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1

Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation.

Zamberlan, Patricia; Leone, Claudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

2012-01-01

2

Anthropometric parameters of nutritional assessment as predictive factors of the MINI nutritional assessment (MNA) of hospitalized elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify nutritional indicators that predict MNA (mini nutritional assessment) classification\\u000a in hospitalized elderly patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  This cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status of 109 elderly patients at the beginning of their hospital stay\\u000a with anthropometric and laboratory indicators and the MNA. Habitual energy intake (HEI) was also determined. The assessed\\u000a nutritional indicators were investigated

Vânia Ap. Leandro-Merhi; J. L. Braga De Aquino

2011-01-01

3

Religion, Social Support, Food-Related Social Support, Diet, Nutrition, and Anthropometrics in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion is an important aspect of many people's lives, especially for older adults. However, very little data exists about the relationships between religion, food-related social support, diet, nutrition, and anthropometrics in older U.S. adults. Social support may be a possible mechanism for religion-diet\\/nutrition relationships. This analysis examined these relationships in a sample of 424 older individuals. Religion was related to

Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; W. M. Alex Mcintosh; Karen S. Kubena; Jeffery Sobal

2008-01-01

4

Nutritional Assessment of Macronutrients in Primary School Children and its Association with Anthropometric Indices and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood nutrition is known to have a considerable impact on children's health. Protein and fat are the two most important macronutrients with high impact on children's growth and energy provision. The aim of the present study is the assessment of children's nutrition based on energy, protein and fat intake with respect to their anthropometric and oral health. A total of

Sayed Jalal Pourhashemi; Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Banafsheh Golestan

2007-01-01

5

Measuring anthropometric indicators through nutrition surveillance in humanitarian settings: options, issues, and ways forward.  

PubMed

The technical discourse on nutrition surveillance started decades ago, and the first technical guidelines were proposed in mid-1970s. In spite of this long history, little evidence and consensus exists on the best methods for conducting nutrition surveillance, and on the validity of data produced by these approaches. Multiple nutrition surveillance systems exist in humanitarian settings; however, the validity and usefulness of data produced by these systems are often questionable. In this paper, we outline and define five major methodological approaches to collecting child anthropometric data through surveillance: repeated surveys, community-based sentinel sites, mass screenings, admission data from feeding centers, and data from health clinics. We discuss outstanding methodological and practical challenges with direct implications for quality, validity, and interpretability of collected data and highlight comparative advantages and disadvantages of different methods. We also propose ways forward to building a better evidence base by documenting the strengths and limitations of different approaches, with the eventual goal of achieving consensus on the best ways to collect anthropometric data through surveillance. PMID:22908699

Bilukha, Oleg; Prudhon, Claudine; Moloney, Grainne; Hailey, Peter; Doledec, David

2012-06-01

6

The association between nutritional conditions during World War II and childhood anthropometric variables in the Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. Methods: Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the

E. Angell-Andersen; S. Tretli; R. Bjerknesz; T. Forsén; T. I. A. Sørensen; J. G. Eriksson; L. Räsänen; T. Grotmol

2004-01-01

7

Race, Anthropometric Factors, and Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study suggested that the greater prevalence of severe obesity among African-American women explained almost one third of the observed differences between African-American and White women in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. The objective of this investigation was to attempt to replicate these findings in a second, larger population and to expand the analyses by including a measure

Patricia G. Moorman; Beth A. Jones; Robert C. Millikan; Ingrid J. Hall; Beth Newman

8

Effect of a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women from the Québec city metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women.Design:Nutritional intervention study.Setting:Laval University, Canada.Subjects:Seventy-seven healthy women started the study and four did not complete the study.Methods:A 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses on nutrition and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed

J Goulet; A Lapointe; B Lamarche; S Lemieux

2007-01-01

9

Harmonization of anthropometric measurements for a multicenter nutrition survey in Spanish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the need for accurate anthropometric measurement has been repeatedly stressed, reports on growth and physical measurements in human populations rarely include estimates of measurement error. We describe the standardization process and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out in a pilot study.

Luis A Moreno; María Joyanes; María Isabel Mesana; Marcela González-Gross; Carlos M Gil; Antonio Sarría; Angel Gutierrez; Marta Garaulet; Raúl Perez-Prieto; Manuel Bueno; Ascensión Marcos

2003-01-01

10

Anthropometrically determined nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren in Makurdi, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background No information exists on the nutritional status of primary school children residing in Makurdi, Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data could serve as baseline data for future studies, as well as inform public health policy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among urban school children in Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods Height and weight of 2015 (979 boys and 1036 girls), aged 9-12 years, attending public primary school in Makurdi were measured and the body mass index (BMI) calculated. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age (WA) and height-for-age (HA) were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. The BMI thinness classification was also calculated. Results Underweight (WAZ < -2) and stunting (HAZ < -2) occurred in 43.4% and 52.7%, respectively. WAZ and HAZ mean scores of the children were -0.91(SD = 0.43) and -0.83 (SD = 0.54), respectively. Boys were more underweight (48.8%) than girls (38.5%), and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.024; p < 0.05). Conversely, girls tend to be more stunted (56.8%) compared to boys (48.4%) (p = 0.004; p < 0.05). Normal WAZ and HAZ occurred in 54.6% and 44.2% of the children, respectively. Using the 2007 World Health Organisation BMI thinness classification, majority of the children exhibited Grade 1 thinness (77.3%), which was predominant at all ages (9-12 years) in both boys and girls. Gender wise, 79.8% boys and 75.0% girls fall within the Grade I thinness category. Based on the WHO classification, severe malnutrition occurred in 31.3% of the children. Conclusions There is severe malnutrition among the school children living in Makurdi. Most of the children are underweight, stunted and thinned. As such, providing community education on environmental sanitation and personal hygienic practices, proper child rearing, breast-feeding and weaning practices would possibly reverse the trends.

2011-01-01

11

Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established.

Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

1997-01-01

12

A study of the geographical clustering of districts in Uttar Pradesh using nutritional anthropometric data of preschool children  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Worldwide variations in human growth and its genetic and environmental factors have been described. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the morphological differences and similarities among under 5 year children of rural areas of Uttar Pradesh State in India, and to determine differences or similarities of body size among children living in diverse regions. Methods: For this purpose, a cross-sectional district nutrition profile study conducted during 2002-2003 was used. The data on 10,096 children drawn from 1080 villages in 54 districts were part of the district level Diet and Nutrition Assessment survey. The mean values for height and weight for 54 districts were taken as the input data for subsequent analysis. The data were first normalized by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and then K-means clustering was performed. Results: The PCA and cluster analysis yielded four distinguishable clusters or patterns in the anthropometric data of children. These clusters were ordered according to the average body size (weight and height) of children. The mean stature and body weight of these children in cluster I were 3.2 cm and 1.4 kg higher than those of cluster IV indicating differences between clusters. Also, the variations between clusters in their social, demographic, health and nutrition parameters were compared. Interpretation & conclusions: The use of PCA and cluster analysis methods and their merits in studying the Uttar Pradesh preschool children growth variations are discussed. These results helped in identifying the districts with higher prevalence of undernutrition and the contributing factors.

Rao, M. Vishnu Vardhana; Kumar, Sharad; Brahmam, G.N.V.

2013-01-01

13

Anthropometric indices and nutritional deficiency signs in preschool children of the Pahariya tribe of the Rajmahal Hills, Bihar.  

PubMed

The nutritional status of preschool children of the three sects of the Pahariya tribe (Rajmahal Hills, Bihar) was studied with the help of anthropometric indices like weight for age, height for age, weight for height und nutritional deficiency signs. The correlation between age and nutritional indices showed that the relationship was significant for % expected weight for age in the male children of all the three sects; r = +0.70 in Saurias, r = +0.32 in Mals and r = -0.72 in Kumarbhags (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also observed in the correlations between weight for height in both sexes. Based on height for age and weight/height2 (Body Mass Index, BMI), 89% of the children of the Saurias, 92% of the Mals and 93% of the Kumarbhags were malnourished. Height for age of 50% of the children of the Pahariyas were below the 3rd percentile or below 90% of the Harvard standard. Chronic and current severe forms of malnutrition (i.e. height for age below 3rd percentile of standard and BMI 13.5) was highest in the Kumarbhags (17.5%). According to the modified Waterlow's classification chronic and current severe forms of malnutrition (i.e. height for age below 3rd percentile of the National Centre for Health Statistics, NCHS, and weight for height less than 80% of the standard) was highest in the Saurias (21.6%) and least in the Kumarbhags (15.4%). Kwashiorkor and marasmus for all the children of the Pahariyas ranged between 0.5-1.4% and 1.5-5.2%, respectively. Associated with signs of Protein Caloric Malnutrition (PCM), like moon face, dyspigmentation, sparseness and easy pluckability were more prevalent in all the three sects of the Pahariyas. Ocular manifestation of vitamin-A deficiency like conjunctiva xerosis and Bitos' spots were also frequent among these children. PMID:11360810

Choudhary, R P

2001-03-01

14

Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the association between anthropometry and endometrial cancer, particularly by menopausal status and exogenous hormone\\u000a use subgroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among 223,008 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, there were 567 incident\\u000a endometrial cancer cases during 6.4 years of follow-up. The analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards modeling.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and

Christine Friedenreich; Anne Cust; Petra H. Lahmann; Karen Steindorf; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Sylvie Mesrine; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjær; Kim Overvad; Michelle Mendez; M. L. Redondo; Carmen Martinez Garcia; Nerea Larrañaga; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Antonia Trichopoulou; Effie Vasilopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Amalia Mattiello; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Eva Lundin; Annekatrin Lukanova; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

15

Efeitos de um programa de orientação de atividade física e nutricional sobre a ingestão alimentar e composição corporal de mulheres fisicamente ativas de 50 a 72 anos de idade Effects of an intervention program of physical activity and nutrition orientation on nutritional habits an anthropometrical variables of physically active women aged between 50 to 72 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of an intervention program of physical activity and nutrition orientation on anthropometrical variables and nutritional habits of physically active women aged between 50 to 72 years. The sample consisted of sixty-four women participating of gymnastic program regularly. Subjects were assigned to one of four intervention groups: A- nutritional only; B-

Marcela Ferreira; Sandra Matsudo; Victor Matsudo; Glaucia Braggion

16

Anthropometric sourcebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

1979-01-01

17

Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical practice and epidemiological surveys, anthropometric measurements represent an important component of nutritional assessment in the elderly. The anthropometric standards derived from adult populations may not be appropriate for the elderly because of body composition changes occurring during ageing. Specific anthropometric reference data for the elderly are necessary. In the present study we investigated anthropometric characteristics and their relationship

Egle Perissinotto; Claudia Pisent; Giuseppe Sergi; Francesco Grigoletto; Giuliano Enzi

2002-01-01

18

Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

2012-01-01

19

Parenteral nutrition line sepsis: the difficulty in diagnosis.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) line sepsis is a common and yet poorly managed complication in hospitalised patients receiving PN. Making a clinical diagnosis is difficult as the clinical picture can be very non-specific and definitions of what constitutes line infection can vary. Once there is clinical suspicion, proving it with microbiological techniques is not an exact science. Traditional techniques have required the removal of the PN line to allow microbiologists to perform analysis of it for infection. This has obvious drawbacks as it is often not easy to replace the line in these patients and the line is often later proven not to be the source of the sepsis. Although the gold-standard technique still requires removal of the line, there has been development in the field of diagnosis line infection while conserving the line. These include intra-luminal brushings of the line, differential blood cultures and simple swabs of the line hub. These techniques are not as sensitive but reduce the problems caused by removing and re-inserting the line in these patients. The definition of PN line sepsis varies between institutions. Rates can be expressed as a true number of cases, or can be expressed correctly as a number of cases per 1000 line days to standardise rates between units of differing sizes. Rates can also be altered if the diagnostic criteria are too strict or too lax. Accurate diagnosis of PN line sepsis remains difficult in modern medical practice. PMID:20459876

McWhirter, Derek

2010-11-01

20

THE ROLE OF LEAN BODY MASS AS A NUTRITIONAL INDEX IN CHINESE PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS—COMPARISON OF CREATININE KINETICS METHOD AND ANTHROPOMETRIC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

? ? ? ? ? Objective: To compare, in Chinese continuous am- bulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, the creati- nine kinetics method (LBM-CK) and the anthropometric method (LBM-AM) for determining lean body mass (LBM). ? ? ? ? ? Design: Single-center cross-sectional study. ? ? ? ? ? Patients and Methods: We studied 151 unselected CAPD patients (78 males, 73

Cheuk-Chun Szeto; Johnathan Kong; Alan K. L. Wu; Teresa Y. H. Wong; Angela Y. M. Wang; Philip K. T. Li

21

Metabolic, Anthropometric, and Nutritional Factors as Predictors of Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein1 Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 levels have been associated with insulin sensitivity, the metabolic syndrome, several cardiovascular risk factors, and possibly with cancer. We examined long-term nutrient intake and metabolic and anthropometric factors in relation to IGFBP-1 levels in 226 men, 42-76 yr old, who completed 14 24-h diet recall inter- views. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calcu- lated. Serum

KATARINA WOLK; SUSANNA C. LARSSON; BENGT VESSBY; ALICJA WOLK; KERSTIN BRISMAR

22

Weight-based nutritional diagnosis of Mexican children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Results Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down’s syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN) than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB), especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down’s syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. Conclusions This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life.

2012-01-01

23

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Carrie Gleeksman, MS, RD Clinical Dietician COPD: Lifestyle Management Nutrition Eating a balanced diet and maintaining a ... Up Mucus More Nutrition Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

24

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Pearson, Ms.

2007-10-12

25

An overview of the diagnosis and management of nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas, which results in fibrosis and the gradual loss of pancreatic function. The loss of islets and acinar cells results in diabetes and exocrine insufficiency, respectively. Exocrine insufficiency can result in maldigestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate as well as vitamins and minerals. Patients may present with variable severity of disease, from mild to severe. The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis can be challenging, especially in patients with early or mild disease who have few to no morphologic abnormalities on standard abdominal imaging studies. A number of imaging modalities and tests have evolved to aid in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis based on changes in structure or function. Clinicians typically focus on treating pain in chronic pancreatitis as opposed to exocrine insufficiency, despite the fact that maldigestion and malabsorption can result in nutrition deficiencies. The aims of this review are to describe the various modalities used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis, to illustrate the nutrition deficiencies associated with exocrine insufficiency, and to provide an overview of nutrition assessment and treatment in these patients. PMID:24743046

Afghani, Elham; Sinha, Amitasha; Singh, Vikesh K

2014-06-01

26

Blood lead concentration and children’s anthropometric dimensions in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association between lead exposure and children’s physical growth. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Participants: A total of 4391 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American children age 1 to 7 years. Measurements and Results: We investigated the association between blood lead concentration and stature, head circumference, weight,

Carol Ballew; Laura Kettel Khan; Rachel Kaufmann; Ali Mokdad; Dayton T. Miller; Elaine W. Gunter

1999-01-01

27

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

28

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

29

Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity--The Dietitians Role  

PubMed Central

Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process.

Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

2012-01-01

30

[Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient's life. PMID:24964516

Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

31

Descriptive Anthropometric Reference Data for Older Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled

MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

2000-01-01

32

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48?months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight.

2012-01-01

33

Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) pro...

J. Dory J. Rochlis S. Margerum S. Raulu

2009-01-01

34

Knowledge, Attitudes, Reported Practices and Anthropometric Indicators of Children's Nutritional Status: A Baseline Survey Conducted for Nutrition Communication Project Activities in Dioro, Koutiala and Macina (Republic of Mali), November 11-December 16, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1990, Mali's Ministry of Health collaborated with several Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO's) to conduct a survey of child nutrition-related behaviors and status. Research involved interviews with parents of 657 children aged 0-3 years in 47 villag...

M. Holley C. Fishman K. D. Toure

1991-01-01

35

Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach.

Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabre, Mateu; Campins, Lluis; Garcia-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renee; Clave, Pere

2011-01-01

36

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

37

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

38

Anthropometric History: What Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

Komlos, John

1992-01-01

39

Relation of anthropometric and dynamometric variables to serious postoperative complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm

A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran

1980-01-01

40

Nutrition Assessment of College Wrestlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diet recall, a food record, a written test, interviews, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were used to examine the nutrition and weight control practices and knowledge of 42 wrestlers from two college teams. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

Steen, Suzanne Nelson; McKinney, Shortie

1986-01-01

41

Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

2009-01-01

42

Nutritional Management of Cholestatic Syndromes in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholestatic liver disease causes severe risk of malnutrition which includes protein-energy malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies. The nutritional status can be assessed based on anthropometric measurements, which can be misleading because of ascitis and peripheral edema. Biochemical determinations of lipid-soluble vitamin status are important to evaluate requirements. Based on nutritional status assessment, nutritional therapy should be planned according to a

Piotr Socha

2008-01-01

43

Dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and pregnancy outcomes.  

PubMed

The relationships of maternal prenatal dietary intakes and anthropometric measurements to pregnancy outcomes were investigated in a prospective observational study of urban African American women. The 322 subjects, a subset of the 744 women recruited for the study using purposive sampling, were all nulliparous, free of diabetes mellitus and abnormal hemoglobins, and delivered term, singleton infants. Sociodemographic data and monthly quantitative 24-hour food recalls were collected by trained interviewers. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained from the subjects' hospital records. Pregnancy outcome data were obtained by physical examinations of the newborn infants by the project pediatrician. With the exception of vitamin C, average maternal dietary intakes were within the ranges of intakes obtained in previous studies. Mean intakes of protein, vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin exceeded the 1989 RDA, while those of food energy, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc were below the RDA. Underweight prior to pregnancy and low pregnancy weight gains were found among 12.9% and 44.4% of the subjects respectively. Dietary intakes were not significantly correlated with pregnancy outcomes. Maternal anthropometric measurements significantly correlated with pregnancy outcomes included delivery weight, pregnancy weight gain, weekly weight gain, prepregnancy weight, net weight gain, height, prepregnancy body mass index, and % ideal prepregnancy body weight (P < 0.05). Using the stepwise selection procedure in multiple regression analysis, delivery weight, % ideal prepregnancy body weight, and prepregnancy body mass index were selected as being predictive of infant birth weight. It was concluded that anthropometric measurements were better nutritional predictors of pregnancy outcome than dietary intake. PMID:8201444

Johnson, A A; Knight, E M; Edwards, C H; Oyemade, U J; Cole, O J; Westney, O E; Westney, L S; Laryea, H; Jones, S

1994-06-01

44

Physical Activity and Anthropometric Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Physical activity and certain anthropometric factors have been proposed as independent risk factors for breast cancer. Increased\\u000a physical activity appears to be associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and this association is independent of the influence\\u000a of anthropometric factors on risk. Conversely, anthropometric factors such as body mass index (BMI), weight change, and height\\u000a appear to have effects on breast

Katherine D. Henderson; Jennifer Prescott; Leslie Bernstein

45

Demographic and Anthropometric Assessment of US Army Anthropometric Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been nearly 20 years since the last anthropometric survey of Army males was conducted and about eight years since the last survey of Army females. The purpose of this report is to assess the extent to which the Army's existing anthropometric data b...

B. Bradtmiller J. Ratnaparkhi I. Tebbetts

1985-01-01

46

CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event tha...

S. Rajulu

2011-01-01

47

CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

48

Regional clustering of anthropometric dimensions of primary school children in rural and suburban Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition transition is one of the driving forces of the upcoming global epidemic of diabetes mellitus and cardio- vascular diseases. We hypothesized that in previously deprived rapidly changing regions, the progress of the ob- esity epidemic is clustered per community and that screening with anthropometric school surveys can detect the negative effects of the nutrition transition in its early stages.

Antoon van Lierop; Nguyen V Nam; Colleen Doak; Tran Q Binh; Joost Hoekstra; Peter J de Vries

2008-01-01

49

Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

San Diego State Coll., CA.

50

Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.10-0.57) were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

2012-01-01

51

Anthropometric Source Book. Volume 2: A Handbook of Anthropometric Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This three-volume publication brings together a large mass of anthropometric data which define the physical size, mass distribution properties, and dynamic capabilities of U.S. and selected foreign adult populations. Aimed specifically to. meet the needs ...

1978-01-01

52

Clinical validation of a nutritional risk index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the clinical validity of a nutritional risk index (NRI). Subjects were 377 male veterans, aged 55+, attending general medicine and geriatric outpatient clinics. Data were collected by personal interviews, anthropometric measurements, laboratory assay of nutritional parameters, three-day food records, and medical record reviews. Although the results showed that the NRI correlated significantly with only two nutritional measures

John M. Prendergast; Rodney M. Coe; M. Noel Chavez; James C. Romeis; Douglas K. Miller; Fredric D. Wolinsky

1989-01-01

53

Evaluating the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist and the Mini Nutritional Assessment as tools to identify nutritional problems in elderly Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate two short questionnaires for assessing the nutritional situation of elderly people, the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI checklist) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), by comparing equivalent cumulative scores with data on dietary intake, anthropometrics and blood biochemistries.Design: Information similar to the questions of the NSI and MNA lists was collected

LCPGM de Groot; AM Beck; M Schroll; WA van Staveren; Lisette CPGM de Groot

1998-01-01

54

Anthropometric Determinations of American Born Macaca Mulatta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of anthropometric parameters of a group of American born Macaca mulatta became necessary for hardware design in the course of an orbiting primate experiment. The values obtained for 35 anthropometric parameters on 23 immature laboratory-born mon...

K. A. Clark A. E. New

1969-01-01

55

Computer Program for Calculating Parnell's Anthropometric Phenotype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A specific computer program was written and compiled for the calculation of Parnell's anthropometric phenotype. This computer program is illustrated and discussed. A total of 2420 male subjects from the 1967 United States Air Force Anthropometric Survey w...

L. L. Laubach M. E. Marshall

1970-01-01

56

Mother's age effect on the boys' anthropometric properties in the Region of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina).  

PubMed

Our objective was to establish if mother's age affects the anthropometric properties their 11 and 16 years old sons, and if the boys' BMI is satisfactory. Cross-sections, questionnaires, and statistics were used for data processing BMI (kg/m2) was presented according to the scale Quetelet's index nutritional status. Twelve anthropometric properties were researched. It was established that mother's age affects anthropometric properties in adolescent boys. The younger mothers' boys come to puberty with significantly higher mean values for most anthropometric parameters. In the course of adolescent jump, older mothers' boys have significantly higher anthropometric measures in comparison to their age boys delivered by younger mothers. After the completion of their intensive growth and development anthropometric measures in both category boys are equal or insignificantly higher in younger mothers' sons. Mother's age affects their sons' anthropometric properties of growth and development, particularly in prepuberty and puberty. After puberty that effect is not significant. According to BMI, the boys coming from the researched region make the group of underfed children. That is probably the outcome of bad living conditions, irregular and insufficient diet, stress, etc. in the course of four year aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:15666586

Hadzihalilovi?, Jasminka; Hadziselimovi?, Rifat; Halilovi?, Amir H; Osmi?, Munevera; Hamidovi?, Hajrija; Ahmi?, Adisa; Jusupovi?, Fatima

2004-12-01

57

Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations.  

PubMed

The common cold is the leading cause of doctor visits in the United States and annually results in 189 million lost school days. In the course of one year the U.S. population contracts approximately 1 billion colds. Influenza infection is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 20-25 million doctor visits and 36,000 deaths per year in the United States. Conventional therapies for colds and flu focus primarily on temporary symptom relief and include over-the-counter antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, and decongestants. Treatment for influenza also includes prescription antiviral agents and vaccines for prevention. This article reviews the common cold and influenza viruses, presents the conventional treatment options, and highlights select botanicals (Echinacea spp., Sambucus nigra, larch arabinogalactan, Astragalus membranaceous, Baptisia tinctoria, Allium sativa, Panax quinquefolium, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Andrographis paniculata, olive leaf extract, and Isatis tinctoria) and nutritional considerations (vitamins A and C, zinc, high lactoferrin whey protein, N-acetylcysteine, and DHEA) that may help in the prevention and treatment of these conditions. PMID:17397266

Roxas, Mario; Jurenka, Julie

2007-03-01

58

Belgian consensus on chronic pancreatitis in adults and children: statements on diagnosis and nutritional, medical, and surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in a progressive and irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. Clinicians should attempt to classify patients into one of the six etiologic groups according to the TIGARO classification system. MRI/MRCP, if possible with secretin enhancement, is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of early-stage disease.In CP, pain is the most disabling symptom, with a significant impact on quality of life. Pain should be assessed using the Izbicki score and preferably treated using the "pain ladder" approach. In painful CP, endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered as early as possible. This procedure can be combined with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the presence of large (> 4 mm), obstructive stone(s) in the pancreatic head, and with ductal stenting in the presence of a single main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with a markedly dilated MPD. Pancreatic stenting should be pursued for at least 12 months in patients with persistent pain relief. On-demand stent exchange should be the preferred strategy. The simultaneous placement of multiple, side-by-side, pancreatic stents can be recommended in patients with MPD strictures persisting after 12 months of single plastic stenting. We recommend surgery in the following cases: a) technical failure of ET ; b) early (6 to 8 weeks) clinical failure ; c) definitive biliary drainage at a later time point; d) pancreatic ductal drainage when repetitive ET is considered unsuitable for young patients; e) resection of an inflammatory pancreatic head when pancreatic cancer cannot be ruled out; f) duodenal obstruction. Duodenopancreatectomy or oncological distal pancreatectomy should be considered for patients with suspected malignancy. Pediatricians should be aware of and systematically search for CP in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain. As malnutrition is highly prevalent in CP patients, patients at nutritional risk should be identified in order to allow for dietary counseling and nutritional intervention using oral supplements. Patients should follow a healthy balanced diet taken in small meals and snacks, with normal fat content. Enzyme replacement therapy is beneficial to symptomatic patients, but also in cases of subclinical insufficiency. Regular follow-up should be considered in CP patients, primarily to detect subclinical maldigestion and the development of pancreatogenic diabetes. Screening for pancreatic cancer is not recommended in CP patients, except in those with the hereditary form. PMID:24761691

Delhaye, Myriam; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Cesmeli, Ercan; Pelckmans, Paul; Putzeys, Virginie; Roeyen, Geert; Berrevoet, Frederik; Scheers, Isabelle; Ausloos, Floriane; Gast, Pierrette; Ysebaert, Dirk; Plat, Laurence; van der Wijst, Edwin; Hans, Guy; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Deprez, Pierre H

2014-03-01

59

Anthropometric factors at age 20 years and risk of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of anthropometric factors at adolescence and the change since young age on thyroid cancer risk is unclear. Here, we\\u000a conducted a case–control study to investigate the association between anthropometric factors at the time of diagnosis and\\u000a age 20 years and risk of thyroid cancer. A total of 173 patients with thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma, n = 167 and follicular carcinoma, n = 6)

Takeshi Suzuki; Keitaro Matsuo; Yasuhisa Hasegawa; Akio Hiraki; Takakazu Kawase; Hideo Tanaka; Kazuo Tajima

2008-01-01

60

Nutritional status of elderly residents in Missouri?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional assessment of white persons over 59 who participated in the 1973 Missouri Nutrition Survey was based upon biochemical measurements, dietary intakes using food frequency histories, anthropometric measurements, and a dental examination. There were three major nutritionally related problems: poor dental health, obesity, and anemia. The mean for DMF, periodontal index, and oral hygiene index for males was 20.5, 4.9,

Mary Bess Kohrs; Robert O'Neal; Alan Preston

61

Clinical examination compared with anthropometry in evaluating nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assessments of nutritional status in a group of 44 inpatients, made by a panel of experienced childcare specialists, were compared with anthropometric assessments. Assessors were uniformly poor at detecting severe malnutrition and at assessing the nutritional status of infants. Nutritional status cannot be accurately assessed clinically and anthropometry is crucial.

J H Cross; C Holden; A MacDonald; G Pearmain; M C Stevens; I W Booth

1995-01-01

62

Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

1977-01-01

63

Perioral aging - An anthropometric appraisal.  

PubMed

To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

2014-07-01

64

Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

Zehner, Gregory F.

1994-01-01

65

An anthropometric study of Singapore candidate aviators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometry constitutes a building block in the design of equipment and workstations. Data from developing countries are virtually non-existent. The consequence of this is that these countries use equipment and workstations designed using anthropometric data from developed countries. This has given rise to many problems, one of which is the aircraft cockpit. This study aimed to obtain anthropometric data for

JARNAIL SINGH; C. M. PENG; M. K. LIM; C. N. ONG

1995-01-01

66

Signal processing of anthropometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

Zimmermann, W. J.

1983-09-01

67

Nutrition in conflict situations.  

PubMed

High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar. PMID:16923242

Egal, Florence

2006-08-01

68

Relationship between Anthropometric Parameters with Menarche Age of School Girls (11-14 Years Old) in Shahroud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Though not impeding it, malnutrition during childhood delays the menarche age. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between anthropometric parameters with menarche age of adolescent (11-14- year old) girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 middle school girls in Shahroud were randomly selected and studied. To demonstrate the participants' nutritional status, BMI was used for age, weight and

Mehri Delvarian-Zadeh; Ahmad Khosravi; Nahid Bolbolhaghighi; Hossein Ebrahimi

2008-01-01

69

The association of plasma C-reactive protein levels with anthropometric and lipid parameters in elderly Taiwanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-reactive protein (CRP), a plasma inflammation marker, has been known to play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to evaluate the association of CRP with anthropometric and plasma lipid parameters in elderly Taiwanese 65 years or older. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), a national probability sampling study conducted to

Hsin-Jen Tsai; Alan Chung-Hong Tsai

2008-01-01

70

Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM?+?CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM?+?CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM?+?CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM?+?CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p?diagnosis was lower in the T1DM?+?CD than the T1DM group (p?=?0.009). At two years, height velocity and change in BMI z-scores were similar in all groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c between the T1DM?+?CD and T1DM groups before or after CD diagnosis. More children with T1DM?+?CD had raised tTg levels one year after CD diagnosis than CD controls (CDx to CDx?+?1 yr; T1DM?+?CD: 100% to 71%, p?=?0.180 and CD: 100% to 45%, p?nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM?+?CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet.

2014-01-01

71

Nutrition and Fitness Course for Junior High Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an outline of a 10-session, individualized nutrition/fitness course for junior high school students. Course topics include growth, body composition, exercise, energy, and nutrition. Through the use of worksheets, students assess their own anthropometric measurements, calculate energy expenditures, analyze diets, and compare dietary…

Emmons, Lillian

1983-01-01

72

Selected Anthropometric Dimensions of Naval Aviation Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the previous study of the anthropometric features of naval aircrewmen, the physical and academic requirements for entrance into the flight program have been changed. The present study was undertaken to determine whether these changes combine with ch...

W. F. Moroney R. S. Kennedy E. C. Gifford J. R. Provost

1971-01-01

73

Development of Anthropometric Analogous Headforms. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designing small, medium and large headforms for retention and fit assessment of military helmets was the study's central objective. Using the U.S Anthropometric Survey, a multivariate procedure for sizing yielded three sets of optimal values for four inde...

M. M. Reddi D. F. DeCleene M. B. Oslon B. M. Bowman B. T. Hartmann

1994-01-01

74

Assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The achievement of a normal nutritional status, that is a normal body composition and a normal pattern of growth, is a cornerstone in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting (PEW) which indicates the state of decreased body protein mass and fuel reserves (body protein and fat mass), is a common condition in this population, and a source of morbidity and mortality. For the diagnosis of this condition, a lot of methods have been proposed, but due to the clinical characteristics of children with CKD, the intrinsic limits of the available indices and some methodological issues concerning published pediatric studies, none of these parameters could be considered as the gold standard. Given these limitations, a general consensus exists according to which only the combination of more indices integrated in a multidisciplinary approach can give the idea of the individual nutritional status. Among these indices, recent guidelines recommend dietary intake (by means of 3-day diary or 24-hour recall), anthropometric parameters (weight, height, height velocity, body mass index, head circumference) and, only for adolescent on hemodialysis, normalized protein catabolic rate as the most accurate ones. Other methods, such as mid-arm anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical indices, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry could certainly help in the nutritional evaluation, taking into account the advantages and drawbacks of each method. PMID:20467382

Paglialonga, F; Felice Civitillo, C; Groppali, E; Edefonti, A

2010-06-01

75

User's Guide to Accessing the Anthropometric Data Base at the Center for Anthropometric Research Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is provided to assist users in accessing the Anthropometric Data Base maintained by the Center for Anthropometric Research Data. The on-line data base was developed to be used in support of human engineering design activities. It contains se...

G. F. Zehner J. C. Robinson K. M. Robinette

1988-01-01

76

The effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on body composition and physical functioning in elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: The elderly are at an increased risk of poor nutritional status which is mutually interacting with functional status. We evaluated the effects of a liquid nutrition supplement on anthropometric and functional indices in elderly people.Methods: Subjects (n=68; mean age=82±7 years) with body mass index ?25kg\\/m2 received either a supplement or a placebo for 6 months. Anthropometric (body

W. Wouters-Wesseling; C Van Hooijdonk; L. Wagenaar; J. G. Bindels; L de Groot; W Van Staveren

2003-01-01

77

Nutritional assessment and treatment of chronic renal failure13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The experience with chronic renal failure in two institutions, a tertiary care referral,hospital,with,a,high,prevalence,of,diabetes,mellitus,and,a,Veterans,Administration Hospital, was utilized to formulate guidelines for the nutritional assessment and therapy of chronic renal failure. For optimal nutritional support of patients with renal failure, it is important to characterize objectively nutritional deficiencies. Thus, dietary history, anthropometric measure- ments (weight\\/height ratio, arm musche circumference, and triceps

Karen B. Harvey; Michael J. Blumenkrantz; Susan E. Levine; George L. Blackburn

78

Anthropometric aspects of body seated in school.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the student-furniture interface from anthropometric parameters of the sitting posture. The sample was composed of 887 students from two public schools in the State of Parana-Brazil, which attended children from 7 to 17 years of age. The data collection used anthropometric measures of the sitting position, a questionnaire containing a human body diagram for indication of discomfort areas and photographic records to verify postural and ergonomic inadequacies in classroom. The following anthropometric variables were measured: popliteal height, sacro-popliteal length, hip width, lumbar support height, and elbow and thigh height. Percentiles 5 and 95 of anthropometric variables showed differences statistically significant, with variation coefficient greater than 30%. In relation to body discomfort, the highest occurrences were recorded for ankle, knees and shoulder joints as well as for spine and buttocks. It was concluded that children use school furniture that does not meet their anthropometric standards, which favored the adoption of incorrect postures and contributed to the emergence of musculoskeletal problems that can interfere with their educational process. PMID:22316837

Reis, P; Moro, A R; Da Silva, J; Paschoarelli, L; Nunes Sobrinho, F; Peres, L

2012-01-01

79

Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards.

Pencharz, P. B.

1982-01-01

80

Digital Anthropometric Video-Imaging Device (DAVID) Operational Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The digital anthropometric video-imaging device (DAVID) was developed as a computer-based technology capable of accurately and reproducibly completing anthropometric measurements during medical screening of aviation candidates. The DAVID technology is cur...

F. R. Patterson J. L. Saxton

2002-01-01

81

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition of Italian national wrestlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of wrestlers from the Italian national team. The study was carried out on a sample of 23 wrestlers (9 females and 14 males) aged 18–33 years. Various anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, sitting height, some girths and skinfold thicknesses) and anthropometric indices calculated (body mass

Luciana Zaccagni

2011-01-01

82

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition of Italian national wrestlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of wrestlers from the Italian national team. The study was carried out on a sample of 23 wrestlers (9 females and 14 males) aged 18–33 years. Various anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, sitting height, some girths and skinfold thicknesses) and anthropometric indices calculated (body mass

Luciana Zaccagni

2012-01-01

83

Heritability of Anthropometric Phenotypes in Caste Populations of Visakhapatnam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

6 Abstract In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phe- notypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained anthropometric data from 342 nuclear fam- ilies from Brahmin, Reddy, Telaga, Nagara, Ag. Kshatriya, and Mala castes of Visakhapatnam, India. These caste groups

Rector Arya; Ravindranath Duggirala; Anthony G. Comuzzie; Sobha Puppala; Saileela Modem; Bhaskara R. Busi; Michael H. Crawford

2002-01-01

84

Heritability of Anthropometric Phenotypes in Caste Populations of Visakhapatnam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained anthropometric data from 342 nuclear families from Brahmin, Reddy, Telaga, Nagara, Ag. Kshatriya, and Mala castes of Visakhapatnam, India. These caste groups represent the existing hierarchical

Rector Arya; Ravindranath Duggirala; Anthony G. Comuzzie; Sobah Puppala; Saileela Modem; Bhaskara R. Busi; Michael H. Crawford

2011-01-01

85

An anthropometric face model using variational techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

1998-01-01

86

Anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors are known. Anthropometry may help uncover potential risk factors for prostate cancer, since fat distribution, skeletal structure, and musculature may differ between men with this hormonally linked cancer and those without it. A case?control study was undertaken to determine whether anthropometric differences exist between prostate

Mark R. Conaway; Cary N. Robertson; Barbara J. Mathias; E. Everett Anderson; David F. Paulson

1997-01-01

87

Anthropometric variation among Bering Sea natives.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979 to 1981, W. S. Laughlin measured a sample of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos and Pribilof Island Aleuts. These samples included adult participants from St. George and St. Paul in the Pribilof Islands and from Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island. The Relethford-Blangero method was used to examine the phylogenetic relationship between Aleuts and Eskimos. Anthropometric measurements for Native North Americans (measured by Boas and a team of trained anthropometrists in 1890-1904) and Native Mesoamericans (compiled from the literature for 1898-1952) were used for comparison. A principal components analysis of means for measurements and a neighbor-joining tree were constructed using Euclidean distances. All these tests revealed the same strong relationship among the focus populations. The R matrix from the Relethford-Blangero method clusters Aleuts and Eskimos separately and accounts for 97.3% of the variation in the data. Phenotypic variation within the population is minimal and therefore minimum F(ST) values are low. Genetic distances were compared to a Euclidean distance matrix of anthropometric measurements using a Mantel test and gave a high but not significant correlation. Our results provide evidence of a close phylogenetic relationship between Aleut and Eskimo populations in the Bering Sea. However, it is apparent that history has affected the relationship among the populations. Despite previous findings of higher European admixture in Gambell (based on blood group markers) than in Savoonga, Savoonga has greater within-group variation in anthropometric measurements. Anthropometrics reveal a close relationship between Gambell and St. Paul as a result of European admixture. The St. George population was the most divergent of the populations, indicating that it diverged from the Eskimos and St. Paul because of the compounding effects of genetic drift and limited European gene flow. These findings are in agreement with previous anthropometric and genetic studies of the Aleut and Eskimo populations and support the utility of anthropometrics in inferring population history and structure. PMID:21417888

Justice, Anne; Rubicz, Rohina; Chittoor, Geetha; Jantz, Richard L; Crawford, M H

2010-12-01

88

Identifying osteoporosis in a primary care setting with quantitative ultrasound: relationship to anthropometric and lifestyle factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the “gold standard” for diagnosis of osteoporosis, is not recommended for population\\u000a screening, and thus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus is gaining popularity. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to evaluate the relationship between QUS values and anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and to assess the diagnostic performance\\u000a of QUS in predicting DXA-defined osteoporosis. Eight

Ayfer Gemalmaz; Guzel Discigil; Nazli Sensoy; Okay Basak

2007-01-01

89

Assessment of anthropometric indices among residents of Calabar, South-East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus which may be addressed by application of intensive lifestyle interventions. Thus, establishing normative values of anthropometric indices in our environment is crucial. This study aimed to determine normative values of anthropometric indices of nutrition among residents of Calabar. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional observational study recruited residents of Calabar aged between 15-79 years using a multistage sampling method. Trained research assistants collected socio-demographic data and did anthropometric measurements. Results: There were 645 (56.5%) males and 489 (43.1%) females. Males had significantly lower general adiposity and hip circumference (HC) than females while females had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) than males. The WHR increased with age particularly among males. Body mass index (BMI) also increased with age in both males and females with a peak in the middle age bracket, followed by a decline among the elderly. The mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.0) kg/m2. Males had a mean (SD) BMI of 27.0 (4.4) kg/m2, while females had a mean (SD) BMI of 28.5 (5.5) kg/m2 respectively. WC correlated positively and significantly with BMI and WHR in males and females. WHR correlated positively and significantly with BMI in males and females. Conclusion: There are positive linear inter relationships between the indices of nutrition which is strongest between WC and BMI. In view of the strong independent association of DM with indices of nutrition, it is appropriate to derive normal cut-off values for WC, WHR and BMI nationally.

Egbe, Enang Ofem; Asuquo, Otu Akaninyene; Ekwere, Essien Okon; Olufemi, Fasanmade; Ohwovoriole, A. E.

2014-01-01

90

Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

1978-01-01

91

Anthropometric change: implications for office ergonomics.  

PubMed

Well-designed office workspaces require good anthropometric data in order to accommodate variability in the worker population. The recent obesity epidemic carries with it a number of anthropometric changes that have significant impact on design. We examine anthropometric change among US civilians over the last 50 years, and then examine that change in a subset of the US population--the US military--as military data sets often have more ergonomic dimensions than civilian ones. The civilian mean stature increased throughout the period 1962 to 2006 for both males and females. However, the rate of increase in mean weight was considerably faster. As a result, the male obesity rate changed from 10.7% in 1962 to 31.3% in 2006. The female change for the same period was 15.8% to 33.2%. In the Army, the proportion of obesity increased from 3.6% to 20.9%, in males. In the absence of national US ergonomic data, we demonstrate one approach to tracking civilian change in these dimensions, applying military height/weight regression equations to the civilian population estimates. This approach is useful for population monitoring but is not suitable for establishing new design limits, as regression estimates likely underestimate the change at the ends of the distribution. PMID:22317429

Gordon, Claire C; Bradtmiller, Bruce

2012-01-01

92

Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

Mukudi, E.

2003-01-01

93

Outcome of nutritional status and body composition of uremic patients on a very low protein diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern has been raised about the nutritional adequacy of a very low protein diet (VLPD). Monthly clinical evaluation by a physician and dietitian and quarterly dietary records, anthropometric measurements, blood testing, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used to assess the course of nutritional status for 1 year in 10 clinically stable patients (six men, four women; age, 57.1

Philippe Chauveau; Nicole Barthe; Vincent Rigalleau; Sophie Ozenne; Françoise Castaing; Caroline Delclaux; Valérie de Précigout; Christian Combe; Michel Aparicio

1999-01-01

94

Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.  

PubMed

Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

2005-03-15

95

A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status.

2011-01-01

96

The nutritional vulnerability of older Guyanese in residential homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the nutritional status, functional ability and food intake of older Guyanese in residential care. Methods: Eighty-four residents of one public and two private homes underwent an anthropometric and functional ability assessment including height, weight, armspan, arm and calf circumferences and handgrip strength. Food intake in two private homes was measured over seven days by direct weighing and

G Hewitt; S Ismail; S Patterson; A Draper

2006-01-01

97

[Food insecurity and anthropometric, dietary and social indicators in Brazilian studies: a systematic review].  

PubMed

The scope of this systematic review was to relate food insecurity, detected using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA), with anthropometric, dietary and social indicators. The search was conducted in electronic databases (ScieLO, LILACS, MEDLINE), with a selection of studies by titles and abstracts, and later full reading. Studies identified in bibliographic references were included. Of the 215 reviewed, 15 fulfilled inclusion criteria (association between insecurity and anthropometric, dietary or social indicators, detected by the EBIA), whereby three had more than one variable of interest. A relationship was observed between food insecurity and height/age and weight/age of child indices, as well as obesity in women. Lower consumption of regulating, tissue-building food products and iron, and higher carbohydrate intake are associated with food insecurity. There was a relationship between social indicators, such as lower income and education, lack of employment and basic sanitation. The EBIA was associated in some studies with nutritional and social indicators, but should be used in conjunction with other tools in order to cover the multiple dimensions of food and nutrition security. PMID:24897212

Morais, Dayane de Castro; Dutra, Luiza Veloso; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2014-05-01

98

Micronutrient and anthropometric status indicators are associated with physical fitness in Colombian schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Poor physical fitness is associated with increased health-related risks in children. The association of nutritional status indicators and physical fitness in children residing in developing countries is not well characterised. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1945 children of age 5-12 years in Bogotá, Colombia, to assess whether anthropometric and micronutrient status indicators were associated with performance in the shuttle run and standing long jump tests. Stunted children scored significantly lower in the run (0·4 s; P = 0·0002) and jump (6 cm; boys only; P = 0·003) tests than non-stunted children, after adjustment for age and other factors. Children who were thin, overweight or obese ran slower than normal-weight children (P < 0·01). Lower jump scores were associated with overweight or obesity and greater arm fat area in boys only (P < 0·0001). Girls with low ferritin concentrations ran 0·6 s slower than girls with normal ferritin concentrations (P = 0·02). Erythrocyte folate concentrations were linearly related to higher run (P < 0·0001) and long jump scores (P = 0·0001). Boys with marginal or low vitamin B12 status had 4 cm lower long jump scores than children with normal status (P = 0·01). Suboptimal anthropometric and micronutrient status are related to poorer performance in fitness tests. The effects of improving nutritional status on physical fitness of children warrant investigation. PMID:21281544

Arsenault, Joanne E; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Forero, Yibby; Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Jáuregui, Germán; Baylin, Ana; Gordon, Paul M; Villamor, Eduardo

2011-06-01

99

Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

2007-01-01

100

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

101

Anthropometric Breast Measurement: A Study of 385 Turkish Female Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anthropometric measurements and proportions of the human body have made a significant contribution to the science of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Objective: The present study was performed to measure anthropometric breast values in Turkish female students and compare them with those of women in other nations.Methods: The study included 385 female undergraduate student volunteers between the ages of 18

Dilek K. Av?ar; Ahmet C. Ayg?t; Erol Benlier; Hüsamettin Top; O?uz Ta?k?nalp

2010-01-01

102

Anthropometrical parameters and markers of obesity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study was undertaken to determine anthropometrical parameters in male adult Wistar rats. We tested the hypothesis that the anthropometrical index may identify obesity and may predict its adverse effects on lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats. Two experimental protocols were performed. In the first experiment, 50 male Wistar rats, 21 days old and fed a control

E L B Novelli; Y S Diniz; C M Galhardi; G M X Ebaid; H G Rodrigues; F Mani; A A H Fernandes; A C Cicogna; J L V B Novelli Filho

2007-01-01

103

AMRL Anthropometric Data Bank Library: Volumes I-V.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the contents of Volumes I-V of the AMRL Anthropometric Data Bank Library. Volumes I-IV consist of the data from four major usaf anthropometric surveys: the 1950 and 1967 surveys of flying personnel, the 1968 survey of USAF women, and...

E. Churchill P. Kikta T. Churchill

1977-01-01

104

Computerized anthropometric analysis of the Man of the Turin Shroud  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of the anthropometric analysis of the Man of the Shroud through vision systems an anthropometric research integrated with experimental researches was realised.. The images of the Man of the Shroud were acquired and numerically elaborated to point out the outlines of the two imprints (frontal and dorsal) and to carry out the measurements. The dimensional results obtained

Giulio Fanti; Emanuela Marinelli; Alessandro Cagnazzo

105

Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level

Justin W. L. Keogh; Patria A. Hume; Simon N. Pearson; Peter Mellow

2007-01-01

106

ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR BADMINTON PLAYERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAMPOS, F. A. D.; DAROS, L. B.; MASTRASCUSA, V.; DOURADO, A. C.; STANGANELLI, L. C. R. Anthropometric profile and motor performance of junior badminton players. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 2, p. 146-151, 2009. This study aimed at assessing the anthropometric profile and motor performance of young badminton athletes. The sample included 20 athletes (10 male athletes, mean age

Fabio Angioluci; Diniz Campos; Larissa Bobroff Daros; Vera Mastrascusa; Antonio Carlos Dourado; Luiz Claudio; Reeberg Stanganelli

107

Anthropometric risk factors for patellar tendon injury among volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Abnormal imaging in the patellar tendon reveals pathology that is often associated with knee pain. Anthropometric measures of body size and mass, such as height, weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), have been individually associated with abnormal imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric factors that have the strongest relationship with abnormal imaging in volleyball players.

P Malliaras; J L Cook; P M Kent

108

Anthropometric and physiological factors predicting young adults' motor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that performance of motor skills is influenced by a diversity of physiological parameters, such as weight status, aerobic capacity, endurance and muscular strength, but the scientific determinants of physical performance are very specific. The aim was to identify the anthropometric and physiological determinants of motor skills in young adults. The authors studied anthropometric and physiological factors (as

E I Iconaru; C Ciucurel; M M Ciucurel; L Georgescu; S Toma; M I Tudor

2010-01-01

109

Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

2006-01-01

110

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

111

Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

2013-01-01

112

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

113

Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

Swinward

2010-04-12

114

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

115

Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta

2003-01-01

116

Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?  

PubMed Central

Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10–37% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 45–77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7–47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16–64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p < 0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Discussion and conclusion Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology.

Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

2013-01-01

117

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

Zehner, Gregory Franklin

118

Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer I. An assessment by dietary recall--compared with body mass index and body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.  

PubMed

The nutritional status of children with cancer is clinically important. In an effort to separate the influences of disease and treatment, we studied children at the time of diagnosis. A total of 99 children underwent assessment by 24 hours dietary recall, measurement of body mass index (BMI), and analysis of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). The group averages for calorie intake and BMI were close to the median population norms but ranged widely among individuals. As a group the study participants exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake for protein. Nine children (9%) had a BMI nutritional status in individual children with cancer at diagnosis. However, DXA scans cannot be undertaken in a timely fashion on all children at this point. Alternative methods of assessment are being explored. PMID:20962676

Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D

2010-11-01

119

Nutritional status of home hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

We studied the nutritional status of 32 patients (23 men), aged 50 (SD14) yr, on home hemodialysis (HHD) for one-138 months. No formal dietary restrictions were imposed. Anthropometric measurements were made using standard techniques, diet assessed by three-day dietetic diary and interview and plasma concentrations of nutrients were measured. Mean caloric intake was 29.4 (SD 10.7) kcal/kg; 24 (75%) patients had lower energy intakes than recommended for normals. Protein, vitamin C and folate intakes were above recommended minimum safe intakes. Intakes were less than recommended for calcium in four (13%) patients, iron in one (3%) and vitamin B12 in two (6%). One-third of both sexes had body mass indices (kg/m2) less than 25th percentile for normals, but none was less than 80% of ideal bodyweight. Arm muscle circumference was less than 10th percentile for normals in six men and three women. Triceps skin fold thickness was less than 10th percentile in four men (17%) and five women (55%). No anthropometric measurements were correlated with energy, protein or fat intake. Biochemical measurements were not useful in predicting protein intake. Neither nutritional intake nor anthropometric measurements were correlated with the duration of HHD. There was little evidence of malnutrition and wasting in this group of well rehabilitated HHD patients. PMID:2783085

Talemaitoga, A S; Sanders, B A; Hinton, D; Lynn, K L

1989-08-01

120

The Correlation of Prenatal Zinc Concentration and Deficiency with Anthropometric Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the status of serum zinc in pregnant women in different gestational ages and correlation with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors in Iranian women referring to prenatal care public health clinics. Materials and methods We analyzed the zinc concentrations in plasma samples obtained at different gestational ages from 961 women and recorded BMI at the first trimester in pregnant women who were screened for a trial designed to evaluate the zinc concentration. Subjects were from different socio economical backgrounds and attended public health clinics for their prenatal care. All analyses were performed by SPSS (version 16). P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results The results showed that after plasma zinc concentrations were adjusted with Parity, weight (early pregnancy), BMI (at early pregnancy), age and educational statues. Plasma zinc deficiency declined as gestational age progressed, however it was not significant. There was no significant correlation between zinc concentration, anthropometric, method of contraception and socio factors. However, there were significant relation between parity (p = 0.007) and weight at early pregnancy (p= 0.039) with serum zinc levels. Conclusion We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations decreased during the late first trimester to the early third trimester and with parity. These findings may indicate that the deficient levels of zinc in the latter third of pregnancy suggest a tendency for insufficient maternal nutrition. However larger studies are required to support this finding.

Norrozi, Mansoreh; Moosavi, Rayhaneh Miri

2014-01-01

121

Intercorrelations of Anthropometric Measurements: A Source Book for USA Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Correlation matrices based on data from USAF anthropometric surveys of women (1968, 127 variables), flying personnel (1950, 128 variables; 1967, 190 variables), and basic trainees (1965, 161 variables); a U. S. Army survey of women separatees (1946, 60 va...

E. Churchill P. Kikta T. Churchill

1978-01-01

122

The AMRL Anthropometric Data Bank Library. Volume V. User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Correlation matrices based on data from USAF anthropometric surveys of women (1968, 127 variables), flying personnel (1950, 128 variables; 1967, 190 variables), and basic trainees (1965, 161 variables); a U.S. Army survey of women separatees (1946, 60 var...

E. Churchill P. Kikta T. Churchill

1978-01-01

123

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

124

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

125

Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

2003-05-01

126

Comparison of anthropometric characteristics between professional triathletes and cyclists.  

PubMed

Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

Brunkhorst, L; Kielstein, H

2013-12-01

127

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

128

Total parenteral nutrition prevents further nutritional deterioration in patients with cancer cachexia.  

PubMed Central

The effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on some nutritional variables were prospectively investigated in 12 severely cachectic patients with advanced cancer. The following variables were determined before and at 5-day intervals during the 20-day administration of TPN: anthropometric indices (body weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, arm fat area, total body muscle mass); biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, cholinesterase, total iron binding capacity, thyroxin-binding prealbumin, retinol binding protein, urinary 3-methylhistidine and creatinine excretion, nitrogen balance); and peripheral lymphocyte count. TPN was delivered at 49.5 nonprotein kcal/kg-1/day-1 (80% as dextrose and 20% as fat) and amino acids 1.9 g/kg-1/day-1. A significant increase was obtained in body weight, triceps skinfold, arm fat area, and retinol binding protein. All remaining anthropometric and biochemical parameters did not show any significant positive or negative change, although nitrogen balance remained positive. No significant liver toxicity was apparent after the TPN period. It was concluded that although TPN is unable to completely reverse some nutrition-related variables in cachectic patients with cancer, most patients were kept within a normal range and some improved. Therefore, further deterioration of the nutritional state, which is characteristic of this phase of disease, was at least prevented.

Bozzetti, F; Ammatuna, M; Migliavacca, S; Bonalumi, M G; Facchetti, G; Pupa, A; Terno, G

1987-01-01

129

Total parenteral nutrition prevents further nutritional deterioration in patients with cancer cachexia.  

PubMed

The effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on some nutritional variables were prospectively investigated in 12 severely cachectic patients with advanced cancer. The following variables were determined before and at 5-day intervals during the 20-day administration of TPN: anthropometric indices (body weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, arm fat area, total body muscle mass); biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, cholinesterase, total iron binding capacity, thyroxin-binding prealbumin, retinol binding protein, urinary 3-methylhistidine and creatinine excretion, nitrogen balance); and peripheral lymphocyte count. TPN was delivered at 49.5 nonprotein kcal/kg-1/day-1 (80% as dextrose and 20% as fat) and amino acids 1.9 g/kg-1/day-1. A significant increase was obtained in body weight, triceps skinfold, arm fat area, and retinol binding protein. All remaining anthropometric and biochemical parameters did not show any significant positive or negative change, although nitrogen balance remained positive. No significant liver toxicity was apparent after the TPN period. It was concluded that although TPN is unable to completely reverse some nutrition-related variables in cachectic patients with cancer, most patients were kept within a normal range and some improved. Therefore, further deterioration of the nutritional state, which is characteristic of this phase of disease, was at least prevented. PMID:3101624

Bozzetti, F; Ammatuna, M; Migliavacca, S; Bonalumi, M G; Facchetti, G; Pupa, A; Terno, G

1987-02-01

130

Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

2013-01-01

131

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

132

Anthropometric characteristics of men in Antarctica.  

PubMed

Thirty anthropometric and ten physiological parameters were evaluated over a 10-month period during 1985-86 in 66 polar explorers at an Antarctic station (Mirny observatory), all of them males aged 25-61 years. The evaluations were made in the months of April, September and January, which corresponded to the following Antarctic seasons: the beginning of the polar night, an intermediate period, and the beginning of the polar day; the necessary measurements were performed on subjects belonging to three occupational groups, namely: administrative, scientific, and manual workers. Significant changes in the pattern of skinfold thickness were observed using ANOVA with repeated measurements during the winter period (p < 0.05). Despite the fact that body weight and BMI of subjects remained unchanged, the mean sum of skinfold thickness and subcutaneous fat mass increased over the studied period at the expense of muscle mass. In participants engaged in high levels of outdoor physical activity (e.g. construction workers, drivers, technicians), an increase in fat mass, significant fall in muscle mass on wrist dynamometry, and protracted time of the simple motor response time was documented. Systolic blood pressure showed a downward trend during the winter in the group of manual workers, while significant rises in the diastolic pressure (p < 0.05) were found in the group of scientists at the end of the polar night. The present findings may be interpreted as evidence for destabilization in the studied individuals, and for an adaptation response to the Antarctic environment, which results in apparent increase in body fat and decrease in muscle mass. PMID:10528466

Belkin, V; Karasik, D

1999-07-01

133

Nutrition of liver transplant patients.  

PubMed

Good cooperation between the hepatologist, surgeon and anesthesiologist is required to determine the appropriate perioperative nutritional management for the liver transplant patient. For preoperative risk stratification, nutritional assessment according to resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and body cell mass by bioelectrical impedence analysis, may be superior to anthropometric parameters. When considering impaired glucose tolerance in the early postoperative period, requirements of energy intake and macronutrients are no different from those established in major abdominal surgery. Preference should be made to use the enteral route whenever possible. Fat emulsions containing medium- and long-chain triglycerides have neither a negative impact on reticulo-endothelial system recovery of the graft, nor any obvious metabolic advantages. There is no evidence for the routine use of branched-chain amino acids. Even in the case of good graft function, long term dietary evaluation and counselling may be useful. Impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia should be considered carefully. The role of preoperative nutritional therapy using oral supplements and the value of immune-enhancing substrates should be evaluated with special regard to a decrease in postoperative septic complications and for possible impact on immune tolerance after transplantation. PMID:11110618

Weimann, A; Plauth, M; Bischoff, S C; Kuse, E R

2000-11-01

134

Nutritional status of indigenous children at boarding schools in northern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the nutritional status of Tarahumara children at indigenous boarding schools.Design: Cross-sectional comprehensive nutritional survey.Setting: The schools sampled were located in indigenous municipalities of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua.Subjects: The study was carried out in 2001 among 331 children aged 6–14 y from a sample of five schools. Anthropometric measurements, a thyroid exam and capillary haemoglobin levels

J Monárrez-Espino; H Martínez; V Martínez; T Greiner

2004-01-01

135

Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting. PMID:17786689

Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

2007-10-01

136

Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: To assess the nutritional status and to determine potential risk factors of malnutrition in children under 3 years of age in Nghean, Vietnam. The study carried out in November 2007, a total of 383 child\\/mother pairs were selected by using a 2-stage cluster sampling methodology. A structured questionnaire was administered to mothers in their home settings. Anthropometric measurement

Nguyen Ngoc Hien; Nguyen Ngoc Hoa

2009-01-01

137

Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

138

Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg\\/m 2

Junidah R; Siti Mariam; Fatimah S; Poh BK; Kandiah M

139

Nutritional Status, Breastfeeding, and Evolution of Infants with Acute Viral Bronchiolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infectious disease of infancy. A prospective study was carried out with 175 infants aged up to six months to evaluate their nutritional and breastfeeding status as possible risk factors for unfavourable evolution of previously-healthy infants from a care hospital. Im- munofluorescence test for virus and anthropometric assessment were performed. Outcomes were length of

Cristina T. L. Dornelles; Jefferson P. Piva; Paulo J. C. Marostica

140

Anthropometry and plasma valine, amino acids, and proteins in the nutritional assessment of hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometry and plasma valine, amino acids, and proteins in the nutritional assessment of hemodialysis patients. Non-fasting plasma amino acids, proteins, anthropometric measurements, urea, and creatinine for 17 hemodialysis patients were compared with values in normal patients of similar age and sex. Values were characteristic for renal failure but with similarities to protein-energy malnutrition. Partial correlation coefficients, correcting for age and

Gerald A Young; Charles R Swanepoel; Martyn R Croft; Shirley M Hobson; Frank M Parsons

1982-01-01

141

Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2004-01-01

142

Nutrition and immune system: the size of the thymus as an indicator of the newborn's nutrition status.  

PubMed

Summary: The thymus is a central lymphatic organ reaching its largest size after the delivery. Its size is significantly affected by endogenous and exogenous negative factors. In our research, we investigated the relationship between the size of the thymus determined by sonography and anthropometric parameters as well as indexes demonstrating the nutritional status. The examined group consisted of 212 full-term newborns, all of which passed an anthropometric examination during the first five days after delivery (birth weight and length, mid-arm and head circumference). The following nutritional status indexes were calculated from estimated anthropometric dimensions: Quételet's index, Rohrer's index, birth weight-to-length ratio and mid-arm-to-head circumference ratio. The size of the thymus was assessed by sonography and expressed as the multiple of transversal width of the cranial thymus part and sagittal area of the major thymus lobe (so-called 'Thymic Index'). The Thymic Index showed a positive correlation with the majority of indicators of the newborn's nutritional status, but all of these correlations are low (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.228-0.409). The correlation of the size of thymus with the birth weight or birth weight-to-length ratio was stronger than the correlation with the Quételet's index or mid-arm circumference. The size of the thymus reflects the newborn's nutritional status assumed by anthropometry and can represent one of the "barometers of nutrition". Normal nutrition in the prenatal period plays a relatively critical role in the development of the immune system. PMID:21905416

Varg, Ivan; Nescakova, Eva; Toth, Frantisek; Uhrinova, Alexandra; Adamkov, Marian

2011-01-01

143

Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators  

SciTech Connect

Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

You-Hin Liau

1982-12-01

144

Nutritional hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hormesis, the biological and toxicological concept that small quantities have opposite effects from large quantities, is reviewed with emphasis on its relevance to nutrition.Results:Hormetic and other dose–response relationships are categorized, depicted, and discussed. Evidence for nutritional hormesis is presented for essential vitamin and mineral nutrients, dietary restriction, alcohol (ethanol), natural dietary and some synthetic pesticides, some herbicides, and acrylamide. Some

D P Hayes

2007-01-01

145

Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition becomes necessary when the gastrointestinal tract has insufficient function as to afford sufficient fluid,\\u000a electrolyte and nutrient absorption. Indications for this therapy include prolonged postoperative ileus, prolonged intestinal\\u000a obstruction, short bowel syndrome, various malabsorptive disorders, proximal enteric fistulas for which an enteral feeding\\u000a tube cannot be placed distal to, severe acute pancreatitis and severe mucositis\\/esophagitis. Parenteral nutrition, although

Christian S. Jackson; Alan L. Buchman

146

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

147

Evaluation of anthropometric parameters and physical fitness in elderly Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We evaluated anthropometric parameters and physical fitness in elderly Japanese.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 2,106 elderly Japanese (749 men and 1,357 women), aged 60–79 years, were enrolled in a cross-sectional investigation\\u000a study. Anthropometric parameters and physical fitness, i.e., muscle strength and flexibility, were measured. Of the 2,106\\u000a subjects, 569 subjects (302 men and 267 women) were further evaluated for aerobic exercise level,

Nobuyuki MiyatakeMotohiko Miyachi; Motohiko Miyachi; Izumi Tabata; Takeyuki Numata

148

[Food and nutrition education in school: a literature review].  

PubMed

Food and nutrition education is viewed as a key strategy for promoting healthy eating habits, and the school is an appropriate space for developing these activities. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the scientific literature on intervention studies on food and nutrition education in Brazilian schools. A literature review was conducted, selecting articles published from 2000 to 2011. Despite the topic's current importance, there were few articles, and most were published after 2009. The main results showed improvement in the children's nutritional knowledge and food choices. However, most studies that performed anthropometric measurements failed to show changes in nutritional status. In addition, the studies chose designs based on epidemiological intervention studies, indicating the need for interventions based on innovative health education methodologies and research models that are consistent with the study's objects. PMID:24233031

Ramos, Flavia Pascoal; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa

2013-11-01

149

Validation of a Statistical Matching Procedure Used to Create United States Marine Corps Anthropometric Databases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric databases containing extensive body size and shape information are critical for the proper design and sizing of military clothing, equipment and workstations. The last anthropometric survey of United States Marine Corps males was conducted ...

S. M. Donelson C. C. Gordon

1996-01-01

150

Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.

2013-01-01

151

Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (?9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p?=?0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men.

Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

2014-01-01

152

Grading body fatness from limited anthropometric data1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements relevant to body fatness are made commonly in clinical settings. However, associations between these measurements and body fatness are poorly known and procedures are needed to facilitate the interpretation of these measurements. Consequently, data from 405 white children and adults aged 6 to 49 yr were used to calculate correlations between selected anthropometric measurements and estimates of percentage body

Alex F. Roche; Roger M. Siervogel; Paul Webb

153

Simple anthropometric indices associated with ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,

Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg

1996-01-01

154

Influence of anthropometric parameters on ultrasound measurements of os calcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data have been published concerning the influence of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) on broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and Lunar “stiffness” index, and always in small population samples. The first aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether anthropometric factors have a significant influence on ultrasound measurements. The second objective was

D. Hans; A. M. Schott; M. E. Arlot; E. Sornay; P. D. Delmas; P. J. Meunier

1995-01-01

155

Do anthropometric parameters change the characteristics of snoring sound?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snoring sounds is commonly known to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There are many studies trying to distinguish between the snoring sounds of non-OSA and those of OSA patients. However, OSA is only one of the conditions that affect the structure of upper airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of anthropometric parameters on the snoring sounds.

Ali Azarbarzin; Zahra Moussavi

2011-01-01

156

Anthropometric evaluation of venezuelan adolescents: its correlation with blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric measurements are predictors of risk for cardiovascular disease. Evaluation of its correlation with blood pressure may provide important insights into high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of the study is to evaluate weight, height and Body mass index (BMI), and determinate its correlation with Blood Pressure (SBP, DBP and MBP). We evaluated 419 adolescents (Female n = 258,

R. Farias; A. Delgado; D. Di Ruppo; F. Fragachán

2000-01-01

157

Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

2013-01-01

158

Extraplolatie van antropometrische gegevens (Extrapolation of Anthropometric Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By order of the Royal Netherlands Air Force, TNO Human Factors Research Institute has carried out a study on how to infer from anthropometric data available the expected longitudinal changes in body measures of present day high-school graduates. Longitudi...

P. J. Werkhoven

1996-01-01

159

Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for

P. J. Maud

1983-01-01

160

Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of Chinese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.

LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN

2008-01-01

161

Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

162

Anthropometric Data Reduction Using Factor Analysis and Stepwise Regression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-phase approach using factor analysis and stepwise regression was used to identify the most important subset of anthropometric variable from the 1967 survey of USAF flying personnel. Factor analysis by groups was used initially to identify a subset o...

H. F. Martz

1980-01-01

163

Relationship between serum magnesium values, lipids and anthropometric risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum magnesium (SMg) has been reported to negatively correlate with an atherogenic lipid profile in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome. This study examines whether the relationships between SMg levels and biochemical and anthropometric risk factors for these conditions are also present in the general adult population.

Edward W. Randell; Maria Mathews; Veeresh Gadag; Hongwei Zhang; Guang Sun

2008-01-01

164

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

165

The Integrated Rural Nutrition Project, Kawambwa, Zambia: successes of a nutrition education programme.  

PubMed

This article presents some findings from an evaluation of the Integrated Rural Nutrition Project (IRNP) in Kawambwa, Zambia. The IRNP was initiated in 1985. The program relied on a multisectoral approach by the Ministries of Health, Education, Agriculture, and Community Development. The program aimed to reduce the rate of malnutrition. Breast feeding was encouraged, and farmers were encouraged to increase production of beans and groundnuts. Extension workers were trained. Findings indicate that nutrition education programs had a significant, positive effect on the nutritional status of children aged under 5 years. The nutrition education component, which aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices, was more successful than the activities that aimed at increasing food availability. A continuing question was raised by program staff about whether training of extension workers, social marketing, mass education, or direct extension were capable of having an impact on nutrition without addressing food productivity issues. The availability of legumes improved throughout the intervention period. The length of the hunger season was shortened. However, increased food availability did not improve anthropometric measurements, and some children, who were not part of the seed multiplication program, showed improved anthropometric measurements. Children in the intervention area were exposed to better breast-feeding practices: breast feeding for longer periods and fewer introductions to non-milk liquids. After the first month, under 20% of children in the project area and 80-95% in the non-project areas had received breast milk substitutes. Young children in the project area had better weight-for-height, after controlling for wealth, access to services, maternal and paternal education, gender, and age. 3-year-old children in the project area weighed 0.3 of a z-score more than non-project children. PMID:12293178

Friedrich, J

1997-12-01

166

[Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data. PMID:56017

Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

1975-01-01

167

Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?  

PubMed

Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim

2011-01-01

168

Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of israeli female combat recruits participating in a nutrition education program.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a pilot nutrition intervention program on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female combat soldiers in basic training serving in the Israeli army and to determine changes in nutrient intake. Seventy recruits participated in the intervention. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: at enlistment, at 2 months, and at 4 months. Additional questionnaires to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered preintervention and postintervention. Baseline results indicated that intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D were below recommended levels. After 2 months (8 weeks), suboptimal consumption of many nutrients was observed. At this time point, a nutrition education program was initiated and activities were carried out for the final 2 months of basic training. Following completion of the intervention, a marked improvement in nutrient intake was reported, accompanied by significant changes in attitudes toward healthy eating and increased nutrition knowledge. One-year follow-up evaluation indicated that approximately 20% of participants had made long-term dietary changes. In conclusion, nutrition education increased knowledge, modified attitudes, and led to dietary changes in female recruits. Programs of this type should be considered for implementation in the military. PMID:23756010

Herzman-Harari, Sarit; Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon; Lencovsky, Zvi; Stark, Aliza H

2013-05-01

169

Anthropometric factors in adulthood and risk of colorectal adenomas: The French E3N-EPIC prospective cohort.  

PubMed

Anthropometric factors have been associated with colorectal cancer and adenomas but with conflicting results in women or regarding adenoma characteristics. The authors aimed to explore associations between anthropometric factors (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and weight changes) and adenoma risk. They analyzed the 17,391 women of the French Etude épidémiologique des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N)-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort who underwent a colonoscopy during follow-up (1993-2002), including 1,408 who developed a first colorectal adenoma. In Cox multivariate proportional hazard regression models, obesity was associated with an increased colorectal adenoma risk (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 1.94). This association was restricted to left colon adenomas (P(homogeneity) = 0.05 and 0.01 for colon vs. rectum and right vs. left colon, respectively), with a dose-effect relation observed from 22 kg/m². A high waist circumference was also associated with left colon adenoma risk (hazard ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.36, 2.41). Mean weight gain over 0.5 kg/year was associated with a 23% increased colorectal adenoma risk. Associations did not differ between advanced and nonadvanced adenomas. In conclusion, study findings suggest that obesity and weight gain are associated with early colorectal carcinogenesis in women, and specifically regarding the distal colon. PMID:20858743

Morois, Sophie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Josset, Marine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

2010-11-15

170

Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report  

SciTech Connect

The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

Parris, H.L.

1981-07-01

171

Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand.  

PubMed

For the design of farm machinery, body dimension data is essential. There are little such anthropometric data available on agricultural laborers from developing countries. This research, therefore, aimed to collect anthropometric data of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand. Forty-four physical dimensions of both 50 men and 50 women agricultural laborers were measured. These laborers were selected randomly from two provinces in the central plains of Thailand. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were determined. No significant difference was observed in most of the body dimensions of men and women laborers in different age groups used in this study. Body dimensions of length were in constant proportion to stature. The body dimensions of Thai laborers obtained in this study were also compared with the data of body dimensions from some Asian as well as Western countries. PMID:7844358

Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M; Intaranont, K

1994-06-01

172

Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

2002-01-01

173

Nutrition Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

174

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

Carol J. Boushey

175

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

176

Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.

Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

2013-01-01

177

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

178

Effect of Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Anthropometric Indices in Opioid Dependent Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Opium abuse significantly affects the nutritional status of users and frequently leads to undernourishment. Methadone maintenance therapy has been used as one of the possible ways to prevent of infection diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B and C and improve the quality of life in opioid-dependent patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics of opium addicted persons before and after 8 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). Patients and Methods A clinical cross-sectional study was carried out on 55 opium users (15 women and 40 men; mean aged 31.6 ± 10 years), dependent on opium and its derivatives at the Addiction Treatment Clinic of the Baharan psychiatric Hospital, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran, in 2011. The patients were examined before and after 8 weeks MMT. Weight and height of participants were taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results Body weight increased significantly from 61.4 ± 14.4 to 65.3 ± 14.2 kg and BMI from 21.4 ± 4.2 to 23 ± 5.6 (kg/m2) after 8 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy in opium users (P < 0.01). The percentages of underweight, overweight and obese patients were; 27.3%, 18.2% and 3.6%, respectively pre-MMT, and 12.7%, 18.2% and 7.2%, respectively after MMT. Conclusions The study shows that methadone Maintenance Therapy led to improvements in nutritional status.

Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Lashkaripour, Kobra

2012-01-01

179

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

2011-01-01

180

Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

2013-09-01

181

Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?  

PubMed

With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 ± 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 ± 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart® 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

2012-01-01

182

Introducing Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant increase in nutrition knowledge followed a short-term nutrition education series among junior high school students. Nutrition education should be instituted in early childhood rather than be delayed until adolescence. (JN)

Mangham, Donna Burnett; Vickery, Connie E.

1981-01-01

183

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

184

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

185

Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (?0.50 vs. ?0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and associated cardiovascular disease.

Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

2010-01-01

186

Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

Chesak, D. D.

1981-01-01

187

A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

1982-01-01

188

Central and appendicular girth anthropometric measurements in Nigerian women.  

PubMed

Measurement of central (torso) and appendicular (limb) girths were made in Nigerian women of middle class extraction who were adjudged to be free from obesity and compared with Indian women of the same age and class reported in literature. It was found that all girth measurements tended to increase with increasing age and were higher in Nigerians than in Indians. Nigerians tended to be more obese in the buttocks, waist and abdomen. The values obtained should provide for anthropometric evaluation in obesity management with jejuno-ileal bypass surgical modality, paniculectomy-apronectomy and even in conservative methods of obesity management. PMID:7653397

Ogunranti, J O

1994-12-01

189

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

190

Malnutrition in Geriatric Patients: Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Nutritional Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were

Dorothee Volkert; Wolfgang Kruse; Peter Oster; Günter Schlierf

1992-01-01

191

A prospective study on the effect of recipient nutritional status on outcome in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study, we have examined the effect of nutritional status, using anthropometric measurement, on outcome in\\u000a 102 consecutive adult patients undergoing elective orthotopic liver transplantation. Mid-arm muscle circumference was calculated\\u000a from these two measurements. Patient outcome variables were time spent in the intensive therapy unit, total time in hospital,\\u000a infective complications and mortality within 6 months. Graft outcome

John Harrison; Jane McKiernan; James M Neuberger

1997-01-01

192

Nutritional status of Saudi males living in the Riyadh nursing home  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the nutritional status of residents in the Riyadh nursing home, using anthropometric and haematological measurements. All male residents (N=84; age range 24-80 years) in the Riyadh nursing home were included in the study. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, and mid-arm muscle circumference were measured. Furthermore, serum concentrations of albumin, haemoglobin and haematocrit were

Adel A Alhamdan

193

[Parenteral nutrition strategies].  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition is a fundamental part of any therapeutic concept in critically ill patients. Just recently some international prospective randomized controlled trials were investigating the correct indication, optimal timing and dosage of parenteral nutrition regimens. Despite a controversial discussion newer strategies recommend the parenteral nutrition as a very important supplemental component to an early enteral nutrition therapy. PMID:24568856

Adolph, Michael

2014-03-01

194

LabNotes - Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2006-10-15

195

Relationship between CT anthropometric measurements, adipokines and abdominal aortic calcification  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral obesity and aortic calcification are both associated with cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to examine if visceral obesity was associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification. Methods One hundred and forty eight patients with peripheral artery disease were assessed by CT angiography. The severity of infra-renal abdominal aortic calcification was measured using a validated technique. The size of the visceral and subcutaneous compartments were estimated from anthropometric measurements made from the same CT. Calcification and anthropometric measurements were compared with Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression (adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and cholesterol). Results The relative size of the visceral compartment estimated from CT diameter ratios was correlated with abdominal aortic calcification severity, r=0.27, p=.001 and independently associated with calcification allowing for other cardiovascular risk factors (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.90-23.14). The relative size of the visceral compartment was associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels, suggesting a possible mechanism underlying the detrimental influence of visceral adiposity. Conclusion The association of visceral adiposity and arterial calcification suggests one mechanism which may contribute to the detrimental effects of central obesity.

Golledge, Jonathan; Jayalath, Rumal; Oliver, Lisa; Parr, Adam; Schurgers, Leon; Clancy, Paula

2008-01-01

196

Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

2012-01-01

197

Do swimming exercises induce anthropometric changes in adolescents?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of regular participation in school swimming lessons on anthropometric variables and postural defect occurrence in junior high school students. An intervention group (n?=?116) and a control group (n?=?114) of boys and girls aged 13.4?±?0.3 years had an equal physical education obligatory course requirement at school, with the intervention group additionally participating in swimming class once a week for 2 years. Anthropometric variables were recorded in both groups 3 times between autumn 2006 and 2008, and a clinical examination was conducted twice during this same period of time. Students from the intervention group had lower body mass than their peers in the control group at the end of the course (ANOVA, P?

Bielec, Grzegorz; Peczak-Graczyk, Alicja; Waade, Barbara

2013-01-01

198

Nutritional status of school children aged 6–10 years in United Arab Emirates: Comparison with children from different ethnic origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted to study the nutritional status of UAE children in selected Emirates in United Arab Emirates (UAE) as compared to others of different ethnic groups and from different countries. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were collected on 1447 children aged 6–10 years from the UAE National population and from Egyptian, Jordanian, Sudanese, and Omani children living

Nahla Baba; Khuzama Shaar; Dima Faour; Abdul Rahman Musaiger; Nada Adra

1997-01-01

199

Impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size in a subset of Karachi based population.  

PubMed

Objective: The purpose was to study the impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size by ultrasound in a subset of Karachi population. Methods: Four hundred and fifty nine apparently healthy subjects were included in this cross sectional study. After recording weight and height of each subject, Portal vein diameter and both liver lobes were measured by gray scale ultrasonography. Students T test and ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses. Results: With increasing age, portal vein diameter and right lobe of liver increased significantly (p value < 0.001). Increase in portal vein diameter was also observed with rise in body mass index (0.8 cm in underweight - 1.1 cm in obese subjects). Sizes of right and left liver lobes also increased with a rise in body mass index (p value < 0.001 and 0.001). Gender, however, did not have any effect on portal vein diameter and liver size. Conclusion: Age and body mass index are reliable parameters to consider for avoiding false positive diagnosis of hepatomegaly and portal hypertension. Knowing the right and left liver size with respect to anthropometrical measurements also assist a clinician in selecting a subject for liver transplantation. PMID:24772148

Raza Siddiqui, Tanya; Hassan, Nuzhat; Gul, Pashmina

2014-03-01

200

Impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size in a subset of Karachi based population  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose was to study the impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size by ultrasound in a subset of Karachi population. Methods: Four hundred and fifty nine apparently healthy subjects were included in this cross sectional study. After recording weight and height of each subject, Portal vein diameter and both liver lobes were measured by gray scale ultrasonography. Students T test and ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses. Results: With increasing age, portal vein diameter and right lobe of liver increased significantly (p value < 0.001). Increase in portal vein diameter was also observed with rise in body mass index (0.8 cm in underweight - 1.1 cm in obese subjects). Sizes of right and left liver lobes also increased with a rise in body mass index (p value < 0.001 and 0.001). Gender, however, did not have any effect on portal vein diameter and liver size. Conclusion: Age and body mass index are reliable parameters to consider for avoiding false positive diagnosis of hepatomegaly and portal hypertension. Knowing the right and left liver size with respect to anthropometrical measurements also assist a clinician in selecting a subject for liver transplantation.

Raza Siddiqui, Tanya; Hassan, Nuzhat; Gul, Pashmina

2014-01-01

201

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and

T. Jürimäe; T. Hurbo; J. Jürimäe

2009-01-01

202

A new approach to estimate anthropometric measurements by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen anthropometric measurements were taken in standing and sitting positions, from 387 subjects between 15 and 17 years old. “Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)” was used to estimate anthropometric measurements as an alternative to stepwise regression analysis. Six outputs (shoulder width, hip width, knee height, buttock-popliteal height, popliteal height, and height) were selected for estimation purpose. The results showed that

M. Dursun Kaya; A. Samet Hasiloglu; Mahmut Bayramoglu; Hakki Yesilyurt; A. Fahri Ozok

2003-01-01

203

Anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity, with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Methods: In 93 incident EOC cases from a Swedish population-based prospective cohort study, seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio (WHR), were categorized by

Jenny Brändstedt; Björn Nodin; Jonas Manjer; Karin Jirström

2011-01-01

204

U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey Database: Downsizing, Demographic Change, and Validity of the 1988 Data in 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric distributions of consumer groups, such as the U.S. Army, are to a large extent determined by their demographic composition. In fact, demographic change constitutes a primary driver of anthropometric changes over time and thus is a significa...

C. C. Gordon

1996-01-01

205

Anthropometric and metabolic factors and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia: A prospective cohort study of Air Force veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe relationship between anthropometric and metabolic factors and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is poorly understood. We investigated the associations of BPH with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in this prospective study of Vietnam War veterans.

Amit Gupta; Sachin Gupta; Marian Pavuk; Claus G. Roehrborn

2006-01-01

206

The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion Overweight is common for both sexes in the People’s Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice.

Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

2014-01-01

207

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on diet and nutrition relating to osteoporosis and provide recommendations for preventing osteoporosis, in particular, osteopototic fracture. Approach: Firstly, to review the definition, diagnosis and epidemiology of osteoporosis, to discuss the difficulties in using bone mineral density to define osteoporosis risk in a world-wide context and to propose that fragility fracture should be considered as

A Prentice

2004-01-01

208

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

209

Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

To increase understanding of the interaction between macronutrients and insulin resistance (IR), this study sought to determine the influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric differences on IR and inflammation responses to eccentric resistance exercise. Men and women (n = 12, 19-36 years old) participated in a crossover study and completed 6 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors and extensors followed by controlled diet conditions for the first 8 hours postexercise of carbohydrate/fat/protein proportions of either 75%/15%/10% (CHO) or 6%/70%/24% (FAT/PRO). Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) variables, and interleukin (IL)-1? were measured preexercise and 23 hours postexercise (additional measures of glucose and insulin 1 hour after meals consumed 0.5, 3, and 7 hours postexercise). Insulin increased more (P < .01) in the CHO compared with the FAT/PRO condition at 1.5, 4, and 8 hours postexercise. Insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-?-cell function increased 23 hours postexercise in both conditions, whereas IL-1? increased 23 hours postexercise only in the CHO condition. Magnitude of change (?) for these variables associated positively with body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in the CHO and inversely in the FAT/PRO condition; that is, r = 0.53 (P = .10) and r = -0.82 (P < .01) for BMI vs ? insulin in CHO and FAT/PRO conditions, respectively. The ? IL-1? associated with BMI (r = 0.62, P < .05) and WHR (r = 0.84, P < .01) in the CHO condition. The CHO enhanced IR and inflammation as BMI and WHR increased, whereas fat and protein enhanced IR as BMI and WHR decreased. Thus, BMI and WHR may need to be taken into account in the development of nutritional strategies to prevent IR. PMID:20153875

Miles, Mary P; Depner, Chris M; Kirwan, Rochelle D; Frederickson, Sara J

2010-10-01

210

[Research advance in assessment of nutritional status of children].  

PubMed

Malnutrition is not a simple disease, which occurs in the condition when the body does not get the right amount of nutrients to maintain healthy tissues and organ functions. Malnutrition generally refers both to undernutrition and overnutrition, but usually it is used to refer solely to a deficiency of nutrition. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable because of their high nutritional requirements for growth and development. Growth is an important indicator of health and nutritional status of a child. Generally, underweight, studding and wasting are used as the indicators of malnutrition. In fact, a gain in height is a better indicator of the adequacy of a diet than a gain in weight. Rates of weight gain needs to accompany accelerated height gain to maintain normal body proportions (weight-for-height). Now therefore WHO recommends using weight-for-height as the indicator of malnutrition of epidemic intensity in communities and of nutritional condition evaluation, including treatment assessment. The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarized by the mnemonic "ABCD," which stands for anthropometric measurement (A), biochemical or laboratory tests (B), clinical indicators (C) and dietary assessment (D). Children with malnutrition are required to ingest more than 30 essential nutrients including both functional, protective nutrients (type I) and growth nutrients (type II), in order to have a catch-up growth in weight and height. PMID:24461169

Li, Hai-Qi

2014-01-01

211

[Anthropometric proportion parameter of hand-face verification].  

PubMed

By studying the criteria used in the pictorial art field, the Author obtained an anthropometric parameter. This appears to be a procedure to investigate and verify the ideal pattern as well as to calculate the vertical ratios and relationships of the face in different ages. The Pantaleoni's parameter shows the correspondence between Sn-Gn skin measurement and the interphalangeal flexion plica pf2-pf5. It is a parameter of verticality which changes depending on age, from youth to senility, and can be used in different dentistry areas. In orthognathia it allows to draw a borderline between true orthognathia and pre-surgical orthodontics; moreover it allows to detect if abnormal occlusion involves either maxillary or jaw-bone. PMID:2074883

Pantaleoni, N

1990-01-01

212

Anthropometric and Body Composition Changes during Expeditions at High Altitude.  

PubMed

Abstract Zaccagni, Luciana, Davide Barbieri, Annalisa Cogo, and Emanuela Gualdi-Russo. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 15:176-182, 2014.-The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050?m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300?m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude>4000?m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

2014-06-01

213

Anthropometric Comparison of World-Class Sprinters and Normal Populations  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM) distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women) were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation) among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish), while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI) than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length. Key Points The male sprinters were less variable in height, body mass and body mass index than the normal populations The sprinters were lighter than the normal populations. The sprinters were taller than the American normal population. The female sprinters were less variable in body mass and body mass index than the normal population.

Uth, Niels

2005-01-01

214

Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes.

Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Claudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Silva, Analiza M.

2014-01-01

215

Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Anthropometric and physiological profiles of national sepak takraw players were determined. Methods: Thirty nine players, specialising in the three playing positions (tekong/server, feeder, and killer/spiker) were divided into three age categories of under 15 (U15), under 18 (U18), and under 23 (U23) years of age. Height, weight, percent body fat (%bf), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max), range of motion (ROM), back and leg strength, and heart rate, for the estimation of oxygen consumption during matches, were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA for independent measurements and data are presented as mean±standard deviation. Results: The U23 players were significantly taller and heavier with significantly better ROM of the neck, trunk, and ankle joints and back and leg strength than the U15 players. No significant difference was found in %bf between the three age categories. Mean maximum heart rate during exercise was significantly higher in the U15 group when compared to the U18 and U23 groups (p<0.05). Mean Vo2max was similar between the three groups. Estimated oxygen consumption during matches was 69.1%, 68.5%, and 56.4% of Vo2max in the killer, tekong, and the feeder groups, respectively. Conclusions: The mean height, body weight, and cardiopulmonary capacities of the players were within the Malaysian population norms, but were somewhat lower than those of players of other court games from other countries. %bf was also lower in these players. This study provides the much needed anthropometric and physiological data of sepak takraw players for further development of this sport.

Jawis, M; Singh, R; Singh, H; Yassin, M; Khanna, G

2005-01-01

216

Nutritional and treatment-related characteristics of pediatric oncology patients referred or not referred for nutritional support.  

PubMed

Nutritional problems often result from malignancies and aggressive multimodal treatment. Early identification of reliable risk factors associated with malnutrition and need for nutritional support is necessary for development of preventative approaches. Nutritional and treatment-related characteristics were examined for 173 pediatric oncology patients referred for nutritional support and a comparison sample of 43 patients matched on treatment protocol and/or diagnosis who had never been referred for nutritional support. Abnormally low serum albumin levels, poor oral intake, mucositis, prior radiation therapy, and increased gastrointestinal toxicity were significantly more frequent among referred than non-referred patients. A discriminant function analysis indicated that poor oral intake was the single best predictor of need for nutritional support. Patients with solid tumors were more nutritionally depleted at the time of referral; all bone marrow transplant patients received nutritional support. Patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors required nutritional support for longer time periods. We conclude that routine documentation of poor oral intake (i.e., observation of change in a child's eating patterns) is the most reliable indicator of children who eventually require nutritional support and who may benefit from interventions that could delay or prevent nutritional problems. Prophylactic interventions should be tailored to meet the specific needs of individual diagnostic groups. PMID:7674995

Tyc, V L; Vallelunga, L; Mahoney, S; Smith, B F; Mulhern, R K

1995-11-01

217

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

218

Nutritional status and delayed mortality following early exposure to measles.  

PubMed Central

Community studies in Guinea-Bissau have found that exposure to measles prior to 6 months of age is associated with delayed mortality later in childhood. In an attempt to understand the underlying mechanism, we examined the role of pre-exposure nutritional status and the impact of exposure to measles on growth and subsequent mortality in these outbreaks. Though exposed children were lighter than controls, there was no association between pre-exposure weight-for-age and subsequent mortality adjusting for age. Although exposure was strongly associated with excess mortality, it did not have a negative impact on growth. Adjustment for state of nutrition did not alter the mortality ratio (MR) between 6 and 59 months of age for exposed children and controls; exposed children examined anthropometrically between 6-17 months had a MR of 3.70 compared with controls. This trend was the same for anthropometric measurements obtained at 18-59 months of age. Among the controls, there was a significant association between weight-for-age and subsequent mortality to the age of 5 years. However, for exposed children there was no association; the relation between weight-for-age and subsequent mortality was significantly different for exposed children compared with controls (tests for interaction between exposure and anthropometric measurements at 6-17 months: P = 0.05). Growth faltering as a consequence of early exposure to measles does not explain the marked excess mortality among these children. Further studies of the process underlying delayed mortality after early exposure to measles are warranted.

Aaby, P.; Andersen, M.; Knudsen, K.

1996-01-01

219

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:365-375, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

220

Nutrition for Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... a Registered Dietitian Home > Public Your Food and Nutrition Source It's About Eating Right In This Section ... essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Nutrition for Older Men What is the best line ...

221

Nutrition Training Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.

222

What Is Enteral Nutrition?  

MedlinePLUS

... is a Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is Enteral Nutrition All people need food to live. ... person can begin to eat normally again. How Is Tube Feeding Supplied? Tube feeding can be given ...

223

[Preoperative nutritional assessment: a 1-year experience].  

PubMed

A study was made of 443 surgical patients using a standard protocol for nutritional evaluation based on anthropometrical, analytical and immunological tests. The main criteria used for considering the presence of malnutrition was a weight loss of 10% and/or seric albumin level of less than 3.5 g/dl., by which method four nutritional groups were established. The average age of the sample was 56 +/- 15 years and 35% of patients had neoplasias, 9.25% of patients were classified as belonging to Group A (weight loss and low albumin levels), 10.15% as group B (low albumin levels), 14.44% as group C (weight loss), and 66.16% as group D (normal), so that the global malnutrition percentage was 33.84%. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Ideal Weight Percentage (% IWP) were of similar importance, and there was a significant alteration in the Triceps Skin Fold (% TSF) and Muscular Area Percentage of the arm (% MAP) when malnutrition was in evidence. In the study of the Delayed Hypersensitivity Skin Tests (DSST) 21.4% showed anergia, 15.8% hypoergia and 62.8% were reactive, with a reduction in reactivity in the case of malnutrition. This was the parameter that most affected the albumen level. PMID:1571402

Larrea, J; Torrent, J M; Vega, V; Martínez, T; Santana, J R; Núñez, V

1992-01-01

224

Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

1993-01-01

225

Nutrition in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

1997-01-01

226

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

227

Nutrition and school achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in education have traditionally ignored the productive role of nutrition. This study of the relationships between nutritional status and learning among urban and rural Filipino children shows the possible complementarity of nutrition with other social investments aimed at improving school achievement. A traditional production function of learning approach is used to show the significant association between school achievement and

Barry M. Popkin; Marisol Lim-Ybanez

1982-01-01

228

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

229

Successful Nutrition Screening Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial nutrition screening can be a labor intensive activity that is a key to the entire nutrition care process. A flow chart of a nutrition screening protocol for a tertiary care hospital revealed a need for improved timeliness and efficiency. The original screening protocol relied on medical record review and patient interviews to obtain screen data. Patient interviews were frequently

P. Fraker; J. Christy-Given

1995-01-01

230

Much Ado About Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

Deringer, Shirley K.

1973-01-01

231

A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

2013-04-01

232

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Tigli; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

233

Nutritional Status Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

Smith, Scott M.

2008-01-01

234

Current USN/USMC Aircraft Anthropometric Compatibility Issues and the 'Street to Fleet' Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shortcomings of the USN/USMC anthropometric compatibility process have driven a requirement for an improved process, 'Street to Fleet'. During the course of the NAVAIRSYSCOM (PMA-202) Aircrew Accommodation Expansion Program (reference I), where AIR 4.6, P...

H. D. Tucker L. L. Brattin

2000-01-01

235

Physiological and Anthropometrical Predictors of 15-Kilometer Time Trial Cycling Performance Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessing the relationship between physiological and anthropometrical variables and cycling performance time found that anaerobic threshhold and body circumference ratio correlated highly with cycling performance time. (Author/CB)

Miller, Frank R.; Manfredi, Thomas G.

1987-01-01

236

The AMRL Anthropometric Data Bank Library. Volume V. U.S. Correlations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Correlation matrices based on data from USAF anthropometric surveys of women (1968, 127 variables), flying personnel (1950, 128 variables; 1967, 190 variables), and basic trainees (1965, 161 variables); a U.S. Army survey of women separatees (1946, 60 var...

C. E. Clauser P. Kikta

1978-01-01

237

Prevalence of Neck and Back Pain amongst Aircrew at the Extremes of Anthropometric Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back and neck pain are a significant cause of morbidity among helicopter aircrew. The majority of studies evaluating the influence of anthropometry are limited to body mass index and stature. Nine anthropometric parameters were measured and a survey was i...

A. J. Hathaway J. M. Cox K. Clayborne P. L. Walters

2012-01-01

238

Relationship of Isometric Grip Strength, Optimal Dynamometer Settings, and Certain Anthropometric Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to determine (a) the relationships between isometric grip strength and eight anthropometric dimensions of the upper extremity, (b) the relationship between isometric grip strength and handle position of the Jamar dynamometer, and (c)...

M. S. Reith

1990-01-01

239

Design and Development of Anthropometrically Correct Head Forms for Joint Strike Fighter Ejection Seat Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric test manikins are commonly used in the assessment of head/neck injury potential of helmet systems during aircraft crashes or ejections. Current ejection test manikins use rudimentary heads developed long ago. Heads that are more representat...

J. A. Plaga C. Albery M. Boehmer C. Goodyear G. Thomas

2005-01-01

240

Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.  

PubMed

In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral. PMID:21247978

Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

2012-03-01

241

Maternal nutrition and birth weight.  

PubMed

Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation during pregnancy. Ethnic differences in the development of the newborn are worth studying after discounting confounding factors. PMID:12344922

Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

1987-01-01

242

Effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on child nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To examine the association between Brazil’s Bolsa Familia programme (BFP), which is the world's largest conditional cash transfer programme, and the anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in children. Methods Using the opportunity provided by vaccination campaigns, the Brazilian government promotes Health and Nutrition Days to estimate the prevalence of anthropometric deficits in children. Data collected in 2005–2006 for 22?375 impoverished children under 5 years of age were employed to estimate nutritional outcomes among recipients of Bolsa Família. All variables under study, namely child birth weight, lack of birth certificate, educational level and gender of family head, access to piped water and electricity, height for age, weight for age and weight for height, were converted into binary variables for regression analysis. Findings Children from families exposed to the BFP were 26% more likely to have normal height for age than those from non-exposed families; this difference also applied to weight for age. No statistically significant deficit in weight for height was found. Stratification by age group revealed 19% and 41% higher odds of having normal height for age at 12–35 and 36–59 months of age, respectively, in children receiving Bolsa Familia, and no difference at 0–11 months of age. Conclusion The BFP can lead to better nutritional outcomes in children 12 to 59 months of age. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Miazaki, Edina Shisue

2011-01-01

243

Bioelectrical impedance analysis in estimating nutritional status and outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimating the nutritional status and outcome of patients with chronic\\u000a obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) in comparison with measurements of anthropometric\\u000a parameters and plasma levels of visceral proteins Design: Retrospective study Setting: A ten-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a university teaching hospital Patients: 51 COPD patients with

C. Faisy; A. Rabbat; B. Kouchakji; J.-P. Laaban

2000-01-01

244

Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data – a data set for the validation of models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is

Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes

2001-01-01

245

Relationship between anthropometric variables and lipid levels among school children: The Taipei Children Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between anthropometric parameters and lipid levels among Taiwanese school children.DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a probability-proportional-to size sampling and multi-stages sampling procedure, we sampled 1500 school children from 10 schools in Taipei city. Anthropometric parameters including body weight, body height, waist circumference, hip circumference and skinfolds were measured. Serum total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), high density

N-F Chu; EB Rimm; D-J Wang; H-S Liou; S-M Shieh; Nain-Feng Chu

1998-01-01

246

Pitirim A. Sorokin's early contributions to the development of anthropometric history.  

PubMed

The genealogy of the field of anthropometric history has received relatively little scholarly attention over the years. This paper discusses the contributions to the development of the field made by sociologist Pitirim A. Sorokin and colleagues in the 1920s and early 1930s. In so doing, attention is also called to a number of important, but little-utilized anthropometric sources employed by Sorokin. PMID:23410664

Coclanis, Peter A

2013-07-01

247

The relationship between anthropometric factors and body-balancing movements in postural balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kejonen P, Kauranen K, Vanharanta H. The relationship between anthropometric factors and body-balancing movements in postural balance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:17-22. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and body-balancing movements when standing on 2 legs with eyes open and eyes closed. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A university physiatry laboratory. Participants: One hundred randomly selected subjects (50 men, 50

Pirjo Kejonen; Kari Kauranen; Heikki Vanharanta

2003-01-01

248

The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages. PMID:10695800

Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

1999-03-01

249

Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780-1920.  

PubMed

A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. While heights were relatively low, they did not decline much preceding the Revolution in 1789. During the first half of the 19th Century heights varied considerably both spatially and longitudinally, indicating the contrasting effects of modernization among the four areas. Conscripts from the least productive agricultural area, Limousin, were the shortest. Heights in Alsace remained essentially unchanged during the first half of the 19th Century, but those in Brie increased after 1820 and those in Limousin after 1840. The positive trend became more general after 1870, though Brie alone showed the considerable negative impact of the agricultural depression of the last quarter of the 19th Century. Heights diverged until 1850 and converged thereafter. In Limousin, the annual height of conscripts is positively correlated with the weight of cattle. By the early decades of the 20th Century, a marked, long-term increase in anthropometric growth had occurred in these four regions, as elsewhere in Europe. The regional estimates correspond well to the national trends estimated by Komlos and Weir except that they show the great local variation in height until the turn of the 20th Century. PMID:17531551

Heyberger, Laurent

2007-07-01

250

Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

2011-05-01

251

Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data.  

PubMed

During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of (40)K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration. PMID:21490381

Shypailo, R J; Ellis, K J

2011-05-21

252

Nutrition in the adolescent.  

PubMed

This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R

1999-02-01

253

Length of stay in surgical patients: nutritional predictive parameters revisited.  

PubMed

Nutritional evaluation may predict clinical outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS). We aimed to assess the value of nutritional risk and status methods, and to test standard anthropometry percentiles v. the 50th percentile threshold in predicting LOS, and to determine nutritional status changes during hospitalisation and their relation with LOS. In this longitudinal prospective study, 298 surgical patients were evaluated at admission and discharge. At admission, nutritional risk was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and nutritional status by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), involuntary % weight loss in the previous 6 months and anthropometric parameters; % weight loss and anthropometry were reassessed at discharge. At admission, risk/undernutrition results by NRS-2002 (P< 0.001), MUST (P< 0.001), % weight loss (P< 0.001) and SGA (P< 0.001) were predictive of longer LOS. A mid-arm circumference (MAC) or a mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMA) under the 15th and the 50th percentile, which was considered indicative of undernutrition, did predict longer LOS (P< 0.001); conversely, there was no association between depleted triceps skinfold (TSF) and longer LOS. In-hospital, there was a high prevalence of weight, muscle and fat losses, associated with longer LOS. At discharge, patients with a simultaneous negative variation in TSF+MAC+MAMA (n 158, 53 %) had longer LOS than patients with a TSF+MAC+MAMA positive variation (11 (8-15) v. 8 (7-12) d, P< 0.001). We concluded that at risk or undernutrition evaluated by all methods, except TSF and BMI, predicted a longer LOS. Moreover, MAC and MAMA measurements and their classification according to the 50th percentile threshold seem reliable undernutrition indicators. PMID:22717003

Almeida, Ana Isabel; Correia, Marta; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paula

2013-01-28

254

Subjective global assessment of nutritional status in children.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to compare the subjective and objective nutritional assessments and to analyse the performance of subjective global assessment (SGA) of nutritional status in diagnosing undernutrition in paediatric patients. One hundred and forty children (aged 2-12 years) hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Paediatric Hospital from June 2008 to August 2008 underwent subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment, including anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Agreement between two assessment methods was analysed by the kappa (?) statistic. Statistical indicators including (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, error rates, accuracy, powers, likelihood ratios and odds ratio) between SGA and objective assessment method were determined. The overall prevalence of undernutrition according to the SGA (70.7%) was higher than that by objective assessment of nutritional status (48.5%). Agreement between the two evaluation methods was only fair to moderate (? = 0.336, P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the SGA method for screening undernutrition in this population were 88.235%, 45.833%, 60.606% and 80.487%, respectively. Accuracy, positive and negative power of the SGA method were 66.428%, 56.074% and 41.25%, respectively. Likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and odds ratio of the SGA method were 1.628, 0.256 and 6.359, respectively. Our findings indicated that in assessing nutritional status of children, there is not a good level of agreement between SGA and objective nutritional assessment. In addition, SGA is a highly sensitive tool for assessing nutritional status and could identify children at risk of developing undernutrition. PMID:21050391

Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool

2010-10-01

255

Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

Olson, Christine; And Others

256

Relationship between anthropometric and physiological characteristics in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between anthropometric and physiological performances among youth soccer players and the positional differences for these variables. Seventy U14 male soccer players (goalkeeper: 10, defender: 20, midfielder: 25, and forward: 15) participated in this study. Body mass was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.58) and 30 m sprint time (r = -0.54). Body height was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with vertical jump height (r = 0.36), 10 m (r = -0.32) and 30 m (r = -0.64) sprint times, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance run (YYIER) distance (r = 0.26), and running time during maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) (r = 0.35). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.31), 30 m sprint time (r = -0.24), Hoff test dribble distance (r = -0.29), YYIER distance (r = -0.25), submaximal running cost (r = -0.38), Vo2max (r = -0.42), and the corresponding running time (r = -0.24). Significant positional differences were observed in anthropometry (body mass [p < 0.01], height [p < 0.01], and BMI [p < 0.01]) but not in physiological performances. This study provides a scientific rationale behind the coaches' practice of selecting young soccer players according to their anthropometry for short-term benefits such as heavier players for higher ball shooting speed and 30-m sprint ability as an example. However, this does not justify such practice in the long-term process of player development. PMID:19528844

Wong, Pui-Lam; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisløff, Ulrik

2009-07-01

257

Relationships of Pediatric Anthropometrics for CT Protocol Selection.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Determining the optimal CT technique to minimize patient radiation exposure while maintaining diagnostic utility requires patient-specific protocols that are based on patient characteristics. This work develops relationships between different anthropometrics and CT image noise to determine appropriate protocol classification schemes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We measured the image noise in 387 CT examinations of pediatric patients (222 boys, 165 girls) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and generated mathematic relationships between image noise and patient lateral and anteroposterior dimensions, age, and weight. RESULTS. At the chest level, lateral distance (ld) across the body is strongly correlated with weight (ld = 0.23 × weight + 16.77; R(2) = 0.93) and is less well correlated with age (ld = 1.10 × age + 17.13; R(2) = 0.84). Similar trends were found for anteroposterior dimensions and at the abdomen level. Across all studies, when acquisition-specific parameters are factored out of the noise, the log of image noise was highly correlated with lateral distance (R(2) = 0.72) and weight (R(2) = 0.72) and was less correlated with age (R(2) = 0.62). Following first-order relationships of image noise and scanner technique, plots were formed to show techniques that could achieve matched noise across the pediatric population. CONCLUSION. Patient lateral distance and weight are essentially equally effective metrics to base maximum technique settings for pediatric patient-specific protocols. These metrics can also be used to help categorize appropriate reference levels for CT technique and size-specific dose estimates across the pediatric population. PMID:24951232

Phillips, Grace S; Stanescu, Arta-Luana; Alessio, Adam M

2014-07-01

258

Nutrition and oral health.  

PubMed

The link between nutrition and oral health can be overt (vitamin B deficiency) or subtle (exacerbation of already existing periodontal disease). Medical, social, and clinical examinations can be useful tools for uncovering those patients at risk for nutrition deficiencies and can be used to guide these patients to healthy eating. Along with routine home care instruction, the practicing dentist and hygienist can provide a service for patients through nutrition counseling and by pointing out reputable sources of nutrient supplements. PMID:12024745

Dorsky, R

2001-01-01

259

Nutrition in the Management of the Cancer Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Attention to nutritional status is important in the management of the cancer patient, across the spectrum from the initial\\u000a phases of treatment and recovery through the long-term continuum of care. Maintaining good nutritional status during the initial\\u000a post-diagnosis treatment phase may enable the successful completion of prescribed treatments and improve the quality of life\\u000a of the patient. Following initial treatment,

Cheryl L. Rock

260

Nutrition News Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by David M. Klurfeld, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Wayne State University in Detroit, this free, daily newsletter offers concise nutrition tips and analyses of breaking nutrition news. Nutrition News Focus aims at delivering information that ordinary people can use and understand, with a minimum of jargon and no tolerance for "mumbo-jumbo." Users can subscribe to the newsletter at the site. Subscribers receive one short mailing per day, with the topic briefly described and followed by analysis. Old newsletters are added to the archive two weeks after publication, and users can browse the archive by issue date or topic.

261

Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label  

MedlinePLUS

... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates. You might see ... the first ingredient listed than any other ingredient. Nutrition Facts Label. At the top of the Nutrition ...

262

What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?  

MedlinePLUS

... a Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

263

Discriminant analysis by anthropometric measures in elderly Bengalee Hindus of Calcutta, India.  

PubMed

Although a sizeable proportion of India's population is elderly (55 years and above), virtually no information exists on how well anthropometric measures could be utilized to correct age group size in elderly individuals. The present investigation was aimed to study how good anthropometric measures could be manoeuvre for corrected group size in the elderly Bengalee Hindu population of Calcutta, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 410 elderly (55 years and above) Bengalee Hindu individuals (men = 210, women = 200) utilizing various anthropometric measures, namely height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold. A discriminant analysis was then undertaken separately for men and women using the above mentioned anthropometric measures. The results revealed that overall 77.1% for men and 78.6% for women of all cases were correctly classified. No individuals were misclassified in the predicted groups III and I for both the sexes. The most discriminating variable for the groups was triceps skinfold in both sexes. These results provided evidence that the anthropometric characteristics of group III and I were very different from each other with those belonging to group II having intermediate characteristics. PMID:16623092

Ghosh, Arnab

2006-03-01

264

Guidelines on nutritional management in Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis from the perspective of preventing hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Aim:? The Japanese Nutritional Study Group for Liver Cirrhosis (JNUS) was assembled in 2008 with the support of a Health Labor Sciences Research Grant from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. The goal of the study group was to propose new nutritional guidelines for Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), with the aim of preventing hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods:? Between 2008 and 2010, the member investigators of JNUS conducted various clinical and experimental studies on nutrition on LC. These included anthropometric studies, a questionnaire study on daily nutrient intake, clinical trials, experimental studies using animal models, re-evaluation of previous publications and patient education. Over this 3-year period, the group members regularly discussed the nutritional issues related to LC, and a proposal was finally produced. Results:? Based on the results of JNUS projects and discussions among the members, general recommendations were made on how Japanese patients with LC should be managed nutritionally. These recommendations were proposed with a specific regard to the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion:? The new JNUS guidelines on nutritional management for Japanese patients with LC will be useful for the actual nutritional management of patients with LC. The JNUS members hope that these guidelines will form the basis for future discussions and provide some direction in nutritional studies in the field of hepatology. PMID:22686857

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Endo, Ryujin; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazutomo; Shiraki, Ryo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Habu, Daiki; Saito, Masaki; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sakaida, Isao

2012-07-01

265

Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Pancreatic cancer patients who undergo surgery for pancreatic cancer often have many questions and concerns about post-operative nutritional care. Most importantly, ...

266

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.

267

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

268

Nutrition for winter sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable

Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle

2011-01-01

269

Nutrition and sports performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of nutrition playing an important role in sports performance. Many factors can impact the performance of a sports person during competition which may be related to different domains. The most commonly encountered nutritional related problem among sports person is their failure to consume sufficient total of food energy. Food is composed of six basic substance: carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

S Manikandan; D Selvam

2010-01-01

270

Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy

2002-01-01

271

Physician nutrition education.  

PubMed

Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

2014-06-01

272

Nutrition and Athletics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

273

Nutrition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

274

Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher

275

Crop Physiology and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of physiology and nutrition, many of the treatments which affect crop yields do so by influencing either the total photosynthesis per unit area of land or the partition of assimilates within the plant or both. Examples are given to illustrate the inter-relationships of nutrition, crop physiology, leaf growth and yields in cereals, grasses, potatoes and sugar beet

J. D. Ivins

1973-01-01

276

Heredity and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

Marshall, Mary W.

1970-01-01

277

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

278

Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

279

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

280

Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

2002-01-01

281

Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

Pulliam, L.W.

1985-01-01

282

Assessment of nutritional status and quality of life in patients treated for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients, to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on therapeutic management and quality of life and to propose a simple screening approach adapted to routine clinical practice. The authors conducted a review of the literature to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients published in French and English. Articles were obtained from the PubMed database and from the references of these articles and selected journals, using the keywords: "nutritional assessment", and "head and neck" and "cancer". Anthropometric indices, laboratory parameters, dietary intake assessment, clinical scores and nutritional risk scores used in patients with head and neck cancers are presented. The relevance of these tools in clinical practice and in research is discussed, together with the links between nutritional status and quality of life. This article is designed to help teams involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer to choose the most appropriate tools for assessment of nutritional status according to their resources and their objectives. PMID:24657191

Prevost, V; Joubert, C; Heutte, N; Babin, E

2014-04-01

283

Birth order influence on the anthropometric properties of the boys from Tuzla region (Bosnia and Herzegovina).  

PubMed

Birth order and its effect on growth and development of children and youths have rarely been studied so far. The objective of this research was an analysis of the birth order effects on some anthropometric properties of the boys 11-16 years old. The sample consisted of 748 boys from the Tuzla region. As the sample included very few boys born as the third, forth, or fifth child, we decided to consider only the differences in the mean values for some anthropometric parameters between the groups of the first- and the second-born. Measurements were taken according to IBP and the following parameters were investigated: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper arm circumference, upper leg circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, length and width of head. We established that in most generations the firstborn boys have larger mean values for most anthropometric variables in comparison to the second-born. PMID:15629024

Hadzihalilovi?, Jasminka; Redzi?, Amira; Terzi?, Rifat; Jusupovi?, Fatima; Hadzihalilovi?, Amir; Osmi?, Munevera

2004-05-01

284

Guidance for the nutrition management of gastrointestinal allergy in pediatrics.  

PubMed

Food allergies and their related elimination diets have been associated with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake and poor growth in the pediatric population. In recognition of these nutritional risks, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States recommend nutrition counseling and close growth monitoring for all children with food allergy. The care of children with gastrointestinal food allergic disorders can be complicated and is best performed with a structured approach in which medical and nutrition needs are addressed simultaneously. Children with gastrointestinal food allergy may be at greater nutritional risk because of decreased dietary intake. For these children, it is important to perform a comprehensive nutrition assessment to identify nutrition-related problems and to develop and implement a plan that meets the patient's needs within the context of the elimination diet. We provide an overview of the nutritional risks and strategies to assess nutritional status in pediatric patients with gastrointestinal food allergy. PMID:24565537

Groetch, Marion; Henry, Michelle; Feuling, Mary Beth; Kim, Jennifer

2013-01-01

285

Anthropometric profile and body composition of irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.  

PubMed

The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

2013-12-01

286

Nutritional status of young female elite gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of a group of 10 young female elite gymnasts aged 13-17 years, who do a physical exercise of 48 h/wk. Assessment included dietary intake for 7 days, body mass index, ideal body weight, and skinfold thickness. In addition, the number of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 were counted. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 50 volunteer students doing less than 12 h/wk of physical exercise, who were matched by sex, age, and sociocultural level. The total weekly calorie intake was lower in gymnasts than in controls; gymnasts showed a higher calorie intake from dietary protein together with a lower calorie intake from lipid and carbohydrate sources in comparison with controls. All the anthropometric parameters, except height which was not different in the two groups, were lower in gymnasts than in controls. The lymphocyte and leukocyte counts were also lower in gymnasts in relation to controls, except CD19 and CD56 subsets which were similar in both groups. It is suggested that gymnasts are at risk of malnutrition, which when compounded with intense physical exercise could lead to immunosuppression in these athletes. PMID:10989768

López-Varela, S; Montero, A; Chandra, R K; Marcos, A

2000-07-01

287

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

288

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

289

Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

290

Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements

S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee

1995-01-01

291

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parameters and Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Index among an Adult Iranian Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric

Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

292

Nutritional status of men attending a soup kitchen: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics of 49 men attending a soup kitchen in a residential neighborhood of Birmingham, Alabama were determined by interview, anthropometry and laboratory assays. Laboratory or anthropometric evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in 94 per cent of the subjects. Deficiency of ascorbate (63 per cent), folate (35 per cent), and thiamin (29 per cent) was higher in these men than in either patients or presumably healthy adults. Since soup kitchen meals provided insufficient vitamin C and folate, additional sources of these nutrients should be provided.

Laven, G T; Brown, K C

1985-01-01

293

Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. PMID:24630782

Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

2014-04-01

294

Food consumption, energy and nutrient intake and nutritional status in rural Bangladesh: changes from 1981–1982 to 1995–96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrient intake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses.Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981–1982 and 1995–1996.Setting: Two villages with different production patterns.Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households.Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in

O Hels; N Hassan; I Tetens; S Haraksingh Thilsted

2003-01-01

295

Nutrition and the heart.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., carnitine in dogs, taurine in cats) resulting in cardiomyopathy, and nutritional excesses (e.g., calories leading to obesity, sodium leading to hypertension) have emerged as important considerations in cardiology. These dietary factors may become particularly exaggerated in altered physiological and/or pathological states (e.g., pregnancy, old age, primary cardiovascular disease). Unfortunately, we do not have complete information on requirements for essential nutrients, nor do we know the precise role nutrition may play in the production of so-called old-age diseases or on the interactions among other organ systems (e.g., kidney, liver) and the heart. PMID:2658289

Hamlin, R L; Buffington, C A

1989-05-01

296

WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration, and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. PMID:23705173

Freeman, Lisa; Becvarova, Iveta; Cave, Nick; MacKay, Clayton; Nguyen, Patrick; Rama, Betina; Takashima, Gregg; Tiffin, Ross; van Beukelen, Peter; Yathiraj, S

2011-08-01

297

Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

2012-01-01

298

Nutrition, infection, and periodontal disease.  

PubMed

Even though nutrition is not recognized as a risk factor for periodontal diseases, nutrition is acknowledged to have a significant impact on optimal functioning of the immune response. Dental professionals need to routinely assess nutritional status and provide basic nutrition counseling to their patients to ensure optimal functioning of the immune system in combating infection and to promote optimal periodontal health. PMID:12699235

Boyd, Linda D; Madden, Theresa E

2003-04-01

299

Nutrition for Children with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Nutrition is an important ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

300

Scabies Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

301

Nutrition for tennis: practical recommendations.  

PubMed

Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min(-1) have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr(-1) and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key PointsTennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1).Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play.200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL.30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours.During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C; Winter, Edward M

2013-01-01

302

Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow.

Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

2013-01-01

303

VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France).

Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frederic

2013-01-01

304

Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district  

PubMed Central

Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart.

Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

2014-01-01

305

Nutrition and athletic performance  

MedlinePLUS

... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...

306

FAO: Food and Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.

307

Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

2013-04-26

308

Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

309

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

310

Nutrition advice in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny

2013-10-01

311

Nutrition and Development Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need to integrate nutrition and development education when dealing with developing countries to get at the root of hunger and malnutrition. The combination will provide greater possibility of success. (JOW)

Peters, Joan Allen

1984-01-01

312

Nutrition in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease that causes neurological disability in young adults. Etiology of the disease is still unknown, but it has an immune-mediated basis and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Nutritional status and dietary habits in MS patients have not been extensively studied or reported, however individual findings suggest that many patients suffer from various forms of malnutrition. In patients with MS, malnutrition has been associated with impairment of the immune system; it affects mental function, respiratory muscle strength and increases a risk of specific nutrient deficiencies. These findings emphasize the need for nutritional support in MS patients. On the other hand, several nutritional compounds have been investigated as a possible treatment in MS, mostly polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D, however their role in the treatment is yet to be confirmed. The aim of this review is to present data on the role of nutritional assessment and treatment in patients with MS. PMID:20444538

Habek, Mario; Hojsak, Iva; Brinar, Vesna V

2010-09-01

313

ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman

2009-01-01

314

[Nutrition and andrological problems].  

PubMed

Andrologic problems were considered as nutrition is concerned: vitamin and oligo-element deficiencies, metabolic alterations, and toxic intake. Ethanol role was examined and discussed for its relevance in psychological and organic impairment due to both chronic abuse and acute intake, mainly for its role on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rational nutrition is a clue in sexual disturbance prevention, correction and integrated care. PMID:1838822

Calcamuggi, G; Marcarino, C; Emanuelli, G

1991-12-01

315

Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness— a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they

A Molarius; JC Seidell

1998-01-01

316

Selection of Dimensions for an Anthropometric Data Base. Volume 1. Rationale, Summary, and Conclusions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large number of body size variables were examined and rated for their usefulness in an anthropometric data base designed to serve present and future needs of the U.S. Army. These dimensions are assembled in groups representing various uses to which the ...

C. C. Gordon C. E. Clauser I. O. Tebbetts J. T. McConville

1986-01-01

317

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND THROWING VELOCITY IN WATER POLO PLAYERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water polo is a collective sport and efforts of high intensity are made in less duration, where the players must swim, jump, and send the ball with moments of rest or low intensity. The necessity of greater, stronger, and faster players is supported by the development in the anthropometric characteristics. The aim of this study was to establish the importance

Vila H; Ferragut C; Argudo FM; Abraldes JA; Rodríguez N; Alacid F

318

Anthropometric Changes in Elite Male Water Polo Players: Survey in 1980 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To assess the differences in anthropometric parameters, body fat, body mass index (BMI), and body density in- duced by sport-specific morphological optimization (adaptation) between two generations (1980 and 1995) of male elite water polo players. Methods. The survey included a total of 160 elite male water polo players, all members of the top clubs in Croatia. The 1980's generation

Vinko Lozovina; Leo Pavièiæ

2004-01-01

319

Student anthropometric data and furniture mismatches in selected institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to determine whether design improvement and further study is required to improve the conditions in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The supplied standard government issued furniture was measured and anthropometrics measurements data were collected from 720 students of three randomly selected tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, covering the age group of between 17 and 27 years. The

Adekunle Ibrahim Musa; Salami Olasunkanmi Ismaila

2011-01-01

320

Radiographic study of the hip joint to determine anthropometric parameters for Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip replacement surgeries are on the rise in India. However, for these surgeries, most of the implants used are imported and manufactured entirely to suit the geometrical considerations of the western population. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. There is paucity of anthropometric hip

Vaibhav Bagaria; Shirish Deshpande; Abhay Kuthe; Darshana D. Rasalkar; Bhawan K. Paunipagar; Tanushree Subhash Madhugiri

321

Extracting Main Modes of Human Body Shape Variation from 3-D Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the variations of the human body shape is fundamentally important to many applications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technology makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than the traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract new measurements

Zouhour Ben Azouz; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage; Marc Rioux

2005-01-01

322

U.S. Army anthropometric standards for rotary-wing aviators in the light observation helicopter.  

PubMed

U.S. Army anthropometric standards for rotary-wing aviators were examined to determine if the standards allowed an adequate fit of the aviator to the cockpit of the OH-58A "Kiowa" light observation helicopter, which now comprises the overwhelming majority of light helicopters in the active army and reserve forces. Thirty rated aviators with heights less than or equal to 70 in. were examined, and standard anthropometric measurements were made. Army regulations require these measurements on all initial-entry aviation students with heights less than or equal to 68 in. The aviators were then placed in a representative OH-58A cockpit to determine their ability to reach all control surfaces and panel switches. Several aviators greater than 68 in. tall and, therefore, not subject to anthropometric testing upon entry into army aviation, could not perform all cockpit tasks without cockpit changes beyond the limited adjustments in the OH-58A. Several had developed aid devices, especially pads to support forearm-to-thigh "spot welds" to ensure right arm stability on the cyclic control. The same problem was seen with some aviators less than 68 in. in height, who had been anthropometrically evaluated. The present standards do not adequately address functional ability in the OH-58A cockpit, which is the least adjustable cockpit in the combat inventory. Design modifications to accommodate these factors exist and should be used to retrofit existing aircraft and to design future aircrafts. PMID:2775126

Farr, W D; Buescher, T M

1989-07-01

323

Impact of physical activity interventions on anthropometric outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Considerable research has tested physical activity (PA) interventions to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the anthropometric effects of supervised exercise interventions and motivational interventions to increase PA. Eligible intervention studies included healthy participants with reported anthropometric outcomes [e.g., body mass index (BMI)]. Extensive searching located 54,642 potentially eligible studies. We included data from 535 supervised exercise and 283 motivational interventions in our syntheses, which used random-effects analyses. Exploratory moderator analyses used meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression. We synthesized data from 20,494 participants in supervised exercise and 94,711 undergoing motivational interventions. The overall mean effect sizes (ES, d) for treatment versus control groups in supervised exercise interventions were 0.20 (treatment vs. control within-group comparison) and 0.22 (between-group comparison). The ES of 0.22 represents a post-intervention BMI of 26.7 kg/m(2) for treatment participants relative to 27.7 kg/m(2) for controls. The corresponding mean ES for motivational interventions was significantly smaller (d = 0.09 for between group, d = 0.10 for treatment vs. control within-group). Control group within-group comparisons revealed slightly worsening anthropometric outcomes during study participation (d = -0.03 to -0.04). Moderator analyses identified potential variables for future research. These findings document significant improvements in anthropometric effects from both supervised exercise and motivational interventions. PMID:24852179

Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam; Phillips, Lorraine J; Ruppar, Todd M; Chase, Jo-Ana D

2014-08-01

324

To Construct A Forecasting Model of the Anthropometric Chronic Disease Risk Factor Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many health indices have a relationship with anthropometric indices. This research attempts to provide a new measurement: a chronic disease risk fac- tor score built into the regression model. This new model will help people visualize their health status and get multiple information during the process of the healthy examination. Methods: Data from 8,034 subjects were collected from the

Yi-Chou Chuang; Ming-Hsu Wang; Ding-Hau Huang; Chien-Hsin Yang; Jen-Der Lin

325

Anthropometric measurements in patients with growth hormone deficiency before treatment with human growth hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 74 children (52 ?, 22 ?) with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (30 cases with isolated GH-deficiency, two of them familial; 4 familial and one isolated case with tendency for formation of antibodies against hGH; 29 with other pituitary hormone defects; 10 craniopharyngiomas), various anthropometric measurements were analyzed before treatment with hGH. In all groups, standing height, sitting height, and

M. Zachmann; F. Fernandez; D. Tassinari; R. Thakker; A. Prader

1980-01-01

326

The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before

K L Quarrie; P Handcock; A E Waller; D J Chalmers; M J Toomey; B D Wilson

1995-01-01

327

The development of cardiovascular disease in relation to anthropometric indices and hypertension in British adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive ability of simple anthropometric indices for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) over seven years in British adults, and the influence of hypertension on these associations.DESIGN: Longitudinal study of the development of CVD (morbidity or mortality) over a seven year period in a random stratified sample of British adults who were respondents in the 1984–1985

BD Cox; MJ Whichelow; AT Prevost; Brian Cox

1998-01-01

328

Anthropometric risk factors and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population - a national survey.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed at determining the anthropometric predictors of hypertension among adults in Saudi Arabia. Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. The average of three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer was considered the real blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements and socio-demographics were obtained from participants. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Hypertension was significantly positively associated with selected anthropometric measurements. Selected anthropometric measures were significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressures except for hip measurements. Waist for height ratio was a significant predictor for isolated diastolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension. Waist circumference was the significant predictor for isolated systolic hypertension. Body mass index was a significant predictor for the combined systolic diastolic type. Waist for Hip Ratio was not a significant predictor for any of the hypertension subtypes. Conclusion: Waist for height ratio is the most important predictor for blood pressure level and hypertension disease. PMID:24206791

Saeed, Abdalla Abdelwahid; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdurahman

2013-12-01

329

Facial Anthropometric Dimensions of Koreans and Their Associations with Fit of Quarter-Mask Respirators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies on respirator fit or performance have mostly been done for Whites or male subjects, and little attention has been paid to minorities and Asians. To fill this gap, this study was designed to provide facial anthropometric data for Koreans and to analyze the association between facial dimensions and respirator fit factors for three brands of quarter-mask respirators, two

Hyunwook KIM; Don-Hee HAN; Young-Man ROH; Kangyoon KIM; Yong-Gyu PARK

2003-01-01

330

Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

2013-03-01

331

Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase understanding of the interaction between macronutrients and insulin resistance (IR), this study sought to determine the influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric differences on IR and inflammation responses to eccentric resistance exercise. Men and women (n = 12, 19-36 years old) participated in a crossover study and completed 6 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the

Mary P. Miles; Chris M. Depner; Rochelle D. Kirwan; Sara J. Frederickson

2010-01-01

332

Nutritional and metabolic support in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of progressive motor neuron disease and the most devastating neurodegenerative disorder. ALS is characterized by progressive paralysis and respiratory failure leading to death within 3 to 5 years after its onset. Protein-energy malnutrition is a frequent finding in ALS. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in ALS is multifactorial. Muscle atrophy, hypophagia, dysphagia, and hypermetabolism play a role in determining the deterioration of nutritional status. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated. Standard polymeric enteral formulas are routinely used, usually providing 25 to 30 kcal/kg and protein 0.8 to 1.2 g /kg per day. The use of fiber-enriched formulas may help prevent constipation. However, considering the complex metabolic abnormalities of ALS, standard and/or fiber-enriched formulas might not be sufficient to achieve optimal metabolic and nutritional support. Based on the most recent clinical and experimental evidence, it is tempting to hypothesize that personalized nutritional support including specific nutritional substrates could act on disease progression and improve the quality of life and the response to the few and yet scarcely effective, currently available pharmacologic therapies. PMID:22677356

Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Kushta, Irma; Molfino, Alessio; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Sabatelli, Mario; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

2012-10-01

333

A locally produced nutritional supplement in community-based HIV and AIDS patients.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential effect of a nutritional supplement on the anthropometric profiles (body measurements such as body mass index [BMI], fat percentage and waist-hip ratio) of HIV-positive/AIDS patients and the correlation between anthropometric profile, CD4+T cell count and viral load. At baseline, of the 35 patients recruited into the study, 32 (94.1%) showed a fat percentage below normal range. Twenty-four of the patients (68.6%) had a BMI within normal range, while a greater percentage of the patients had a normal waist-hip ratio. Of the 28 patients that completed the study, 26 (96.3%) reported a fat percentage of below 18.5%. The results showed that 19 (67.9%) of the 28 patients had a BMI within the normal range after nutrient intervention. There was a significant positive correlation between the BMI and fat percentage. At the end of the study the CD4+T cell count showed no correlation with any of the anthropometric indices while the viral load showed a significant negative correlation with the lean body mass and BMI. The short duration of the study probably limited the positive trend of the supplement. PMID:17551418

Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi; van den Heever, Wilhelmina Maria Jacoba; Van Schalkwyk, Frances Elizabeth

2007-04-01

334

[Nutrition in intensive care].  

PubMed

Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924

Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W

2011-06-01

335

Phylogenesis and nutrition.  

PubMed

The evolution of man is connected with a life-style of hunting and gathering, and with the development and use of tools. The success of tools promoted the evolution of brain, thinking and skills. The food sources--animal and plant--remained the same during the whole of evolution. But the proportions of foods, preferences, preparations and the attainability changed. Evolution was a process continuously based on omnivorous nutrition. Compared to modern nutrition, paleolithic nutrition is richer in animal protein, vitamins, calcium, potassium and fibre, and poorer in fat and sodium. Saccharose, lactose and alcohol play no roles. The quality of the fat is marked by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This shift from a paleolithic diet to a modern diet caused nutritional risks, partly responsible for the dramatic increase in modern chronic diseases of heart, circulation and so on. Man's metabolism works in a stable genetic frame, derived during phylogenesis. We have to adapt our nutritional behaviour to its tolerances or we may succumb to disease and premature death. While our paleolithic metabolism is overdone with modern nutrition, our psychological heritages press in the direction of overdoing. PMID:2697806

Haenel, H

1989-01-01

336

Evaluation of nutritional status in advanced metastatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consecutive cancer referrals to a palliative medicine program were evaluated to assess nutritional status using a standard protocol. The study included 352 patients (180 men, 172 women; median age 61 years, range 22–94 years). The most common diagnosis was lung cancer. All had metastatic disease, 139 with gastrointestinal involvement. The most common gastrointestinal symptoms were weight loss ( n=307), anorexia ( n=285),

N. Sarhill; F. Mahmoud; D. Walsh; K. A. Nelson; S. Komurcu; M. Davis; S. LeGrand; O. Abdullah; L. Rybicki

2003-01-01

337

Critical illness and hyperglycemia management in parenteral and enteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid balance, immune function, inflammation and final outcome may all be adversely affected by hyperglycemia, and these effects may be diminished by glucose control. Accordingly, all patients should undergo hyperglycemic treatment, this being necessary for patients with and with- out a known diagnosis of diabetes. Moreover, avoidance and\\/or minimization of hyperglycemia are important. Nondiabetic patients have nutritional requirements very much

G. M. ROVERA; L. FRANSOS; H. CENA; C. ROGGI

338

Nutritional screening and risk factors in elderly hospitalized patients: association to clinical outcome?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the intervalidity of three different nutrition screening tools towards a broad population of elderly hospitalized patients. The association with risk factors and mortality was investigated. This is a prospective cohort study in three medical, surgical and geriatric settings, in Denmark and Sweden. Patients >65 years were consecutively included. Patients were screened by mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) and nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002). Anthropometrics, cognitive test (SPMSQ), as well as a questionnaire investigation regarding eating problems and life situation, were performed. Mortality within 12 months was investigated. In total, 233 patients mean (SD) age 81(7.64) years were included. A large variation in prevalence of nutritional risk was determined between the screening tools, MNA was 68% vs. MUST, 47% and NRS 54%, p < 0.0001. An overall agreement of 67% was seen (? 0.52-0.55). Risk factors were associated with nutritional risk, including depressive mood. Only handgrip strength, fungus in mouth, serum albumin, CRP and cognitive function were associated with mortality. Fungus had the strongest association (OR 3.7; CI 1.19-11.30). The overall mortality rate was 27% during 12 months. However, none of the three screening tools predicted 12-month mortality. The findings show great variation in the prevalence of nutritional risk of under nutrition both between the tools and the settings. The level of agreement between the tools was moderate, and none of the three tools were capable of predicting 12-month mortality. A functional and psychological evaluation including oral health seems recommendable in elderly patients at nutritional risk. PMID:23181396

Holst, Mette; Yifter-Lindgren, Elinor; Surowiak, Mirek; Nielsen, Kari; Mowe, Morten; Carlsson, Maine; Jacobsen, Bent; Cederholm, Tommy; Fenger-Groen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik

2013-12-01

339

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

2009-01-01

340

Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.  

PubMed

India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

2012-04-01

341

Over Time, Do Anthropometric Measures Still Predict Diabetes Incidence in Chinese Han Nationality Population from Chengdu Community?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine whether anthropometric measures could predict diabetes incidence in a Chinese population during a 15-year follow-up. Design and Methods. The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals. Waist circumference, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were collected based on a standard protocol. To assess the effects of baseline anthropometric measures on the new onset of diabetes, Cox's proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of them, and the discriminatory power of anthropometric measures for diabetes was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AROC). Results. Seventy-four individuals were diagnosed with diabetes during a 15-year follow-up period (incidence: 10.8%). These anthropometric measures also predicted future diabetes during a long follow-up (P < 0.001). At 7-8 years, the AROC of central obesity measures (WC, WHpR, WHtR) were higher than that of general obesity measures (BMI) (P < 0.05). But, there were no significant differences among the four anthropometric measurements at 15 years. Conclusions. These anthropometric measures could still predict diabetes with a long time follow-up. However, the validity of anthropometric measures to predict incident diabetes may change with time.

Liu, Kai; He, Sen; Hong, Biying; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Feng, Jiayue; Wang, Si

2013-01-01

342

Incidence of nutritional support complications in patient hospitalized in wards. multicentric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p= 0.363). For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%), followed by diarrhea (8.3%); an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05). For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest incidence (22.9%), followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%); all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05). Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an association with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits.

Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Aguilar, Nora Luz; Restrepo, Beatriz Elena; Vanegas, Marcela; Alzate, Sandra; Martinez, Monica; Gamboa, Sonia Patricia; Castano, Eliana; Barbosa, Janeth; Roman, Juliana; Serna, Angela Maria; Hoyos, Gloria Marcela

2012-01-01

343

[Body composition, nutritional habits and functional abilities in a sample of eight year old children].  

PubMed

Aim of this study is the evaluation of body composition (proxy of nutritional status) and its correlation with functional abilities in a sample of 8-year-old children living in a florentine municipality. We have collected, for each subject, anthropometric variables (weight, height) and carried out bioelectrical impedance test and a group of physical tests to measure strength and physical ability. The results of vectorial interpretation of BIA, together with the analysis of the so called fitness tests, show a comprehensive good body composition and a very low prevalence of obesity for both genders. This fact is confirmed also by data about living and nutrition habits: scarce use of PC and TV (less than two hours a day) and, on the other hand, enough time spent to play in open spaces and to make sport. PMID:17658109

Bonaccorsi, G; Baggiani, L; Bassetti, A; Mantero, S; Olimpi, N; Santomauro, F; Comodo, N

2007-01-01

344

U.S. Migration, Translocality, and the Acceleration of the Nutrition Transition in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former’s community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role.

Riosmena, Fernando; Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

2012-01-01

345

Nutritional management of cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to normal feeding behaviour and vigilance when instituting supplementary nutrition may prevent many feeding difficulties.

MacDonald, A

1996-01-01

346

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...

347

WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study: Child Intervention. Special Nutrition Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this evaluation of the WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study was assessing the viability and effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention for preschool WIC participants. The findings summarized above indicate that preschool n...

B. Randall K. Sprague D. B. Connell J. Golay

2001-01-01

348

Risk of type 2 diabetes according to traditional and emerging anthropometric indices in Spain, a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity: results from a large-scale prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A proper anthropometric characterisation of T2DM risk is essential for disease prevention and clinical risk assessement. Methods Longitudinal study in 37 733 participants (63% women) of the Spanish EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort without prevalent diabetes. Detailed questionnaire information was collected at baseline and anthropometric data gathered following standard procedures. A total of 2513 verified incident T2DM cases occurred after 12.1 years of mean follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of T2DM by levels of anthropometric variables. Results Overall and central obesity were independently associated with T2DM risk. BMI showed the strongest association with T2DM in men whereas waist-related indices were stronger independent predictors in women. Waist-to-height ratio revealed the largest area under the ROC curve in men and women, with optimal cut-offs at 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The most discriminative waist circumference (WC) cut-off values were 99.4 cm in men and 90.4 cm in women. Absolute risk of T2DM was higher in men than women for any combination of age, BMI and WC categories, and remained low in normal-waist women. The population risk of T2DM attributable to obesity was 17% in men and 31% in women. Conclusions Diabetes risk was associated with higher overall and central obesity indices even at normal BMI and WC values. The measurement of waist circumference in the clinical setting is strongly recommended for the evaluation of future T2DM risk in women.

2013-01-01

349

Nutrition knowledge among Navy recruits.  

PubMed

The Navy wants to incorporate nutrition education programs into basic training to teach Navy personnel fundamental principles of good nutrition. This study was undertaken to: determine deficits in recruits' nutrition knowledge, identify recruits with above-average need for nutrition education, and compare recruits' nutrition knowledge with that of typical U.S. school students. Demographic information and responses to a shortened version (36 items) of the National Dairy Council's Nutrition Achievement Test 4, developed for junior and senior high school students, were obtained from 205 male recruits. Although nutrition knowledge among Navy recruits was relatively comparable with that of U.S. school students, findings indicated that nutrition education is indeed needed. Only 2% of recruits answered 90% of the questions correctly. Forty percent answered half or more of the nutrition questions incorrectly. Questions answered incorrectly by more than 50% of recruits involved: (a) how one assesses nutrient needs and whether those needs are being met, (b) the four major food groups and recommended servings, and (c) effects of alcohol and drugs on nutritional status. Recruits who received higher grades in high school, got into less trouble in high school, were older, and were Caucasian had higher nutrition knowledge. Detailed information regarding nutrition misconceptions should help the Navy develop focused nutrition education materials. PMID:2809040

Conway, T L; Hervig, L K; Vickers, R R

1989-11-01

350

What Is a Nutrition Support Professional?  

MedlinePLUS

... Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is a Nutrition Support Professional Nutrition support professionals (NSP) are dietitians, ... network with others in the field. Roles of Nutrition Support Professionals Multiple healthcare practitioners are involved the ...

351

Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.  

PubMed

Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944

Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

2010-07-01

352

Modification and improvement of nutritive quality of cornpap "Ogi" with cowpea and groundnut milk.  

PubMed

The study aimed at improving the nutritive quality of cornpap, "Ogi", the most popular infant feed in Nigeria. Milk samples of cowpea, groundnut and soyabean and their complementations with cornpap were assessed chemically, organoleptically and anthropometrically. The protein contents of milk from cowpea, groundnut and soyabean were 1.18, 1.6, and 1.23% respectively. On separate complementation of the milk sources with cornpap, the low protein content of "ogi" was increased from 0.3% to 2.79% with cowpea; 3.0% with groundnut and 3.64% with soyabean. The fat content of the complementary feeds also increased remarkably. The anthropometric study revealed that there were significant differences P = 0.001 between the mean weight of children aged 13 to 18 (92 +/- 1.2) and 19 to 24 months (9.9 +/- 1.3) who were fed the three sources of milk with cornpap, and the control group of the same age groups (8.5 + 1.5; 9.3 + 1.11) who received nutrition education and no complementary feeds. Of the three sources of milk, groundnut milk was ranked as the most likeable, the easiest to prepare and the least costly by the nursing mothers. This study has shown that some of the deep rooted cultural food taboos that prohibit locally available and nutritious feeds to infants could be changed through practical food demonstrations. PMID:11403373

Ojofeitimi, E O; Abiose, S; Ijadunola, K T; Pedro, T; Jinadu, M K

2001-01-01

353

Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

2013-01-01

354

Nutrition Session Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

1999-01-01

355

Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

356

Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

357

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

358

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

359

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

360

Nutrition Education for Native Americans: A Guide for Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for professionals working with food assistance and other programs with a nutrition component, this guide is intended to aid in understanding the cultural characteristics and basic health and diet-related problems of Native Americans and to promote more effective nutrition counseling and community nutrition education. The background section…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

361

Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L

1993-09-01

362

Nutritional Implications in Wound Healing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes that take place in the nutritional requirements of persons under stress are discussed, metabolic alterations triggered by wounding are described, and practical approaches to the nutritional management of the wounded or injured patient are suggeste...

J. M. Navia L. Menaker

1976-01-01

363

Food Stamp Nutrition Education Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) with descriptive information about how States have elected to provide nutrition education and information to food stamp recipients and eligibles. The specific objectives of the s...

J. Anliker L. Bell C. Miller M. Harkins V. Gabor L. Bartlett

2000-01-01

364

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...

365

Nutritional Quality of Irradiated Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review presents representative data on the nutritional quality of irradiated foods and brings into focus some of the possible problem areas. Radappertization at low temperatures greatly improves the nutritional quality in regard to the micronutrients ...

J. Scott N. Raica W. Nielsen

1972-01-01

366

Nutritional status outcomes for children: ethnic, cultural, and environmental contexts.  

PubMed

The objective of this literature review was to explore the relationship between nutritional status outcomes among ethnically diverse children and cultural and environmental contexts. Articles form the literature on anthropometric/body composition measure, diet, and physiologic outcomes among ethnically diverse children were identified through on-line literature searches and references from articles reviewed. These studies were critically reviewed and selected if they reported findings resulting from use of accepted methodologies. Explanations consistent with evaluation of results from the studies and reports were developed by synthesis of the findings. Children from underserved, ethnically diverse population groups were at increased risk for obesity, increased serum lipid levels, and dietary consumption patterns that do not meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. More than 80% of all US children consume more than the recommended amount of total fat and saturated fat. These factors, which were noted during childhood, may track into adolescence, placing these children at increased risk for the early onset of chronic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some forms of cancer. Although federally funded food assistance programs are changing rapidly, currently they provide foods that, when eaten as recommended, exceed the Dietary Guidelines for these children. Future interventions to improve the health and nutritional status of our nation's children, especially those from underserved, ethnically diverse groups, should be culturally appropriate and implemented at the levels of individuals, families, and communities. PMID:8784334

Bronner, Y L

1996-09-01

367

Transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan application.  

PubMed

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Marulanda, María Inés; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

2014-04-01

368

Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary.

Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Ines Marulanda, Maria; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

2014-01-01

369

[Nutritional behavior of female and male high performance gymnasts].  

PubMed

Elite gymnasts pass through their whole physical and intellectual development with intensive physical training. In this period malnutrition can lead to delayed pubertal development with insufficient growth spurt and an increased incidence of stress fractures or osteoporoses. Different aspects about nutrition like body composition, objective and subjective eating-behaviour and sex-specific differences will be evaluated in our study. We examined 22 elite female gymnasts (age: median = 13.5 [12.0-16.1] years) und 19 elite male gymnasts (age: median = 12.3 [10.1-14.8] years). The following anthropometric measurements were carried out: weight, length, body mass index, upper arm circumference, arm muscle area, triceps skinfold, arm fat area. Eating diaries were compared with the recommendations of the German Federation of Nutrition and subjective eating behaviour was evaluated by questionnaires. Measurement of body composition showed an increase of musclemass at the cost of fatmass. The girls were smaller and leaner than the boys. Caloric intake in both groups was insufficient. Moreover the girls showed a tendency towards pathologic eating behaviour. PMID:9736973

Schwidergall, S; Weimann, E; Witzel, C; Mölenkamp, G; Brehl, S; Böhles, H

1998-01-01

370

Handgrip strength and nutrition status in hospitalized pediatric patients.  

PubMed

Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is a useful indicator of nutrition status in adults, but evidence is lacking in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe the association between undernutrition and HGS in pediatric patients at hospital admission, quantifying the modifying effect of disease severity, anthropometrics, and other patient characteristics on HGS. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine inpatients aged ?6 years consecutively admitted were recruited in a longitudinal study. Nutrition status was evaluated using body mass index (BMI) z scores, and HGS was evaluated at admission and discharge. Results: In the total sample, 30.3% of patients were undernourished at admission, and 64% lost HGS during the hospital stay. This study showed that HGS at admission was independently associated with undernutrition defined by BMI z scores (? = 0.256, P = .037). In this multivariate analysis, sex, age, height, and BMI z scores explained 67.1% of HGS at hospital admission. Conclusion: Lower HGS may be a potential marker of undernutrition in hospitalized pediatric patients, although HGS data should be interpreted according to sex, age, and height of the patient. PMID:24704864

Silva, Catarina; Amaral, Teresa F; Silva, Diana; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Guerra, António

2014-06-01

371

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

372

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

373

Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

Perea, Sally

2012-05-01

374

Evaluation of the impact of a food program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinean lactating mothers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a food aid program (Plan Más Vida, PMV) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of lactating mothers 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diets (wheat- and maize-fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup) to low-income families from the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A prospective, non-experimental study was carried out to evaluate the micronutrient nutritional status of lactating mothers (n?=?178 at baseline and n?=?151 after 1 year). Biochemical tests (hemoglobin, ferritin, zinc, vitamin A, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height) and dietary surveys (24-h recall) were performed. We found no significant changes in anthropometric values 1 year after the intervention. The risk for vitamin A (retinol 20-30 ?g/dl) and folate deficiency significantly decreased 1 year after PMV implementation (56.3 vs. 29.9 and 50.3 vs. 3.4 %, respectively; p?nutritional data obtained after assessing the early impact of PMV actions may be useful to provincial health authorities to perform periodic evaluations in the future. PMID:23111948

Varea, Ana; Malpeli, Agustina; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Falivene, Mariana; Ferrari, Guillermina; Pereyras, Silvia; Carmuega, Estéban; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; González, Horacio F

2012-12-01

375

Serum Albumin as Predictor of Nutritional Status in Patients with ESRD  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (? =?0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (?=?0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (? =?0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (?=?0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; ?=?0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (?=?0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (?=?0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (?=?0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (?=?0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited.

Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimburger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Barany, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

2012-01-01

376

Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and ?2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ? 23) and lean (18.5 ? BMI ? 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students.

2013-01-01

377

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

378

Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

2000-10-01

379

Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed.

Ramos Bermudez, Santiago; Parra Sanchez, Jose H

2012-01-01

380

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

381

State of nutrition support teams.  

PubMed

The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelley, Andrea True

2013-12-01

382

Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

2010-07-01

383

Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another

Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard

384

Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures: the influence of stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20–51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19–85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra-abdominal fat volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Aberdeen and cross-sectional areas at L4-L5 level by computerised

TS Han; G McNeill; JC Seidell; MEJ Lean

1997-01-01

385

Relations of anthropometric parameters with scores on basic and specific motor tasks in young handball players.  

PubMed

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relations of anthropometric variables with scores on basic and specific motor tests for 133 young male handball players. These Estonian boys were divided into four age groups: 10-11 years (n = 34), 12-13 years (n = 39), 14-15 years (n = 39), and 16-17 years (n = 21). The anthropometric parameters were body height, sitting height, height with outstretched hands, arm span, leg length, and body mass. Body Mass Index (kg x m2) was calculated. Basic motor ability tests were 30-m run from standing position, vertical jump with hands on hip and with arm swing, medicine ball (1 kg) overhand throw with dominant hand from sitting position, and handgrip strength. Specific motor ability tests were 4- x 10-m shuttle-run, slalom dribble test, 30-m dribbling test, handball throw with dominant hand from sitting position, vertical jump from one step run-up on dominant leg, and passing the handball on speed and precision. Relatively few anthropometric parameters were significantly associated with scores on basic motor tasks in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, but sitting height was significantly associated with scores on all measured basic motor tests for the 14- to 15-yr.-old group (16.5-52.4%; R2 x 100) and also with specific motor tests for 12- to 13-yr.-olds and 14- to 15-yr.-olds (13.4-41.6%; R2 x 100). The anthropometric parameters are then relatively poor predictors for basic and specific motor ability test scores of young handball players. PMID:19725303

Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

2009-06-01

386

Correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and anthropometrical parameters in adolescents with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX.Thirty-one adolescents with Down syndrome performed a 12-week training program. Three days after its

F. J. Ordonez; M. Rosety-Rodriguez

2007-01-01

387

Comparison between web-based and paper versions of a self-administered anthropometric questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online data collection could advantageously replace paper-and-pencil questionnaires in epidemiological studies by reducing\\u000a the logistic burden, the cost and the duration of data processing. However, there is a need for studies comparing these new\\u000a instruments to traditional ones. Our objective was to compare the web-based version of the NutriNet-Santé self-administered\\u000a anthropometric questionnaire to the paper-based version. The questionnaire included 17

Mathilde Touvier; Caroline Méjean; Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot; Clothilde Pollet; Aurélie Malon; Katia Castetbon; Serge Hercberg

2010-01-01

388

Diagnostic accuracy of maternal anthropometric measurements as predictors for dystocia in nulliparous women  

PubMed Central

Background: Dystocia is one of the important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. This study was aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of maternal anthropometric measurements as predictors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 447 nulliparous women who referred to Omolbanin hospital. Several maternal anthropometric measurements such as height, transverse and vertical diameters of Michaelis sacral rhomboid area, foot length, head circumference, vertebral and lower limb length, symphysio-fundal height, and abdominal girth were taken in cervical dilatation ? 5 cm. Labor progression was controlled by a researcher blind to these measurements. After delivery, the accuracy of individual and combined measurements in prediction of dystocia was analyzed. Dystocia was defined as cesarean section and vacuum or forceps delivery for abnormal progress of labor (cervical dilatation less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, and during the second stage, beyond 2 h or fetal head descend less than 1 cm/h). Results: Among the different anthropometric measurements, transverse diameter of the Michaelis sacral rhomboid area ?9.6 cm, maternal height ? 155 cm, height to symphysio-fundal height ratio ?4.7, lower limb length ?78 cm, and head circumference to height ratio ? 35.05 with accuracy of 81.2%, 68.2%, 65.5%, 63.3%, and 61.5%, respectively, were better predictors. The best predictor was obtained by combination of maternal height ?155 cm or the transverse diameter of the Michaelis sacral rhomboid area ?9.6 cm and Johnson's formula estimated fetal weight ?3255 g, with an accuracy of 90.5%, sensitivity of 70%, and specificity of 93.7%. Conclusions: Combination of other anthropometric measurements and estimated fetal weight with maternal height in comparison to maternal height alone leads to a better predictor for dystocia.

Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh; Poorjavad, Munira; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

2014-01-01

389

Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters?  

PubMed

This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively. PMID:19826300

Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J

2009-11-01

390

Effects of a preseason intervention on anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional rugby league players.  

PubMed

A player's physique and body composition can substantially influence performance in a rugby league; however, there is limited evidence about the impact of training on the anthropometric profile of rugby league players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason training program on the anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional players. Fifty-seven semiprofessional rugby league players (29 backs and 28 forwards) completed a range of anthropometric tests including stature, body mass, girths, breadths, lengths, and 9 skinfold sites at the beginning (late October) and end (mid February) of a 14-week preseason. with use of Lifesize software, values were calculated for fat mass, muscle mass, percent body fat, and somatotype. Analysis of change was conducted separately for forwards and backs. Over the preseason, both backs (p < 0.01) and forwards (p < 0.001) reduced fat mass, increased muscle mass (backs [p < 0.001]; forwards [p < 0.001]), and key upper-body girth measurements. Between group analyses indicated that forwards experienced significantly greater reductions in some skinfold sites (triceps [p < 0.05], subscapular [p < 0.05], abdominals [p < 0.05]), fat mass (p < 0.05) and overall percent body fat than backs (p < 0.05). These players were predominantly endomorphic-mesomorphs. A preseason training program that included testing and feedback, education, and a combination of resistance, speed, and cardiorespiratory training and resulted in considerable anthropometric improvements by semiprofessional players. Rugby league conditioning staff at a semiprofessional level should consider the value of a comprehensive structured and periodized preseason training program and aim to educate players about strategies to achieve body composition goals. PMID:20386485

Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

2011-02-01

391

Evaluation of Body Fat Changes during Weight Loss by Using Improved Anthropometric Predictive Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Skinfold-based equations are widely used to evaluate body fat (BF), but over-\\/underestimation is often reported. We evaluate the capacity of improved skinfold-based equations to estimate BF changes during weight reduction and compare them against well-established equations. Methods: Overweight adults (n = 44) participated in a 4-month weight reduction intervention. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were taken at

Ada L. García; Karen Wagner; Christiana Einig; Ulrike Trippo; Corinna Koebnick; Hans-Joachim F. Zunft

2006-01-01

392

The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

393

Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

2012-03-01

394

Evaluation of anthropometric accuracy and reliability using different three-dimensional scanning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of standard anthropometric linear measurements made with three different three-dimensional scanning systems namely laser surface scanning (Minolta Vivid 900), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), 3D stereo-photogrammetry (Di3D system) and to compare them to physical linear measurements. The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The reliability and accuracy

Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Peter O. Gerrits; Yijin Ren

2011-01-01

395

Association between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in HCV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p?=?0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus.

de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Costa, Nara Aline; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria

2013-01-01

396

Anthropometric Risk Factors for Colorectal Polyps in African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Colorectal adenomas are thought to be precursor lesions to colorectal cancer, a leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality in African-American women. Studies suggest that obesity is associated with risk of adenomas in white women, but little is known about the relation in African-American women. We prospectively examined the association between selected anthropometric factors and colorectal polyps in African-American women.Methods

Lauren A. Wise; Lynn Rosenberg; Julie R. Palmer; Lucile L. Adams-Campbell

2008-01-01

397

Serum leptin concentration in moderate and severe obesity: relationship with clinical, anthropometric and metabolic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study clinical, anthropometric and metabolic determinants of serum leptin concentrations in a series of patients with a wide range of obesity.SUBJECTS: 400 patients, 116 males and 284 females, aged 44±12.3 years with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 31 to 82 kg\\/m2 (mean 41.4±7.1).MEASUREMENTS: Energy intake by 7-day recall, resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, body composition

A Liuzzi; G Savia; M Tagliaferri; R Lucantoni; ME Berselli; ML Petroni; C De Medici; GC Viberti

1999-01-01

398

Comparison of several anthropometric indices with insulin resistance proxy measures among European adolescents: The Helena Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to compare the association of several anthropometric indices, with insulin resistance (IR)\\u000a proxy measures in European adolescents. The present study comprises 1,097 adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 from ten European cities\\u000a participating in the HELENA study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference, skinfolds thickness, fat\\u000a mass (FM), fasting plasma glucose (G\\u000a F) and

Katerina Kondaki; Evangelia Grammatikaki; David Jiménez Pavón; Yannis Manios; Marcela González-Gross; Michael Sjöstrom; Frédéric Gottrand; Dénes Molnar; Luis A. Moreno; Anthony Kafatos; Chantal Gilbert; Mathilde Kersting; Stefaan De Henauw

2011-01-01

399

Detection of cardiovascular risk factors by anthropometric measures in Tehranian adults: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine optimal cutoff points of anthropometric measures as cardiovascular indicators in an Iranian adult population.Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.Setting: Tehran, the capital of Iran.Subjects: A total of 10 522 subjects (4449 men and 6073 women) aged 18–74 y.Methods: Demographic data were collected and anthropometric indices were measured. Blood pressure was evaluated and hypertension was defined based on JNC VI.

P Mirmiran; A Esmaillzadeh; F Azizi

2004-01-01

400

Anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk among urban and rural women in South India: a multicentric case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) incidence in India is approximately twice as high in urban women than in rural women, among whom we investigated the role of anthropometric factors and body size. The study was conducted at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, and in three cancer hospitals in Chennai during 2002–2005. Histologically confirmed cases (n=1866) and age-matched controls (n=1873) were selected. Anthropometric

A Mathew; V Gajalakshmi; B Rajan; V Kanimozhi; P Brennan; B S Mathew; P Boffetta

2008-01-01

401

Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test – a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired ‘t’ test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Out of 31 judo players 20 had ?5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance.

Katralli, Jayasudha; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

2012-01-01

402

The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?

2014-01-01

403

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2013-05-01

404

Nutrition in palliative care.  

PubMed

Nutrition in palliative care and at the end of life should be one of the goals for improving quality of life. It is important to address issues of food and feeding at this time to assist in the management of troublesome symptoms as well as to enhance the remaining life. While this paper focuses upon the nutritional aspects of cancer in palliative care, the sentiments are applicable to other serious chronic illnesses such as advanced cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia. Cancer and its treatments exert a major impact upon physical and psychological reserves and at the end of life problems with appetite and the ability to eat and drink compound such impact. The aims of nutritional care minimize food-related discomfort and maximize food enjoyment. Identification of any nutritional problems can facilitate the employment of strategies which need to be discussed with the patient and their families and reviewed regularly as conditions change. Ethical questions will be raised concerning the provision of food and fluids to a person nearing the end of their life. Nurses need to acknowledge that food has greater significance than the provision of nutrients. PMID:19966682

Acreman, Sue

2009-10-01

405

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque

2000-01-01

406

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

407

Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

2009-01-01

408

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

409

Evergreen Action Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evergreen Action is a nutrition education program for seniors living in the community. Based in a seniors recreation center, this pilot program uses a community organization approach for program planning. This article describes the steps used for designing and managing the program development. Preliminary results demonstrate benefits of this approach. After 18 months of the program, participation rates and satisfaction

Margaret R. Hedley; Heather H. Keller; Patricia D. Vanderkooy; Sharon I. Kirkpatrick

2002-01-01

410

Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

2011-01-01

411

Nutrition and colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not

John D. Potter

1996-01-01

412

Nutrition and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

Andrew Prentice

2004-01-01

413

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

414

Mathematics Through Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit on nutrition, with charts that tell why one eats as well as what one should eat. Each class of food has a definite function; over fifty nutrients are needed for good health and they have been divided into six categories. The math is developed through math computation, concepts, and problem solving.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-03-27

415

Teaching Nutrition with Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pretests and posttests were administered to students to determine if the "Mulligan Stew" film series on nutrition was effective with grades 2-3 as well as grades 4-6 from a rural population. A significant increase in knowledge was found in all grades, and the knowledge was retained for six months. (CT)

Williams, Virginia H.; And Others

1980-01-01

416

[Nutrition and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].  

PubMed

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a frequent complication of extreme prematurity. In preterm neonates catch-up and pulmonary alveolar growth occur during the first two years of life. However 10 to 25% of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are under-nourished after two years of age, and 30 to 60% of them also suffer from persistent airway obstruction, hyperinflation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Recommendations on nutritional requirements in this population are not yet clearly defined, but an adequate nutritional status in prenatal and early postnatal period can have long-term consequences on brain and lung development. There are a few randomised trial of nutrition for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after discharge. Caloric and protein requirements in this population are probably higher than in full-term infants. Moreover there are potential benefits in using specific nutrients: supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could decrease lung inflammation injuries, glutamine is the main source of energy of pneumocyte, vitamin A is essential for lung development, inositol is necessary for surfactant synthesis, vitamin E and selenium have anti-oxidant effects. Controlled nutritional trial are needed with a long term follow-up in late childhood in order to test their effects on growth and pulmonary status. PMID:15049287

Bott, L; Béghin, L; Pierrat, V; Thumerelle, C; Gottrand, F

2004-03-01

417

Nutritional iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming monotonous plant-based diets. The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the developing world has substantial health and

Michael B Zimmermann; Richard F Hurrell

2007-01-01

418

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

419

Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

1977-01-01

420

Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

1976-01-01

421

Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia  

PubMed Central

One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.

Ghosh, Amitabha

2010-01-01

422

The link between Family History and risk of Type 2 Diabetes is Not Explained by Anthropometric, Lifestyle or Genetic Risk Factors: the EPIC-InterAct Study  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Although family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a strong risk factor for the disease, the factors mediating this excess risk are poorly understood. In the InterAct case-cohort study we investigated the association of family history of diabetes among different family members with incidence of T2D and the extent to which genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle risk factors mediated this association. Methods 13,869 individuals (including 6,168 incident cases of T2D) had family history data available, and 6,887 individuals had complete data on all mediators. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox models were fitted within-country and hazard ratios (HR) combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Lifestyle and anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and a genetic risk score comprising 35 T2D-associated polymorphisms was created. Results A family history was associated with higher incidence of T2D (HR:2.72(95%CI:2.48-2.99)). Adjustment for established risk factors including BMI and waist-circumference only modestly attenuated this association (HR:2.44(95%CI:2.03,2.95)); the genetic score alone explained only 2% of the family history-associated risk of T2D. Greatest risk of T2D was observed in those with a biparental history of T2D (HR:5.14(95%CI:3.74,7.07)) and those with parental diabetes diagnosis at younger age (<50yrs) (HR:4.69(95%CI:3.35,6.58)) - an effect largely confined to maternal family history. Conclusions/interpretation Prominent lifestyle, anthropometric and genetic risk factors explained only a marginal proportion of the family history-associated excess risk, highlighting that family history remains a strong, independent and easily assessed risk factor for T2D. Discovering the factors explaining the association of family history with T2D risk will provide important insight into the aetiology of T2D.

Scott, RA; Langenberg, C; Sharp, SJ; Franks, PW; Rolandsson, O; Drogan, D; van der Schouw, Y T; Ekelund, U; Kerrison, N D; Ardanaz, E; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Barroso, I; Bendinelli, B; Beulens, JWJ; Boeing, H; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Deloukas, P; Fagherazzi, G; Gonzalez, C; Griffin, SJ; Groop, L; Halkjaer, J; Huerta, JM; Kaaks, R; Khaw, KT; Krogh, V; Nilsson, P; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Panico, S; Suarez, L Rodriguez; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sacerdote, C; Sanchez, M-J; Spijkerman, AMW; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; van der A, DL; Wark, P A; McCarthy, MI; Riboli, E; Wareham, NJ

2014-01-01

423

Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

2006-01-01

424

Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2008-09-01

425

Nutritional status correlated with sociodemographic and economic factors among preparatory school-aged children in the Gaza Strip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  This study was conducted to investigate anthropometric nutritional indicators that correlated with sociodemographic and economic\\u000a factors among preparatory school-aged children (PSC) in the Gaza Strip.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  The study subjects were chosen purposively from three different sociodemographic and economic areas in the Gaza Strip: the\\u000a Jabalia refugee camp (JRC), Gaza City (GC), and Al-Garrara village (GV). They were selected randomly

Basil J. Kanao; Osama S. Abu-Nada; Baker M. Zabut

2009-01-01

426

Nutrition and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at early stages of CKD. A recent protein-energy wasting nomenclature allows a simpler approach to the diagnosis and causes of malnutrition. During maintenance dialysis, optimal protein and energy intakes have been recently challenged, and there is no longer an indication to control hyperphosphatemia through diet restriction. Recent measurements of energy expenditure in dialysis patients confirm very low physical activity, which affects energy requirements. Finally, inflammation, a common state during CKD, acts on both nutrient intake and catabolism, but is not a contraindication to a nutritional intervention, as patients do respond and improve their survival as well as do noninflamed patients. PMID:21562470

Fouque, Denis; Pelletier, Solenne; Mafra, Denise; Chauveau, Philippe

2011-08-01

427

Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers.

Latt, Evelin; Jurimae, Jaak; Maestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Ramson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jurimae, Toivo

2010-01-01

428

Development and validation of anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass in elderly women  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine the cross validity of two anthropometric equations commonly used and propose simple anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass (AMM) in elderly women. Methods Among 234 physically active and functionally independent elderly women, 101 (60 to 89 years) were selected through simple drawing to compose the study sample. The paired t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to perform cross-validation and concordance was verified by intraclass correction coefficient (ICC) and by the Bland and Altman technique. To propose predictive models, multiple linear regression analysis, anthropometric measures of body mass (BM), height, girth, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI) were used, and muscle perimeters were included in the analysis as independent variables. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (AMMDXA) was used as criterion measurement. The sample power calculations were carried out by Post Hoc Compute Achieved Power. Sample power values from 0.88 to 0.91 were observed. Results When compared, the two equations tested differed significantly from the AMMDXA (p <0.001 and p?=?0.001). Ten population / specific anthropometric equations were developed to estimate AMM, among them, three equations achieved all validation criteria used: AMM (E2)?=?4.150 +0.251 [bodymass (BM)] - 0.411 [bodymass index (BMI)]?+?0.011 [Right forearm perimeter (PANTd) 2]; AMM (E3)?=?4.087?+?0.255 (BM) - 0.371 (BMI)?+?0.011 (PANTd) 2 - 0.035 [thigh skinfold (DCCO)]; MMA (E6)?=?2.855?+?0.298 (BM)?+?0.019 (Age) - 0,082 [hip circumference (PQUAD)]?+?0.400 (PANTd) - 0.332 (BMI). The equations estimated the criterion method (p?=?0.056 p?=?0.158), and explained from 0.69% to 0.74% of variations observed in AMMDXA with low standard errors of the estimate (1.36 to 1.55 kg) and high concordance (ICC between 0,90 and 0.91 and concordance limits from -2,93 to 2,33 kg). Conclusion The equations tested were not valid for use in physically active and functionally independent elderly women. The simple anthropometric equations developed in this study showed good practical applicability and high validity to estimate AMM in elderly women.

2013-01-01

429

Selection of nutrition support regimens.  

PubMed

The selection of a nutrition support regimen should be the product of a logical, stepwise process. After an appropriate candidate is selected, the integrity and function of the gastrointestinal tract must be assessed to determine if nutrients can be administered enterally or must be given by vein. The anticipated length of therapy will help determine the type of feeding access. Long-term nutrition support requires permanent access, such as a percutaneously or surgically placed feeding tube for enteral nutrition or a tunnelled catheter or implanted port for parenteral nutrition. Formula selection for enteral nutrition, providing adequate liver and renal function, depends largely on the patient's ability to assimilate intact nutrients. The primary decision in parenteral formula selection is whether to provide the macronutrients as a mixed fuel system. The ultimate goal of nutrition support is to make a smooth transition to oral feedings while maintaining adequate nutritional intake. PMID:1289694

DeChicco, R S; Matarese, L E

1992-10-01

430

Relationship between ethanol-related diseases and nutritional status in chronically alcoholic men.  

PubMed

Two-hundred and fifty chronically alcoholic men (mean age, 41 +/- 11 years) entering an alcoholism treatment program were studied. Detailed clinical history, nutritional assessment and measurement of muscle strength by electronic myometer were performed in each case. In addition, hepatic ultrasonography and liver biopsy, echocardiography and radionuclide cardiac scanning, and electrophysiologica testing of peripheral nerves were performed when there was clinical evidence of liver disease, cardiomyopathy or neuropathy, respectively. Alcoholic cirrhosis was diagnosed in 20 cases, skeletal myopathy in 117, dilated cardiomyopathy in 20 and peripheral neuropathy in 41 cases. No patients with chronic myopathy or cardiomyopathy showed either clinical or laboratory evidence of malnutrition. Patients with cirrhosis showed a significantly lower lean body mass than controls (P = 0.03) and significantly lower nutritional protein levels than those alcoholics without cirrhosis. Alcoholics with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower anthropometric parameters and nutrition protein levels than their counterparts (P < 0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, the only independent factor for developing these complications of alcoholism was the total lifetime dose of ethanol (P < 0.001). We conclude that alcohol-related diseases are common in asymptomatic alcoholic men and these diseases appear to be due to an accumulative toxic effect of ethanol. Age and nutritional status do not seem to play a part in the development of such diseases. PMID:8274178

Estruch, R; Nicolás, J M; Villegas, E; Junqué, A; Urbano-Márquez, A

1993-09-01

431

Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

Mckay, Diane

2013-01-01

432

USDA: Food & Nutrition Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

433

Nutrition.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is designed to serve as a portal to resources and information on nutrition, healthy eating, and food safety available across government Websites. These resources are organized by category on the main page, including food facts, food safety, lifecycle issues, research, and health management, among others. Each of these is further divided by topic pages which offer links to related resources, some of which are annotated. While the organization of these varied sources of government information on one site is appreciated, Nutrition.gov does have a few minor drawbacks. The site's method of displaying links is more visually appealing than a standard metapage site listing, but it slows down the site unnecessarily. Some direct links are provided to selected reports and publications, but the press releases section just sends users to the appropriate pages at various agencies. Finally, the keyword search engine indexes all of FirstGov, producing a majority of irrelevant returns.

434

Evolution of tree nutrition.  

PubMed

Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

2010-09-01

435

Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera

2012-01-01

436

Nutrition and diabetes mellitus: an overview of the current evidence.  

PubMed

Overwhelming evidence exists supporting the benefit of lifestyle and nutritional interventions to prevent or delay type 2 and gestational diabetes and improve glycemic control and co-morbidities in patients of all sub-types of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, nutritional therapy is an indispensable and fundamental treatment component, which has to be based on evidence-based recommendations, adapted for dietary intake and medication, and periodically adapted according to diagnosis and individual course of illness. This overview is based on the currently valid evidence-based nutritional recommendations of the European and American Diabetes Associations for the management of diabetes mellitus. It describes the quality and quantity of beneficial macronutrient (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and micronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and food groups. Moreover, the evidence for supplements and functional foods is summarized and the role of body weight and different weight loss diets are discussed. PMID:21442215

Dämon, Sabine; Schätzer, Manuel; Höfler, Jürgen; Tomasec, Goran; Hoppichler, Friedrich

2011-06-01

437

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

438

Nutrition for adventure racing.  

PubMed

Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

Ranchordas, Mayur K

2012-11-01

439

Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India  

PubMed Central

Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended.

2012-01-01

440

Nutrition and cancer.  

PubMed

There is increasing epidemiological evidence that nutrition plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of several types of human cancers. There is considerable epidemiological evidence showing that alcoholism in part because of associated nutritional deficiencies, significantly increases the risk of smokers for cancer of the alimentary tract. There is also some suggestion that nutritional deficiencies may relate to cancers of the stomach, cervix, and thyroid. Of particular importance, and based on relatively new concepts, are data indicating that overnutrition significantly affects the development of certain cancers, including cancers of the colon and pancreas, kidney, breast, ovary endometrium, and prostate. Except for cancer of the endometrium, and kidney cancer in women, there is no significant relationship to obesity. Rather, the evidence suggests both epidemiologically and experimentally that the etiological factors relate to a high intake of fats and possibly other variables associated with high fat intake. While we are investigating the mechanistic nature of the epidemiological and experimental observations, the question that needs to be asked is whether it is not prudent for us to associate ourselves with the recommendation of our colleagues in the cardiovascular disease field who call on both individuals and the food industry to practice a "Prudent Diet," i.e., one that is lower in total calories, total fat, saturated fats and cholesterol than is the present American diet. PMID:770204

Wynder, E L

1976-05-01

441

Nutritional iron deficiency.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming monotonous plant-based diets. The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the developing world has substantial health and economic costs, including poor pregnancy outcome, impaired school performance, and decreased productivity. Recent studies have reported how the body regulates iron absorption and metabolism in response to changing iron status by upregulation or downregulation of key intestinal and hepatic proteins. Targeted iron supplementation, iron fortification of foods, or both, can control iron deficiency in populations. Although technical challenges limit the amount of bioavailable iron compounds that can be used in food fortification, studies show that iron fortification can be an effective strategy against nutritional iron deficiency. Specific laboratory measures of iron status should be used to assess the need for fortification and to monitor these interventions. Selective plant breeding and genetic engineering are promising new approaches to improve dietary iron nutritional quality. PMID:17693180

Zimmermann, Michael B; Hurrell, Richard F

2007-08-11

442

Fault diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

Abbott, Kathy

1990-01-01

443

Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) is useful for assessing the nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is often neglected in clinical practice. This study examined the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for assessing the nutritional status of patients with COPD. We recruited 83 patients with COPD in stable condition from the pulmonary rehabilitation unit of a medical center in northern Taiwan. Each patient was interviewed with a structured questionnaire to elicit personal and health-related data, and measured for anthropometric and blood biochemical indicators. Nutritional status was rated with two Taiwanese-specific versions of the MNA, MNA-T1 and MNA-T2. Fat-free mass was measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and exercise capacity indicators with the 6-Minute Walk Test. The two MNA versions showed high agreement (kappa = 0.949) in predicting the nutritional risk, and both versions predicted the FFMI well (area under the curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristics = 0.804, p < 0.001 for MNA-T1; and 0.813, p < 0.001 for MNA-T2). MNA scores decreased with increasing disease severity and were highly correlated with FFMI, BMI, mid-arm circumference, calf circumference, and oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise (all p < 0.01). The MNA score was positively correlated with FEV1, FVC and 6-minute walking distance, and negatively correlated with GOLD stages (all p < 0.05). However, the MNA score was not significantly correlated with blood biochemical indicators, perhaps due to inflammatory status associated with COPD. The MNA appears appropriate for rating the nutritional risk of patients with COPD. Routine use of the MNA may help reduce the risk of malnutrition in patients with COPD. PMID:24475999

Hsu, Min-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Tsai, Alan C

2014-06-01

444

1D and 3D anthropometric data application on public transport vehicle layout and on oil and gas laboratories work environment design.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to present 1D and 3D anthropometric data applied to two distinct design situations: one related to the interior layout of a public transport vehicle and another one related to oil and gas laboratories work environment design. On this study, the 1D anthropometric data were extracted from the Brazilian anthropometric database developed by INT and the 3D anthropometric data were obtained using a Cyberware 3D whole body scanner. A second purpose of this paper is to present the 3D human scanning data as a tool that can help designers on decision making. PMID:22317431

Pastura, F C H; Guimarães, C P; Zamberlan, M C P; Cid, G L; Santos, V S; Streit, P; Paranhos, A G; Cobbe, R T; Cobbe, K T; Batista, D S

2012-01-01

445

Subjective vs objective nutritional assessment study in children: a cross-sectional study in the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

Different methods have been used to assess nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients, and there is no agreement on the finest index which reflects nutritional status. The aim of this study was to compare the subjective global assessment (SGA) and objective assessment of nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients. One hundred forty children with mean age of 6.43 +/- 0.23 years hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Pediatric Hospital from June to August in 2008 underwent a subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment (anthropometric and biochemical measurements). An agreement between 2 assessment methods were analyzed by the kappa statistic. According to the result of SGA method, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was higher than the objective assessment method. The agreement between the 2 methods were merely fair to moderate (kappa = 0.336, P = .000). The linear relationship between 2 methods was also fair to moderate (r = 0.374, P < .05). Our findings indicated that the differences between two evaluated methods in assessing nutritional status of pediatric patients, and it can also detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods. PMID:19410979

Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2009-04-01

446

Anthropometric and Micronutrient Status of School-Children in an Urban West Africa Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dakar (Senegal)  

PubMed Central

Background Urban areas in West Africa are not immune to undernutrition with recent urbanization and high food prices being important factors. School children often have a poor nutritional status, potentially affecting their health and schooling performance. Yet, generally school children do not benefit from nutrition programs. The objective of the study was to assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status of children from state schools in the Dakar area. Methods School children (n?=?604) aged from 5 to 17 y (52.5% girls, 47.5% ?10 y) were selected through a two-stage random cluster sample of children attending urban primary state schools in the Dakar area (30 schools × 20 children). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age2 z-scores. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was 14.4%, 39.1% and 10.6% respectively. 3.0% had vitamin A deficiency, 35.9% a marginal vitamin A status, and 25.9% zinc deficiency. Urinary iodine was <50 µg/L in 7.3% of children and ?200 µg/L in 22.3%. The prevalence of marginal vitamin A, zinc deficiency, high TfR was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05). Height-for-age and retinol were significantly lower in participants ?10 y and <10 y respectively. Conclusion Undernutrition, especially thinness, iron and zinc deficiencies in school children in the Dakar area requires special targeted nutrition interventions.

Fiorentino, Marion; Bastard, Guillaume; Sembene, Malick; Fortin, Sonia; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; Icard-Verniere, Christele; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

2013-01-01

447

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

448

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

449

Yearly changes in the anthropometric dimensions of female high school gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to compare the age-related patterns of anthropometric dimensions of female high school gymnasts to those of a national representative sample of teenage girls. One hundred and one female high school gymnasts (X ± SD age = 15.8 ± 1.1 year; height [HT] = 162.2 ± 5.7 cm; body weight [BW] = 54.1 ± 6.5 kg) volunteered as subjects in the present study. The sample was divided into 4 independent age groups: age group 14 (AG14) = 14.00 to 14.99 years (n = 26); AG15 = 15.00 to 15.99 years (n = 27); AG16 = 16.00 to 16.99 years (n = 29); and AG17 = 17.00 to 17.99 years (n = 19). Nine variables including BW; HT; body mass index (BMI); subscapular and triceps skinfolds; and waist, mid-arm, maximal calf, and mid-thigh circumferences were assessed on each subject. Independent t-tests indicated that for all age groups, the female high school gymnasts exhibited lower BW, BMI, circumferences (waist, mid-arm, maximal calf, and mid-thigh) and skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) than the national sample, except AG 17 for BW and maximal calf and mid-thigh circumferences. There were no significant differences in HT between samples for any of the age groups. Furthermore, there were no differences between the high school gymnasts and the national sample for the slope coefficients for the anthropometric dimensions vs. age relationships. These findings indicated that in females, participation in high school gymnastics does not adversely affect yearly changes in anthropometric dimensions. PMID:20179650

Zuniga, Jorge; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Mielke, Michelle; Hendrix, C Russell; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J

2011-01-01

450

The influence of anthropometrical and flexibility parameters on the results of breaststroke swimming.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to study the possible relationships between anthropometry, flexibility and specific swimming results in female breaststroke swimmers. Subjects were 125 female breaststroke swimmers in age of 11-18 years. Body height and mass were measured and BMI (kg/m2 ) and Broca index (body height in cm - 100 = weight in kg) were calculated. The flexibility of hip external rotation, knee external rotation, ankle dorsal flexion and ankle supination were measured with plastic goniometer. 100 m breaststroke swimming using kickboard and legs only was used as a swimming performance parameter. The number of kicks was also fixed. Horizontal jumping ability was measured using a simple standing broad jump (cm) minus body height (cm). As a rule, flexibility in different joints did not depend on anthropometrical parameters. Only knee external rotation and ankle dorsal flexion correlated significantly with body mass (r = -0.221 and r = -0.210, respectively) and BMI (r = 0.242 and r = 0.204, respectively). The relationship between flexibility in different joints, as a rule, was not significant. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that from the used anthropometrical parameters the most important was the body height, which explained 11.1% (R2 x 100) of the 100 m breaststroke swim results using legs only. The most important parameter from the measured flexibility indices was knee external rotation (11.1%, R2 x 100). Combination of knee external rotation and ankle supination increased the determination coefficient to 24.4%. Finally, three flexibility measures (knee external rotation, ankle supination, hip external rotation) explained the swimming results by 28.2% (R2 x 100). It was concluded that the good flexibility is more important than single anthropometrical parameters when explaining the breaststroke swimming results using kickboard and legs only. PMID:15962572

Jagomägi, Gennadi; Jürimäe, Toivo

2005-06-01

451

General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position.

Kondric, Miran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontic, Dean; Sekulic, Damir

2012-01-01

452

Relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among adolescent National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, south India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group.

Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay

2013-01-01

453

Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessme