This work represents the basis for an educational approach with the ultimate aim of improving life styles. One of our first studies on school meals during nursery period and composition and application of "dietary tables" showed inadequacies of energy intakes and macronutrients distribution. In another study, aimed to evaluate the intake of soluble sugars, more than 2/3 of participating school children were found to consume more than 70 g of soluble sugars per day, while 10% of them exceeded 150 g/day. Results of the following study, in which special attention was given to salted and sweet snacks, showed that snacks can account for 34% of the total daily energy intake; although its adequacy, the energy distribution per macronutrients showed a clear imbalance. As for adolescence, a very critical age, the evaluation of weight self-perception revealed that only 62% of them had a correct perception of their weight. This research also devoted special attention to home prepared breakfast, which is consumed by the vast majority of enrolled subjects, although only rarely it is nutritionally adequate. A double age-related trend could thus be drawn: on one side, there is the tendency of the "overweight status" to decrease (from a starting-point of about 20%); on the other side, this tendency is unfortunately compensated by the increasing trend of "obesity" (which almost reaches 30%). PMID:8851699

  3. Nutrition assessment in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation. PMID:17467380

  4. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  5. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  6. Effect of education on anthropometric indices in obese parents and children after one year of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Tavalaee Zavvareh, Seyyed Abdlohossein; Ghatreh-Samani, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels. Children obesity predisposes them to risk of cardiac disease in adulthood. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. Furthermore, family life style has a great influence on children obesity. This study aimed to determine the effect of family-oriented weight reduction program on the children’s anthropometric measurements. METHODS This was a non-pharmacological clinical trial study which was performed on 4-18 years old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for all the participants. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having a regular physical activity each day and also benefits of having healthy nutrition. All the participants took part in every 4 months one-hour educational sessions and their anthropometrics were measured. RESULTS Fifty eight single-mother families participated in this study. Fourteen single-father families started the intervention but did not follow it to the end. Children’s body mass index (BMI) z-score decreased significantly after the study. Children waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) significantly increased. Mothers WC and waist to hip ratio (WHR) increased significantly. Regression test showed that mother BMI was an independent factor (B = 0.307; P < 0.021). The effect of the pattern of children’s BMI changed across a one-year period. CONCLUSION Our study showed significant effect of repetitive family life style education on children’s BMI z-score changes. Family, as the first place for children behavior formation, must be regarded as one of the best place to tackle childhood obesity. PMID:23056096

  7. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY UPON FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRICS AND RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Raymond J.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups.There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  8. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  9. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  10. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-03-14

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  11. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  12. The Integrated Rural Nutrition Project, Kawambwa, Zambia: successes of a nutrition education programme.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, J

    1997-12-01

    This article presents some findings from an evaluation of the Integrated Rural Nutrition Project (IRNP) in Kawambwa, Zambia. The IRNP was initiated in 1985. The program relied on a multisectoral approach by the Ministries of Health, Education, Agriculture, and Community Development. The program aimed to reduce the rate of malnutrition. Breast feeding was encouraged, and farmers were encouraged to increase production of beans and groundnuts. Extension workers were trained. Findings indicate that nutrition education programs had a significant, positive effect on the nutritional status of children aged under 5 years. The nutrition education component, which aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices, was more successful than the activities that aimed at increasing food availability. A continuing question was raised by program staff about whether training of extension workers, social marketing, mass education, or direct extension were capable of having an impact on nutrition without addressing food productivity issues. The availability of legumes improved throughout the intervention period. The length of the hunger season was shortened. However, increased food availability did not improve anthropometric measurements, and some children, who were not part of the seed multiplication program, showed improved anthropometric measurements. Children in the intervention area were exposed to better breast-feeding practices: breast feeding for longer periods and fewer introductions to non-milk liquids. After the first month, under 20% of children in the project area and 80-95% in the non-project areas had received breast milk substitutes. Young children in the project area had better weight-for-height, after controlling for wealth, access to services, maternal and paternal education, gender, and age. 3-year-old children in the project area weighed 0.3 of a z-score more than non-project children. PMID:12293178

  13. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union football players.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, C W

    1997-06-01

    Rugby union enjoys worldwide popularity, but there is a lack of comprehensive research into the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players and the demands of the game, particularly at the elite level. One of the possible explanations for this is that the sport has previously been primarily concerned with the aspects of skill related to the game, rather than the physical and physiological requirements. However, with the increased physiological demands being placed on the elite players (using the British Isles as an example), with the recent introduction of professionalism, regional championships, the World Cup and major tours, information about the demands of the game and the assessment of, and methods of improving, the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players, are of paramount importance. Match analysis has indicated that rugby is an interval or intermittent sport and players must be able to perform a large number of intensive efforts of 5 to 15 seconds' duration with less than 40 seconds' recovery between each bout of high intensity activity. These observations, together with the metabolic responses during the game, give some insight into its physiological demands and are a prerequisite in the development and prescription of training programmes by coaches in preparing individual players for competition. The results from studies reporting the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union players observed that these individuals had unique anthropometric and physiological attributes which depended on positional role and the playing standard. These have important implications for team selection and highlight the necessity for individualised training programmes and fitness attainment targets. PMID:9219321

  14. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. PMID:26896201

  15. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S; Leonard, W R; McDade, T W; Reyes-Garcia, V; Godoy, R; Huanca, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in many populations. Inspired by the research and methodological innovations of A. Roberto Frisancho, this work considers the impact of childhood environment and local disease ecology on child health and nutritional patterns among an indigenous group in lowland Bolivia. Specifically, we examine the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection, especially hookworm species, and anthropometric markers of short- and long-term nutritional status. Fecal samples, anthropometric dimensions, and health interviews were collected for 92 children ranging in age from 2.0 to 10.9 years. Microscopic examination revealed high levels of parasitic infection, with 76% of children positive for hookworm species infections (77% of girls and 74% of boys). Less common infections included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichurius trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis with only 15% of children positive for multiple-species infections. After adjusting for sex and age, no statistically significant associations were observed between helminth infections and the frequency of reported illness or anthropometric measures of nutritional status. These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections. PMID:19402038

  16. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  17. Nutrition-focused physical examination in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    A complete nutrition assessment includes several components: medical record review, anthropometric measurements, diet/nutrition intake, interview, and physical examination. The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) can identify or confirm muscle wasting, subcutaneous fat loss, and edema and clarify information gathered during the medical record review. The physical examination component of the nutrition assessment is more critical in pediatric patients because pediatric patients can become malnourished more quickly than adults and because prolonged malnutrition can negatively affect growth and development. In addition, case studies of micronutrient deficiencies, essential fatty acid deficiency, and protein-calorie malnutrition with skin manifestations have been reported in developed countries. The etiologies of the deficiencies are chronic disease, long-term tube feedings, or long-term parenteral nutrition. An NFPE involves an in-depth examination of the patient from head to toe by a trained nutrition professional. Nutrition professionals recognize the importance and value of an NFPE, yet it is seldom completed, particularly in pediatrics, most likely due to lack of training and lack of pediatric-specific information or training opportunities. Although there are similarities between NFPE in pediatric and adult patients such as the techniques used (inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation), there are important differences related to growth and development. This review provides an overview of nutrition assessment with focus on the NFPE and aspects unique to the pediatric patient. PMID:25739708

  18. Monitoring nutrition and glucose in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Badjatia, Neeraj; Vespa, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic response to injury is well described; however, very little is understood about optimal markers to measure this response. This summary will address the current evidence about monitoring nutritional status including blood glucose after acute brain injury (ABI). An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the testing, utility, and optimal methods to measure nutritional status and blood glucose levels in the neurocritical care population. A total of 45 articles were included in this review. Providing adequate and timely nutritional support can help improve outcome after ABI. However, the optimal content and total nutrition requirements remain unclear. In addition, how best to monitor the nutritional status in ABI is still being elucidated, and at present, there is no validated optimal method to monitor the global response to nutritional support on a day-to-day basis in ABI patients. Nitrogen balance may be monitored to assess the adequacy of caloric intake as it relates to protein energy metabolism, but indirect calorimetry, anthropometric measurement, or serum biomarker requires further validation. The adverse effects of hyperglycemia in ABI are well described, and data indicate that blood glucose should be carefully controlled in critically ill patients. However, the optimal frequency or duration for blood glucose monitoring after ABI remains poorly defined. There are significant knowledge gaps about monitoring nutritional status and response to nutritional interventions in ABI; these need to be addressed and hence few recommendations can be made. The optimal frequency and duration of blood glucose monitoring need further study. PMID:25208674

  19. Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?

    PubMed

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

    2012-01-01

    With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

  20. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  1. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need it if you Can't swallow Have problems with your appetite Are severely ... a needle or catheter placed in your vein or with a feeding tube, which goes into your ...

  2. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  3. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  4. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  5. A Prognosis Tool Based on Fuzzy Anthropometric and Questionnaire Data for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kung-Jeng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Huang, Shou-Hung; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are linked to the augmented risk of morbidity and mortality. Although polysomnography is considered a well-established method for diagnosing OSA, it suffers the weakness of time consuming and labor intensive, and requires doctors and attending personnel to conduct an overnight evaluation in sleep laboratories with dedicated systems. This study aims at proposing an efficient diagnosis approach for OSA on the basis of anthropometric and questionnaire data. The proposed approach integrates fuzzy set theory and decision tree to predict OSA patterns. A total of 3343 subjects who were referred for clinical suspicion of OSA (eventually 2869 confirmed with OSA and 474 otherwise) were collected, and then classified by the degree of severity. According to an assessment of experiment results on g-means, our proposed method outperforms other methods such as linear regression, decision tree, back propagation neural network, support vector machine, and learning vector quantization. The proposed method is highly viable and capable of detecting the severity of OSA. It can assist doctors in pre-diagnosis of OSA before running the formal PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources. PMID:26932370

  6. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    PubMed

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs. PMID:21831001

  7. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  8. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

  9. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  10. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  11. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  13. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  14. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  15. Combined physiological and anthropometrical databases as ergonomic tools.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Küchmeister, Gerd; Jürgens, Hans W

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an ergonomic basis for the integration of female personnel at military workplaces. The results of anthropometrical and physiological measurements of 1337 male and female subjects (aged 18-25 years) are presented. The empirical design included classical and functional body measures of high ergonomic relevance. Additionally, the isometric forearm-flexor and knee-extensor forces of the subjects were tested as representative variables for their physiological suitability. With regard to biometric and strength parameters, the present results clearly show only small overlaps between the sexes. Rating the 5th percentile of the male subjects as an exclusion value, the anthropometrical variables (sitting and standing body height measures, shoulder breadth, hand length and breadth etc.) show that 29% up to 72% of the women do not match this criterion. The situation becomes even worse when strength parameters are taken into consideration: Only 26% (knee extensors) respectively 3% (forearm flexors) of the females generate higher forces than the corresponding 5th percentiles of their male counterparts. The application of the database established in this survey aims at the integration of female personnel at all kinds of military workplaces; our data account for a combination of anthropometrical and physiological variables. In contrast to former systems based on isolated percentile tables, the results of our investigation make multivariate queries possible in optimization processes. This type of combined database is to be considered a useful tool for the evaluation of workplaces and personal equipment, for general ergonomic considerations and for personnel planning purposes to prevent applicants from occupational harm. PMID:17213688

  16. Anthropometric and Physical Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ≤ 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 ± 7.1; 18s = 183.5 ± 7.2; 21s = 186.7 ± 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 ± 12.8; 18s = 88.3 ± 11.9; 21s = 98.3 ± 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 ± 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 ± 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 ± 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players. PMID:25647656

  17. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  18. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players. PMID:23942164

  19. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  20. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  1. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health. PMID:25516308

  2. Extent and correlates of change in anthropometric and fitness outcomes among participants in a corporate team-based weight loss challenge in Singapore: lose to win 2009.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Kathryn; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Chan, Mei Fen; Amin, Handy; Khoo, Gary; Choo, Lin; Chew, Ling; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala

    2015-03-01

    The authors describe a national corporate team-based weight loss intervention targeting groups of overweight/obese employees and assess its effectiveness. A 12-week weight loss program comprising nutrition education and physical activity sessions, enhanced by a nationwide media campaign, was organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. A total of 285 participants, forming 72 teams (1 per workplace), had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index [BMI], and body fat percentage) and fitness (fitness index score based on UKK 2-km walk test) measurements taken pre-intervention and post-intervention. Average decreases, from baseline to end of intervention, in weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were 3.58 kg, 1.32 kg/m(2), and 2.14%, respectively. The fitness index score increased by 34.1 units. Greater participation in physical activity and nutrition education sessions was associated with more beneficial anthropometric and fitness changes. The intervention was well received and effective in producing short-term weight loss. Further research needs to be done to ascertain its long-term effectiveness and generalizability. PMID:22887805

  3. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Amanda Carla; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible airway obstruction. The innumerable complications that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, individualized nutrition therapy is extremely important and has been shown to be fundamental to improving quality of life. PMID:17268751

  4. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; Kılınç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kırbaş, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Yılmaz Aydın, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  5. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. PMID:26456121

  6. Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Zhuang, Ziqing; Guan, Hongyu; Xing, Jingcai; Tang, Xianzhi; Wang, Limin; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Yuewei; Su, Wenjin; Benson, Stacey; Gallagher, Sean; Viscusi, Dennis; Chen, Weihong

    2008-11-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been completely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006. A total of 3000 subjects (2026 males and 974 females) between the ages of 18 and 66 years old was measured using traditional techniques. Nineteen facial dimensions, height, weight, neck circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. A stratified sampling plan of three age strata and two gender strata was implemented. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible effects of gender, age, occupation and body size on facial dimensions. The regression coefficients for gender indicated that for all anthropometric dimensions, males had significantly larger measurements than females. As body mass index increased, dimensions measured increased significantly. Construction workers and miners had significantly smaller measurements than individuals employed in healthcare or manufacturing for a majority of dimensions. Five representative indexes of facial dimension (face length, face width, nose protrusion, bigonial breadth and nasal root breadth) were selected based on correlation and cluster analysis of all dimensions. Through comparison with the facial dimensions of American subjects, this study indicated that Chinese civilian workers have shorter face length, smaller nose protrusion, larger face width and longer lip length. PMID:18765398

  7. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  8. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  9. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  10. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  11. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  12. [Dysphagia. Diagnosis, differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Collo, D

    1976-11-11

    The wide scope of differential diagnosis in dysphagia makes interdisplinary team-work essential. The aim of this review therefore is to show the various specialties of medicine dealing with dysphagia and to point out possible causes and therapeutic measures. PMID:992550

  13. Metabolic and anthropometric changes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; De Angelis, Carmine; Buono, Giuseppe; Colao, Annamaria; Giuliano, Mario; Malgieri, Simona; Cicala, Stefania; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Accurso, Antonello; Crispo, Anna; Limite, Gennaro; Lauria, Rossella; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Forestieri, Valeria; Bruzzese, Dario; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-11-01

    Weight gain and metabolic changes have been related to survival of early breast cancer patients (EBC). ''However, factors influencing metabolism post-diagnosis are not fully understood. We measured anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio] and metabolic (levels of insulin, glucose, H1Ac, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the homeostasis model assessment score [HOMA]) parameters in 433 pre- and post-menopausal women with EBC at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months thereafter. At diagnosis, compared with post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal patients were more likely to be leaner and to have a lower BMI, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio. They had also lower glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels and a lower HOMA score. Furthermore, they were more likely to have an estrogen- and/or progesterone-positive tumor and a higher proliferating breast cancer. During the first two post-diagnosis years, all women showed a significant increase of weight (+0.72 kg/year, P < 0.001), waist circumference (+1.53 cm/year, P < 0.001), and plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (+5.4 mg/dl per year, P = 0.045) and triglycerides (+10.73 mg/dl per year, P = 0.017). In patients receiving chemotherapy only, there was a significant increase in hip circumference (+3.16 cm/year, P < 0.001) and plasma cholesterol levels (+21.26 mg/dl per year, P < 0.001). We showed that weight, body fat distribution, and lipid profile changed in EBC patients receiving adjuvant therapy. These changes occurred during the first 2 years after diagnosis and were not specifically related to chemotherapy, menopausal status, or initial body weight. PMID:26424165

  14. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676

  15. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Salvioni, Cristina Cleide Dos Santos; Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  16. Anthropometry of Arm: Nutritional Risk Indicator in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanich, Patricia; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Orsini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the correlation between clinical data, nutritional, respiratory and functional parameters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is a descriptive study of 111 ALS patients [91 spinal onset (GS) and 20 bulbar onset (GB)] carried on using nutritional and respiratory parameters and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS). ALSFRS was analyzed in the main domains (D1, D2 and D3). Forced vital capacity and anthropometric measurements, there was significant association for GS and GB, and in GS there was positive correlation with midarm circumference (MAC) (r=0.30; P=0.020), midarm muscle circumference (r=0.29; P=0.026), arm muscle area (r=0.28; P=0.033) and protein-caloric malnutrition score (r=0.27; P=0.039), while for GB only with body weight (r=0.64; P=0.024). On correlation of nutritional parameters and ALSFRS for GS patients we observed that MAC and %MAC presented positive association with both issues of D1 and D2. For GB, the total score in addition to correlate positively with anthropometric parameters related to lean body mass also presented negative association with a parameter associated with body fat. In summary, it is suggested that the application of anthropometry of arm could be useful in routine monitoring of ALS patients. PMID:26788263

  17. [Nutritional characteristics and lifestyle in university students].

    PubMed

    Ledo-Varela, M T; de Luis Román, D A; González-Sagrado, M; Izaola Jauregui, O; Conde Vicente, R; Aller de la Fuente, R

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of our society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometrical situation and the lifestyle in a sample of university students. A full anthropometrical evaluation was undertaken, including bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), in 111 students in the last year of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, as well as a lifestyle questionnaire (physical activity, alcohol and cigarette consumption). A sexual dimorphism was found in weight distribution according to the classification proposed by SEEDO: 6.4% of women presented a weight lower than the health recommendations (there no men in this group) whereas 27.8% of men and 6.5% of women were in the overweight range. 15.3% of the cases had excessive waist circumference. Fat mass by BIA was higher among women. On the other hand, 67% of university students stated to perform regular physical activity, 16.7% stated being cigarette smokers, and 55.6% stated to consume high-grade alcohol. To conclude, we studied a sample population of young and healthy subjects with, however, a significant percentage of women with body weight lower than the healthy standards, overweighed people, and smokers usually taking high-grade alcohol. These data should elicit an alert of the potential cardiovascular risk in the university population if action is not taken. This population should be included in the health promotion plans. PMID:22470029

  18. Analytical evaluation of the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics in motion capturing.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Dominik; Cockcroft, John; Zaumseil, Falk; Odenwald, Stephan; Milani, Thomas L; Louw, Quinette

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decisions based on gait data obtained by optoelectronic motion capturing require profound knowledge about the repeatability of the used measurement systems and methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics calculated with the Plug-in Gait model. Therefore, a sensitivity study was conducted to ascertain how joint kinematics output is affected to different anthropometric data input. One previously examined gait session of a healthy male subject and his anthropometric data that were assessed by two experienced examiners served as a basis for this analytical evaluation. This sensitivity study yielded a maximum difference in joint kinematics by the two sets of anthropometrics of up to 1.2°. In conclusion, this study has shown that the reliability of subjects' anthropometrics assessed by experienced examiners has no considerable effects on joint kinematics. PMID:27131168

  19. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out. PMID:3655163

  20. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  1. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements were useful in the confirmation of the prevalence of LLS. BMI alone does not appear to be a good parameter for assessing the nutritional status of HIV-infected patients on HAART and with LLS. Other anthropometric measurements are needed to evaluate patients with the lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome. PMID:25923888

  2. Crusade against Malnutrition: Nutrition Education Program.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth, K E

    2016-03-01

    A holistic approach in assessment and plan for intervention in childhood malnutrition is the need of the hour. This is in the context of nutrition education program (NEP), undertaken under the National IAP action plan, 2015. In the crusade against malnutrition, an ABCDEFQ assessment scale is recommended, with aspects covering anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, ecological/epidemiological, functional parameters and quality of life. In the dietary assessment, a scoring system based on the ten interventions related to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices recommended by UNICEF and the food frequency table score are incorporated. In the evaluation of quality of life and plan for intervention, a tool called IMPACT (IAP Malnutrition Proactive Assessment: A Comprehensive Tool) is proposed. PMID:27029680

  3. The Anthropometric Measurement of Schober's Test in Normal Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yong-Ren; Luo, Jin-Fan; Liu, Ming-Li; Lu, Fung-Jou; Wang, Soo-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of lower back mobility is essential in the assessment of lower back pain including ankylosing spondylitis. Original Schober's test (OST) and modified Schober's test (MST) are popularly conducted in daily rheumatology and orthopedics clinical practices. To our knowledge, this report is the only anthropometric reference study in a normal oriental population. The OST declined with age from 5.0 cm in the youngest (20–30 years old) to 3.1 cm in the aged (70–80 years old) male subjects and from 3.6 cm to 2.4 cm in the female subjects. The male OST was significantly more than the female OST. There was a good correlation between OST and MST in each of the three age groups of both sexes. PMID:26273601

  4. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. PMID:4027491

  5. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  6. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  7. Predicting body composition by densitometry from simple anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Lean, M E; Han, T S; Deurenberg, P

    1996-01-01

    New equations have been developed to predict body fat (percent BF) calculated from body density measured by underwater weighing from simple anthropometric measurements, using stepwise-multiple-regression analysis in 63 men and 84 women. Log10 sum of four skinfold thickness explained 80.1% (SE = 3.8) of variance of percent BF in men and 76.4% (SE = 4.6) in women. Alternative equations using limb lengths instead of height may be valuable for epidemiologic and clinical work, with particular advantages for the chair- or bed bound, for whom no previous predictive equations existed. Five equations combining triceps-skinfold thickness with other anthropometric measurements explained > 80% (men) and 77% (women) of variance. The most powerful prediction was from waist circumference and triceps-skinfold thickness, which explained 86.6% (SE = 3.2) of variance of percent BF in men and 79.0% (SE = 4.0) in women. Percent BF for men = 0.353 waist (cm) + 0.756 triceps (mm) + 0.235 age (y) - 26.4; for women = 0.232 waist (cm) + 0.657 triceps (mm) + 0.215 age (y) - 5.5. The equations were tested in a separately studied validation sample of 146 men and 238 women aged 18-83 y. Skinfold-thickness measurements continued to give good predictions of mean body density, but with significant bias at extremes of body fat and age. The most robust prediction with the least bias was from waist circumference adjusted for age. Percent BF for men = 0.567 waist (cm) + 0.101 age (y) - 31.8; and for women = 0.439 waist (cm) + 0.221 age (y) - 9.4. PMID:8604668

  8. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, LC; Darmstadt, GL; Khatry, SK; LeClerq, SC; Tielsch, JM

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants. Objective To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants. Subjects and setting Newborn infants (n = 1640) born between March and June 2004 in 30 Village Development Committees of Sarlahi district, Nepal. Design Chest circumference, foot length and weight (SECA 727, precise to 2 g) of newborns were measured within 72 h after birth. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for a range of cutoff points of the anthropometric measures were estimated using the digital scale measurements as the gold standard. Results Among LBW infants (469/1640, 28.6%), chest circumference measures <30.3 cm were 91% sensitive and 83% specific. Similar levels of sensitivity for foot length were achieved only with considerable loss of specificity (<45%). Foot length measurements <6.9 cm were 88% sensitive and 86% specific for the identification of VLBW infants. Conclusion Chest circumference was superior to foot length in classification of infants into birth weight categories. For the identification of VLBW infants, foot length performed well, and may be preferable to chest circumference, as the former measure does not require removal of infant swaddling clothes. In the absence of more precise direct measures of birth weight, chest circumference is recommended over foot length for the identification of LBW infants. Sponsorship The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children US and the Office of Heath and Nutrition, United States Agency for International Development (see Acknowledgements). PMID:16885929

  9. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  10. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  11. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  12. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in undernourished children. PMID:26831553

  13. Nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in children on regular hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD. PMID:25758871

  14. [Development of a computer program to assess nutritional status of infants and preschool children].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M C; Coupeau, I; Larralde, J; Martínez, A

    1995-12-01

    A computer program named INFANDIET has been designed with a Window's application (ToolBook software vs. 1.53), based upon object-oriented programming, and devised to assess the nutritional status of infants by using compatible computers PC. Additionally, it is a useful tool to elaborate personalized diets. This program has been developed to assist health professionals and students in the evaluation of the infant nutritional status by a) creating and managing clinical histories with anthropometrical, immunological and clinical data; b) showing infant dietary guidelines, with the ability to update the nutritional and food composition database of the program; c) giving information about infant nutrition; d) and presenting a complete list of references. PMID:9161441

  15. Nutritional status of institutionalized children and adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pesce, K A; Wodarski, L A; Wang, M

    1989-01-01

    The relationship was explored between anomalies associated with developmental disabilities and nutritional status of institutionalized children and adolescents who received comprehensive interdisciplinary services. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Mean intakes of nutrients were greater than 67% of Recommended Daily Allowances. Laboratory values were within normal ranges with the exceptions of serum ferritin, which was borderline or below normal in 46% of the males and 55% of the females, and alkaline phosphatase, which was elevated in 70% of residents receiving anticonvulsants. Energy intake was highest in residents with adequate feeding skills, followed by nonfeeders and feeders requiring behavior management. Subjects had greater triceps skinfold and lower mid-arm muscle circumference and weight measurements as compared to reference data. Findings of this study suggest that these developmentally disabled children and adolescents who received comprehensive interdisciplinary nutritional services, in general, are adequately nourished and have nutrient intakes that meet the RDA requirements. PMID:2928578

  16. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. PMID:26633668

  17. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  18. Physiological and Anthropometrical Predictors of 15-Kilometer Time Trial Cycling Performance Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Frank R.; Manfredi, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    A study assessing the relationship between physiological and anthropometrical variables and cycling performance time found that anaerobic threshhold and body circumference ratio correlated highly with cycling performance time. (Author/CB)

  19. Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.

    PubMed

    Harris, B

    1994-08-01

    This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

  20. The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

  1. Association between dyslipidemia and anthropometric indicators in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vieira Cunha Lima, S C; Oliveira Lyra, C; Galvo Bacurau Pinheiro, L; Medeiros de Azevedo, P R; Arrais, R F; Campos Pedrosa, L F

    2011-01-01

    The dyslipidemia associated with excess weight is a risk profile global call for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dyslipidemias and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adolescents, considering sexual maturation. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 432 adolescents from public schools, aged 10-19 years. The correlations between the variables from the lipid profile and the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), sexual maturation, familial history and maternal education were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was the most prevalent dyslipidemia (50.5%), regardless of gender. There were significant correlations between triglycerides and BMI (r = 0.30, p<0.01), WC (r = 0.32, p < 0.01) and WHtR (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). The linear model, which took into consideration sexual maturation, age and BMI, explain about 1 to 10.4% of the lipid profile variation. The low HDL-c was the most prevalent dyslipidemia in all adolescents and hypertriglyceridemia was most prevalent in overweight adolescents. Associations between dyslipidemias and anthropometric indicators (BMI and RCA) detected in this study can generate the hypothesis of the risk factors for CVD in adolescents. PMID:21666967

  2. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  3. High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625

  4. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  5. The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn. PMID:25246836

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  7. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  8. Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2014-07-01

    Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS = 66, YDBE = 75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

  9. Predicting the throwing velocity of the ball in handball with anthropometric variables and isotonic tests.

    PubMed

    Debanne, Thierry; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the influence of general anthropometric variables, handball-specific anthropometric variables, and upper-limb power and strength on ball-throwing velocity in a standing position (?(ball)), and (2) predict this velocity using multiple regression methods. Forty-two skilled male handball players (age 21.03.0 years; height=1.810.07m; body mass=78.311.3kg) participated in the study. We measured general anthropometric variables (height, body mass, lean mass, body mass index) and handball-specific anthropometric parameters (hand size, arm span). Upper-limb dynamic strength was assessed using a medicine ball (2kg) throwing test, and power using a one-repetition maximum bench-press test. All the variables studied were correlated with ball velocity. Medicine ball throwing performance was the best predictor (r=0.80). General anthropometric variables were better predictors (r=0.55-0.70) than handball-specific anthropometric variables (r=0.35-0.51). The best multiple regression model accounted for 74% of the total variance and included body mass, medicine ball throwing performance, and power output in the 20-kg bench press. The equation formulated could help trainers, athletes, and professionals detect future talent and test athletes' current fitness. PMID:21400345

  10. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (? = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (? = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  11. Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms. PMID:23386941

  12. Aggressive Nutrition of the Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition of preterm infants should result in growth similar to that of normally growing fetuses of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants are not fed enough to achieve this objective; as a result they are growth restricted by term gestation. Recent studies have demonstrated that early and enhanced “aggressive” nutrition of preterm infants can reduce postnatal growth failure and improve longer-term outcomes, particularly for the brain and its cognitive functions. When preterm infants are fed more aggressively (earlier onset of intravenous and enteral feeding, earlier achievement of full enteral feeding) cumulative energy and protein deficits are reduced and they consistently regain birth weight sooner, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis is unchanged or reduced, and they achieve discharge criteria and go home sooner, with overall shorter hospital stays, and have improved anthropometrics by term gestation. More research is needed, however, to determine optimum feeding of preterm infants, particularly during periods of illness and physiological instability. PMID:24386613

  13. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  14. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    MedlinePlus

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  15. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  16. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually discuss ... some resources to help you answer these questions: Nutrition, Exercise and Prostate Cancer Guide By culling data ...

  17. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  18. Supporting Nutrition: Understanding Tubefeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Supporting Nutrition: Understanding Tube Feeding Families from the Cystic Fibrosis Center at Lurie Children’s share their experiences with tube ... track quickly and experience the benefits of improved nutrition. Following are the experiences of four families who ...

  19. Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: physiopathological significance and predictive value in the immunochemotherapy era.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Camus, Vincent; Tilly, Hervé; Salles, Gilles; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed cases. Obesity is a well-defined risk factor for DLBCL. However, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on DLBCL prognosis is controversial. Recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia) or loss of fat mass can be detected by computed tomography (CT) images and is useful for predicting the clinical outcome in several types of cancer including DLBCL. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the differences in DLBCL outcome according to BMI or weight that include tolerance to treatment, inflammatory background and chemotherapy or rituximab metabolism. In this review, we summarize the available literature, addressing the impact and physiopathological relevance of simple anthropometric tools including BMI and tissue distribution measurements. We also discuss their relationship with other nutritional parameters and their potential role in the management of patients with DLBCL. PMID:25363401

  20. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  1. Nutrition in space.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Davis-Street, J; Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted. PMID:11540643

  2. Nutritional aspects in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan

    2009-04-01

    Nutrition plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily in prevention and treatment of malnutrition and growth failure. Furthermore, in Crohn disease (CD), nutrition can induce remission, maintain remission, and prevent relapse. Malnutrition is common in IBD and the mechanisms involved include decreased food intake, malabsorption, increased nutrient loss, increased energy requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions. At the time of diagnosis, up to 85% of pediatric patients with CD and 65% of those with ulcerative colitis (UC) have weight loss. Growth failure occurs in 15% to 40% of children with IBD and is less common in UC compared with CD, both at diagnosis and during follow-up. In CD, nutritional therapy with enteral formulas induces remission at a rate comparable with that achieved with steroids. In adults with CD, limited information suggests that enteral nutrition (EN) may play a role in maintenance of remission. In children with CD colitis, one study suggested that children without colitis respond better to EN than children with colitis, and another study found no such difference but reported a trend toward earlier relapse in those with isolated colonic involvement. Finally, nutrition may play a role in IBD via the possible protective effect of breastfeeding against UC and CD. In summary, although only CD may benefit from nutrition as primary therapy for remission induction and possibly maintenance of remission, nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in IBD, and may have a protective role, via the effect of breast-feeding on disease occurrence. PMID:19300135

  3. Nutritional consequences of intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, J R; Russell, R M

    1994-01-01

    The bacterial overgrowth syndrome occurs when there are alterations in intestinal anatomy, gastrointestinal motility, or a lack of gastric acid secretion. Clinically, patients present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, excessive gas production, diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption. The nutritional consequences of intestinal bacterial overgrowth include vitamin deficiencies, fat malabsorption, and malnutrition. The diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and can be established by specialized testing, such as the 1-gram 14C-xylose breath test. The goal of treatment is eradication of the bacterial overgrowth (usually with antibiotics) and the correction of nutritional deficiencies. PMID:7805370

  4. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  5. Nutrition Education for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasswell, Anita B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A study of three hospitals' family medicine residents' knowledge of and interest in nutrition education revealed large gaps in residents' knowledge of nutritional aspects of certain conditions likely to arise in general practice. Previous medical school nutrition courses had little influence on residents' perceived knowledge. (MSE)

  6. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  7. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  8. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  9. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  10. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  11. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa

    2015-02-28

    Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262

  12. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  13. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Catharina J.; Walsh, Corinna M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar. Objectives This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa. Method Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (2534 years) and older (3544 years) groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS) and added sugar (AS) consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories. Results AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations. Conclusion The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  14. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  15. Maternal nutrition and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

    1987-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation during pregnancy. Ethnic differences in the development of the newborn are worth studying after discounting confounding factors. PMID:12344922

  16. Metabolic Determinants and Anthropometric Indicators Impact Clinical-pathological Features in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Conti, Laura; Mandoj, Chiara; Antenucci, Anna; Digiesi, Giovanna; Sergi, Domenico; Amodio, Antonella; Marchetti, Paolo; Sperati, Francesca; Valle, Mario; Garofalo, Alfredo; Vizza, Enrico; Corrado, Giacomo; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Tomao, Federica; Kayal, Ramy; Marsella, Annalise; Carosi, Mariantonia; Antoniani, Barbara; Giordano, Antonio; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last twenty years, the efforts of the scientific community devoted to the comprehension and treatment of ovarian cancer have remained poorly remunerative, with the case-fatality ratio of this disease remaining disappointedly high. Limited knowledge of the basic principles regulating ovarian carcinogenesis and factors impacting the course of disease may significantly impair our ability to intervene in early stages and lessen our expectations in terms of treatment outcomes. In the present study, we sought to assess whether metabolic factors and anthropometric indicators, i.e., pre-treatment fasting glucose and body mass index, are associated with renown cancer related prognostic factors such as tumour stage and grade at diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Study participants were 147 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and treated with platinum based regimens and/or surgery at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome, Italy. Glucose levels were assessed at the institutional laboratories on venous blood collected in overnight fasting conditions and prior to any therapeutic procedure. Stage was coded according to the FIGO staging system based on the results of the diagnostic workup, while tumour grade was locally assessed by an expert pathologist. Participants' characteristics were descriptively analyzed for the overall study population and in a subgroup of 70 patients for whom data on body mass index (BMI) were available. FIGO stage and grade were compared by categories of pre-treatment fasting glucose defined upon the median value, i.e., 89 mg/dl. The association of interest was tested in regression models including BMI. Results: For the overall study population, patients in the lowest category of fasting glucose were significantly more likely to exhibit a FIGO stage III-IV at diagnosis compared with their counterpart in the highest glucose category (81.3 vs 66.7%, p: 0.021). Subgroup analysis in 70 patients with BMI data confirmed this association (81.5 vs 55.8, p: 0.049), which remained significant when tested in regression models including BMI (OR: 0.28 95% CI 0.086-0.89, p: 0.031). No relevant evidence emerged when testing the association between fasting glucose and tumour grade. Conclusions: In patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer, pre-treatment glucose levels appear to be inversely associated with FIGO stage. Further studies are warranted to eventually confirm and correctly interpret the implications of this novel finding. PMID:26958087

  17. [Nutritional status, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk in lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivore].

    PubMed

    Fernandes Dourado, Keila; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Rojas, Hernando Flores; Simiões, Shirley Kelly dos Santos; de Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess socioeconomic characteristics, dietary intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk (using anthropometric indicators of central obesity) in lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for gender and age) in order to increase the power of the statistical tests. The sample was made up of 87 individuals (58.6% males; 29 vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians) with a mean age of 40 +/- 13 years. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only the number of residents per household differed between groups, with a greater percentage of homes with five or more residents in the vegetarian group. Concerning lifestyle, the groups differed with regard to smoking habits (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of smokers among the non-vegetarians. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the anthropometric variables studied. Concerning dietary intake, no difference between groups was found with regard to total calorie intake, but the consumption of proteins, total lipids, saturated fat and cholesterol was higher among the non-vegetarians, whereas carbohydrate and fiber intake was higher among the vegetarians. The results of the present study suggest that, although a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is considered healthier due to the lower consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, there are no significant differences in nutritional status or anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk when lifestyle and total calorie intake are similar. PMID:21614817

  18. Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921

  19. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  20. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Scabies General Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

  1. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement. PMID:25686639

  2. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

    1999-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages. PMID:10695800

  3. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  4. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight the high level of nutritional risk in rural dwelling older adults of Asian Indian Origin. Clinicians conducting assessments in this population need to take these measures into account in order to fully account for potential health risks. PMID:21846245

  5. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  6. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    PubMed Central

    García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083

  7. A program of nutritional education in schools reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency in students.

    PubMed

    Garca-Casal, Mara Nieves; Landaeta-Jimnez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patio, Elij; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083

  8. Assessment of the nutritional status of residents in homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Hallaj, F A

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is common among residents of homes for the elderly. This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. The mean age was 70.9 (SD 6.4) years. Two-thirds of residents were either at risk of malnutrition (39.8%; score 17-23 on the MNA) or malnourished (19.4%; score < 17 on the MNA). Mean body mass index was 22.0 (SD 4.7) kg/m(2). Nutritional status was significantly affected by age, level of education, source of income, duration of stay in the home, number of diseases, number of medicines taken, anthropometric data and teeth and vision problems. PMID:26750166

  9. Anthropometric characteristics and motor skills in talent selection and development in indoor soccer.

    PubMed

    Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Corrêa, Umberto César; Böhme, Maria Tereza S

    2010-06-01

    Kick performance, anthropometric characteristics, slalom, and linear running were assessed in 49 (24 elite, 25 nonelite) postpubertal indoor soccer players in order to (a) verify whether anthropometric characteristics and physical and technical capacities can distinguish players of different competitive levels, (b) compare the kicking kinematics of these groups, with and without a defined target, and (c) compare results on the assessments and coaches' subjective rankings of the players. Thigh circumference and specific technical capacities differentiated the players by level of play; cluster analysis correctly classified 77.5% of the players. The correlation between players' standardized measures and the coaches' rankings was 0.29. Anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities do not necessarily differentiate players at post-pubertal stages and should not be overvalued during early development. Considering the coaches' rankings, performance measures outside the specific game conditions may not be useful in identification of talented players. PMID:20681343

  10. The relationship between hand anthropometrics, total grip strength and individual finger force for various handle shapes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Kim, Dae-Min

    2015-01-01

    The design and shape of hand tool handles are critical factors for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by the use of hand tools. We explored how these factors are related to total force and individual finger force in males and females with various hand anthropometrics. Using the MFFM system, we assessed four indices of anthropometry, and measured total force and individual finger force on various handle designs and shapes. Both total force and individual finger force were significant according to gender and handle shape. Total grip strength to the handle shape indicated the greatest strength with D shape and the least with A shape. From the regression analysis of hand anthropometric indices, the value of R was respectably high at 0.608-0.696. The current study examined the gender and handle shape factors affecting grip strength based on the force measurements from various handle types, in terms of influence on different hand anthropometric indices. PMID:26323777

  11. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  12. [Nutrition status evaluation of the women at reproductive age. Uses and limitations].

    PubMed

    De Santiago, S; Valdés-Ramos, R

    1999-03-01

    Information is given about the main methods for nutrition status evaluation of the woman, this information is oriented to three stages of the woman's life cycle: adult stage, gestation stage and lactation stage. The usefulness as well as the limitations of the diet surveys are discussed. The main anthropometric indicators are presented, useful in the clinical practice to evaluate nutrition status of the non-pregnant woman (body mass index, waist/hip index and skinfolds), pregnant woman (percentage of expected weight for height and gestation age, weight gain during pregnancy, height of fundus of uterus, arm circumference and skinfolds) and lactating woman (weight loss and skinfolds). The most important nutrition status biochemical indicators are discussed. At last some special evaluation technics as measurements of body composition and balance methods are discussed. PMID:15338582

  13. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  14. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, M Antonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients.Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ.AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups.Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  15. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  16. Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

  17. [THE DYNAMICS OF INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC SIGNS OF NEWBORN CHILDREN IN NIZHNEVARTOVSK FROM 1990 TO 2011].

    PubMed

    Tupitsyna, L S

    2015-01-01

    There were studied anthropometric data of newborn infants and their dynamics from 1990 to 2011. There was evaluated the distribution of infants according to five criteria: body weight and length, head, chest and abdomen circumference. There is done the characteristic of the set of anthropometric signs of mothers. In the middle of the studied period investigated parameters of infants were shown to be lower than at the beginning and the end, which might be due to the decrease in the proportion of repeated births, to the aggravation ofanthropogenic pollution and with the deterioration of the socio-economic situation. PMID:26302569

  18. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  19. [Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mössner, J; Teich, N

    2008-08-01

    Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203

  20. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  1. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  2. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  3. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of kenyan distance runners.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pui W; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m(- 2)), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg(-1), knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg(-1)) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60(o)/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120(o)/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180(o)/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  4. Anthropometric, Gait and Strength Characteristics of Kenyan Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  5. [Asthma diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ortega Martell, José Antonio; Fernández Vega, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of asthma is based primarily on patient history, conducting the interrogation to the search for risk factors for developing it and the triggers of their symptoms. This chapter will detail some laboratory tests and cabinet that can support this clinical diagnosis. Respiratory function tests help to show the degree of airway obstruction and its reversibility with treatment. Allergy tests help prove the existence of cells sensitized to a specific allergen and once identified, implement environmental control measures or if necessary to control this immunomodulation exaggerated immune response. The exhaled nitric oxide test has been most useful in assessing the course of asthma during treatment, rather than for diagnosis. Sometimes the confirmatory diagnosis of asthma is achieved after excluding other diseases that may present a similar clinical picture, and especially after knowing the response to standard treatment with bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20873051

  6. Preimplantation diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, J D; Martin, M C; Lebo, R V; Pedersen, R A

    1993-01-01

    Preimplantation embryonic biopsy and analysis offer couples at increased risk of having offspring affected with a genetic disorder the possibility of an early prenatal diagnosis. For many couples, this approach would avoid the issue of the selective termination of affected fetuses. Substantial advances have been made in the area of preimplantation diagnosis, but the possible difficulties with this approach cannot be ignored. Images PMID:8236971

  7. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  8. Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Contact Leadership Media Jobs News Contact Us Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  9. Anthropometric measures at different ages and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Maso, L Dal; Tavani, A; Zucchetto, A; Montella, M; Ferraroni, M; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Decarli, A; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI), but the influence of BMI history and of different types of obesity is uncertain. Ethods: M A case–control study was carried out in Italy including 454 cases and 908 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariate logistic and spline regression models. Results: The OR for BMI >30 at diagnosis compared with 20 to <25 kg m−2 was 4.08 (95% CI: 2.90–5.74). The association for BMI was monotonic with a possible steeper increase for BMI above 28. Conversely, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) showed a bell shaped curve with increased OR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.43–3.09) in the intermediate tertile only. After stratification by BMI at diagnosis, history of weight loss and BMI at age 30 did not influence endometrial cancer risk. History of obesity in middle age had a weak and not significant adverse effect among obese women (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 0.52–4.96). Conclusion: The predominant importance of recent weight compared to lifetime history, justifies encouraging weight reduction in women at any age. PMID:21386846

  10. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    PubMed Central

    Omitola, O. O.; Mogaji, H. O.; Oluwole, A. S.; Adeniran, A. A.; Alabi, O. M.; Ekpo, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  11. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    PubMed

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  12. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of

  13. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  14. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  15. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are

  16. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  17. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  18. On-Line Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kongshem, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

  19. Nutrition and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis; Winegarner, Nola

    1992-01-01

    A Head Start center assessed and improved its nutrition program. The process involved understanding the program's flaws; developing strategies for change that emphasized mental health and education and impacted all components of the curriculum; and fostering positive staff attitudes toward nutrition. (SM)

  20. Nutrition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ?-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  1. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  2. Getting Personal About Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Noecker, Cecilia; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-02-01

    Nutritional guidelines for maintaining healthy blood glucose levels are commonly portrayed as universally applicable. However, a new study now demonstrates that the impact of each food on blood glucose varies dramatically across individuals and largely depends on personal characteristics and gut microbiome properties, laying the foundation for the broad implementation of personalized nutrition. PMID:26776092

  3. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  4. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  5. Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

  6. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  7. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  8. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  9. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  10. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  11. [Relations between anthropometric and psychodynamic indexes in georgian women of normal physical development].

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L A

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine what correlations exist between anthropometric and psychodynamic indexes among various constitutional types of Georgian women (20-55 years of age). For this reason we have investigated 175 women. For the study of temperament and character we have used questionnaire by Aizenk and temperament scale by Sheldon. Determination of mood types and intellect was also conducted. We have found that correlation among subspecies of temperament and anthropometrical signs among women is increasing with the age or remains the same and is in the limits of 0,3-0,4; as for the relations between character forms and anthropometrical signs they also increase with age, (0,4-0,5) also correlations are growing among anthropometrical results and various types of intellect in 0,5-0,6 limits. Relations with the mood types increase as well in 0,3-0,4 limits. It was shown that Georgian women in young age with dolichomorphic figure, extraverts, sanguine by temperament, with distinctly expressed middle logic intellect, according to the type plastic- dynamic, constant -- stabile, with middle excitability; i.e. are harmonic-dynamic constitutional types. Women in higher age with brachymorphic figure, introverts, basically phlegmatic, with middle logic and verbal intellect; according to the type constant -- stabile, strongly dynamic, with middle excitability, express self control, high level of mental activity; they are conflict-static constitutional types. PMID:16510929

  12. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Koley, Shyamal; Singh, Arvinder Pal

    2009-03-01

    The present study deals with the correlations of dominant hand grip strength and 12 anthropometric variables, namely, height, weight, BMI, upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, hand breadth, hand length, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, biceps skinfold and triceps skinfold in randomly selected 303 unrelated, normal, healthy students (151 males and 152 females) aged 18-25 years of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The findings of the present study indicate a strong association of dominant right hand grip strength with all the anthropometric variables, except biceps skinfold in male students and with height (r = 0.200), weight (r = 0.275), BMI (p = 0.217), total arm length (p = 0.218) and upper arm circumference (r = 0.199) in female students. Statistically significant positive correlations were also found between dominant left hand grip strength and height (r = 0.275), weight (p = 0.537), BMI (p = 0.472), hand breadth (p = 0.464), upper arm circumference (r = 0.570), forearm circumference (p = 0.464) and triceps skinfold (p = 0.343) only in male students, but no such association was found between grip strength of left hand dominant female students with any of the twelve anthropometric variables. It may be concluded that hand dominance, especially of the right hand, has some close association with the anthropometric variables related to upper extremities. PMID:19462672

  13. Impact of physical activity interventions on anthropometric outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Considerable research has tested physical activity interventions to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the anthropometric effects of supervised exercise interventions and motivational interventions to increase physical activity. Eligible intervention studies included healthy participants with reported anthropometric outcomes (e.g., body mass index). Extensive searching located 54,642 potentially eligible studies. We included data from 535 supervised exercise and 283 motivational interventions in our syntheses, which used random-effects analyses. Exploratory moderator analyses used meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression. We synthesized data from 20,494 participants in supervised exercise and 94,711 undergoing motivational interventions. The overall mean effect sizes (ES, d) for treatment vs. control groups in supervised exercise interventions were 0.20 (treatment vs. control within-group comparison) and 0.22 (between-group comparison). The ES of 0.22 represents a post-intervention body mass index of 26.7 kg/m2 for treatment participants relative to 27.7 kg/m2 for controls. The corresponding mean ES for motivational interventions was significantly smaller (d = .09 for between group, d = 0.10 for treatment vs. control within-group). Control group within-group comparisons revealed slightly worsening anthropometric outcomes during study participation (d = −0.03 to d = −.04). Moderator analyses identified potential variables for future research. These findings document significant improvements in anthropometric effects from both supervised exercise and motivational interventions. PMID:24852179

  14. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one

  15. Assessment of male anthropometric trends and the effects on simulated heat stress responses.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Bathalon, Gaston P; Berglund, Larry G

    2008-09-01

    Assessing temporal changes in anthropometrics and body composition of US Army soldiers is important because these changes may affect fitness, performance, and safety. This study investigated differences in body dimensions (height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)) of US Army male soldiers by comparing 2004 and 1988 databases. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified and physiological responses of the different somatotypes to simulated heat stress (35 degrees C/50%rh, approximately 550 W work rate, carrying 12 kg load including battle dress uniform and body armor, rest for 30 min and walk for 70 min) using a thermal regulatory model were evaluated. A significant increase in body weight (2.4 kg) was observed between the 2004 and 1988 data (P < 0.05, after Bonferroni correction). However, changes in height and circumference measurements for %BF were insignificant, with the magnitude of the changes not exceeding inter-observer errors. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that anthropometric distributions did not differ between the two databases and identified five primary somatotypes: "tall-fat", "tall-lean", "average", "short-lean", and "short-fat." Within each database, anthropometric values differed among the somatotypes. However, simulated physiological responses to heat stress in each somatotype were similar in the 2004 and 1988 populations. In conclusion, an increase in body weight was the primary change observed in this sample of US Army male soldiers. Temporal changes in somatotypes of soldiers over a 16-year period had minimal impact on simulated physiological response to heat stress using a thermal regulatory model. PMID:18196265

  16. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  17. Development of an anthropometric database for Hong Kong Chinese CAD operators.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H; Jiao, Y

    1996-06-01

    With the increasing popularity of using computer-aided design (CAD) in Hong Kong, it is time to look into the design of a suitable workplace for the CAD operators working in the industries. This can be achieved by applying anthropometric data into the design for enhancing performance and reducing musculoskeletal problems. In order to avoid any mismatches in anthropometric dimensions, which is believed to be one of the main causes of fatigue and occupational illness among workers, in the workplace design for them, eleven relevant body dimensions from a group of 150 Hong Kong male adults with ages ranging from 18 to 28 years were collected and analyzed to develop a computerized anthropometric database for Hong Kong CAD operators. The eleven anthropometric dimensions measured were: shoulder rest height, elbow-fingertip length, shoulder breadth, hip breadth, sitting eye height, elbow rest height, third lumbar disc-pan length, thigh clearance height, popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length, and stature. The computerized database can provide some useful statistics such as mean, standard deviation and relevant percentiles of all the measured dimensions. With the aid of these statistics, a new workplace for CAD operators was designed which improved performance substantially. PMID:9551130

  18. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  19. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  20. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  1. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  2. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  3. An image-based approach to obtaining anthropometric measurements for inertia modeling.

    PubMed

    Gittoes, Marianne J R; Bezodis, Ian N; Wilson, Cassie

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate an image-based method of obtaining anthropometric measurements for accurate subject-specific inertia parameter determination using Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were obtained directly from five athletic performers and indirectly from digitization of subject-specific whole-body still images. The direct and image-based measurements were used as input into Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. The overall absolute error in predicted whole-body mass achieved using the image-based approach (2.87%) compared well to that achieved using the direct measurements (2.10%). The inclusion of image-based anthropometric measurements obtained from extremity (hand and feet) images was not found to consistently improve model accuracy achieved using whole-body images only. The presented method provides a successful alternative to direct measurement for obtaining anthropometric measurements required for customized inertia modeling. The noninvasive image-based approach is benefited by the potential for obtaining subject-specific measurements from large samples of subjects and elite athletic performers for whom time-consuming data collections may be undesirable. PMID:19827477

  4. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  5. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  6. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  7. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  8. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  9. Nutritional factors associated with rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Zaman, M M; Yoshiike, N; Chowdhury, A H; Nakayama, T; Yokoyama, T; Faruque, G M; Rouf, M A; Haque, S; Tanaka, H

    1998-06-01

    The determinants for a child with group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal throat infection (BHS infection) to develop rheumatic fever (RF) remain unclear. In this case-control study, we deal with BHS infected children to examine whether nutritional factors are related to RF. In a RF hospital in Dhaka (Bangladesh) we examined 218 consecutive out-patients who had antecedent BHS infection. Sixty of them met the updated Jones criteria for RF (cases) while 104 did not (controls). Fifty-four possible RF patients were excluded. We used anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional factors. Higher risk of RF was observed for low height for age (odds ratio 3.82, 95% confidence interval 1.73-8.42); low weight for age (2.41, 1.12-5.57); low upper arm circumference for age (3.76, 1.87-7.89); and low consumption of eggs (3.81, 1.95-7.63), milk (2.60, 1.36-5.08), chicken (2.62, 1.35-5.21), pulses (1.98, 1.03-3.84), fruits 2.29, 1.20-4.45), and ruti (home-made bread) (3.15, 1.61-6.34). Reduced risk was observed for soybean oil consumption (0.28, 0.12-0.62). The significant association of upper arm circumference and eggs persisted after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic confounders. The association of ruti and soybean oil appeared to be suggestive (0.05 < p < 0.1). Protein-energy malnutrition is likely to be associated with RF. The protective effect of moderate consumption of eggs and soybean oil may support other published work which suggests that the anti-inflammatory substance present in these food items may prevent maturation of the rheumatic process. PMID:9680778

  10. Anthropometric findings from birth to adulthood and their relation with karyotpye distribution in Turkish girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sari, Erkan; Bereket, Abdullah; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Aydın, Banu Küçükemre; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Unuvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Fidancı, Kürşat; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Acıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric features of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) at birth and presentation and the effect of karyotype on these parameters. Data were collected from 842 patients with TS from 35 different centers, who were followed-up between 1984 and 2014 and whose diagnosis age ranged from birth to 18 years. Of the 842 patients, 122 girls who received growth hormone, estrogen or oxandrolone were excluded, and 720 girls were included in the study. In this cohort, the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) birth was 33%. The frequency of SGA birth was 4.2% (2/48) in preterm and 36% (174/483) in term neonates (P < 0.001). The mean birth length was 1.3 cm shorter and mean birth weight was 0.36 kg lower than that of the normal population. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.1 ± 4.4 years. Mean height, weight and body mass index standard deviation scores at presentation were -3.1 ± 1.7, -1.4 ± 1.5, and 0.4 ± 1.7, respectively. Patients with isochromosome Xq were significantly heavier than those with other karyotype groups (P = 0.007). Age at presentation was negatively correlated and mid-parental height was positively correlated with height at presentation. Mid-parental height and age at presentation were the only parameters that were associated with height of children with TS. The frequency of SGA birth was found higher in preterm than term neonates but the mechanism could not be clarified. We found no effect of karyotype on height of girls with TS, whereas weight was greater in 46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotype groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26788866

  11. Nutritional status and spousal empowerment among native Amazonians.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Patel, Ankur; Reyes-García, Victoria; Seyfried, Craig F; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Researchers and development organizations have shown interest in individual empowerment because it presumably improves well-being. Estimates of empowerment's effects on well-being contain biases from the potential endogeneity of empowerment. Using data from a sexually egalitarian and highly autarkic society of foragers and horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane', we overcome the problems that this poses by: (1) matching spouses' responses to the same questions about who makes decisions or who breaks ties in 10 domains to improve accuracy in measures of empowerment; and (2) using parental attributes of spouses as instrumental variables for spousal empowerment. Outcomes include two anthropometric indices of short-run nutritional status: body-mass index and age and sex-standardized z scores of mid-arm muscle area. The amount of empowerment of household heads did not affect their nutritional status or other indicators of their well-being, such as income, wealth, expenditures, happiness, social capital, or self-perceived health. It also did not affect the nutritional status of their offspring. Nor did it affect the difference in income, wealth, or monetary expenditures between spouses. The insubstantial effects persisted with other definitions of empowerment or types of regressions. We end with a discussion of why empowerment, despite its popularity in development discourse, has such tenuous links with objective indicators of well-being, and the implication of this finding for future studies of empowerment's effects. PMID:16697508

  12. Nutritional status deteriorates as the severity of diabetic foot ulcers increases and independently associates with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Tang, Zheng-Yi; Fang, Ping; Qian, Hong-Jie; Xu, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remains poor. Nutritional status has not been identified as one of the factors affecting the outcome of DFUs. Therefore, indicators correlated with nutritional status and outcome were analyzed to investigate their relationship. A total of 192 hospitalized patients with Wagner grade 1-5 ulcers and 60 patients with Wagner grade 0 ulcers (all had type 2 diabetes) were assessed by the following: subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and physical examinations to evaluate nutritional status, severity of infection and complications. Patient outcome was recorded as healing of the ulcer and the patients were followed up for 6 months or until the wound was healed. The percentage of malnutrition was 62.0% in the DFU patients. The SGA was closely correlated with infection (r=0.64), outcome (r=0.37) and BMI (r=-0.36), all P<0.001. The risk of poor outcome increased with malnutrition [odds ratio (OR), 10.6, P<0.001]. The nutritional status of the DFU patients was independently correlated with the severity of infection and outcome (both P<0.001) and Wagner grades and nutritional status (SGA) were independent risk factors for patient outcome (both P<0.001). Nutritional status deteriorated as the severity of the DFU increased, and malnutrition was a predictor of poor prognosis. PMID:23251271

  13. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. PMID:25908606

  14. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  15. The effectiveness of nutritional interventions in malnutrition and cachexia.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a common diagnosis and leading cause of death worldwide. Amounts of weight loss vary but it is associated with considerable morbidity, poorer quality of life and reduced survival. Nutritional intervention has the potential to maximise response to treatment and improve functioning and quality of life. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence for oral nutritional interventions in the management of weight loss in patients with cancer. Comparison of studies of nutritional support interventions in people with cancer is complicated by variations in understanding of what constitutes a compromised nutritional status. There are similarities and differences between definitions of both malnutrition and cachexia and studies of oral nutritional interventions have failed to use standard criteria at study inclusion contributing to heterogeneity amongst studies. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials has suggested limited evidence of benefit to nutritional and clinical outcomes but some improvements to aspects of quality of life. The presence of cachexia in patients with cancer might explain the limited efficacy of simple oral nutritional interventions, which lack a component designed to address metabolic abnormalities associated with cachexia. Novel strategies combining nutritional support with therapeutic agents designed to down-regulate the metabolic aberrations have failed to demonstrate consistent benefits and the results of multimodal treatments combining several interventions are awaited. There is a need for intervention studies recruiting patients early in the disease course, which underlines the need for definitions which predict poor outcome and hence allow early recognition of vulnerable patients. PMID:26087760

  16. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods: The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure in symbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (p< 0.05). The trend of weight loss in symbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Conclusion: Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss. PMID:26478871

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Kalle-Uhlmann, Tamara; Arregui, Maria; Buijsse, Brian; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials provide conflicting results on the effects of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on changes in body weight. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to changes in anthropometric measures. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to July 2015 for prospective studies reporting on habitual fruit and/or vegetable consumption in relation to changes in body weight or waist circumference or to risk of weight gain/overweight/obesity in adults. Random-effects meta-analysis was applied to pool results across studies. Findings Seventeen cohort studies (from 20 reports) including 563,277 participants met our inclusion criteria. Higher intake of fruits was inversely associated with weight change (decrease) (beta-coefficient per 100-g increment, -13.68 g/year; 95% CI, -22.97 to -4.40). No significant changes could be observed for combined fruit and vegetable consumption or vegetable consumption. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with changes (decrease) in waist circumference (beta: -0.04 cm/year; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.02). Comparing the highest combined fruit & vegetable, fruit, and vegetable intake categories were associated with a 9%, 17%, and 17% reduced risk of adiposity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99), (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99), and (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99), respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed several inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and prospective improvements in anthropometric parameters, and risk of adiposity. The present meta-analysis seems to be limited by low study quality. Nevertheless, when combined with evolutionary nutrition and epidemiological modeling studies, these findings have public health relevance and support all initiatives to increase fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:26474158

  18. Standards for selected anthropometric measurements in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Meaney, F J

    1991-10-01

    We report standards (95th, 50th, and 5th centiles) in Prader-Willi syndrome for weight, height, sitting height, head circumference, head length, head breadth, hand length, middle finger length, palm length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold. For comparison with Prader-Willi syndrome standardized curves, normal control data from the literature were plotted similarly and standard curves were produced. We encourage the use of these standards with the examination of patients who have Prader-Willi syndrome and in the comparison of the patient who has Prader-Willi syndrome with other similarly affected individuals. The standards may also be useful for assisting in the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, particularly in younger individuals. PMID:1896298

  19. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

  20. Crohn's disease: nutrition and nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A; Glen, M; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    Disordered nutrition is common in Crohn's disease and is multifactorial. Regular and systematic monitoring of at least a minimum set of nutrition data is an essential component of care of children and adults with Crohn's disease. However, even in children, monitoring of growth and development may be deficient. Multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies are common in Crohn's disease, especially in those with extensive small bowel deficiencies or after multiple surgical resections. Body composition analysis may show differences from simple starvation, and metabolic effects of inflammation are increasingly being recognized. Nutritional support is part of the management of all patients with Crohn's disease, but nutritional intervention with defined formula liquid diet is an effective specific anti-inflammatory therapy. Although meta-analysis of published trials suggest that steroids are more effective than defined formula liquid diets, objective evidence from whole gut lavage fluid analysis and from faecal excretion of radiolabelled leukocytes shows unequivocal benefit of elemental diet based on measuring parameters of tissue damage. Enteral feeding with liquid diets should be considered in patients with incomplete small bowel obstruction, severe painful perianal disease, failure of corticosteroids in active Crohn's disease, borderline intestinal failure and in children with active Crohn's disease or with growth failure. PMID:9704157

  1. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  2. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception through the postpartum period. This practice paper supports the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' position paper "Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy Outcome" published in the July 2014 Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:25699300

  3. Nutritional status of men attending a soup kitchen: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Laven, G T; Brown, K C

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided. PMID:4040716

  4. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  5. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  6. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients

    PubMed Central

    Filipović, Branka F; Gajić, Milan; Milinić, Nikola; Milovanović, Branislav; Filipović, Branislav R; Cvetković, Mirjana; Šibalić, Nela

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods: subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI). METHODS: The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients, aged 18-84 years (average life span 55.57 ± 12.84), with different gastrointestinal pathology, admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical and Hospital Center “Bezanijska Kosa” during a period of 180 d. All the patients, after being informed in detail about the study and signing a written consent, underwent nutritional status analysis, which included two different nutritional indices: SGA and NRI, anthropometric parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and biochemical markers, within 24 h of admission. RESULTS: In our sample of 299 hospitalized patients, global malnutrition prevalence upon admission varied from 45.7% as assessed by the SGA to 63.9% by NRI. Two applied methods required different parameters for an adequate approach: glucose level (5.68 ± 1.06 mmol/L vs 4.83 ± 1.14 mmol/L, F = 10.63, P = 0.001); body mass index (26.03 ± 4.53 kg/m2 vs 18.17 ± 1.52 kg/m2, F = 58.36, P < 0.001); total body water (42.62 ± 7.98 kg vs 36.22 ± 9.32 kg, F = 7.95, P = 0.005); basal metabolic rate (1625.14 ± 304.91 kcal vs 1344.62 ± 219.08 kcal, F = 9.06, P = 0.003) were very important for SGA, and lymphocyte count was relevant for NRI: 25.56% ± 8.94% vs 21.77% ± 10.08%, F = 11.55, P = 0.001. The number of malnourished patients rose with the length of hospital stay according to both nutritional indices. The discriminative function analysis (DFA) delineated the following parameters as important for prediction of nutritional status according to SGA assessment: concentration of albumins, level of proteins, SGA score and body weight. The DFA extracted MAMC, glucose level and NRI scores were variables of importance for the prediction of whether admitted patients would be classified as well or malnourished. CONCLUSION: SGA showed higher sensitivity to predictor factors. Assessment of nutritional status requires a multidimensional approach, which includes different clinical indices and various nutritional parameters. PMID:20419837

  7. Nutritional Intervention Using Nutrition Care Process in a Malnourished Patient with Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794

  8. Nutritional Status in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TEIUSANU, Adriana; ANDREI, Mihai; ARBANAS, Tudor; NICOLAIE, Tudor; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Malnutrition is prevalent in all forms of liver disease: from 20% in compensated liver disease to more than 80% in those patients with decompensated liver disease. Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) can be identified in all clinical stages but is easier observed in advanced stages of liver disease. The presence of malnutrition is associated with increased number of complications and increased short and long term mortality. Aim: to evaluate the nutritional status using of combination of BMI (Body Mass Index), TST (triceps skinfold thickness) and MAMC (mid-arm muscle circumference). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. The features of subjective global assessment are history, physical evaluation and SGA rating. Based on this evaluation, patients were classified into three groups: well, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished. Material and methods: Our study was designed as a descriptive prospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis, admitted in Elias Emergency Hospital, Gastroenterology Department, during a year, January 2010-January 2011. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on the medical history, physical examination, biochemical findings and imagistic methods (ultrasound and / or computed tomography). A series of 176 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, 114 (65%) male and 62 (35%) female, median age 52 (range 18-68 years). Etiology of liver disease was alcoholic in 98 (56%), hepatitis B virus in 14 (8%), HCV in 43 (24%), HBV and HDV in 10 (7%), 11 patients have other etiology. The evaluation of nutritional status was made by different methods. A detailed history was recorded with appetite, caloric intake, change in body weight. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. Conclusions: Malnutrition was correlated with clinical severity of liver disease. The mild-moderate malnourished patients are 88% Child B, over 58% with viral etiology. 22% from these patients are alcoholic and 11% have Child C score (p<0.01). In severely malnourished group, 43% have alcoholic disease and 31% are Child C classification(p<0.01). Triceps skinfold thickness (mm) and mid-arm circumference(cm) decrease significantly according to the Child score, a positive correlation was found between these two parameters and the severity of cirrhosis. PMID:23483873

  9. Dual Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make them feel better temporarily. Sometimes the substance abuse occurs first. Over time, that can lead to emotional and mental problems. Someone with a dual diagnosis must treat both conditions. For the treatment to be effective, the person needs to stop ...

  10. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≤ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≥ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

  11. Nutrition and pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sam; Krzywda, Elizabeth; McDowell, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple) is the surgical procedure of choice for curative resection of pancreatic head, periampullary, and distal bile duct cancers. This procedure involves removal of the pancreatic head, duodenum, distal common bile duct, and sometimes the pylorus and gastric antrum. The 2 most common complications are pancreatic fistula and delayed gastric emptying. Preoperative nutrition status has been shown to influence surgical outcomes. This technically demanding operation involves an extensive surgical resection and alters digestive processes, which can influence nutrition long term. This review article identifies the surgical and nutrition consequences associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:20581316

  12. Preoperative Nutrition and Prehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchir; Gan, Tong J

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is the natural evolution of what were previously referred to as fast track programs and seeks to implement a series of interventions to improve and enhance recovery after major surgical procedures. Two important preoperative aspects are nutrition and prehabilitation. Identifying nutritionally deficient patients allows preoperative intervention to optimize their nutritional status. The contribution of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to the evaluation of perioperative risk, subsequent development of a training program, and the use of indices to risk stratify and measure improvement after a training program allow a personalized preoperative program to be developed for each patient. PMID:26927744

  13. Nutritional Support in Cancer Patients: A Position Paper from the Italian Society of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE).

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Cereda, Emanuele; Gavazzi, Cecilia; Pinto, Carmine; Paccagnella, Agostino; Beretta, Giordano Domenico; Nardi, Mariateresa; Laviano, Alessandro; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in cancer patients, which leads to prolonged hospitalization, a higher degree of treatment-related toxicity, reduced response to cancer treatment, impaired quality of life and a worse overall prognosis. The attitude towards this issue varies considerably and many malnourished patients receive inadequate nutritional support. We reviewed available data present in the literature, together with the guidelines issued by scientific societies and health authorities, on the nutritional management of patients with cancer, in order to make suitable and concise practical recommendations for appropriate nutritional support in this patient population. Evidence from the literature suggests that nutritional screening should be performed using validated tools (the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 [NRS 2002], the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [MUST], the Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] and the Mini Nutritional Assessment [MNA]), both at diagnosis and at regular time points during the course of disease according to tumor type, stage and treatment. Patients at nutritional risk should be promptly referred for comprehensive nutritional assessment and support to clinical nutrition services or medical personnel with documented skills in clinical nutrition, specifically for cancer patients. Nutritional intervention should be actively managed and targeted for each patient; it should comprise personalized dietary counseling and/or artificial nutrition according to spontaneous food intake, tolerance and effectiveness. Nutritional support may be integrated into palliative care programs. "Alternative hypocaloric anti-cancer diets" (e.g. macrobiotic or vegan diets) should not be recommended as they may worsen nutritional status. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to further our knowledge of the nutritional support required in different care settings for cancer patients. PMID:26819635

  14. Nutritional Support in Cancer Patients: A Position Paper from the Italian Society of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE)

    PubMed Central

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Cereda, Emanuele; Gavazzi, Cecilia; Pinto, Carmine; Paccagnella, Agostino; Beretta, Giordano Domenico; Nardi, Mariateresa; Laviano, Alessandro; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in cancer patients, which leads to prolonged hospitalization, a higher degree of treatment-related toxicity, reduced response to cancer treatment, impaired quality of life and a worse overall prognosis. The attitude towards this issue varies considerably and many malnourished patients receive inadequate nutritional support. We reviewed available data present in the literature, together with the guidelines issued by scientific societies and health authorities, on the nutritional management of patients with cancer, in order to make suitable and concise practical recommendations for appropriate nutritional support in this patient population. Evidence from the literature suggests that nutritional screening should be performed using validated tools (the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 [NRS 2002], the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool [MUST], the Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] and the Mini Nutritional Assessment [MNA]), both at diagnosis and at regular time points during the course of disease according to tumor type, stage and treatment. Patients at nutritional risk should be promptly referred for comprehensive nutritional assessment and support to clinical nutrition services or medical personnel with documented skills in clinical nutrition, specifically for cancer patients. Nutritional intervention should be actively managed and targeted for each patient; it should comprise personalized dietary counseling and/or artificial nutrition according to spontaneous food intake, tolerance and effectiveness. Nutritional support may be integrated into palliative care programs. “Alternative hypocaloric anti-cancer diets” (e.g. macrobiotic or vegan diets) should not be recommended as they may worsen nutritional status. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to further our knowledge of the nutritional support required in different care settings for cancer patients. PMID:26819635

  15. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  16. Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and nutrition

  17. USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

  18. Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…

  19. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  20. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  1. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  2. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and

  3. Nutrition in Medicine: Nutrition Education for Medical Students and Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  4. Nutrition in medicine: nutrition education for medical students and residents.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-10-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  5. Nutritional assessment and management of the malnourished patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...

  6. Anthropometric, Sprint, and High-Intensity Running Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players by Position.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Darrall-Jones, JD, Jones, B, and Till, K. Anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running profiles of English academy rugby union players by position. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1348-1358, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running profiles of English academy rugby union players by playing positions, and to investigate the relationships between anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running characteristics. Data were collected from 67 academy players after the off-season period and consisted of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 8 skinfolds [∑SF]), 40-m linear sprint (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m splits), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IRTL-1), and the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). Forwards displayed greater stature, body mass, and ∑SF; sprint times and sprint momentum, with lower high-intensity running ability and sprint velocities than backs. Comparisons between age categories demonstrated body mass and sprint momentum to have the largest differences at consecutive age categories for forwards and backs; whereas 20-40-m sprint velocity was discriminate for forwards between under 16s, 18s, and 21s. Relationships between anthropometric, sprint velocity, momentum, and high-intensity running ability demonstrated body mass to negatively impact on sprint velocity (10 m; r = -0.34 to -0.46) and positively affect sprint momentum (e.g., 5 m; r = 0.85-0.93), with large to very large negative relationships with the Yo-Yo IRTL-1 (r = -0.65 to -0.74) and 30-15 IFT (r = -0.59 to -0.79). These findings suggest that there are distinct anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running ability differences between and within positions in junior rugby union players. The development of sprint and high-intensity running ability may be impacted by continued increases in body mass as there seems to be a trade-off between momentum, velocity, and the ability to complete high-intensity running. PMID:26466132

  7. [Nutrition of the preterm infant].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, A; Razafimahefa, H; Rigourd, V; Granier, M

    2011-03-01

    The quality of nutritional support impacts not only the growth and quality of growth of preterm infants, but also all aspects of their development. In order to provide optimal nutrition, two main rules should be followed: optimise early parenteral nutrition and introduce appropriate enteral nutrition preferably with the mother's milk as early as possible. Recommendations have recently increased early energy and protein intake. The term "aggressive nutrition" has been introduced to qualify these changes, but we prefer the term "optimal nutrition," which more precisely reflects the physiology and needs of the preterm infant. Specific efforts should be continued to improve physician training in neonatal nutrition and to facilitate the dissemination of the most recent recommendations. Standardization of nutritional protocols in neonatal units should be promoted as a way to improve overall nutritional care. A full field of research remains open to determine the most effective nutritional strategy for preterm infants in order to maximize their growth and development. PMID:21288702

  8. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on nutritional ergogenic aids thought to enhance performance by favourably affecting energy metabolism. Although most purported nutritional ergogenic aids have not been shown to enhance physical performance in well-trained, well-nourished athletes, some reliable scientific data support an ergogenic efficacy of several substances, including caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate, but additional research is needed to evaluate their potential for enhancing performance in specific athletics events. PMID:8897322

  9. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  10. [Carbohydrates in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on role of carbohydrate in clinical nutrition. The review described carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal regulation of carbohydrate, carbohydrate energy source role, carbohydrate requirements in critical study. PMID:23947170

  11. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  12. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shortages Public Policy Agenda Public Policy Resources Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events Guidelines & Clinical Resources A.S. ...

  13. Nutrition Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lois

    1972-01-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  14. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  15. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734

  16. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  17. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  18. Nutrition in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

    2004-11-01

    It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

  19. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  20. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  1. Demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elders using home enteral nutritional therapy in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salomon Zaban, Ana Lcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them. PMID:19961057

  2. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients. PMID:11273510

  3. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  4. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  5. Recipes and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A

    1983-10-01

    Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

  6. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-02-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake, but a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables. Further, the GFCF diet group had a better quality of fat intake, but needed supplementation with vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials are required to explore long-term effects of this diet on anthropometric and nutritional status (the focus of our study), but also behavioral symptoms, in children with ASD. PMID:26428353

  7. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: evidences and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The debate over the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) is an old but evergreen and hot topic. Since many years, studies comparing EN and PN have been a pivotal 'leitmotif' in the published literature on artificial nutrition (AN). Actually, there is a background misunderstanding in this debate; specifically, that EN and PN are competitors in the choice of the route for delivering nutrition support in cancer patients. Conversely, EN and PN have specific indications and contraindications. This review has the purpose to discuss the indications and complications as well as pros and cons of EN and PN in cancer patients, the crucial role of nutrition support in oncology patients during anticancer treatments and throughout the course of disease, and, finally, the role of AN in advanced cancer patients. In summary, we have no evidence-based data able to definitively indicate the optimal method for delivering AN in cancer patients. EN and PN have to be considered equally effective in maintaining or improving nutritional status in cancer patients. Besides, this review strongly supports the recommendation that a baseline nutritional assessment should be carried out by a healthcare professional expert in AN for all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis or anticancer treatment plan, taking the nutritional status, estimated duration of AN, AN-related potential benefits and possible complications into consideration on an individual basis. Moreover, the patient symptoms, performance status, estimated life expectancy, and mainly, will or preferences have to be evaluated and incorporated into the nutrition support plan before the definitive choice of the route for delivering nutrients is decided. Finally, applying a decision-making process tailored to patient needs-regardless of whether receiving or not anticancer treatment-allows to choose reasonably the optimal nutritional support strategy. PMID:26841814

  8. Nutritional and metabolic support in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Kushta, Irma; Molfino, Alessio; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Sabatelli, Mario; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2012-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of progressive motor neuron disease and the most devastating neurodegenerative disorder. ALS is characterized by progressive paralysis and respiratory failure leading to death within 3 to 5 years after its onset. Protein-energy malnutrition is a frequent finding in ALS. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in ALS is multifactorial. Muscle atrophy, hypophagia, dysphagia, and hypermetabolism play a role in determining the deterioration of nutritional status. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated. Standard polymeric enteral formulas are routinely used, usually providing 25 to 30 kcal/kg and protein 0.8 to 1.2 g /kg per day. The use of fiber-enriched formulas may help prevent constipation. However, considering the complex metabolic abnormalities of ALS, standard and/or fiber-enriched formulas might not be sufficient to achieve optimal metabolic and nutritional support. Based on the most recent clinical and experimental evidence, it is tempting to hypothesize that personalized nutritional support including specific nutritional substrates could act on disease progression and improve the quality of life and the response to the few and yet scarcely effective, currently available pharmacologic therapies. PMID:22677356

  9. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  10. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  11. Risk of type 2 diabetes according to traditional and emerging anthropometric indices in Spain, a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity: results from a large-scale prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A proper anthropometric characterisation of T2DM risk is essential for disease prevention and clinical risk assessement. Methods Longitudinal study in 37 733 participants (63% women) of the Spanish EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort without prevalent diabetes. Detailed questionnaire information was collected at baseline and anthropometric data gathered following standard procedures. A total of 2513 verified incident T2DM cases occurred after 12.1 years of mean follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of T2DM by levels of anthropometric variables. Results Overall and central obesity were independently associated with T2DM risk. BMI showed the strongest association with T2DM in men whereas waist-related indices were stronger independent predictors in women. Waist-to-height ratio revealed the largest area under the ROC curve in men and women, with optimal cut-offs at 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The most discriminative waist circumference (WC) cut-off values were 99.4 cm in men and 90.4 cm in women. Absolute risk of T2DM was higher in men than women for any combination of age, BMI and WC categories, and remained low in normal-waist women. The population risk of T2DM attributable to obesity was 17% in men and 31% in women. Conclusions Diabetes risk was associated with higher overall and central obesity indices even at normal BMI and WC values. The measurement of waist circumference in the clinical setting is strongly recommended for the evaluation of future T2DM risk in women. PMID:23388074

  12. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  13. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  14. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Zalay, Z; Karsai, I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the importance of the athlete's motor capabilities in success in sport. More precisely, the association of anthropometrical and physiological attributes, as well as motor abilities of elite basketball players with play elements of basketball. The subjects were seven elite basketball players. At the end of the competitive season, the anthropometrical and physiological features were measured to establish the physical fitness of the subjects. Both general and sport-specific motor tests were done. The coach estimated the performance of each player during the games of the competitive season. The coach's data sheet incorporated 14 parameters of the game. Regression analyses indicated significant correlation between certain variables of the laboratory tests and the data of the coach's estimation statistics. Knowing these relationships provides us with valuable predictive information about player's capabilities in sport. PMID:14594193

  15. Unpredictability of fighter pilot G tolerance using anthropometric and physiologic variables.

    PubMed

    Webb, J T; Oakley, C J; Meeker, L J

    1991-02-01

    Correlation and regression analyses were used to study relationships between centrifuge G tolerances of 1,434 fighter pilots during High-G Training (HGT) and anthropometric and physiologic variables. Multiple regression analyses yielded a four-variable model in which gradual onset run (GOR) relaxed-G tolerance was inversely correlated with height and directly correlated with age, weight, and diastolic blood pressure. Although the four-variable model was able to predict more of the variation in G tolerance than any single variable, neither method showed a correlation (r) of greater than 0.35 with GOR relaxed or straining G tolerance. No subject variable was significantly different between the pilot groups that did and did not experience G-induced loss of consciousness. We conclude that prediction of G tolerance during centrifuge HGT is unreliable using anthropometric and physiologic variables. The anti-G straining maneuver remains the major determinant of an individual's G tolerance. PMID:2001208

  16. Influence of passive smoking on basic anthropometric characteristics and respiratory function in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Goić-Barisić, Ivana; Bradarić, Anteo; Erceg, Marko; Barisić, Igor; Foretić, Nikola; Pavlov, Neven; Tocilj, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the maintenance difference in basic anthropometric characteristics and to outline the dynamics of respiratory function change in youngsters athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) and athletes not exposed to passive smoking in their families (NPS). High and weight were determined as basis anthropometric characteristics. Measured parameters for respiratory function were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% forced vital capacity (MEF 50) and forced expiratory flow at 25% forced vital capacity (MEF 25). Significant statistical differences in separate spirometric variable were found in three variables (FEV1, MEF50, and MEF25) for group older youngsters. Analysis of variance showed statistical differences between athletes unexposed to passive smoking (NPS) and athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) in even four spirometric variables (VC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25). PMID:17058533

  17. Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

  18. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

  19. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators. PMID:25410382

  20. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-28

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  1. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care

    PubMed Central

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-01

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  2. Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

    2012-04-01

    India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

  3. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  4. Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-09-01

    Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis. PMID:24662225

  5. Anthropometric and demographic correlates of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signal characteristics: a canonical correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Fady; Molfenter, Sonja M; Cliffe, Rebecca E; Chau, Tom; Steele, Catriona M

    2010-06-01

    Swallowing accelerometry has been proposed as a potential minimally invasive tool for collecting assessment information about swallowing. The first step toward using sounds and signals for dysphagia detection involves characterizing the healthy swallow. The purpose of this article is to explore systematic variations in swallowing accelerometry signals that can be attributed to demographic factors (such as participant gender and age) and anthropometric factors (such as weight and height). Data from 50 healthy participants (25 women and 25 men), ranging in age from 18 to 80 years and with approximately equal distribution across four age groups (18-35, 36-50, 51-65, 66 and older) were analyzed. Anthropometric and demographic variables of interest included participant age, gender, weight, height, body fat percent, neck circumference, and mandibular length. Dual-axis (superior-inferior and anterior-posterior) swallowing accelerometry signals were obtained for five saliva and five water swallows per participant. Several swallowing signal characteristics were derived for each swallowing task, including variance, amplitude distribution skewness, amplitude distribution kurtosis, signal memory, total signal energy, peak energy scale, and peak amplitude. Canonical correlation analysis was performed between the anthropometric/demographic variables and swallowing signal characteristics. No significant linear relationships were identified for saliva swallows or for superior-inferior axis accelerometry signals on water swallows. In the anterior-posterior axis, signal amplitude distribution kurtosis and signal memory were significantly correlated with age (r = 0.52, P = 0.047). These findings suggest that swallowing accelerometry signals may have task-specific associations with demographic (but not anthropometric) factors. Given the limited sample size, our results should be interpreted with caution and replication studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:19495874

  6. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  7. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p < 0.01) components, whereas no differences in mesomorphy. Analyzing the interaction between subcategories and playing position factors, a significant effect was found only in the endomorphy component (p = 0.05). The analysis of anthropometric characteristic of Italian young soccer players indicates that players have high muscularity value and low adiposity. This study showed the presence of somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence. PMID:25734780

  8. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters?

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively. PMID:19826300

  9. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  10. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  11. [Investigation of actual nutrition and some factors of physical status in rugby players].

    PubMed

    Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities. PMID:24340935

  12. [Nutritional status of opiate-dependent persons before and during methadone maintenance therapy].

    PubMed

    Szpanowska-Wohn, Agnieszka; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pach, Dorota; Targosz, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status of opiate dependent patients who where classified to participate in the methadone maintenance treatment and to give the answer to the question how the nutritional status of these patients was changing during this programme. We examined 48 persons (12 women aged 21-37 years and 36 men aged 20-46 years). All of them were participants of the methadone maintenance treatment. The patients were examined three times: first time just before the methadone treatment, then after 2 months and third time after 9 months of treatment. The anthropometrics measurement: body weight and height (it allowed us to calculate the BMI), two skin fat folds and the measurements of the body composition (using the bioimpedance method) were performed. The changes between the results of subsequent examination were tested using the t-Student test. As a result of the first examination we showed out that the majority of patients had a proper nutritional status evaluated by BMI. Poor nutritional status has been more often found than excessive nutritional status among examined patients, especially in the group of women. During the nine months of methadone maintenance treatment the statistically significant growth of body weight was observed and it derived from the increasing fat body mass and muscle mass. As a result of that we noticed the diminishing number of underweight people. More of examined people had overweight and in the group of men even obesity. PMID:15521597

  13. [Nutritional status of adults with cystic fibrosis - current methods of assessment].

    PubMed

    Szabla, Anna; Skorupa, Wojciech; Milewska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequent monogenic disease in the Caucasian population, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This is a multiple organ disease and its main manifestations include pulmonary and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The exocrine pancreatic deficiency results in impaired digestion and absorption what may lead to malnutrition and vitamins and minerals deficiencies. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients has been increasing over the past years, so there is a need to verify usefulness of existing or create new methods of nutritional status assessment. The aim of this paper was presentation current data on the methods of assessment and monitoring of nutritional status. Particular attention has been paid to appropriate nutritional support in prevention and treatment of malnutrition patients with cystic fibrosis. On the basis of recent literature we can conclude that the advanced nutritional status assessment is recommended in patient with CF by using anthropometrical methods, body composition analysis and biochemical data. Good nutritional status is connected with pulmonary functions, quality and life length. PMID:26637102

  14. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Fırat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

  15. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

  16. The ergonomic relevance of anthropometrical proportions. Part I: body length measures.

    PubMed

    Küchmeister, Gerd; Behrenbruch, Kay; Ursula, Pieper; Leyk, Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Anthropometrical findings about proportions of the human body have a long tradition; most of them, however, are rather theoretical. To improve this situation a pragmatic and applicable definition of proportions, normal as well as deviating, is needed. The purpose of this paper is to set up three proportion types for body length measures: leggy-normal-stocky, and their rate in the population of adults in an industrial society (Germany). Based on queries of an actual anthropometrical database metrical limits for these three types are suggested regarding their influence on the most important body length measures in standing and sitting positions. The number of cases with normal proportions is about 60%, leggy and stocky types both reaching up to 20%. The metrical limits are proposed in order to account for differences between those proportion types which are relevant for ergonomics. When solving complex multidimensional design tasks (e.g. workplaces, vehicle interior design, personal equipment) users of anthropometrical data who do not have the opportunity to work with multivariate databases need supplementary information about the proportions of the human body. For this reason such supplementary information concerning proportions is being given here by physiological anthropologists. The application of the findings presented is exemplified in scenarios of ergonomic relevance. PMID:19652449

  17. Environmental factors associated with preschool obesity. III. Dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Hankin, J H; Huenemann, R L

    1978-06-01

    This longitudinal study of children from six months to six years of age showed differences by age, sex, and race in dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements. Except for calories and iron at all ages and calcium between two and four years, most children consumed at least two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary protein was consistently high at all ages. There was no apparent relationship between the use and need for vitamin or mineral supplements. At six years of age, most children ate five meals or snacks per day. Television commercials, children accompanying mothers to grocery stores, and the publicized relationships of dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary disease influenced food practices of families. Anthropometric measurements revealed that boys were consistently taller and heavier than girls. However, at all ages, even at six months, girls had higher skinfold values than boys. These data on dietary intakes, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements will be correlated with obesity indexes at each age in subsequent papers. PMID:670612

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  19. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858

  20. Effect of forward and backward locomotion training on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical composition.

    PubMed

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54 years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  1. Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Alghamdi, Mansour S; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54 years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  2. The relationship between anthropometric indicators and walking distance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Hsu, Min-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Li-Fei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a major issue affecting many people with COPD. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) is a widely used indicator of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. The process is strenuous and time-consuming, especially for patients who have muscle wasting. Anthropometric indicators that reflect body lean mass, such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC), may have value in predicting exercise intolerance. Purpose This study attempted to determine the abilities of simple anthropometric indicators including BMI, MAC, and CC in reflecting the exercise intolerance of COPD patients. Methods We recruited 136 nonhospitalized ambulatory COPD patients without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. Each subject’s BMI, MAC, and CC were measured, and they were examined with pulmonary function tests and a 6-minute walk test. Results Among the three anthropometric indicators examined, CC showed the strongest correlation with the 6MWD, followed by MAC and BMI. CC was also strongly associated with functional capacity, followed by MAC, according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. CC and MAC, but not BMI, were significantly associated with exercise intolerance according to logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders. Conclusion Among the three variables examined, CC and walking distance may have the strongest association in COPD patients. CC may have value in serving as an adjunct to 6MWD in evaluating exercise intolerance of patients with COPD. PMID:26392760

  3. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  4. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051

  5. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  6. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  7. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  8. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463

  9. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463

  10. A pre-post pilot study of peer nutritional counseling and food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among antiretroviral therapy patients in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Felician, Melissa; Han, Bing; Palar, Kartika; Ramírez, Blanca; Farías, Hugo; Martínez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and poor nutrition are key barriers to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Culturally-appropriate and sustainable interventions that provide nutrition counseling for people on ART and of diverse nutritional statuses are needed, particularly given rising rates of overweight and obesity among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods As part of scale-up of a nutritional counseling intervention, we recruited and trained 17 peer counselors from 14 government-run HIV clinics in Honduras to deliver nutritional counseling to ART patients using a highly interactive curriculum that was developed after extensive formative research on locally available foods and dietary patterns among PLHIV. All participants received the intervention; at baseline and 2 month follow-up, assessments included: 1) interviewer-administered, in-person surveys to collect data on household food insecurity (15-item scale), nutritional knowledge (13-item scale), dietary intake and diversity (number of meals and type and number of food groups consumed in past 24 hours); and 2) anthropometric measures (body mass index or BMI, mid-upper arm and waist circumferences). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to examine changes pre-post in food insecurity and the various nutritional outcomes while controlling for baseline characteristics and clinic-level clustering. Results Of 482 participants at baseline, we had complete follow-up data on 356 (74%), of which 62% were women, median age was 39, 34% reported having paid work, 52% had completed primary school, and 34% were overweight or obese. In multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, age, household size, work status, and education, we found that between baseline and follow-up, household food insecurity decreased significantly among all participants (β=−0.47, p<.05) and among those with children under 18 (β=−1.16, p<.01), while nutritional knowledge and dietary intake and diversity also significantly improved, (β=0.88, p<.001; β=0.30, p<.001; and β=0.15, p<.001, respectively). Nutritional status (BMI, mid-arm and waist circumferences) showed no significant changes, but the brief follow-up period may not have been sufficient to detect changes. Conclusions A peer-delivered nutritional counseling intervention for PLHIV was associated with improvements in dietary quality and reduced food insecurity among a population of diverse nutritional statuses. Future research should examine if such an intervention can improve adherence among people on ART. PMID:26702362

  11. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  12. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  13. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  14. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies. PMID:3146037

  15. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management. PMID:26857771

  16. Nutritional concerns in the alcoholic.

    PubMed

    Roe, D A

    1981-01-01

    In summary, nutritional concern of alcoholics as viewed by the patient differ from the concern of his/her nutrition and health advisers. Between alcoholics, nutritional concerns differ with age, sex, and life style. Caloric excess, obesity, nutrient overload, and a whole spectrum of nutritional deficiencies are found in alcoholics. Causes of malnutrition are complex. Malnutrition is commonly associated with prior alcoholic damage to tissues. Vulnerability for specific syndromes of nutritional deficiency is dependent on genetic predisposition. Optimal response to nutritional rehabilitation requires abstinence, as no nutrient or combination of nutrients will protect tissues from alcoholic damage. However, moderate intake of alcoholic beverages may offer some protection against coronary heart disease. PMID:7217555

  17. Modification of nutrition strategy for improvement of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah Young; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the effects of modified parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) regimens on the growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The study included VLBW infants weighing <1,500 g, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital between October 2010 and April 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. Subjects were divided according to 3 periods: period 1 (n=37); prior to the PN and EN regimen being modified, period 2 (n=50); following the PN-only regimen modification, period 3 (n=37); following both PN and EN regimen modification. The modified PN regimen provided 3 g/kg/day of protein and 1 g/kg/day of lipid on the first day of life. The modified EN regimen provided 3.5-4.5 g/kg/day of protein and 150 kcal/kg/day of energy. We investigated growth rate, anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) at 40 weeks PCA. Results Across the 3 periods, clinical characteristics, including gestational age, anthropometric measurements at birth, multiple births, sex, Apgar score, surfactant use and PDA treatment, were similar. Growth rates for weight and height, from time of full enteral feeding to 40 weeks PCA, were higher in period 3. Anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks PCA were greatest in period 3. Incidence of weight, height and head circumference EUGR at 40 weeks PCA decreased in period 3. Conclusion Beginning PN earlier, with a greater supply of protein and energy during PN and EN, is advantageous for postnatal growth in VLBW infants. PMID:27186226

  18. Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔLa). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ∆La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633

  19. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944

  20. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  1. The Multidimensional Nutritional Niche.

    PubMed

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Senior, Alistair M; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-05-01

    The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology. We use an example that involves a model with four hypothetical nonexclusive scenarios. We additionally show how this approach can provide fresh theoretical insight into the ways nutrition and food choices impact trait evolution and trophic interactions. PMID:26993666

  2. [Bone disorder and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tanaka, Sarasa

    2016-03-01

    The nutrition is important for prevention and improvement in bone disorder. Especially osteoporosis associated with nutrition. It has entered the super-aged society in 2007, a further increase in osteoporosis patients are concerned in Japan. Many studies have shown that associated with calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K intake and bone density and fracture. Relationship of osteoporosis and nutrition, despite the general awareness is high, calcium intake is not at all reached the achievement to recommend dietary allowance. In addition, vitamin D deficiency rickets in children, which has been considered in the past of the disorder, there is an increasing trend from such exposure shortage to the infancy of sunlight, vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women, the recommended breastfeeding. Improvement of lifestyle and diet from young age is important for bone disorder prevention. PMID:26923974

  3. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  4. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

  5. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  6. Nutritional status outcomes for children: ethnic, cultural, and environmental contexts.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Y L

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this literature review was to explore the relationship between nutritional status outcomes among ethnically diverse children and cultural and environmental contexts. Articles form the literature on anthropometric/body composition measure, diet, and physiologic outcomes among ethnically diverse children were identified through on-line literature searches and references from articles reviewed. These studies were critically reviewed and selected if they reported findings resulting from use of accepted methodologies. Explanations consistent with evaluation of results from the studies and reports were developed by synthesis of the findings. Children from underserved, ethnically diverse population groups were at increased risk for obesity, increased serum lipid levels, and dietary consumption patterns that do not meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. More than 80% of all US children consume more than the recommended amount of total fat and saturated fat. These factors, which were noted during childhood, may track into adolescence, placing these children at increased risk for the early onset of chronic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some forms of cancer. Although federally funded food assistance programs are changing rapidly, currently they provide foods that, when eaten as recommended, exceed the Dietary Guidelines for these children. Future interventions to improve the health and nutritional status of our nation's children, especially those from underserved, ethnically diverse groups, should be culturally appropriate and implemented at the levels of individuals, families, and communities. PMID:8784334

  7. Transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan application.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Marulanda, María Inés; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2014-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

  8. Nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I. M.; Logan, R. W.; Pollock, J. C.; Jamieson, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the nutritional status of children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Six anthropometric, 24 biochemical, and five haematological markers of nutritional wellbeing were measured in children with congenital heart disease. SETTING--The west of Scotland. PATIENTS--48 children admitted consecutively for surgical correction of congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skin fold thicknesses were considered abnormal if they were below the third centile compared with standard reference data for age matched British children. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were considered abnormal if they fell below the fifth centile compared with standard data. Biochemical and haematological data were compared with age matched and locally validated laboratory normals. RESULTS--A marked degree of undernutrition was evident in all children; 52% had weight less than the third centile, 37% were below the third centile for height, and 12.5% were below the third centile for triceps skin fold thickness and 18.8% for subscapular skin fold thickness. Mid-arm circumference and arm muscle circumference were below the fifth centile in 20.1% and 16.7% of children respectively. Five or more of the 29 biochemical and haematological measurements were abnormal in 83.3% of patients; 10 or more were abnormal in 12.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS--Children with congenital heart disease are frequently undernourished, irrespective of the nature of cardiac defect and the presence or absence of cyanosis. PMID:7727190

  9. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

  10. Nutrition in Cardioskeletal Health.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Weaver, Connie M; Towler, Dwight A; Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-05-01

    Bone and heart health are linked through a variety of cellular, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms, including the bidirectional effects of mineral-regulating hormones parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23. Nutrition plays an important role in the development of both cardiovascular and bone disease. This review describes current knowledge on the relations between the cardiovascular system and bone and the influence of key nutrients involved in mineral metabolism-calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus-on heart and bone health, as well as the racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and the influence that nutrition has on these disparities. PMID:27184281

  11. Nutrition and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Nutrition has a close association with cancer. Carcinogens in foods, macronutrients, micronutrients such as vitamins A, C and E and selenium, dietary fiber, the modulation of metabolism by diet, food additives and anticarcinogens in foods all affect the development of cancer. In particular, macronutrients (especially meat and animal fat) appear to have a significant effect on the development of cancer of the colon, breast and uterus. This article discusses research on the links between nutrition and cancer, and describes current dietary recommendations to decrease the likelihood of cancer. PMID:21278974

  12. Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perea, Sally

    2012-05-01

    There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

  13. Parenteral nutrition: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:20661345

  14. Doorway to Nutrition: A Nutrition Education Program for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche

    The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…

  15. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)

  16. Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

    This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support

  17. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  18. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  19. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  20. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to

  1. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  2. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  3. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  4. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Tips Browse By Subject Dietary Guidance Lifecycle Nutrition Diet and Disease Food Composition Food Safety Weight and Obesity Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Professional and ...

  5. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair José

    2012-01-01

    Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world’s population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management. PMID:22826639

  6. [Cheilitis: Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The whole examination of oral cavity, other mucosae and skin is required when managing a cheilitis. Irritants (climatic, mechanical, caustic agents…) constitute the main aetiological factors of cheilitis. Allergic contact cheilitis should be investigated with a detailed anamnesis in order to search any causative agent in contact with the oral mucosae. Patch testing is required to confirm the diagnosis of delayed hypersensivity. Chronic actinic cheilitis occurs mostly in middle-aged, fair-skinned men. It is a potentially malignant condition that requires biopsies to exclude severe dysplasia or carcinoma. Angular cheilitis can occur spontaneously but is frequently related with several precipitating factors, such as systemic immune suppression, local irritation and moisture, fungal and/or bacterial infection. Cheilitis can also be seen in various systemic conditions such as lichen planus, lupus, atopic dermatitis and nutritional deficiencies. Erosive and crusty cheilitis and bullous erosive stomatitis are the main oral features of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Granulomatous macrocheilitis (cheilitis granulomatosa) presents with intermittent or permanent lip swelling. It should be confirmed by a biopsy. It can be either isolated (Miescher macrocheilitis) or associated with various systemic conditions. PMID:26681528

  7. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731

  8. Transitional changes in energy intake, skeletal muscle content and nutritional behavior in college students during course-work based nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ(2)-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979

  9. Nutritional contributions to dementia prevention: main issues on antioxidant micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Maria Cristina; Schulz, Ralf-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    There is an impressing body of evidence supporting the beneficial role of balanced nutrition in lowering the risk of dementia and its commonest form, Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, and despite worldwide dementia epidemic, there is much unfounded skepticism and lack of information among physicians. As a result, the diagnosis of cognitive impairment occurs still far too late, at best symptomatic drugs keep being prescribed and patients and caregivers are left with little concrete support in the hands of the natural history of the disease. This review summarizes knowledge about the impact of nutrition as part of a healthy lifestyle and of micronutrients in particular on delaying and avoiding dementia onset. PMID:24535714

  10. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amitabha

    2010-12-01

    One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia. PMID:21369420

  11. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  12. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  13. Early enteral nutrition vs parenteral nutrition following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Wen; Liu, Chang; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze and compare postoperative morbidity between patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and early enteral nutrition supplemented with parenteral nutrition (EEN + PN). METHODS: Three hundred and forty patients receiving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) from 2009 to 2013 at our center were enrolled retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups depending on postoperative nutrition support scheme: an EEN + PN group (n = 87) and a TPN group (n = 253). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters, pathological diagnosis, intraoperative information, and postoperative complications of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters or pathological findings (P > 0.05 for all). However, patients with EEN + PN following PD had a higher incidence of delayed gastric emptying (16.1% vs 6.7%, P = 0.016), pulmonary infection (10.3% vs 3.6%, P = 0.024), and probably intraperitoneal infection (18.4% vs 10.3%, P = 0.059), which might account for their longer nasogastric tube retention time (9 d vs 5 d, P = 0.006), postoperative hospital stay (25 d vs 20 d, P = 0.055) and higher hospitalization expenses (USD10397 vs USD8663.9, P = 0.008), compared to those with TPN. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that TPN might be safe and sufficient for patient recovery after PD. Postoperative EEN should only be performed scrupulously and selectively. PMID:27076767

  14. Relationship between the nutritional status of breast-feeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Frojo, Gianfranco A.; Rogers, Nathaniel G.; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesized that maternal excess caloric intake (measured as BMI) would increase the association while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breast feeding) will diminish the effect. Methods Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (OR), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Results Cases (n=84) had an increased odds (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared to controls (n=85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI 1.30-5.02) . Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI -0.96) as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI -2.27). Conclusion Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner. PMID:22462552

  15. Relationship between the nutritional status of breastfeeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Frojo, Gianfranco A; Rogers, Nathaniel G; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age, and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesised that maternal excess caloric intake [measured as body mass index (BMI)] would increase the association, while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breastfeeding) will diminish the effect. Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (ORs), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age, while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Cases (n = 84) had an increased odds (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared with controls (n = 85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI: 1.30-5.02). Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥ 25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI: -0.96), as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI: -2.27). Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner. PMID:22462552

  16. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crushes What's a Booger? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  17. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

  18. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  19. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  20. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the