The purpose of this work was to determine the possibility of establishing the most accurate nutritional diagnosis based on anthropometric information in school boys and girls (6 to 14 years), from Madrid (Spain). To carry out this work two well-trained anthropometrists obtained data of total and kneeling height, cephalic and thoracic circumference, and weight from an aleatory sample of 333 boys and girls who study at a national school in Madrid. The collected data presented and analyzed, served as a basis to calculate the fitting equations of each anthropometric variable according to age and sex, as well as some relation among them. Their use simplifies the obtention of the biometric reference values, and allows precise interpolations for concrete ages. All of these algorithms have been translated into BASIC sentences to facilitate its incorporation into any microprocessor. A first diagnostic pattern of the past and present nutritional history of children according to their age and sex, total and kneeling height and weight of each one of them is also presented. The BASIC program, necessary to incorporate it into computers, is included as well. PMID:3841747
García-Diz, L; Goñi, I; Varela, G
Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05). The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010) requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status. PMID:25136157
Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema
Objectives: to consolidate secondary data and provide some as yet unpublished information on changes in the nutritional status of Brazilian children, and, prin- cipally, adults, from an anthropometrical point of view as evaluated in the course of the most recent surveys, laying emphasis on geographical and socio-economic features. Methods: tables and graphs were used to consolidate data published by the
Malaquias Batista Filho; Teresa Cristina Miglioli; Marcela Carvalho dos Santos
The nutritional status of preschool-age children (0-6 years old) in Cape Verde was assessed using anthropometric measurements in a survey that involved 17 017 children from all regions of the country. About 26% of the estimated population in the target age group was included. Data were collected through primary health care centres during the latter part of 1983. The nutritional indicators weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age were compared with reference data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Values of the indicators below -2 standard deviations of the median were considered to represent moderate undernutrition, while values below -3 standard deviations were taken to indicate severe malnutrition. The prevalence of low weight-for-height (wasting) was 2.5%, while that of severe wasting was 0.6%. The corresponding prevalences of low height-for-age and weight-for-age were 13.1% and 17.2%, respectively, with severe categories representing 2.3% and 6.1%, respectively, of the cases in the total sample. There is therefore a relatively strong tendency towards growth retardation or chronic, moderate nutritional deprivation in preschool-age children in Cape Verde, although there exist interregional variations. PMID:3262443
Objective:To evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women.Design:Nutritional intervention study.Setting:Laval University, Canada.Subjects:Seventy-seven healthy women started the study and four did not complete the study.Methods:A 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses on nutrition and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed
J Goulet; A Lapointe; B Lamarche; S Lemieux
Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was ?2.82% in the hematologic group and ?2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652
Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro
ObjectiveAlthough the need for accurate anthropometric measurement has been repeatedly stressed, reports on growth and physical measurements in human populations rarely include estimates of measurement error. We describe the standardization process and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out in a pilot study.
Luis A Moreno; María Joyanes; María Isabel Mesana; Marcela González-Gross; Carlos M Gil; Antonio Sarría; Angel Gutierrez; Marta Garaulet; Raúl Perez-Prieto; Manuel Bueno; Ascensión Marcos
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454
Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.
Objective To examine the association between anthropometry and endometrial cancer, particularly by menopausal status and exogenous hormone\\u000a use subgroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Among 223,008 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, there were 567 incident\\u000a endometrial cancer cases during 6.4 years of follow-up. The analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards modeling.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and
Christine Friedenreich; Anne Cust; Petra H. Lahmann; Karen Steindorf; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Sylvie Mesrine; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjær; Kim Overvad; Michelle Mendez; M. L. Redondo; Carmen Martinez Garcia; Nerea Larrañaga; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Antonia Trichopoulou; Effie Vasilopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Amalia Mattiello; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Eva Lundin; Annekatrin Lukanova; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli
The effects of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) on the motor performance of 4.5-6.5-year-old Senegalese children were studied. Body dimensions included weight, lengths, circumferences, and four skinfolds. Motor performance tests included a 3-min endurance run, 4 x 10 m shuttle-run, distance throw, standing long jump and grip strength. The sample consisted of 147 children: 52 children who were hospitalized for severe undernutrition (severe UN group) during infancy but who had been nutritionally rehabilitated; 63 children who were never severely malnourished but who were chronically exposed to mild-to-moderate undernutrition up to the time of study (chronic UN group); and 32 well nourished children (well nourished group) from well-off households. After adjusting for sex and age, the well nourished group performed better than the severe UN and chronic UN groups. Principal components analysis resulted in two factors which explained 65% of the variance in anthropometry and motor performance. One was related to body size and the second to body composition. The three nutritional groups differed significantly in principal component scores for the two factors; chronic UN and severe UN children also differed for the second factor. Body composition, especially low fat mass appeared to be an important feature for motor performance in chronically undernourished children. PMID:8735670
Bénéfice, E; Fouéré, T; Malina, R M; Beunen, G
The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of
Hongwei Hsiao; Daniel Long; Karl Snyder
Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.
Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.
In clinical practice and epidemiological surveys, anthropometric measurements represent an important component of nutritional assessment in the elderly. The anthropometric standards derived from adult populations may not be appropriate for the elderly because of body composition changes occurring during ageing. Specific anthropometric reference data for the elderly are necessary. In the present study we investigated anthropometric characteristics and their relationship
Egle Perissinotto; Claudia Pisent; Giuseppe Sergi; Francesco Grigoletto; Giuliano Enzi
We present a case of severe chronic diarrhea requiring parenteral nutritional support to both cover the nutritional needs and allow for intestinal rest for later adaptation to enteral nutrition, altogether allowing for the etiologic diagnosis and disease healing. PMID:18604328
Arrieta, F J; Gómez, F J; Aragón, C; Rueda, A; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Carrero, C; Botella Carretero, J I; Montalbán, C; Vázquez, C
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940
The number of people suffering from surgery and obesity in the western world is constantly growing. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined obesity as a plague and one of greatest public health hazards of our time. The National Institution of Health (NIH) declared that surgery is the only long-term solution for obesity. Today there are four different types of bariatric surgery. Each variation has different implications on the nutritional status of bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery candidates are at risk of developing vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies in the post-operative stage, due to vomiting, decrease in food intake, food intolerance, diminution of gastric secretions and bypass of absorption area. It is easier and more efficient to treat nutritional deficiencies in the preoperative stage. Therefore, preoperative detection and correction are crucial. Blood tests before surgery to detect and treat nutritional deficiencies are crucial. In the postoperative period, blood tests should be conducted every 3 months in the first year after operation, every six months in the second year and annually thereafter. Multivitamin is recommended to prevent nutritional deficiencies in all bariatric surgery patients. Furthermore, iron, calcium, Vitamin D and B12 are additionally recommended for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass patients. Patients with Biliopancreatic diversion and Duodenal Switch should also take fat soluble vitamins. PMID:21250413
Schweiger, Chaya; Keidar, Andrei
The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.
Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu
Background Bariatric surgery is an important method for treatment of morbid obesity. It is known that significant nutritional deficiencies might occur after surgery, such as, calorie-protein malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, and lack of vitamin B12, thiamine, and folic acid. Objective The objective of our study was to validate a computerized intelligent decision support system that suggests nutritional diagnoses of patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Methods There were fifteen clinical cases that were developed and sent to three dietitians in order to evaluate and define a nutritional diagnosis. After this step, the cases were sent to four bariatric surgery expert dietitians who were aiming to collaborate on a gold standard. The nutritional diagnosis was to be defined individually, and any disagreements were solved through a consensus. The final result was used as the gold standard. Bayesian networks were used to implement the system, and database training was done with Shell Netica. For the system validation, a similar answer rate was calculated, as well as the specificity and sensibility. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were projected to each nutritional diagnosis. Results Among the four experts, the rate of similar answers found was 80% (48/60) to 93% (56/60), depending on the nutritional diagnosis. The rate of similar answers of the system, compared to the gold standard, was 100% (60/60). The system sensibility and specificity were 95.0%. The ROC curves projection showed that the system was able to represent the expert knowledge (gold standard), and to help them in their daily tasks. Conclusions The system that was developed was validated to be used by health care professionals for decision-making support in their nutritional diagnosis of patients submitted to bariatric surgery.
Martins, Cristina; Dias, João; Pinto, José S
Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…
Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M
The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient's life. PMID:24964516
Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna
Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545
Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere
Background\\/Purpose: Early diagnosis of development of cholestasis is a current major problem for patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Conventional tests for hepatic function such as serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase do not often reflect simultaneously histopathologic changes of the liver. The aim of this study is to find out the relationships between conventional hepatic function tests, total serum bile
Mehmet Demircan; Orkan Ergun; Sibel Avanoglu; Funda Yilmaz; Geylani Ozok
Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
methods: defined by the acronym `ABCD' where A= Anthropometric; B=Biochemical; C= Clinical; D= Dietary and draw conclusions regarding nutritional status. 5. Conduct anthropometric measures such as height
Farrell, Anthony P.
An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…
The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric, metabolic, and nutritional characteristics in healthy elderly adults in a primary health care setting. It was conducted through a cross-sectional study of 80 subjects 60 years of age and older. After confirming healthy status, clinical, biochemical, dietetic, and anthropometric evaluations were performed. The findings indicated 22% had anemia, 22% had impaired
Fabiola Martín-Del-Campo; David Nava-Jiménez; Carolina Batis-Ruvalcaba; Laura Cortés-Sanabria; Enrique Rojas-Campos; Héctor R. Martínez-Ramírez; Alfonso M. Cueto-Manzano
Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…
The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.
Boutonnet, J. C.
Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm
A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran
This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.
Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer
The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).
The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Features of Electromyography Signal for Human anthropometric variables to calibrate EMG recognition system automatically/semi-automatically is proposed EMG signals and twelve related anthropometric variables. The strong and significant associations
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Anthropometry helps to assess nutritional status which is an important determinant of clinical outcome in many patients, including the number of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Weight gain after successful kidney transplantation is a well-known phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that intensive counseling, based of menu analysis by a dietitian of CKD patients with a kidney transplant, can prevent the significant body weight (BW) gain after the transplant operation. The aim of the investigation was to study long-term anthropometrical, biochemical and dual-energy densitometry changes in the kidney transplant patients, to study correlations between the studied parameters and to compare those with the follow-up data. The prospective long-term study was carried out in 28 clinically stable renal transplant patients. Control groups consisted both transplant patients (47 patients), receiving ordinary nutritional counseling, and of healthy population subjects (342). Anthropometry and biochemistry were studied in patients twice: the first follow-up (FU1) data were collected 1.3 +/- 0.2 years, and the second follow-up (FU2) data were collected 2.7 +/- 0.3 years after the transplant. Significant BW gain was found only in renal transplant male patients (FU1 vs. FU2, p < 0.001) but not in females. The mean weight gain in control group patients was significant both in the male and female groups. In males, the mean C-reactive protein was significantly correlated with different body circumferences. But, in females, no clear associations were found. In females, significant correlation was found between mean body weight, body mass index and triglycerides. We conclude that the use of anthropometry in clinical practice, together with intensive and individual counseling by a dietitian, should be regular in the kidney transplant patients' population to prevent overweight. Monitoring of the dynamics of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters are clinically relevant in the post-transplant period together with densitometry. PMID:23390829
Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 tribal children aged 6-59 months using two-stage sampling in Bankura-I Block of Bankura district, West Bengal, India, to assess their nutritional status and its relation with household food security. Weight and height/length were measured and analyzed as per new WHO Growth Standards. Mothers of the study children were interviewed to obtain relevant information. Prevalence of Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure was 69.1%; and multiple anthropometric failures were more likely among tribal children aged 24-59 months with irregular utilization of supplementary nutrition and from households with severe grades of food security. PMID:21169653
Mukhopadhyay, D K; Biswas, A B
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in a progressive and irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. Clinicians should attempt to classify patients into one of the six etiologic groups according to the TIGARO classification system. MRI/MRCP, if possible with secretin enhancement, is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of early-stage disease.In CP, pain is the most disabling symptom, with a significant impact on quality of life. Pain should be assessed using the Izbicki score and preferably treated using the "pain ladder" approach. In painful CP, endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered as early as possible. This procedure can be combined with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the presence of large (> 4 mm), obstructive stone(s) in the pancreatic head, and with ductal stenting in the presence of a single main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with a markedly dilated MPD. Pancreatic stenting should be pursued for at least 12 months in patients with persistent pain relief. On-demand stent exchange should be the preferred strategy. The simultaneous placement of multiple, side-by-side, pancreatic stents can be recommended in patients with MPD strictures persisting after 12 months of single plastic stenting. We recommend surgery in the following cases: a) technical failure of ET ; b) early (6 to 8 weeks) clinical failure ; c) definitive biliary drainage at a later time point; d) pancreatic ductal drainage when repetitive ET is considered unsuitable for young patients; e) resection of an inflammatory pancreatic head when pancreatic cancer cannot be ruled out; f) duodenal obstruction. Duodenopancreatectomy or oncological distal pancreatectomy should be considered for patients with suspected malignancy. Pediatricians should be aware of and systematically search for CP in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain. As malnutrition is highly prevalent in CP patients, patients at nutritional risk should be identified in order to allow for dietary counseling and nutritional intervention using oral supplements. Patients should follow a healthy balanced diet taken in small meals and snacks, with normal fat content. Enzyme replacement therapy is beneficial to symptomatic patients, but also in cases of subclinical insufficiency. Regular follow-up should be considered in CP patients, primarily to detect subclinical maldigestion and the development of pancreatogenic diabetes. Screening for pancreatic cancer is not recommended in CP patients, except in those with the hereditary form. PMID:24761691
Delhaye, Myriam; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Cesmeli, Ercan; Pelckmans, Paul; Putzeys, Virginie; Roeyen, Geert; Berrevoet, Frederik; Scheers, Isabelle; Ausloos, Floriane; Gast, Pierrette; Ysebaert, Dirk; Plat, Laurence; van der Wijst, Edwin; Hans, Guy; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Deprez, Pierre H
The common cold is the leading cause of doctor visits in the United States and annually results in 189 million lost school days. In the course of one year the U.S. population contracts approximately 1 billion colds. Influenza infection is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 20-25 million doctor visits and 36,000 deaths per year in the United States. Conventional therapies for colds and flu focus primarily on temporary symptom relief and include over-the-counter antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, and decongestants. Treatment for influenza also includes prescription antiviral agents and vaccines for prevention. This article reviews the common cold and influenza viruses, presents the conventional treatment options, and highlights select botanicals (Echinacea spp., Sambucus nigra, larch arabinogalactan, Astragalus membranaceous, Baptisia tinctoria, Allium sativa, Panax quinquefolium, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Andrographis paniculata, olive leaf extract, and Isatis tinctoria) and nutritional considerations (vitamins A and C, zinc, high lactoferrin whey protein, N-acetylcysteine, and DHEA) that may help in the prevention and treatment of these conditions. PMID:17397266
Roxas, Mario; Jurenka, Julie
Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...
In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.
Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.
We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043
Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T
A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421
Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurto?lu, Selim
Background The consequences of subclinical coeliac disease (CD) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remain unclear. We looked at growth, anthropometry and disease management in children with dual diagnosis (T1DM?+?CD) before and after CD diagnosis. Methods Anthropometry, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTg) were collected prior to, and following CD diagnosis in 23 children with T1DM?+?CD. This group was matched for demographics, T1DM duration, age at CD diagnosis and at T1DM onset with 23 CD and 44 T1DM controls. Results No differences in growth or anthropometry were found between children with T1DM?+?CD and controls at any time point. Children with T1DM?+?CD, had higher BMI z-score two years prior to, than at CD diagnosis (p?0.001). BMI z-score change one year prior to CD diagnosis was lower in the T1DM?+?CD than the T1DM group (p?=?0.009). At two years, height velocity and change in BMI z-scores were similar in all groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c between the T1DM?+?CD and T1DM groups before or after CD diagnosis. More children with T1DM?+?CD had raised tTg levels one year after CD diagnosis than CD controls (CDx to CDx?+?1 yr; T1DM?+?CD: 100% to 71%, p?=?0.180 and CD: 100% to 45%, p?0.001); by two years there was no difference. Conclusions No major nutrition or growth deficits were observed in children with T1DM?+?CD. CD diagnosis does not impact on T1DM glycaemic control. CD specific serology was comparable to children with single CD, but those with dual diagnosis may need more time to adjust to gluten free diet. PMID:24885742
Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.
Zehner, Gregory F.
STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence information, along with all anthropometric parameters, is intro- duced in the multiple linear regression
The relevant research is questioning the essence of the existence of an adequate internal circulation to human dimensions. The research was based on the method of anthropometric assessment of internal circulation de Barros (2009), which was applied in three different sizes of apartments in the city of Caruaru-PE. These apartments were evaluated through the floor plans and furniture layouts, suggested by the builders, with the use of anthropometric models in simulation of movement. The study found that traffic problems are not just a consequence of small rooms, but projects that do not bother to match the anthropometric measurements to the space environment. PMID:22317306
Seabra, Sadi; Barros, Bruno
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, characteristics, and clinical importance of nutrition disorders in patients with liver cirrhosis according to severity of disease.METHODS: Nutrition assessments such as subjective global assessment, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, immunocompentency, thiamin and riboflavin status in 60 patients with cirrhosis (33 male and 27 female) were recorded between
Chulaporn Roongpisuthipong; Aphasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Kanokrat Nantiruj; Sriwatana Songchitsomboon
Background. Patients referred for lung cancer opera- tions were reported to be nutritionally depleted. This may be relevant in determining patient outcome after surgical procedures. A study was undertaken to measure a range of nutritional variables including dietary intake of patients referred to a regional cardiothoracic center for curative lung cancer operations. Methods. Anthropometric measurements, grip strength, fat-free mass (FFM),
R. Thomas Jagoe; Timothy H. J. Goodship; G. John Gibson
Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979...
Justice, Anne E.; Rubicz, Rohina C.; Chittoor, Greetha; Jantz, Richard; Crawford, Michael H.
A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. REII'MEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. ~YER Approved as to style and content by: Newton C. Ellis (Chair of Committee) Dick B. Simmons (Member) Waym . Johnston ( ember) G...
Reitmeyer, Peter B.
Nutritional anthropometry measurements were applied in the assessment of nutritional status of preschool children attending a health center in a poor area of Bogotá, Colombia. Results showed that weight for age was the most adversely affected nutritional indicator among the group of children, followed by weight for height, height for age and head circumference. Intercorrelations between the four anthropometric measurements
Eunice Romero de Gwynn; Diva Sanjur
A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive reactions) than in school children (25.9% of positive reactions). The causes of the different reactions are now under study. PMID:3435214
Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V
In developing countries, more than 12 million children die each year from the combined effects of malnutrition and infection. Malnourished children have impaired cellular immunity and are particularly sensitive to opportunistic infections. However, immune recovery has rarely been investigated during nutritional rehabilitation. Indeed, mortality remains high during renutrition, and relapses are frequent. We established a center in Cochabamba, Bolivia, specifically to save these children by treating both clinical and nutritional problems and restoring immune function. The CRIN (center for immuno-nutritional recovery) admits children with severe malnutrition from the Cochabamba suburban area. They are from low income families, in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation and are weaned early. Nutritional diagnosis was based on weight-for-height, arm to head circumference ratio and clinical examination for edema, loss of subcutaneous tissue and diminished muscle mass. The children were examined daily, and first treated for respiratory and intestinal infections. Sociological and psychological aspects were also included in our holistic approach to treating severe malnutrition. Children received a four-stage diet lasting 2 months. During the initial phase (1 week) they were given an oil-sugar-milk based diet, with half lactose concentration, seven times a day. This supplied 1.5 to 2.5 g of protein and 120 to 150 kcal/kg of body weight, according to the PEM pattern. Protein and energy intake was then slowly increased during the transition phase (1 week). During the next, 'calorific-protein bombing' phase (6 weeks) 5 g of protein and 200 kcal/kg of body weight were given daily, such that there was sufficient energy for protein accumulation. During the last, discharge phase (1 week), the protein and energy contents were slowly decreased. Weight, height, arm and head circumferences, and triceps skin-fold thickness were measured weekly by standardized methods. Thymus size was assessed weekly by mediastinal ultrasound scanning with a portable scanner (ALOKA SSD-210 DXII, Tokyo) using a 5 MHz linear pediatric probe. Lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood were investigated monthly using monoclonal antibodies. Compared to controls, the malnourished group had severe involution of the thymus, a significantly higher proportion of circulating immature T lymphocytes and a lower proportion of mature T lymphocytes. The two month longitudinal study showed that normal anthropometric values (90% NCHS weight for height) were recovered after one month of rehabilitation. However, immune recovery (thymic area of 350 nm2) required two months. This may explain the frequent relapses among malnourished children discharged after one month on the basis of 'apparent nutritional health'. Such children may remain immunodepressed, and should therefore be considered as high risk children. To test an immunostimulatory treatment, we designed a historical cohort study of malnourished children who received 2 mg of zinc per day. The children were matched for age, sex, anthropometric criteria and nutritional status with malnourished control children (treated previously with zinc). Anthropometric recovery was obtained in both groups in one month. Children receiving zinc attained immunological recovery within one month, whereas children not receiving zinc took two months. Thus zinc hastened immunological recovery concomitant with nutritional recovery such that the duration of hospitalization could be halved: after one month of this immuno-nutritional treatment, malnourished children appear to be sufficiently healthy to face their pathogenic home environment. PMID:9026317
Chevalier, P; Sevilla, R; Zalles, L; Sejas, E; Belmonte, G; Parent, G; Jambon, B
Background Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition. Methods Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo, we studied incidence of clinical versus anthropometrical malnutrition in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. Results Incidence rates were highest in the rainy season for all indices except McM. Incidence rates of McM and marasmus tended to be higher for boys than for girls in the dry season. Malnutrition rates increased from the 0–5 to the 6 – 11 months age category. McM and marasmus had in general a higher incidence at all ages than their anthropometrical counterparts, moderate and severe wasting. Shifts back to normal nutritional status within 3 months were more frequent for clinical than for anthropometrical malnutrition (62.2-80.3% compared to 3.4-66.4.5%). Only a minority of moderately stunted (30.9%) and severely stunted children (3.4%) shifted back to normal status. Alteration from severe to mild malnutrition was more characteristic for anthropometrically than for clinically defined malnutrition. Conclusions Our data on age distribution of incidence and course of malnutrition underline the importance of early life intervention to ward off malnutrition. In principle, looking at incidence may yield different findings from those obtained by looking at prevalence, since incidence and prevalence differ approximately differ by a factor “duration”. Our findings show the occurrence dynamics of general malnutrition, demonstrating that patterns can differ according to nutritional assessment method. They suggest the importance of applying a mix of clinical and anthropometric methods for assessing malnutrition instead of just one method. Functional validity of characterization of aspects of individual nutritional status by single anthropometric scores or by simple clinical classification remain issues for further investigation. PMID:24467733
To examine the impact of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criterion on the diagnosis of prediabetes in Koreans, we analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional data of 5,845 Korean adults aged ?20 years from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011. Standardized prevalence rates of prediabetes in Korean adults by fasting plasma glucose (FPG; 5.6-6.9 mmol/L), HbA1c (5.7-6.4% [39-46 mmol/mol]), and combined criteria were 16.9, 28.4 and 33.8%, respectively. Among the subjects with prediabetes, 16% met FPG criteria only, 55% met HbA1c criteria only and 29% met both criteria. Prediabetic subjects who met HbA1c criteria only were significantly older, more likely to be women, and had lower hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations, whereas those who met FPG criteria only had higher body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, introduction of HbA1c criterion markedly increased the prevalence of prediabetes in Koreans, and the two criteria identified people with different characteristics. PMID:25621133
Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo
To examine the impact of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criterion on the diagnosis of prediabetes in Koreans, we analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional data of 5,845 Korean adults aged ?20 years from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011. Standardized prevalence rates of prediabetes in Korean adults by fasting plasma glucose (FPG; 5.6–6.9 mmol/L), HbA1c (5.7–6.4% [39–46 mmol/mol]), and combined criteria were 16.9, 28.4 and 33.8%, respectively. Among the subjects with prediabetes, 16% met FPG criteria only, 55% met HbA1c criteria only and 29% met both criteria. Prediabetic subjects who met HbA1c criteria only were significantly older, more likely to be women, and had lower hemoglobin and serum iron concentrations, whereas those who met FPG criteria only had higher body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, introduction of HbA1c criterion markedly increased the prevalence of prediabetes in Koreans, and the two criteria identified people with different characteristics.
Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo
In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained...
Arya, Rector; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.
3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab , Alex Shawa , Ulrich Neumannb , and James Maha develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model demonstrated 3-dimensional facial imaging in a clinical setting however some of the anthropometric measurements
Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics from Kinect Videos Brent,quc,email@example.com Abstract. For person identification, motion and anthropometric bio- metrics are known to be less sensitive method that uses motion and anthropometric biometrics acquired from an inexpensive Kinect RGBD sensor
Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception. B. Tehard1 , M Objective: To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements in 1990. Subjects: 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91
We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints
Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone
Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal the anthropometric growth of auricula from birth to the age of 18 years and to bring out the dynamics of ear growth. Material and methods: A total of 1552 children in 50 groups were evaluated. Six surface measurements were performed directly on the right auricle of the subjects: the length from
M. Tayyar Kalcioglu; M. Cem Miman; Yuksel Toplu; Cengiz Yakinci; Orhan Ozturan
Purpose – Anthropometry as one of anthropology methods is concerned with the measurement of the human body and determining the relationship of the size and proportions of the human body. Aims to outline the main features of the Croatian anthropometric system (HAS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a description of the major characteristics included in HAS, the STIRP project supported
Darko Ujevi?; Dubravko Rogale; Mirko Drenovac; Dinko Pezelj; Marijan Hrastinski; Nina Smolej Naran?i?; Željko Mimica; Renata Hrženjak
Summary This paper presents new techniques for generating varied realistic geometric models of human faces by synthesizing local facial features according to anthropometric control parameters, and for generating a full-head texture from a face image of the scanned data for realistic rendering. We automatically register 3D face scans in a large database by deforming a generic head mesh to fit
Yu Zhang; Chew Lim Tan
The aims of this research were to assess anthropometric characteristics of high-level senior and junior rhythmic gymnasts; and was to investigate the changes of anthropometric characteristics over a 4 years period, in different senior and junior groups of the same technical level. Twenty anthropometric variables of 63 participants were collected and body composition and sitting-height-to-stature-ratio measures were calculated. The two-way (gymnast category and time) ANOVA of the anthropometric characteristics showed significant main effect of time period for biacromial and bicristal diameters indicating that the majority of variables had similar values in 2002 and 2006. A significant main effect of category (junior or senior) was present in most the analyzed variables with higher values in senior gymnasts than juniors. The significant category by time interaction for height, weight, limbs' length, and fat-free mass, indicated that some differences between junior and senior gymnasts increased over the 4 yr time period. The training hours per week were significantly higher in seniors, but did not differ over the 4 yr period. The study shows that the criteria, followed for the recruitment of elite gymnasts, in the two different periods considered (2002 and 2006) were almost the same. Moreover, higher differences between seniors and juniors of FFM values in 2006 indicated the more intensive training of the second period for seniors. PMID:18491452
di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Guidetti, Laura; Piazza, Marina
Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to determine body composition, especially in children. Objective: Our aim was to compare 2 of the simplest anthro- pometry-based equations available for determining nutritional sta- tus and muscularity in children and adolescents, examined in rela- tion to other methodologically independent muscle variables. Design: Midupper arm muscle area (UAMA) and fat-free mass (FFM) according to
Kai R Boye; Triantafillia Dimitriou; Friedrich Manz; Eckhard Schoenau; Christina Neu; Stefan Wudy; Thomas Remer
The orolabial region frequently undergoes significant changes following trauma, orthognathic surgery or orthodontics. Ethnicity, age and gender specific normative data are needed during the planning phase before surgical interventions in this region. In 2008 the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery published anthropometric lip measurements of Chinese children; however such reference data for Chinese young adults are currently unavailable. Therefore this cross-sectional study using 3-D facial photographs acquired from 103 healthy Chinese young adults with Class I skeletal pattern was conducted to deliver normative data for this age group. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these 3-D images and linear, angular measurements as well as proportions were calculated. It was found that all orolabial measurements were significantly higher in males other than the labiomental angle. No gender differences were found in the anthropometric proportions. This study established the orolabial anthropometric normative data for Chinese young adults. These norms can be used to objectively evaluate the morphology of the lips during diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of treatment outcomes. PMID:24094549
Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.
Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515
National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…
An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.
Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.
Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720
Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr
Anthropometry is the technique of expressing body shape in quantitative terms. The measurements are compared with the standard growth curves for the general population and expressed as a SD score or percentiles. The comparison of the different parameters with normal standards requires: standardized landmarks on the body, standardized methods of taking measurements, and standard equipment. Skeletal dysplasias generally present with disproportionate short stature, that may be caused primarily by a short trunk or short limbs. If short limbs are observed, the reduction may affect the proximal (rhizomelic), the middle (mesomelic) or distal (acromelic) segments. Anthropometric measurements should include all the segments of the arms and the legs with a comparison with the normal standards for height age. Short stature homeobox- containing (SHOX) gene defects determine a highly variable phenotype, that includes an osteochondrodysplasia with mesomelic short stature and Madelung deformity, but also presentations without evident malformations. Anthropometric indicators of SHOX deficiency are: disproportionate short stature, reduction of lower limb, reduction of the ratio between arm span and forearm length with respect to height, increase in the sitting/ height stature ratio, increase in limb circumference (arm, forearm, thigh, and leg) with respect to height and increased body mass index. In some forms of skeletal dysplasias and in particular in SHOX gene anomalies that have many characteristics superimposable to idiopathic short stature, only an accurate auxo-anthropometric and dysmorphologic evaluation enable us to propose, fairly accurately, the subjects for the gene study. PMID:21057181
Mazzanti, L; Matteucci, C; Scarano, E; Tamburrino, F; Ragni, M C; Cicognani, A
To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862
Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...
In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic disorders and nutritional status with the occurrence of ATD. PMID:25614676
Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena
The scope of this systematic review was to relate food insecurity, detected using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA), with anthropometric, dietary and social indicators. The search was conducted in electronic databases (ScieLO, LILACS, MEDLINE), with a selection of studies by titles and abstracts, and later full reading. Studies identified in bibliographic references were included. Of the 215 reviewed, 15 fulfilled inclusion criteria (association between insecurity and anthropometric, dietary or social indicators, detected by the EBIA), whereby three had more than one variable of interest. A relationship was observed between food insecurity and height/age and weight/age of child indices, as well as obesity in women. Lower consumption of regulating, tissue-building food products and iron, and higher carbohydrate intake are associated with food insecurity. There was a relationship between social indicators, such as lower income and education, lack of employment and basic sanitation. The EBIA was associated in some studies with nutritional and social indicators, but should be used in conjunction with other tools in order to cover the multiple dimensions of food and nutrition security. PMID:24897212
Morais, Dayane de Castro; Dutra, Luiza Veloso; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are increasingly common among indigenous Amazonian societies experiencing\\u000a greater involvement in market economies. An important factor in such nutritional transition is internal socioeconomic differentiation,\\u000a which partially accounts for fatness frequencies. We report the results of a diachronic anthropometric comparison and cross-sectional\\u000a anthropometric and socioeconomic survey of Xavante adults from a single, large community.
James R. Welch; Aline A. Ferreira; Ricardo V. Santos; Silvia A. Gugelmin; Guilherme Werneck; Carlos E. A. Coimbra
Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study between various anthropometric characteristics and breast cancer. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort.87) might possibly be confined to obese women. Among postmenopausal women, all anthropometric measurements
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.
Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),
GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko
This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in a direct physical way using statistical analysis on HRTF measured data. Principle component analysis is separately performed on the head-related impulse responses of all subjects at each direction for each ear to extract the individual information. Then the individual information, along with all anthropometric
M. Zhang; R. A. Kennedy; T. D. Abhayapala; W. Zhang
Recent studies indicate that performance of motor skills is influenced by a diversity of physiological parameters, such as weight status, aerobic capacity, endurance and muscular strength, but the scientific determinants of physical performance are very specific. The aim was to identify the anthropometric and physiological determinants of motor skills in young adults. The authors studied anthropometric and physiological factors (as
E I Iconaru; C Ciucurel; M M Ciucurel; L Georgescu; S Toma; M I Tudor
The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…
Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa
Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767
Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam
The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.
Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.
Zehner, Gregory Franklin
This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…
Chauliac, Michel; And Others
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694
Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain
This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752
Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim
The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed >/= Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604
Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok; Driskell, Judy A
This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 ± 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533
Lacko, Daniël; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan
A hand dynamometer was used to measure muscle strength in 207 patients admitted to the Gastroenterology service of a general hospital. Validation of international standards in a normal population of both sexes and different ages revealed that our normals perform at the 25% percentile of international values. Results were correlated with other measurements of nutritional status, namely anthropometric measurements, serum albumin level and tuberculin test. Compared to normals, muscle strength was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in patients with body mass index under 19, cutaneous tricipital folding < 85%, brachial circumference < 85%, and serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl. No difference in muscle strength between tuberculin positive or negative subjects was observed. None of the nutritional parameter was helpful to predict complications in patients submitted to surgery. Thus, muscle strength is a useful parameter to evaluate nutritional status but, similar to other measurements, is not predictive of surgical complications. PMID:1341789
Hirsch, S; de la Maza, M P; Obaldía, N; Espinoza, J; Hübner, C; Petermann, M; Bunout, D
It was aimed at evaluating the clinical usefulness of the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) to identify malnutrition in elderly patients with cognitive impairment, admitted to a geriatric convalescence unit (intermediate care facility). Sixty-three patients with cognitive impairment were studied. Cognitive impairment was considered when mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores were below 21. MNA and a nutritional evaluation according to the sequential model of the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) were performed at admission. According to the AIN criteria, malnutrition was considered, if there were abnormalities in at least one of the following parameters: albumin, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), and branchial circumference. Based on these criteria, 27 patients (42.8%) proved to be undernourished at admission, whereas if taking the original MNA scores, 39 patients (61.9%) were undernourished, 23 (36.5%) were at risk of malnutrition, and 1 (1.5%) was normal. The analyzed population was divided in four categories (quartiles) of the MNA scores: very low (= 13.5), low (> 13.5 and = 16), intermediate (> 16 and = 18.5) and high (> 18.5). Likelihood ratios of each MNA quartile were obtained by dividing the percentage of patients in a given MNA category who were undernourished (according to AIN) by the percentage of patients in the same MNA category who were not undernourished. In the very low MNA quartile, this likelihood ratio was 2.79 and for the low MNA quartile it was 0.49. For intermediate and high MNA categories, likelihood ratios were 1.0 and 0.07 respectively. In the present study, MNA identified undernourished patients with a high clinical diagnostic impact value only, when very low scores (= 13) are obtained. PMID:15207392
Arellano, M; Garcia-Caselles, M P; Pi-Figueras, M; Miralles, R; Torres, R M; Aguilera, A; Cervera, A M
OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people
SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus
This paper presents the results of a nationwide anthropometric survey conducted on children in China. Eight hand anthropometric\\u000a dimensions were measured from 20,000 children with age ranged from 4 to 17 years old. Mean values, standard deviations, and\\u000a the 5th, 95th percentile for each dimension were estimated. The dimension difference between age, gender and difference between\\u000a Chinese and Japanese were
Linghua Ran; Xin Zhang; Chuzhi Chao; Taijie Liu; Tingting Dong
Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498
Brunkhorst, L; Kielstein, H
Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498
Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849
Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins
Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).
Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James
In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.
Nancy P. Moreno
Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331
Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.
Metzger, Lloyd E.
Thirty anthropometric and ten physiological parameters were evaluated over a 10-month period during 1985-86 in 66 polar explorers at an Antarctic station (Mirny observatory), all of them males aged 25-61 years. The evaluations were made in the months of April, September and January, which corresponded to the following Antarctic seasons: the beginning of the polar night, an intermediate period, and the beginning of the polar day; the necessary measurements were performed on subjects belonging to three occupational groups, namely: administrative, scientific, and manual workers. Significant changes in the pattern of skinfold thickness were observed using ANOVA with repeated measurements during the winter period (p < 0.05). Despite the fact that body weight and BMI of subjects remained unchanged, the mean sum of skinfold thickness and subcutaneous fat mass increased over the studied period at the expense of muscle mass. In participants engaged in high levels of outdoor physical activity (e.g. construction workers, drivers, technicians), an increase in fat mass, significant fall in muscle mass on wrist dynamometry, and protracted time of the simple motor response time was documented. Systolic blood pressure showed a downward trend during the winter in the group of manual workers, while significant rises in the diastolic pressure (p < 0.05) were found in the group of scientists at the end of the polar night. The present findings may be interpreted as evidence for destabilization in the studied individuals, and for an adaptation response to the Antarctic environment, which results in apparent increase in body fat and decrease in muscle mass. PMID:10528466
Belkin, V; Karasik, D
This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…
Houtkooper, Linda; And Others
Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing!
Background A limited body of research suggests that ongoing maintenance enteral nutrition (MEN) can be beneficial in maintaining disease remission in Crohn’s Disease (CD). We aimed to assess how achievable MEN is and whether it helps to prolong remission. Methods Patients newly diagnosed with CD in 2010 and 2011 who commenced exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for 8 weeks were followed up for a year post diagnosis. All patients who took EEN were encouraged to continue MEN post EEN. Data on azathioprine use was also collected. Categorical variables were compared using chi–square/Fischer’s exact test. Medians were expressed along with complete data ranges. Results 59 patients (34 male, median age 11.07 years, range 2.5-16.33 years) were identified. 11/59 (18%) had a poor response to EEN and were switched to steroids. 48/59 patients completed 8 weeks EEN and achieved clinical remission/response. 46/48 patients received Modulen IBD®, 29/48 (60%) consumed EEN orally and 19/48 (40%) via NGT. 15/48 (31%) patients were able to continue MEN post EEN completion. MEN was consumed for a mean of 10.8 months (range 4–14 months). 14/15 patients drank MEN and 1/15 had MEN via NGT. Remission rates at 1 year in patients continuing MEN were 60% (9/15) compared to15% (2/13) in patients taking no treatment (p?=?0.001) and 65% (13/20) in patients taking azathioprine (p?=?0.14). Conclusion A sub group of patients can continue MEN as a maintenance treatment and this seems a useful strategy, especially in those who are not commencing azathioprine. PMID:24645851
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…
Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María
Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…
Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar
The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout
Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769
Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. PMID:25475769
Raschke, G; Rieger, U-M; Peisker, A; Djedovic, G; Gomez-Dammeier, M; Guentsch, A; Schaefer, O; Schultze-Mosgau, S
Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.
This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.
Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.
Smith, Scott M.
(appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements, the science dedicated to the measurement of the human face. Anthropometric studies like [11, 12] report statis
DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data B. NÃ¡cher, S foot anthropometric measures or by analyzing 3D foot shapes  . 3D foot shape models form another anthropometric measures had the greatest relevance for shoe fitting, and by Mochimaru et al , Luximon et al
Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance. PMID:24044066
Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.
The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups. Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional “status” indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate. Data come from two main types of source: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be disaggregated to village level, but are of unknown representativeness and often cannot be linked with other variables of interest; sample surveys provide integrated data of more or less known representativeness, but sample sizes usually do not allow disaggregation to, for example, specific villages. A combination of these sources, with a capability for ad hoc surveys (formal or informal) is often the best solution. Finally, much depends on adequate facilities for data analysis, even though simple, comprehensible data outputs are what is required. Intersectoral cooperation is needed to provide realistic options for the decision-making process. PMID:6606498
Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isometric strength scores, the ability to lift weights before and after a weight training programme, and selected anthropometric measurements in untrained men. The subjects significantly increased the amount of weight they could handle in the training exercises, but there was no accompanying increase in the isometric tension they could
PHILIP J. RASCH; WILLIAM R. PIEKSOX
The aim of this study was to collect isometric muscle strength data and anthropometric dimensions from a sample of the Chinese population. These basic data are important for workplace, task, and equipment design. The study involved collecting data from a sample of 146 male and 47 female subjects in the city of Ningbo in China. Five measures of muscle strength
Guobing Xiao; Ling Lei; Patrick G. Dempsey; Beibei Lu; Youxin Liang
In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,
Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg
This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…
Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley
Measurements relevant to body fatness are made commonly in clinical settings. However, associations between these measurements and body fatness are poorly known and procedures are needed to facilitate the interpretation of these measurements. Consequently, data from 405 white children and adults aged 6 to 49 yr were used to calculate correlations between selected anthropometric measurements and estimates of percentage body
Alex F. Roche; Roger M. Siervogel; Paul Webb
Some designers assume that if an individual's stature is a certain population percentile, his\\/her other body dimensions will also be the same population percentile. It is also frequently assumed that anthropometric dimensions are normally distributed. This study aimed at evaluating the validity of these two assumptions. The subjects, 70 male and 70 female, were grouped according to their stature in
M. Vasu; A. Mital
This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…
Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott
Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.
LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN
This paper presents the first-stage extended results of an anthropometry survey project that has been done recently in Taiwan. The purpose of the anthropometry survey project was to construct a static and dynamic anthropometric database for local workers, for use by designers and engineers involved in designing the work-related facilities. Local human factors researchers and specialists were involved in this
Eric Min-yang Wang; Mao-Jiun Wang; Wen-Yu Yeh; Yu-Chuan Shih; Yu-Cheng Lin
Characterizing the vari- ations of the human body shape is fundamentally important in many ap- plications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technol- ogy makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract
Zouhour Ben Azouz; Marc Rioux; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage
Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687
Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A
Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.
Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)
Human beings are often being exposed to carcinogenic factors during their life, some of which are the nutritional factors. From the mechanistic view, nutritional factors are classified into genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Genotoxic agent begins their action at the DNA level, causing DNA damage through several mechanisms, e.g. gene point mutations, deletions and insertions, recombinations, rearrangements and amplifications, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Most genotoxic agents are micro components of nutrition, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) or heterocyclic amines (HCAs), aflatoxin, and N-nitrosamine. Non-genotoxic agents are less defined in their modes of action, but they are presumed to indirectly affect the cell through tumor promoters. These agents are generally macro components, e.g. high fat. Moreover, epigenetic factors, including changes in the DNA methylation pattern, and peroxidation process resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS), are also known to cause cancer. On the other hand, it is also well recognized that diet and nutrition contain components that can reduce the risk of cancer, in some cases by decreasing the effects of food mutagens, or through carcinogen detoxification, or protection of DNA from electrophilic carcinogen. Thus nutritionally related cancer ultimately develops from an imbalance of carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis process. PMID:20305331
Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications for Public Relations Professionals FriedmanSchoolofNutritionScienceandPolicy #12;Students entering
Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...
The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...
The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...
The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual
K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang
This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to under- stand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, rela- tive stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m\\/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension
Pui W. Kong; Hendrik de Heer
Purpose: This study proposes a classification system for youth sports that is maturation-based, using the anthropometric prediction of vertical jump impulse potential. Methods: Impulse was calculated for children between 8.0 and 17.9 years of age from vertical jump height [I = m × (2 gh)0.5] in a truncated version of the Coquitlam Growth Study database. A series of stepwise regressions
Gregory Anderson; Richard Ward
The use of 3-D whole body scanners has opened new opportunities for effective anthropometric data collection and its numerous applications. Meanwhile, there is a growing concern about whether the scan-derived measurements are comparable with the manual measurements. In this paper, an experiment was first conducted with 263 human subjects to evaluate the scan-derived measurements. By comparing the mean absolute difference
Jun-Ming Lu; Mao-Jiun J. Wang
The CAESAR project (Robinette et al. 2002) was the first anthropometric survey to provide 3-D human models. It was a multi-million dollar collaboration of more than 35 companies, several government agencies, and with representatives from 6 countries. Data were gathered in North America, The Netherlands, and Italy and two different 3-D scanning technologies were used. More than 13,000 3-D scans
Kathleen M. Robinette; Hein Daanen
Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910
Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa
Objective Abnormal imaging in the patellar tendon reveals pathology that is often associated with knee pain. Anthropometric measures of body size and mass, such as height, weight and waist?to?hip ratio (WHR), have been individually associated with abnormal imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric factors that have the strongest relationship with abnormal imaging in volleyball players. Methods Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist girth, hip girth and WHR were measured in a cohort of 113 competitive volleyball players (73 men, 40 women). The univariate (ANOVA) and multivariable (discriminant function analysis) association between abnormal imaging and these anthropometric factors were investigated. Results No significant association was found in the female volleyball players. A significant univariate association was observed between abnormal imaging and heavier weight, greater BMI, larger waist and hip girth and larger WHR in the male volleyball players. Waist girth was the only factor that retained this association in a multivariable model (p<0.05). Conclusions Men with a waist girth greater than 83?cm seem to be at greater risk of developing patellar tendon pathology. There may be both mechanical and biochemical reasons for this increased risk. PMID:16920767
Malliaras, P; Cook, J L; Kent, P M
Aim: The main goal of this research is to correlate anthropometric characteristics of newborns in pregnant women who consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics Clinic of the Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. Methods: The retrospective study covered a period of two years. Main inclusion criteria for the study was that pregnant women consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The research included respondents who had a singleton pregnancy, without pathological conditions that can affect the outcome and duration of pregnancy. Results: At the Obstetrics Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. In that period 393 pregnant women completed labor who in the personal history had data on smoking during pregnancy. Of the total number of subjects enrolled in this study 38.17% smoked up to 10 cigarettes a day, 33.08 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes a day, while up to 30 cigarettes per day smoked 28.75 % of respondents. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the average values of all anthropometric parameters, in relation to the number of cigarettes consumed by the subjects during the day. We also found negative correlation in the average values of anthropometric measures and the number of cigarettes consumed (p <0.05). PMID:25126013
El–Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Izetbegovic, Sebija; El-Ardat, Khalil A. Abou
In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734
Gite, L P; Yadav, B G
The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707
Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J; Goncalves, José; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J
Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515
Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health. PMID:25516308
Song, SuJin; Song, Won O
Illness and injury are physiologic stressors that alter the body's metabolic and energy demands. Approximately 30 to 55% of hospitalized patients have evidence of malnutrition, which makes nutrition screening and assessment an integral part of the evaluation of the critically ill adult. Nutritional assessment relies on a complete history and physical examination, appropriate laboratory measurements, and diagnostic testing as warranted. Although a single laboratory result may be helpful for nutritional screening, there is no single parameter that is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of malnutrition. Instead, nutritional assessment must be ongoing and be derived from a variety of sources in order to identify nutritional trends over time. Early identification and nutritional intervention can lessen morbidity and mortality risks; however, underlying acute and/or chronic disease processes often need to be identified and corrected before the body can reverse abnormal nutrient metabolism. A comprehensive nutritional assessment, incorporated with clinical status, will provide the basis for a nutritional support plan and evaluation strategies. In order to help the advanced practice nurse determine the appropriate nutritional regimen, this article discusses the importance of the patient history, physical examination, body composition measurement techniques, and laboratory data assessment. PMID:15586160
Sabol, Valerie K
With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 ± 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 ± 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart® 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897
Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G
This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990
Greco, Deborah S
The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (?0.50 vs. ?0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and associated cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625881
Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.
We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398
del Cura, Isabel
Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640
Teich, N; Mössner, J
Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child
Schladow, S. Geoffrey
Background. Lower serum albumin concentration (sAlb) and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported to predict death in patients treated with haemodialysis (HD). SAlb, along with anthropo- metric measures, has been used as a surrogate marker for nutritional status in patients with chronic disease. Though adequate nutrition has been considered an important factor for patients treated with HD, it
Paul L. Kimmel; Lakhmir S. Chawla; Amali Amarasinghe; Rolf A. Peterson; Karen L. Weihs; Samuel J. Simmens; Sylvan Alleyne; Harry B. Burke; Illuminado Cruz; Judith H. Veis
... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) in Thai cirrhotic patients and to evaluate nutritional and immunological status in various stages of cirrhosis. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and anthropometric measurement were used as nutritional assessment in sixty cirrhotic patients. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test, lymphocyte count, immunoglobulin and complement were assessed for immune status. Blood samples were sent for routine tests, prealbumin, thiamine and riboflavin level. There were 7/60 (11.7%) patients with percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) less than 90 per cent. SGA, hemoglobin, protein indices and cholesterol level showed the deterioration of nutritional status in the late stage of the disease. Five (8.3%) patients with thiamine deficiency, and thirteen (21.7%) patients with riboflavine deficiency were detected. Lowest levels of complement and highest levels of immunoglobulin also occurred in the late stage of the disease. In conclusion, defining %IBW <90 per cent as malnutrition, the prevalence of malnutrition in Thai cirrhotic patients was 11.7 per cent. Nutritional and immunological status deteriorated according to the advanced stage of disease. If nutritional support is given in the early stage, it may improve nutritional status and reduce morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. PMID:11759979
Sobhonslidsuk, A; Roongpisuthipong, C; Nantiruj, K; Kulapongse, S; Songchitsomboon, S; Sumalnop, K; Bussagorn, N
Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of our society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometrical situation and the lifestyle in a sample of university students. A full anthropometrical evaluation was undertaken, including bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), in 111 students in the last year of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, as well as a lifestyle questionnaire (physical activity, alcohol and cigarette consumption). A sexual dimorphism was found in weight distribution according to the classification proposed by SEEDO: 6.4% of women presented a weight lower than the health recommendations (there no men in this group) whereas 27.8% of men and 6.5% of women were in the overweight range. 15.3% of the cases had excessive waist circumference. Fat mass by BIA was higher among women. On the other hand, 67% of university students stated to perform regular physical activity, 16.7% stated being cigarette smokers, and 55.6% stated to consume high-grade alcohol. To conclude, we studied a sample population of young and healthy subjects with, however, a significant percentage of women with body weight lower than the healthy standards, overweighed people, and smokers usually taking high-grade alcohol. These data should elicit an alert of the potential cardiovascular risk in the university population if action is not taken. This population should be included in the health promotion plans. PMID:22470029
Ledo-Varela, M T; de Luis Román, D A; González-Sagrado, M; Izaola Jauregui, O; Conde Vicente, R; Aller de la Fuente, R
A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.
Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.
Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.
Chesak, D. D.
Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active Appearance Model Marius D. Cordea and Emil M. Petriu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract and statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial-types. The 3-D anthropometric
Petriu, Emil M.
Background: Pediatric nutrition risk screening tools are not routinely implemented throughout many hospitals, despite prevalence studies demonstrating malnutrition is common in hospitalized children. Existing tools lack the simplicity of those used to assess nutrition risk in the adult population. This study reports the accuracy of a new, quick, and simple pediatric nutrition screening tool (PNST) designed to be used for pediatric inpatients. Materials and Methods: The pediatric Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA) and anthropometric measures were used to develop and assess the validity of 4 simple nutrition screening questions comprising the PNST. Participants were pediatric inpatients in 2 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 1 regional hospital. Results: Two affirmative answers to the PNST questions were found to maximize the specificity and sensitivity to the pediatric SGNA and body mass index (BMI) z scores for malnutrition in 295 patients. The PNST identified 37.6% of patients as being at nutrition risk, whereas the pediatric SGNA identified 34.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the PNST compared with the pediatric SGNA were 77.8% and 82.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of the PNST at detecting patients with a BMI z score of less than -2 was 89.3%, and the specificity was 66.2%. Both the PNST and pediatric SGNA were relatively poor at detecting patients who were stunted or overweight, with the sensitivity and specificity being less than 69%. Conclusion: The PNST provides a sensitive, valid, and simpler alternative to existing pediatric nutrition screening tools such as Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth (STRONGkids), and Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) to ensure the early detection of hospitalized children at nutrition risk. PMID:25096546
White, Melinda; Lawson, Karen; Ramsey, Rebecca; Dennis, Nicole; Hutchinson, Zoe; Soh, Xin Ying; Matsuyama, Misa; Doolan, Annabel; Todd, Alwyn; Elliott, Aoife; Bell, Kristie; Littlewood, Robyn
Objective: Comparison of anthropometric parameters of the trunk and extremities between 2 groups of children with chronic renal failure (CRF) with different levels of nutritional status and healthy controls. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Settings: Department of Physiology and Anthropology, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje. Patients: Twenty-one patients with a mean age of 10.5 ± 3.2 years (10 boys
Lidija Todorovska; Emilija Sahpasova; Danijel Todorovski
Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were
Dorothee Volkert; Wolfgang Kruse; Peter Oster; Günter Schlierf
Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla
Genetic variation among human populations can reflect a combination of contemporary patterns of gene flow and genetic drift as well as long-term population relationships due to population history. We examine the likely impact of past history and contemporary structure on the patterns of anthropometric variation among 31 counties in Ireland (made up of the two nations of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). Data for 17 anthropometric measures and parent-offspring migration on 7,214 adult Irish males were taken from the large data set originally collected by Dupertuis and Dawson in the mid-1930s (Hooton et al., 1955). Patterns of genetic similarity among 31 counties were assessed using R matrix methods that allow estimation of minimum genetic distances. These distances were compared to distances reflecting history, geography, and migration using matrix permutation methods. The results indicate that among-group variation in Ireland reflects past population history to a much greater extent than contemporary patterns of migration and population size. The midland counties are distinct from other populations, and their history suggests greater genetic input from early Viking invasions. A second major pattern in biological variation is a longitudinal gradient separating western and eastern counties. This gradient appears related to patterns of early settlement and/or a concentration in the east of later immigrants, particularly from England. Comparison of regional means with published data for several other European nations confirms these hypotheses. PMID:7726293
Relethford, J H; Crawford, M H
Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584
Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz
Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989
Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal disorder with bone fragility and often short stature. This study provides anthropometric measurements in Egyptian children with OI and determine variability among OI types classified according to Sillence et al. [Sillence et al. (1979); J Med Genet 16:101-116]. The study included 124 patients with OI. All were subjected to full clinical and radiological examination. Accordingly they were classified into types OI-I (N = 16), OI-III (N = 86), and OI-IV (N = 22) following Sillence classification. Five anthropometric measurements were taken for each patient including: length or standing height, weight, head circumference, arm span, and sitting height. Three indices were calculated: body mass index, relative head circumference, and relative arm span. Results show that mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) was significantly reduced in OI type III and IV compared to type I. Mean sitting height SDS was significantly reduced in OI-III than that of OI-I. Mean relative head circumference was significantly increased in OI-III than that in OI-I and OI-IV. Using anthropometry, this study was able to quantitatively assess the body physique in the different Sillence types of OI and the variability among them. PMID:22887991
Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Moushira E; Hosny, Laila; El-Houssini, Rasha; Oteify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A
OBJECTIVE: It is important to determine what values of simple anthropometric measurements are associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension to provide an indication for further detailed investigations. In this analysis, we aimed to assess which anthropometric cutoff values are best at predicting the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria in Hong
GTC Ko; JCN Chan; CS Cockram; J Woo; Gary TC Ko
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and
T. Jürimäe; T. Hurbo; J. Jürimäe
BACKGROUND: The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. METHODS: Study
Catherine M Olsen; Maria Celia Hughes; Nirmala Pandeya; Adèle C Green
Objective: To review the evidence on diet and nutrition relating to osteoporosis and provide recommendations for preventing osteoporosis, in particular, osteopototic fracture. Approach: Firstly, to review the definition, diagnosis and epidemiology of osteoporosis, to discuss the difficulties in using bone mineral density to define osteoporosis risk in a world-wide context and to propose that fragility fracture should be considered as
The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population
Objective The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion Overweight is common for both sexes in the People’s Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. PMID:24477219
Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie
The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.
Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.
Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional
Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August
Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874
Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A
Nutritional insufficiency, leading to early growth deficits has long-lasting effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early enteral feeding is commonly limited by immaturity of gastrointestinal motor function in preterm neonates. To ensure that a stressed premature infant receives an adequate but not excessive amount of glucose, the amount of carbohydrate delivered in the form of dextrose is commonly initiated at the endogenous hepatic glucose production and utilization rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg/min; and 8 to 10 mg/kg/min in ELBW infants. The early provision of protein is critical to attain positive nitrogen balance and accretion as premature babies lose approximately 1% of their protein stores daily. Aminoacid can be used at concentrations of 3-3.5 g/kg/day and lipid at 3.5-4 g/kg/day as long as the fat intake remains less than 60% of nonprotein calories. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus need to be provided in PN solution as per their daily needs. Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major complication of PN. All efforts should be made to avoid it. PMID:18536894
Chawla, Deepak; Thukral, Anu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K
The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM) distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women) were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation) among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish), while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI) than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length. Key Points The male sprinters were less variable in height, body mass and body mass index than the normal populations The sprinters were lighter than the normal populations. The sprinters were taller than the American normal population. The female sprinters were less variable in body mass and body mass index than the normal population. PMID:24501574
Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 29–38 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 0–12 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score. PMID:19793851
Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D
The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.
Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.
A sample of 215 adolescents (16.9 +/- 0.7 y; 13-18 y) from a low socioeconomic level of Valencia, Venezuela, at their first trimester of pregnancy were studied in order to identify nutritional risk. Socioeconomic, anthropometrical, hematological and dietary characteristic were assessed. Pregestational weight, actual weight, height, arm circumference (AC), triceps skin fold (TS), fat and muscle area (FA/MA) and pregestational body mass index (PBMI) were determined. Hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were measured by colorimetric and ELISA methods. Two 24 hour recalls were obtained. According to age, two groups were created. Pregnant adolescents were grouped by age: Group 1, 13 to 15 years old and Group 2, 16 to 18 years old. Nutritional risk was defined as: Gynecological age lower than 4 years since menarche. PBMI < 19.8 kg/m2, height below 10th Percentile of reference, Hb below 11 g/dL and ferritin < 12 micrograms/L. Almost all the adolescents (96.3%) were in poverty. 83.3% were single, 83.3% were at elementary school before pregnancy but 84.1% were attending house chores at the time of exam. There were significant differences (p < 0.001) for gynecological age and menarche age, but not for anthropometrical, hematological and dietary variables when Group 1 was compared to group 2. 35.3% of the adolescents had a gynecological age lower than 4 years, 23.3% were below 10th percentile for height, 36.3% had a PBMI lower than 19.8 kg/m2, 26.5% were below 10th percentile for arm circumference, anemia was present in 13.7% and low levels of ferritin in 18.4% of the adolescents. Calorie intake was below recommendation in 87.3% and adequacy for vitamin A and C, calcium and zinc were below 2/3 of recommendation in 36.3%. 25.9%, 88.7% and 73.5% of the adolescents respectively. Studied adolescents had a high prevalence of risk factors for nutritional deficiencies (short age, poverty, low weight, anemia and deficient intake). Early assessment of this conditions allows to identify the risk, to establish interventions and to monitor pregnancy evolution. PMID:14528603
Peña, Evelyn; Sánchez, Armando; Solano, Liseti
Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)
Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others
Introduction. Preoperative malnutrition is a major risk factor for increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Definition and diagnosis of malnutrition and its treatment is still subject for controversy. Furthermore, practical implementation of nutrition-related guidelines is unknown. Methods. A review of the available literature and of current guidelines on perioperative nutrition was conducted. We focused on nutritional screening and perioperative nutrition in patients undergoing digestive surgery, and we assessed translation of recent guidelines in clinical practice. Results and Conclusions. Malnutrition is a well-recognized risk factor for poor postoperative outcome. The prevalence of malnutrition depends largely on its definition; about 40% of patients undergoing major surgery fulfil current diagnostic criteria of being at nutritional risk. The Nutritional Risk Score is a pragmatic and validated tool to identify patients who should benefit from nutritional support. Adequate nutritional intervention entails reduced (infectious) complications, hospital stay, and costs. Preoperative oral supplementation of a minimum of five days is preferable; depending on the patient and the type of surgery, immune-enhancing formulas are recommended. However, surgeons' compliance with evidence-based guidelines remains poor and efforts are necessary to implement routine nutritional screening and nutritional support. PMID:21687620
Cerantola, Yannick; Grass, Fabian; Cristaudi, Alessandra; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus; Hübner, Martin
The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.
Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.
... Psychological Services Social Services Outreach Sponsorship Provider List Support Groups Other organizations: Painted Turtle ICF Make-A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, due to hemolytic ...
Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result
Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley
, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important
This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…
Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.
Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)
McAfee, Donald C.
Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient’s response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should
Maria R. MASCARENHAS; Babette Zemel; Virginia A. Stallings
The aim of the present study was to assess socioeconomic characteristics, dietary intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk (using anthropometric indicators of central obesity) in lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for gender and age) in order to increase the power of the statistical tests. The sample was made up of 87 individuals (58.6% males; 29 vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians) with a mean age of 40 +/- 13 years. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only the number of residents per household differed between groups, with a greater percentage of homes with five or more residents in the vegetarian group. Concerning lifestyle, the groups differed with regard to smoking habits (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of smokers among the non-vegetarians. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the anthropometric variables studied. Concerning dietary intake, no difference between groups was found with regard to total calorie intake, but the consumption of proteins, total lipids, saturated fat and cholesterol was higher among the non-vegetarians, whereas carbohydrate and fiber intake was higher among the vegetarians. The results of the present study suggest that, although a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is considered healthier due to the lower consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, there are no significant differences in nutritional status or anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk when lifestyle and total calorie intake are similar. PMID:21614817
Fernandes Dourado, Keila; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Rojas, Hernando Flores; Simiões, Shirley Kelly dos Santos; de Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira
The present study was undertaken to determine anthropometrical parameters in male adult Wistar rats. We tested the hypothesis that the anthropometrical index may identify obesity and may predict its adverse effects on lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats. Two experimental protocols were performed. In the first experiment, 50 male Wistar rats, 21 days old and fed a control chow were studied up to 150 days of age. In the second experiment, male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 8): control (C) given free access to a control chow; (S) receiving the control chow and drinking 30% sucrose ad libitum and (HC) fed a high-carbohydrate diet ad libitum. The first experiment showed that food consumption, energy intake and body weight increased with increasing age, while specific rate of body mass gain was significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in body length and thoracic circumference of rats from 60 days of age. The abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI) significantly increased with enhancing age in rats up to 90 days of age and remained constant thereafter. In the second experiment, after 30 days of dietary treatment, the final body weight, body mass gain, carcass fat and BMI were higher in S and HC rats than in C. There were no significant alterations in body length and carcass protein among the groups. Triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (CT), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipid hydroperoxide (LH) were higher in S and HC rats than in C. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in HC rats and total antioxidant substances (TAS) decreased in S and HC rats. There were positive correlations between BMI with carcass fat, BMI with LH and BMI and serum TG concentration. In conclusion, the BMI for male adult Wistar rats ranged between 0.45 and 0.68 g/cm(2). Obesity may be easily estimated from the BMI in rats. Alterations in BMI were associated with dyslipidemic profile and oxidative stress in serum of rats and BMI may predict these adverse consequences of the obesity in rats. PMID:17234057
Novelli, E L B; Diniz, Y S; Galhardi, C M; Ebaid, G M X; Rodrigues, H G; Mani, F; Fernandes, A A H; Cicogna, A C; Novelli Filho, J L V B
OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901
Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu
Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is
Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes
\\u000a In this paper we describe a tool for the semi-automatic evaluation of anthropometric parameters from whole body scanner data.\\u000a It is based on a user friendly interface allowing the interactive visualization of the mesh and the use of specifically designed\\u000a measurements tools able to obtain standardized anthropometric estimates that can be compared with manually acquired data.\\u000a The “virtual” measurements procedures
Christian Lovato; Umberto Castellani; Simone Fantoni; Chiara Milanese; Carlo Zancanaro; Andrea Giachetti
Obstructive sleep apnea often coexists with visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analysed gender-related differences in anthropometrics according to sleep apnea severity and metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the visceral adiposity index, a recently introduced marker of cardiometabolic risk, was analysed. Consecutive subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (n = 528, 423 males, mean age ± standard deviation: 51.3 ± 12.8 years, body mass index: 31.0 ± 6.2 kg m(-2) ) were studied by full polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index 43.4 ± 27.6 h(-1) ). Variables of general and visceral adiposity were measured (body mass index, neck, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio). The visceral adiposity index was calculated, and metabolic syndrome was assessed (NCEP-ATP III criteria). The sample included controls (apnea-hypopnea index <10 h(-1) , n = 55), and patients with mild-moderate (apnea-hypopnea index 10-30 h(-1) , n = 144) and severe sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index >30 h(-1) , n = 329). When anthropometric variables were entered in stepwise multiple regression, body mass index, waist circumference and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were associated with the apnea-hypopnea index in men (adjusted R(2) = 0.308); by contrast, only hip circumference and height-normalized neck circumference were associated with sleep apnea severity in women (adjusted R(2) = 0.339). These results changed little in patients without metabolic syndrome; conversely, waist circumference was the only correlate of apnea-hypopnea index in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The visceral adiposity index increased with insulin resistance, but did not predict sleep apnea severity. These data suggest gender-related interactions between obstructive sleep apnea, obesity and metabolic abnormalities. The visceral adiposity index was a good marker of metabolic syndrome, but not of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:24118617
Mazzuca, Emilia; Battaglia, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Marotta, Anna M; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Esquinas, Cristina; Barcelò, Antonia; Barbé, Ferran; Bonsignore, Maria R
Objective: When the dimensional measurements of the students who spend most of their time at school are taken into consideration, inappropriate dimensions of school equipment may affect their body and psychological improvements negatively. Anthropometric measurements are necessary for designing the educational equipment of the children at school. It is emphasized that anthropometric measurements of the people living in different climate and altitude conditions will be different. It is mentioned that anthropometric data available for a certain region will be able to change as a result of changing socio-economical conditions and therefore, anthropometric data update is necessary at certain periods. Materials and Methods: In 2000 anthropometric data obtained from the children between the age of seven and fifteen, who were in sitting and standing positions, were measured with a repeated measurement in the same schools in 2007. Results: Mean values of the heights of elbow at standing position of the female students, 8 years old, increased from 72.38 cm in 2000 to 74.67 cm in 2007 (p<0.001). Most of the other measurements in 2007 were larger than those in 2000, giving the impression that new generation children are getting larger in size. Conclusion: As reported in the literature, anthropometric data should be updated at certain period of times. PMID:25610324
Malkoc, ?smail; Kaya, M. Dursun; Erdogan, Osman; Kara, Asli; Yesilyurt, Hakki; Ozkan, Behzat
Aim of the research is to establish the prevalence of constipation in Osjecko-baranjska County, to establish its specific characteristics and to determine the effect of demographic, anthropometric and socioeconomic factors. It is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. on systematic sample of 900 subjects between 20 and 69 years of age. Every subject was sent an invitation letter and a Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for one of the disorders. A scoring algorithm was used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of functional constipation. The chi-square test (chi2 test), t-test and logistic regression were used for analysis. The prevalence of constipation in our study was 22.19%, which is higher than the prevalence in most other countries, where it ranges from 5% to 18%. In our study statistically significant variables were: place of current residence (urban), education level (high school), marital status (divorced people), a larger number of household members and a lower health status by self-assessment. According to t-test persons with constipation on average are older, have higher average BMI and lower average grade valued financial status of households and their health. There were a greater number of subjects that had at least one alarm symptom or some of the psychosocial factors and they often suffered from a chronic disease. Functional constipation presents a significant health problem. Rome III survey questionnaire proved to be an acceptable method for diagnosing this functional disorder in clinical-consilliary and primary health care, and for persons showing signs of alarm and needing further diagnostic treatment. PMID:25144985
Ebling, Barbara; Guli?, Sasa; Jurci?, Dragan; Martinac, Miran; Gmajni?, Rudika; Bili?, Ante; Pribi?, Sanda; Levak, Maja Tolusi?
This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 +/- 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC < or = 2 S.D.) had significantly lower values mainly for brain volume (BV), parental Z-HC, IQ, SA, AAT, birth length (BL) and a significantly higher incidence of undernutrition in the first year of life compared with their macrocephalic peers (Z-HC > 2S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV, parental Z-HC and BL were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child's Z-HC variance (r(2) = 0.727). These findings confirm the hypothesis formulated in this study: (1) independently of age, sex and SES, brain parameters, parental HC and prenatal nutritional indicators are the most important independent variables that determine HC and (2) microcephalic children present multiple disorders not only related to BV but also to IQ, SA and nutritional background. PMID:15093150
Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Olivares, Manuel G; Díaz, Nora S; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Miller, Patricio T; Bosch, Enrique O; Larraín, Cristián G
Background: Nutrition support is often delayed or interrupted. The aim of this study is to identify reasons for and quantify time spent without nutrition in a mixed medical-surgical-cardiac pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Data were prospectively collected to describe the patient cohort (anthropometrics and diagnostic category) and nutrition practices (time to nutrition initiation; frequency, duration, and causes of interruptions; and overall caloric intake). Descriptive statistics were used; comparisons of groups were performed using an independent t test and P < .05 as significance. Results: The mean (standard deviation) time to nutrition initiation was 22.8 (16.6) hours following admission; 35% of patients were initiated after >24 hours. Nutrition was interrupted 1.2 (2.0) times per patient. Time spent without nutrition due to interruptions was 11.6 (23.0) hours, up to 102 hours. Patients spent 42.4% (28.2%) of their median (range) PICU admission of 2.9 days (0.25-39 days) without any form of nutrition. Patients aged 0-6 months had a significantly higher mean number and duration of interruptions (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively) compared with children >6 months. Interruptions due to surgery and planned extubation lasted significantly longer than all other interruptions (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III scores were not correlated with percentage of length of stay spent without nutrition (r = 0.137). Conclusions: Prolonged time to nutrition initiation and interruptions in delivery caused pediatric patients to spend a high proportion of admission without nutrition support, preventing most from meeting energy requirements. Further research addressing specific patient outcomes is required to define optimal initiation times and appropriate procedural-specific fasting times. PMID:24285250
Keehn, Alysha; O'Brien, Christina; Mazurak, Vera; Brunet-Wood, Kim; Joffe, Ari; de Caen, Allan; Larsen, Bodil
The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. Images p16-a p19-a PMID:6850200
Maud, P. J.
The treatment of positional plagiocephaly is controversial. A confounding factor is the lack of a proven clinically viable measure to quantify severity and change in plagiocephaly. The use of anthropometric measurements is one proposed method. In this study, the reliability and validity for this method of measurement were investigated. Two clinicians independently recorded caliper measurements of cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) for infants referred for plagiocephaly or torticollis, and an unbiased observer recorded visual analysis scores during the same visit. CVA scores were assigned into three predetermined severity categories (normal CVA < 3 mm, mild/moderate CVA
Mortenson, Patricia A; Steinbok, Paul
The use of multivariate quantitative trait information to address questions of population relationships and evolutionary issues has a long-standing history in human anthropometry. Previous analyses have usually rested on a number of explicit or implicit assumptions that allow phenotypic information to be used as a proxy for quantitative genetic information. One (usually implicit) assumption is that the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) among traits is proportional to the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P). In this study we discuss the implications of this assumption, demonstrating that if it is true that G = h2P, where h2 is some constant of proportionality, then (1) the biological (phenotypic) Mahalanobis distance will be proportional to genetic distance, (2) phenotypic and genetic allometry coefficients will be equal, and (3) evolutionary models will become simplified. We then use a multivariate quantitative genetic analysis of 12 anthropometric traits in 5 tribes to demonstrate that G = h2P for at least a portion of the Boas data. PMID:7541775
Konigsberg, L W; Ousley, S D
The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. PMID:6850200
Maud, P J
The purpose of this study is to characterize morbid obese patients treated at bariatric surgery clinics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, analyzed by socioeconomic, anthropometric and food intake aspects. Based on an exploratory, transversal and analytical design, this survey interviewed fifty patients being treated at one private and two public bariatric surgery clinics; 74% were female and 26% male. Their average age was 35 +/- 8.6 years old, with an average family income of 9.32 +/- 14.14 minimum wages; with an average family income of 4.69 +/- 3.78 minimum wages for the group treated at public clinics, and an 15.18 +/- 12.63 minimum wages for the obese patients seen at the private clinic; at least 70% of the participants held high school diplomas. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 47.5 +/- 7.2 Kg/m2;, with their food intake standard characterized largely by the consumption of high-energy, high-fat, low carbohydrate items, high in cholesterol and dietary staple fibers. It is concluded that the patients have a food intake standard that offers the risk of worsening their weight situation, requiring more intensive educational actions in preparation for bariatric surgery. PMID:17680159
de Lima, Laydiane Pereira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho
Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262
Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa
During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.
Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.
This is longitudinal retrospective observational cohort study that evaluated anthropometric and biochemical variables of children and adolescents admitted to a Predialysis Interdisciplinary Management Program (PDIMP) responsible for the follow-up of children and adolescents at stages 2 to 4 of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at a tertiary center. One hundred thirty-eight patients with CKD on predialysis treatment with median age at admission of 9 years and the median follow-up time of 5 years were evaluated. Seventy-four (53%) had CKD stage 3 at admission and 70 (51%) reached CKD stage 5 at the end of the follow-up. There was no significant difference between the mean initial and final hemoglobin and serum albumin. However, the final serum bicarbonate presented a significant improvement. Analyses stratified according to clinical variables of interest showed a significant improvement in body mass index (BMI) Z score, especially in the subgroup of children admitted under two years of age. In relation to stature-for-age Z score, data show a significant improvement in stature SD at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study showed improvement of nutritional status of CKD patients and that the deterioration of renal function was not correlated with BMI-for-age Z score.
Silva, Vanessa R.; Soares, Cristina B.; Magalhães, Juliana O.; de Barcelos, Isabella Peixoto; Cerqueira, Debora C.; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Eduardo A.
Data on birth weight for gestational age are not well described for infants with trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), or trisomy 13 (T13). We report on anthropometric charts of infants with these conditions using data from the Vermont Oxford Network (VON). Data from a total of 5147 infants with T21 aged 22–41 weeks, 1053 infants with T18 aged 22–41 weeks and 613 infants with T13 aged 22–40 weeks were used to create birth weight for gestational age charts. Head circumference for gestational age charts were created for infants with T21 only. Combined-sex charts were generated for infants with T18 or T13 while sex-specific charts were generated for infants with T21. Smoothed centiles were created using LmsChartMaker Pro 2.3. Among the three examined groups, infants with T18 were the most likely to be growth restricted while infants with T21 were the least likely to be growth restricted. The new charts for infants with T21 were also compared to the Lubchenco and Fenton charts and both show frequent misclassification of infants with T21 as small or large for gestational age. The new charts should prove to be useful, especially for infants with T21, to assist in medical management and guide nutrition care decisions. PMID:22246859
Boghossian, Nansi S.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Carpenter, Joseph H.
Diet and nutritional factors play a large role in influencing both the quality and quantity of life after the diagnosis of cancer. The oncology nurse is well-positioned to: 1) oversee that the nutritional needs of patients who are newly-diagnosed, undergoing active treatment, or those with advanced disease are met; 2) facilitate referrals of patients with more intensive nutritional needs to registered dietitians; and 3) promote the importance of weight management and a healthful plant-based diet, low in saturated fat and simple sugars, and high in fruits and vegetables and unrefined whole grains, to patients who are likely to join the ranks of ever-expanding population of cancer survivors who now constitute roughly 4% of the U.S. population and who number over 11 million. PMID:19856583
Barrera, Stephanie; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals. PMID:25327004
Zeli?, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesi?; Keleci?, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvari?, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Raheli?, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerovi?, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Susti?, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovaci?, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznari?, Zeljko
The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957
Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette
Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084
Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem
Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have
Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan
This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203
Mössner, J; Teich, N
Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects.
Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation. PMID:23157586
Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J
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The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.
As more and more manufacturing is moved to Mexico, the need for anthropometric data describing the Mexican working population becomes more pronounced. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on 21 anthropometric measures that could readily be used to design workplaces in light manufacturing operations. Eighty-seven females, representing 26% of the plant's employees, were sampled. Measurements were made with the shoes on. The mean stature (height) and elbow heights of this sample were 156 cm and 97 cm. Another recently published survey of female factory workers near the U.S. border included 12 anthropometric dimensions. Five of the dimensions were measured in both studies. Hand lengths were nearly identical; however, the 2 to 3 cm differences in the heights measured in the current study are consistent with the incorporation of the footwear in the current measurements. Thus, this study adds to the growing database that can be used when designing these light manufacturing jobs in Mexico. PMID:12173179
Lavender, S A; Marras, W S; Sabol, R J
The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077
Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S
Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503
Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen
The paper presents the results of studies conducted in recent years, which show that nutrients and bioactive food components, directly or indirectly regulate the functional activity of genes influencing gene transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. A definition of "nutrigenomics" - the science that emerged at the turn of nutrition and genetics, and studies the relationship of human nutrition with the characteristics of its genome in order to understand how food affects gene expression, and ultimately, on human health. It is shown that the cellular and molecular level, nutrients, first serving as a ligand, the receptors are transcription factors, and secondly, as a substrate or intermediate metabolites are incorporated into metabolic pathways whose products control the expression of genes and, thirdly, positive or negative effect on signaling pathways. We present results of their research, which characterize the rate of prevalence of polymorphisms of genes that are markers of risk for obesity. On the basis of domestic and foreign studies concluded that genetic markers can be used for the diagnosis and prognosis of alimentary-dependent diseases such as obesity, and as well as a predictor for the development of a personalized diet and forecast its performance. PMID:23530430
Baturin, A K; Sorokina, E Iu; Pogozheva, A V; Tutel'ian, V A
Objectives Careful assessment of the nutritional needs of cats and dogs must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. The goal of these World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific
Lisa Freeman; Iveta Becvarova; Nick Cave; Clayton MacKay; Patrick Nguyen; Betina Rama; Gregg Takashima; Ross Tiffin; Peter van Beukelen; S Yathiraj
This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…
Foster, Florence P.; And Others
Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…
Boehnlein, Mary Maher
To help people understand what constitutes good nutrition, why it is important, and how it can be incorporated in the daily diet, as well as how to recognize false or misleading claims about food is the responsibility in the 1970's, of nutrition educators. (Editor/MU)
Harker, Charlotte S.; Kupsinel, Penelope E.
This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....
Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613
Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T
The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between smoking status and nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were sought through a Medline search using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand
Jean Dallongeville; Nadine Marecaux; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Philippe Amouyel
Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…
Goldsmith, Robert H.
Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)
Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu
Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable
Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle
Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…
The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)
Dow, Ruth McNabb
Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric
Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi
New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106
Short, D F; Gilsanz, V; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J M; Oberfield, S; Shepherd, J A; Winer, K K; Zemel, B S; Hangartner, T N
The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements
S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee
Malnutrition increases post surgical morbimortality, hospital stance and economical costs. Possibilities of nutritional intervention in surgical patients are important. Early enteral nutrition is better than total parenteral nutrition in patients under surgery. Periroperaoty nutritional support must be administrated to patients with severe or middle undernutrition and will be under surgery, during 7-14 days before surgical intervention, if this intervention could be delayed. Total parenteral nutrition will be not used regularly in patients under mayor digestive surgical procedures. Inmunonutrition has been demonstrated useful in surgical patients. Evidence demonstrates that inmunotritional formulas decrease incidence of infections, hospital stance and time of ventilation in patients in UCI wards. New research areas have been explored in this topic area, carbohydrate utility in presurgical patients and probiotic in enteral formulas. PMID:19295980
de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O
Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions
Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.
The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250
Pla, G W
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program (NEP) on anthropometric, dietetic, and metabolic parameters in high-risk subjects for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one participants, both sexes, were randomly assigned to either the control (58.8%) or the intervention (NEP) group. The intervention group received frequent individual and group nutritional counseling from a team of nutritionists. Participants were assessed at baseline (M0) and after 12 months (M1) for anthropometric, dietetic, and metabolic parameters. The hypothesis was that high-risk subjects for type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in NEP would show an improvement in these parameters. At M1, the intervention group showed a significant decline in body weight (-3.4%), body mass index (-5.7%), cholesterol intake (-49.5%), fasting glycemia (-14.0%), fasting insulin (-9.0%), postprandial glycemia (-21.0%), postprandial insulin (-71.0%), total serum cholesterol (-23.0%), and glycated hemoglobin (-24.0%). A decrease in energy intake (5%, P = .06) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (25%, P = .07) was observed in the interventional group, although it did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the control group presented a significantly higher energy intake (19%, P = .04) and a nonsignificant increase in consumption of all macronutrients. The long-term NEP was found to improve anthropometric, dietary, and metabolic parameters in high-risk subjects for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:20417879
Pimentel, Gustavo D; Portero-McLellan, Kátia C; Oliveira, Erick P; Spada, Ana P M; Oshiiwa, Marie; Zemdegs, Juliane C S; Barbalho, Sandra M
is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which
HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods PoÃ¤ng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company
The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…
Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.
Nutrition humaine et santÃ© Mention : Nutrition, santÃ©, aliments Nature de la formation : DiplÃ´me : Formation initiale #12;2 Nutrition humaine et santÃ© UFR Sciences et Technologies PRÃ?SENTATION Objectifs Mention Nutrition, SantÃ©, Aliments L'objectif de cette mention est de former des Ã©tudiants ayant des
usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table Improving Nutrition in Ethiopia Through Plant Breeding and Soil Management Health Sciences Project Update ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5
Saskatchewan, University of
The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun Research
Hammock, Bruce D.
This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.
This book chapter reviews, for the practicing gastroenterologist: 1) basic knowledge in human nutrition, 2) the diagnosis of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in patients, 3) the circumstances in which protein-calorie malnutrition needs to be aggressively addressed in patients, 4) some of ...
Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282
Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H
Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431
Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.
LEARNING OUTCOME: Infection with HIV was associated with significant decrements in growth, weight gain and CD4+ T-lymphocyte countPoor growth, weight loss, low energy intake and depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts are prominent findings in infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). The purpose of this study was to analyze on a cross-sectional basis the relationship between growth,
L. Messer; N. A. Evans; E. Luder
Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799
Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.
Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min(-1) have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr(-1) and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key PointsTennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1).Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play.200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL.30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours.During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799
Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C; Winter, Edward M
A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…
Palermo, Karen R.
Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition SHRP Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 Â· 973-972-9048 How to Apply Applications, Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition Riva Touger-Decker, PhD, RD, CDN, FADA Chair and Professor Laura D. Byham
SHRP Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi.rutgers.edu/dept/nutr/programs/m_clinutr Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Call: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 Â· 973? Laura D. Byham-Gray, PhD, RD Associate Professor Director, Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Jane
BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures
Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman
In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they
A Molarius; JC Seidell
The present study deals with the correlations of dominant hand grip strength and 12 anthropometric variables, namely, height, weight, BMI, upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, hand breadth, hand length, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, biceps skinfold and triceps skinfold in randomly selected 303 unrelated, normal, healthy students (151 males and 152 females) aged 18-25 years of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The findings of the present study indicate a strong association of dominant right hand grip strength with all the anthropometric variables, except biceps skinfold in male students and with height (r = 0.200), weight (r = 0.275), BMI (p = 0.217), total arm length (p = 0.218) and upper arm circumference (r = 0.199) in female students. Statistically significant positive correlations were also found between dominant left hand grip strength and height (r = 0.275), weight (p = 0.537), BMI (p = 0.472), hand breadth (p = 0.464), upper arm circumference (r = 0.570), forearm circumference (p = 0.464) and triceps skinfold (p = 0.343) only in male students, but no such association was found between grip strength of left hand dominant female students with any of the twelve anthropometric variables. It may be concluded that hand dominance, especially of the right hand, has some close association with the anthropometric variables related to upper extremities. PMID:19462672
Koley, Shyamal; Singh, Arvinder Pal
Aim. To assess the differences in anthropometric parameters, body fat, body mass index (BMI), and body density in- duced by sport-specific morphological optimization (adaptation) between two generations (1980 and 1995) of male elite water polo players. Methods. The survey included a total of 160 elite male water polo players, all members of the top clubs in Croatia. The 1980's generation
Vinko Lozovina; Leo Pavièiæ
Regression equations for predicting bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and wobbling mass (WM) of living people from simple anthropometric measures (segment lengths, circumferences, breadths, and skin folds) have been reported in the literature for the lower extremities, but are lacking for the upper extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate such equations for
Katherine L. Arthurs; David M. Andrews
An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis
Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah
Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…
Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.
We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...
Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 184.108.40.206 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802
Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan
Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 220.127.116.11 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802
Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan
Objective : To investigate associations between cleft lip anthropometrics and dental anomalies in the permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip patients. Design : Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients : Children with unilateral clefts of the lip, with or without cleft palate. Methods : Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The presence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition was assessed radiographically. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and prevalence rates of different dental anomalies were determined using logistic regression analyses. Results : In the 122 included patients, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 80% and in transverse length in 84% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft side lateral lip height and less deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with cleft side maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. On the other hand, patients with a less deficient cleft side lateral lip height and more deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with a cleft side supernumerary maxillary lateral incisor. When looking only at incomplete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip transverse length deficiency was more predictive of the presence of supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors (P = .030), while for complete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip height deficiency was more predictive of the presence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (P = .035). Conclusions : In patients with unilateral clefts, cleft lip anthropometrics have a predictive role in determining the occurrence of dental anomalies. PMID:24437562
Antonarakis, Gregory S; Fisher, David M
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the anthropometric characteristics of the Turkish population by geographical region, age and gender. A survey of 4205 samples consisting of 2263 male and 1942 female civilian subjects was done in the year of 2007. It contains data from all seven geographical regions of Turkey and from all age groups. In the study,
??eri Ali; Nurullah Arslan
Characterizing the variations of the human body shape is fundamentally important to many applications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technology makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than the traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract new measurements
Zouhour Ben Azouz; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage; Marc Rioux
The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.
Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI), but the influence of BMI history and of different types of obesity is uncertain. Ethods: M A case–control study was carried out in Italy including 454 cases and 908 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariate logistic and spline regression models. Results: The OR for BMI >30 at diagnosis compared with 20 to <25?kg?m?2 was 4.08 (95% CI: 2.90–5.74). The association for BMI was monotonic with a possible steeper increase for BMI above 28. Conversely, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) showed a bell shaped curve with increased OR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.43–3.09) in the intermediate tertile only. After stratification by BMI at diagnosis, history of weight loss and BMI at age 30 did not influence endometrial cancer risk. History of obesity in middle age had a weak and not significant adverse effect among obese women (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 0.52–4.96). Conclusion: The predominant importance of recent weight compared to lifetime history, justifies encouraging weight reduction in women at any age. PMID:21386846
Maso, L Dal; Tavani, A; Zucchetto, A; Montella, M; Ferraroni, M; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Decarli, A; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S
A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life. PMID:2152235
Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520
Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J
SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science
Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...
Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)
Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.
Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344
Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy
This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.
All multifetal pregnancies can be considered high risk due to frequent obstetrical complications associated with this type\\u000a of pregnancies. Nutritional assessment with current dietary recommendations and specialized antenatal care are important for\\u000a a good outcome. Maternal weight and weight gain are also important factors, but nutritional supplements, assessment of calorie\\u000a intake, and adjustments as needed are crucial as well. Confounding
Elliot H. Philipson
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and a progressive, debilitating condition. People with CKD\\u000a are at high risk of malnutrition, and the first priority of nutrition therapy must focus on the prevention and\\/or treatment\\u000a of protein energy malnutrition. Additional nutrition therapy goals include slowing the progression of CKD and its uremic complications\\u000a and preventing renal osteodystrophy,
Kathy Schiro Harvey
The effect of nutritional support in critically ill patients with sepsis has received much attention in recent years. However, many of the studies have produced conflicting results. As for all critically ill patients, nutritional support, preferably via the enteral route, should be commenced once initial resuscitation and adequate perfusion pressure is achieved. Where enteral feeding is impossible or not tolerated, parenteral nutrition (either as total or complimentary therapy) may safely be administered. Most positive studies relating to nutritional support and sepsis have been in the setting of sepsis prevention. Thus, the administration of standard nutrition formulas to critically ill patients within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission may decrease the incidence of pneumonia. Both arginine-supplemented enteral diets, given in the perioperative period, and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition have been shown to decrease infections in surgical patients. Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions as well as probiotics given in the perioperative period may also reduce infections in patients undergoing major abdominal operations, such as liver transplantation. There is little support at the present time for the positive effect of specific pharmaconutrients, in particular fish oil, probiotics, or antioxidants, in the setting of established sepsis. More studies are clearly required on larger numbers of more homogeneous groups of patients. PMID:23075593
Cohen, Jonathan; Chin, w Dat N
Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924
Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W
Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p= 0.363). For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%), followed by diarrhea (8.3%); an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05). For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest incidence (22.9%), followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%); all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05). Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an association with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits. PMID:24893056
Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Aguilar, Nora Luz; Restrepo, Beatriz Elena; Vanegas, Marcela; Alzate, Sandra; Martínez, Mónica; Gamboa, Sonia Patricia; Castaño, Eliana; Barbosa, Janeth; Román, Juliana; Serna, Ángela María; Hoyos, Gloria Marcela
Risk of type 2 diabetes according to traditional and emerging anthropometric indices in Spain, a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity: results from a large-scale prospective cohort study
Background Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A proper anthropometric characterisation of T2DM risk is essential for disease prevention and clinical risk assessement. Methods Longitudinal study in 37 733 participants (63% women) of the Spanish EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort without prevalent diabetes. Detailed questionnaire information was collected at baseline and anthropometric data gathered following standard procedures. A total of 2513 verified incident T2DM cases occurred after 12.1 years of mean follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of T2DM by levels of anthropometric variables. Results Overall and central obesity were independently associated with T2DM risk. BMI showed the strongest association with T2DM in men whereas waist-related indices were stronger independent predictors in women. Waist-to-height ratio revealed the largest area under the ROC curve in men and women, with optimal cut-offs at 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The most discriminative waist circumference (WC) cut-off values were 99.4 cm in men and 90.4 cm in women. Absolute risk of T2DM was higher in men than women for any combination of age, BMI and WC categories, and remained low in normal-waist women. The population risk of T2DM attributable to obesity was 17% in men and 31% in women. Conclusions Diabetes risk was associated with higher overall and central obesity indices even at normal BMI and WC values. The measurement of waist circumference in the clinical setting is strongly recommended for the evaluation of future T2DM risk in women. PMID:23388074
General and abdominal adiposity are associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of these exposures on cancer survival has been less studied. The association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric characteristics and CRC-specific and all-cause death was examined among 3,924 men and women diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2009 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over a mean follow-up period of 49 months, 1,309 deaths occurred of which 1,043 (79.7%) were due to CRC. In multivariable analysis, pre-diagnostic BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52) and all-cause (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.56) death relative to BMI <25 kg/m(2). Every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19) and all-cause death (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.20); and every 10 cm increase in waist circumference was associated with a high risk for CRC-specific (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16) and all-cause death (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18). Similar associations were observed for waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios. Height was not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause death. Associations tended to be stronger among men than in women. Possible interactions by age at diagnosis, cancer stage, tumour location, and hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women were noted. Pre-diagnostic general and abdominal adiposity are associated with lower survival after CRC diagnosis. PMID:24623514
Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Dalton, Susanne O; Gunter, Marc J; Wark, Petra A; Norat, Teresa; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michalis; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Quiros, J Ramon; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda
Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania
Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193
Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.
The objective of the paper is to assess the diet and nutritional status of the tribal elderly (> or = 60 years) using data from a cross-sectional study carried out by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) exclusively in Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP) villages of 9 provincial States in India during 1998-1999. A total of 1,239 elderly completed the diet survey (24-hour recall) and 3,932 elderly completed anthropometric measurements. In general, the mean consumption of all the foods and the median intakes of all the nutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI) in both men and women. The mean heights and weights significantly decreased with increase in age in both males and females (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED = BMI < 18.5) was relatively higher (65.4%) in females compared with their male counterparts (61.8%). The prevalence of CED was significantly higher (p < 0.001) among the elderly living in kutchaand landless households. The tribal elderly are subsisting on inadequate diets, which are reflected in the poor intakes of all the nutrients and higher prevalence of undernutrition. Significantly higher proportion of tribal elderly are undernourished compared with their rural counterparts (p < 0.001). PMID:17182465
Arlappa, N; Balakrishna, N; Brahmam, G N V; Vijayaraghavan, K
The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450
Gautam, Rajesh K
PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.
Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus
anthropometric measurements and classical genetic markers. Relethford-Blangero method was applied to athropometrics of the study populations. Results were compared to Nei's genetic distance matrix of classical genetic markers. Multivariate analyses were used...
Justice, Anne E.
Essential facts Around 300,000 people were diagnosed with cancer in England and Wales in 2011, and more than one in three people in the UK will develop cancer in some form during their lifetime. An early diagnosis is the best way to tackle the disease and improve survival rates. However, not enough is being done to identify cancer and treat it an early stage, says the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). PMID:25605088
The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.
One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia. PMID:21369420
Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195
Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H
This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.
Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc
Our aim was to establish whether independent relationships exist between either anthropometric parameters or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and cord blood lead levels in newborns. Umbilical cord blood samples and anthropometric data were obtained at delivery. Cord blood lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. IGF-I levels were measured using RIA. Blood lead levels ?100?g\\/l were considered elevated in
Mehmet Emre Atabek; Selim Kurtoglu; Ozgur Pirgon; Kaz?m Uzum; Recep Saraymen
The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…
Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche
"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…
Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances
In oncogeriatric patients, severe malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, nosocomial infections, radiotherapy or chemotherapy toxicities, and decreased of quality of life. Therefore, systematic screening and care of malnutrition is mandatory, in accordance with the French guidelines in 2007. Now, dietary counselling should be purposed systematically in malnourish patients and when radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy are considered. Oral supplementation by specific diet (immune-enhancing diets) should be used with cautions, and actually, reserved only in digestive neoplasms and surgery. In cases of severely malnourished patients or if dietary counselling suffers a setback, enteral nutrition should be recommended. In radiotherapy or chemotherapy, used parenteral nutrition is associated with an increase in infectious complications. Artificial nutrition should not be used when Karnofski index is lesser than 50% (or performance status greater than 2) and prognosis lesser at three months. PMID:19692281
The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253
Congdon, N G; West, K P
New equations have been developed to predict body fat (percent BF) calculated from body density measured by underwater weighing from simple anthropometric measurements, using stepwise-multiple-regression analysis in 63 men and 84 women. Log1() sum of four skinfold thicknesses explained 80.1% (SE = 3.8) of variance of percent BF in men and 76.4% (SE = 4.6) in women. Alternative equations using
Michael EJ Lean; Thang S Han; Paul Deurenberg
The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).
Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20–51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19–85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra-abdominal fat volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Aberdeen and cross-sectional areas at L4-L5 level by computerised
TS Han; G McNeill; JC Seidell; MEJ Lean
ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another
Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard
NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.
Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.
An anthropometric model for determination of total body water (TBW) consisting of specific equations previously proposed by the authors: Men TBW (1) = 9.349 + 0.617Weight (kg) - 0.931Mid arm circunference (cm) + 0.122Dynamometry (kg), and women TBW (1) = ?5.531 + 0.343Weight (kg) - 0.213Triceps Skinfold (mm) + 0.148Dynamometry (kg) + 3.424Wrist diameter (cm) was validated by comparing with
Cecilia Albala; Gabriela Salazar; Mabel Y; Daniel Bunout; Valeria Aicardi; Evelyn Aguirre; Fernando Vio
The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has\\u000a been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol\\u000a 104:297–302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S.\\u000a Army male soldiers were evaluated.
Miyo Yokota; Larry G. Berglund; Gaston P. Bathalon
The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated.
Miyo Yokota; Larry G. Berglund; Gaston P. Bathalon
Improved human?–?tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information
H. Hsiao; J Whitestone; B Bradtmiller; R Whisler; J Zwiener; C Lafferty; T-Y Kau; M. Gross
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p?=?0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:24473515
de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Costa, Nara Aline; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria
The aim of the present study was to develop and cross-validate anthropometrical prediction equations for segmental lean tissue mass (SLM). One hundred and seventeen young healthy Caucasians (67 men and 50 women; mean age: 31.9 ± 10.0 years; Body Mass Index: 24.3 ± 3.2 kg · m) were included. Body mass (BM), stretch stature (SS), 14 circumferences (CC), 13 skinfolds (SF) and 4 bone breadths (BB) were
Aldo Scafoglieri; Jonathan Tresignie; Steven Provyn; Mike Marfell-jones; Thomas Reilly; Ivan Bautmans; Jan Pieter Clarys
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relations of anthropometric variables with scores on basic and specific motor tests for 133 young male handball players. These Estonian boys were divided into four age groups: 10-11 years (n = 34), 12-13 years (n = 39), 14-15 years (n = 39), and 16-17 years (n = 21). The anthropometric parameters were body height, sitting height, height with outstretched hands, arm span, leg length, and body mass. Body Mass Index (kg x m2) was calculated. Basic motor ability tests were 30-m run from standing position, vertical jump with hands on hip and with arm swing, medicine ball (1 kg) overhand throw with dominant hand from sitting position, and handgrip strength. Specific motor ability tests were 4- x 10-m shuttle-run, slalom dribble test, 30-m dribbling test, handball throw with dominant hand from sitting position, vertical jump from one step run-up on dominant leg, and passing the handball on speed and precision. Relatively few anthropometric parameters were significantly associated with scores on basic motor tasks in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, but sitting height was significantly associated with scores on all measured basic motor tests for the 14- to 15-yr.-old group (16.5-52.4%; R2 x 100) and also with specific motor tests for 12- to 13-yr.-olds and 14- to 15-yr.-olds (13.4-41.6%; R2 x 100). The anthropometric parameters are then relatively poor predictors for basic and specific motor ability test scores of young handball players. PMID:19725303
Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo
There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145
Wahlqvist, M L
The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:20661345
Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha
The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.
Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?0.001, n?=?152). The X1, X2, and X3 variables in the equation were denoted as waist circumference (WC), age, and abdomen subcutaneous fat thickness (AS). In addition, the correlation between VFAANT and VFACT showed a high correlation (r?=?0.92). Conclusion A rapid and accurate VFA estimation can be achieved by using only age, WC, and AS. The approach in the present study provides an easy and reliable estimate that can be applied widely in health and epidemiology studies. PMID:24884507
The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763
Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen
Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544
Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul
This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623
Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce
[Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition.
Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Melam, Ganeshwerarao
The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740
The goals of medical nutrition therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are to meet the maternal and fetal nutritional\\u000a needs, as well as to achieve and maintain optimal glycemic control. Nutrition requirements during pregnancy are similar for\\u000a women with and without GDM. The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommend\\u000a nutrition therapy for GDM that
Erica P. Gunderson
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)
Powers, Margaret A.
1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College must also apply for acceptance into the Nutrition and Dietetics Program. Please go to our webpage/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition
The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition practices of older athletes that may affect competitive performance and reflect nutrition misinformation. Statewide Senior Games participants (n=100) were surveyed on dietary practices, supplement use and sources of nutrition information. The survey instrument was previewed by an exercise physiologist and gerontology RD for content validity and pretested in a seniors exercise
A. K. Black; R. A. Glass
Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58
Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan
The European Union is contemplating making the provision of nutritional labels in food products mandatory. Using data collected from food shoppers, we assessed consumers' valuation of nutritional labels by analysing their willingness to pay a premium for a box of cookies with a nutritional label. On average, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a box of cookies with a
Maria L. Loureiro; Azucena Gracia; Rodolfo M. Nayga
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633
Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo
Renewed efforts to provide proper nutritional care are essential for appropriate pediatric HIV management. Current studies support the use of vitamin A and macronutrients that increase caloric and protein intake. With additional research on key issues such as the needed composition and timing for nutritional supplementation, we can determine the best strategies to support the growth and development of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition among children is common in the resource-limited settings where HIV infection is most prevalent. While malnutrition is associated with higher morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected children, there is only limited evidence to guide the use of nutritional support for HIV-infected children. The best studied is vitamin A, which is associated with improved mortality and clinical outcomes. Zinc and multivitamin supplementation have not consistently been associated with clinical benefits. Limited research suggests macronutrient supplementation, which typically uses enriched formulas or foods, improves key anthropometrics for HIV-infected children, but the optimal composition of nutrients for supplementation has not been determined. More research is needed to understand the most efficient and sustainable ways to ensure adequate nutrition in this vulnerable population. PMID:25371264
McHenry, Megan S; Apondi, Edith; Vreeman, Rachel C
Child malnutrition is pervasive in developing countries and anthropometric measures such as weight-for-height and height-for-age have proven reliable indicators of short term malnutrition and stunting. Rather than studying these indicators separately, we look at their interaction and carve out child health dynamics. Considering height-for-age a child's health stock and weight-for-lagged height a proxy for nutritional inputs, we develop a child health production function that features self-productivity of past health stocks and contemporaneous nutritional inputs. We test the model on a Senegalese panel of 271 children between 0 and 5 years employing dynamic panel methods to control for endogeneity in the production function. In line with previous evidence, we find that children can partially catch-up from malnutrition spells. Yet, child health stocks also deplete quickly and need constant updating in the form of nutrition. This demonstrates the importance of health memory and that malnutrition cannot be fought with snapshot interventions. Consequently, sustainable nutrition interventions have to be long term and yield higher returns the earlier they reach children. PMID:24703960
Rieger, Matthias; Wagner, Natascha
Background and aims Several neuromotor disorders share exclusive, although often overlooked, nutritional problems. The objective of this study is therefore to delineate the frequency of malnutrition, evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional care, and identify issues needing to be possibly strengthened when caring for these patients into a general pediatrics department. Patients and methods The study included 30 patients, 21 males and 9 females, aged between 2 and 15 years, affected by cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, and severe psychomotor developmental delay. Nutritional status was assessed by a dietary questionnaire administered to parents to investigate feeding difficulties; 3 days food diary to quantify daily calorie intake; anthropometrical (weight, height/length, body mass index percentiles, plicometry, specific body segments measurement) and blood (blood count, serum iron, albumin, transferrin, calcium, phosphorus) parameters. Results More than 44% individuals of the study population was at risk of malnutrition, according to feeding difficulties, progressive depletion of weight, reduced daily calorie intake, reduced albumin and transferrin levels. This occurred despite a massive caregivers commitment, as documented by almost universal parental constant assistance during their long-duration meals. Conclusions Our results individuate the nutritional aspect being still a problem in the care of children with severe neuromotor disability. PMID:25000975
The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...
not significantly improve the growth rate of the animals. On the other hand, naked barley improved the feed the utilization of the feed. On the other hand, naked barley is well accepted by the animal and its energy valueALIMENTATION NUTRITION AND FEEDING A. - Utilisation des cÃ©rÃ©ales Utilization of cereals VALEUR
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
A large number of experimental and clinical investigations has shown that an adequate, complete intravenous (i.v.) nutrition can be provided by using an amino acid mixture, glucose or fructose, fat emulsions, electrolytes and vitamins. A brief summary of the various investigations of the necessary quantities of energy and nutrients has been given. Based on these studies, recommendations have been made
The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…
Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole
What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in
Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and breast cancer is reviewed. After several decades of study, many aspects of the role of diet in breast cancer etiology are still unclear. Results from large prospective studies do not support the concept developed from animal and ecologic evidence that dietary fat intake in mid-life is associated with breast cancer risk. Thus,
David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett
It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...
One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…
Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and
.......... '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Tables I Equivalents by volume and weight ....................................................... . 2 Nutritive values of the edible part of foods: Dairy products ......................................................................... 4 Eggs... shown in table 2 are the amounts present in the edible part of the item, that is, in only that portion customarily eaten- corn without cob, meat without bone, potatoes without skin, European-type grapes without seeds. If additional parts are eaten...
The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased
Jan K. Shearer
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
Smith, Nathan J.
... work? With MyPlate, you can get a personalized nutrition and physical activity plan by using the “SuperTracker” program. This program is ... such as cups and ounces. • How can I plan healthy meals during ... Why are vitamins and minerals important in my diet? • How can I get the extra amounts of ...
H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game health and optimal performance. Many athletes attempt to lose weight or body fat with the hope and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during
Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388
Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P
Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.
Dufour, P. A.
Community Partners OHSU Food & Nutrition Services ~ Healthy Team Healthy You ~ Partners The People of Mesas and Desserts Cactus Paddle Salad Braised Lamb with Chile New Mexico and Wild Oregano featuring America's First Nations foods prominently as our collective tradition has come to bare. HTHU
Chapman, Michael S.
Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…
Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs
Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke
The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to
Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky
This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.
Tryfiates, G.P. (Dept. of Biochemistry, West Virginia Univ., Medical Center, Morgantown, WV (US))
The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) imposed significant changes in the information about calories and nutrients that manufacturers of packaged foods must provide to consumers. This paper tests whether the release of this information impacted body weight and obesity among American adults. We estimate the effect of the new label using a difference-in-differences method. We compare the change before
Jayachandran N. Variyam; John Cawley
Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and
Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte
Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697
Ballet dancing is a multi-faceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least one hour per day five days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) <20?g/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF<12?g/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ?120g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF<12?g/L, Hb<120g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk of iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731
Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805
Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A
Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.
Smith, Scott M.
The detection of galactomannan (GM) in the serum of in immunocompromised patients is widely used for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. We report a case of a false-positive GM test presumably caused by the enteral nutritional supplement given to a non-neutropenic patient with intestinal graft-versus-host disease after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of false-positive GM results in patients on nutritional supplements. PMID:24567893
Ng, Tong-Yong; Kang, Mei-Ling; Tan, Ban-Hock; Ngan, Cecilia Cheng-Lai
Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757
Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement
Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882
The analysis of anthropometric data often allows investigation of patterns of genetic structure in historical populations. This paper focuses on interpopulational anthropometric variation in seven populations in Ireland using data collected in the 1890s. The seven populations were located within a 120-km range along the west coast of Ireland and include islands and mainland isolates. Two of the populations (the Aran Islands and Inishbofin) have a known history of English admixture in earlier centuries. Ten anthropometric measures (head length, breadth, and height; nose length and breadth; bizygomatic and bigonial breadth; stature; hand length; and forearm length) on 259 adult Irish males were analyzed following age adjustment. Discriminant and canonical variates analysis were used to determine the degree and pattern of among-group variation. Mahalanobis' distance measure, D2, was computed between each pair of populations and compared to distance measures based on geographic distance and English admixture (a binary measure indicating whether either of a pair of populations had historical indications of admixture). In addition, surname frequencies were used to construct distance measures based on random isonymy. Correlations were computed between distance measures, and their probabilities were derived using the Mantel matrix permutation method. English admixture has the greatest effect on anthropometric variation among these populations, followed by geographic distance. The correlation between anthropometric distance and geographic distance is not significant (r = -0.081, P = .590), but the correlation of admixture and anthropometric distance is significant (r = 0.829, P = .047). When the two admixed populations are removed from the analysis the correlation between geographic and anthropometric distance becomes significant (r = 0.718, P = .025). Isonymy distance shows a significant correlation with geographic distance (r = 0.425, P = .046) but not with admixture distance (r = -0.052, P = .524). The fact that anthropometrics show past patterns of gene flow and surnames do not reflects the greater impact of stochastic processes on surnames, along with the continued extinction of surnames. This study shows that 1) anthropometrics can be extremely useful in assessing population structure and history, 2) differential gene flow into populations can have a major impact on local genetic structure, and 3) microevolutionary processes can have different effects on biological characters and surnames. PMID:3044134
Relethford, J H
The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. PMID:24703727
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older cancer patients have unique qualities related to aging that place them at nutritional risk during cancer treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Routine assessment of nutritional risk is indicated in older cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Comprehensive geriatric assessment of older cancer patients can assist with determination of which older patients can tolerate\\u000a cancer treatment with acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary
Elizabeth Kvale; Christine Seel Ritchie; Lodovico Balducci
Background Urban areas in West Africa are not immune to undernutrition with recent urbanization and high food prices being important factors. School children often have a poor nutritional status, potentially affecting their health and schooling performance. Yet, generally school children do not benefit from nutrition programs. The objective of the study was to assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status of children from state schools in the Dakar area. Methods School children (n?=?604) aged from 5 to 17 y (52.5% girls, 47.5% ?10 y) were selected through a two-stage random cluster sample of children attending urban primary state schools in the Dakar area (30 schools × 20 children). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age2 z-scores) and thinness (BMI-for-age2 z-scores, WHO 2006, and three grades of thinness corresponding to BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 in adults) were calculated from weight and height. Hemoglobin, plasma concentrations of ferritin (FER), transferrin receptors (TfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), and zinc, and urinary iodine concentrations were measured. Correction factors were used for FER and RBP in subjects with inflammation determined with C-reactive protein and ?1-acid-glycoprotein. Results 4.9% of children were stunted, 18.4% were thin, 5.6% had severe thinness (BMI-for-age3 z-scores). Only one child had a BMI-for-age>2 z-scores. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was 14.4%, 39.1% and 10.6% respectively. 3.0% had vitamin A deficiency, 35.9% a marginal vitamin A status, and 25.9% zinc deficiency. Urinary iodine was <50 µg/L in 7.3% of children and ?200 µg/L in 22.3%. The prevalence of marginal vitamin A, zinc deficiency, high TfR was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05). Height-for-age and retinol were significantly lower in participants ?10 y and <10 y respectively. Conclusion Undernutrition, especially thinness, iron and zinc deficiencies in school children in the Dakar area requires special targeted nutrition interventions. PMID:24391938
Fiorentino, Marion; Bastard, Guillaume; Sembène, Malick; Fortin, Sonia; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques
Lactation is of great importance to infant nutritional needs. It is difficult to generalize about infant growth expectations since there are variations among communities and since there may be some modification of infant feeding practices. The choice of an appropriate standard is even more difficult to estimate since they are interdependent on energy intakes. However, the balance between energy and protein content in breastmilk appears to be fairly constant through lactation and among communities. It is likely that for normally growing children exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to result in a serious mineral or nutrient deficiency. Discussion is included about measurement of breastmilk output and the various means to do so in order to calculate energy and nutrient requirements. Currently, controversy surrounds the timing of milk supplements for those infants being breastfed. A general guideline seems to be that weaning should be avoided before age 4 months in industrialized countries. The various problems which are reiterated are: growth targets, nutritional requirements, optimization of lactation, and the weanling dilemma. A rational public health target should be normal growth and the maintenance of a normal nutritional status. Nutritional requirements must be sensibly set because if the target is too high it will be dismissed as impractical; if it is too low, it will fail to meet the needs of a substantial portion of the population. It seems wise to concentrate on achieving an optimal start to lactation in the early weeks when it appears likely that the breastfeeding potential is being determined. Since normal growth in infancy is an appropriate health goal, breastfeeding should perhaps be utilized to the maximum and be backed by systematic supplementation at a time when growth would likely falter. More attention must be directed toward prevalent weaning strategies. PMID:7020870
Rowland, M G; Paul, A A; Whitehead, R G
At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness. PMID:19593484
García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G
\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry
Joan M. Eckerson
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Eckerson, Joan M.
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142
Ranchordas, Mayur K
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. PMID:23633856
Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay
Three major factors for human carcinogenesis are (i) cigarette smoking, (ii) infection and inflammation and (iii) nutrition and dietary factors. Nutrition and dietary factors include two categories, namely genotoxic agents and constituents including tumor promotion-associated phenomena. This article first describes the genotoxic agents as microcomponents. These are mutagens/carcinogens in cooked food, fungal products, plant and mushroom substance, and nitrite-related materials, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidative agents. Emphasis has been given to heterocyclic amines (HCAs) to which humans are continuously exposed in an ordinary lifestyle. HCAs in food are mainly produced from creatin(in)e, sugar and from amino acids in meat (upon heating). They are imidazoquinoline and imidazoquinoxaline derivatives and phenylimidazopyridine. HCAs are pluripotent in producing cancers in various organs including breast, colon and prostate. Discussion is also given to plant flavonoids which are mutagenic but not carcinogenic. As a macrocomponent, overintake of total calories, fat and sodium chloride is discussed from the viewpoint of the increase of genetic alterations in tissues and of tumor promotion-associated issues. Studies of nutrition and dietary condition will eventually lead us to cancer prevention, namely delay of onset of cancer to the late phase of human life, which is called 'natural-end cancer' (Tenju-gann). PMID:10688859
The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...
Barry, Kristina Marie
BACKGROUND Central obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Preventive interventions from childhood are necessary due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WSR) are anthropometric indices for measurement of obesity. This study aimed to assess the association between these anthropometric indices and dyslipidemia in obese children and adolescents. METHODS This retrospective study was done on the records of 2064 obese children and adolescents aged 6-18 years at the obesity clinic, in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research center. Age, gender, weight, height, WC, hip circumference (HC), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were taken from patients’ record. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. RESULTS 2064 girls and boys aged 6-18 years were divided into 3 age groups of 6-9.9 years, 10-13.9 years and 14-18 years. Prevalence of high LDL-C, TC, TG, FBS, SBP, DBP and low HDL-C was higher among the boys compared to the girls. There was a significant association between TC, LDL-C, TG and FBS with BMI, WC, WHR and WSR. However, no significant correlation was seen between HDL-C and the four anthropometric indices. CONCLUSION Our study showed a significant correlation between BMI, WC and WSR with high levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in children and adolescents. Correlation between WHR and dyslipidemia in this study was significant but its predictive value was weaker than other three indices. PMID:22577442
Soghrati, Mahnaz; Malek Ahmadi, Mohammad; Soghrati, Mojgan
Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505
Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.
The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152
Kondri?, Miran; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Konti?, Dean; Sekuli?, Damir
Objectives:To investigate the influence of anthropometric parameters on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes.Design:Descriptive field study.Setting:The Triple Iron Triathlon Germany 2006 in Lensahn over 11.6 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running.Subjects:17 male Caucasian triathletes (mean (SD) 39.2 (7.5) years, 80.7 (8.9) kg, 178 (5) cm, BMI 25.4 (2.4) kg\\/m2).Interventions:None.Main outcome measurements:Determination of body mass, body height, skin fold
B Knechtle; G Kohler
Introduction and hypothesis The bony pelvis anatomy is highly variable. This study aims to examine the relationship between anthropometric measurements\\u000a and the size of the adult female bony pelvis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Three-dimensional points of all pertinent landmarks of 96 adult female bony pelvises were obtained and the true conjugate,\\u000a interspinous distance, intertuberous distance, and pelvic inlet and outlet areas were calculated. The relationship
Beri Ridgeway; Beatriz E. Arias; Matthew D. Barber
Background The purpose of this study was to establish facial soft tissue norms for Turkish young adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Anthropometric measurements of the facial soft tissue were taken from 281 female and 149 male Turkish adults aged between\\u000a 18 and 24 years. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear (17 vertical and 10 horizontal) measurements\\u000a made with standardized photographic records, taken
Senem Turan Ozdemir; Deniz Sigirli; Ilker Ercan; N. Simsek Cankur
In recent years more and more often cases have occurred concerning identification of suspects of various crimes for eg. car theft from parking lots in front of supermarkets or money from ATMS. It often happens that such places are monitored twenty-four hours a day. Still, both the quality of cameras and their location in the wrong places cause the recordings to be illegible. In the present pager, we present two cases of this type, where by applying computer graphics and anthropometric methods contributed to identification of law-breakers. PMID:15984114
Kempi?ska, Agnieszka; Szyd?owski, Lukasz
Background Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population. Methods Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA. Results Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r?=?0.518), waist circumference (r?=?0.570), and body mass index (r?=?0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (??=?3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (??=?1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (??=?3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males. Conclusion Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk. PMID:25474257
Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Ha, Jick Hwan; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak
615Interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program Interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program (GNP) The interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program (GNP), leading to the MS degree in Nutrition (thesis or non of nutrition. The involvement of several faculties in this program provides students with a wide range
The association between nutrition and intestinal function is based on facts. The main function of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal diseases commonly result in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function. Parenteral and enteral nutritions are effective therapeutic modalities in several diseases. In cases of gastrointestinal malfunctions, nutrition has a direct therapeutic role. The benefit of nutrition therapy is similar to medical treatment in patients with pancreatitis, Crohn disease, hepatic failure, and in those with gastrointestinal fistulas. Nutrition has both supportive and therapeutic roles in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases can be reduced. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(51), 2034-2040. PMID:25497153
Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental “nutritive tissue” in carnivorous plants of\\u000a Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the “nutritive\\u000a tissue” and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key
Bartosz J. P?achno; Piotr ?wi?tek
Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086
1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects
K. C. Klasing
Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1?hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-? and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725
Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein
Brazilian schoolchildren with mild- to moderate-intensity schistosome infections (<400 Schistosoma mansoni eggs/g stool) were randomly allocated to a treatment (oxamniquine) or placebo group in a double-blind fashion. Anthropometric measurements were made at baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y for 353 students. At baseline, the groups were not significantly different with respect to nutritional status or selected socioeconomic and biological characteristics, including anthropometric measures. One year later, significant differences were noted only in the nutritional status of boys treated for schistosome infection. Treated boys had greater measurements for weight, triceps skinfold thickness, midarm circumference, arm muscle area, and body mass index than untreated boys. They also showed significant increases over the year in weight, height, midarm circumference, and body mass index. The rates of improvement in weight and height were more accelerated in the first 6 mo after therapy than the last. These results indicate that, at least in boys, chronic S. mansoni infection at any intensity is detrimental to short-term growth and development. PMID:9846854
Assis, A M; Barreto, M L; Prado, M S; Reis, M G; Parraga, I M; Blanton, R E
Infant malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa is a public health priority and a challenge in high HIV prevalence areas. The Drug Resources Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition program, with multiple medical centers in Sub-Saharan Africa, developed an innovative intervention for the surveillance and control of malnutrition. In a pilot initiative, 36 HIV-exposed children were evaluated at baseline upon presentation for malnutrition and at six months post- treatment. Parameters included HIV-free survival, nutritional status and change in diet. Food diary data was entered and processed using the Nutrisurvey (WHO) software. At 6 months post-intervention, a significant improvement in anthropometric parameters was noted. Slowing of linear growth was observed in patients with malaria with a mean gain in centimetres of 4.4 ± 1.7 as compared to 5.6 ± 1.7 in children with no malaria, p < 0.048 (CL 95%: ?2.32, ?0.01). Dietary diversity scores increased from 5.3 ± 1.9 to 6.5 ± 1.3, p < 0.01 at 6 months. A significant increase (+25%, p < 0.02) in the number of children eating fish meals was noted. Our pilot data describes positive outcomes from a rehabilitative nutritional approach based on use of local foods, peer education, anthropometric and clinical monitoring in areas of high food insecurity. The relationship between malaria and linear growth retardation requires further investigation. PMID:22470301
Buonomo, Ersilia; de Luca, Simona; Tembo, Dyna; Scarcella, Paola; Germano, Paola; Doro Altan, Anna Maria; Palombi, Leonardo; Liotta, Giuseppe; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Erba, Fulvio; Marazzi, Maria Cristina
Delirium is not a clinical entity but a symptom-complex of manifold etiology. Its presence signifies acute cerebral insufficiency and often represents a medical and/or psychiatric emergency. Though some forms of delirium have distinctive features, the fundamental phenomena are common to all, with clouding of consciousness the sine qua non. The condition has two major components: (1) the basic “acute brain syndrome” and (2) associated release phenomena. Clinicians must first make the vital differentiation between delirium and “functional” mental disorder, then proceed with the elucidation of the underlying diagnosis and the concurrent organization of symptomatic and etiologic treatment. Proper treatment combines management of the acute brain syndrome with general and specific procedures for control of the underlying condition. Dealing with the symptom-complex itself involves the principles and practice of sedation, hydration, and nutrition, nursing care and supportive measures. Provided the basic organic condition is treatable, the prognosis today is usually good. PMID:5844423
Henry, W. Desmond; Mann, Alan M.
This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets. PMID:25683535
Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab
Research examining the factors influencing selection within talented junior Rugby League players is limited. The aims of this study were firstly to determine whether differences existed for anthropometric and performance characteristics between regional and national selection in high performance UK junior Rugby League players, and secondly to identify variables that discriminated between these selection levels. Regional representative (n=1172) selected junior players (aged 13-16 years) undertook an anthropometric and fitness testing battery with players split according to selection level (i.e., national, regional). MANCOVA analyses, with age and maturation controlled, identified national players as having lower sum of 4 skinfolds scores compared to regional players, and also performed significantly better on all physical tests. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified that estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), chronological age, body mass, 20 m sprint, height, sum of 4 skinfolds and sitting height discriminated between selection levels, accounting for 28.7% of the variance. This discriminant analysis corresponded to an overall predictive accuracy of 63.3% for all players. These results indicate that performance characteristics differed between selection levels in junior Rugby League players. However, the small magnitude of difference between selection levels suggests that physical qualities only partially explain higher representative selection. The monitoring and evaluation of such variables, alongside game related performance characteristics, provides greater knowledge and understanding about the processes and consequences of selection, training and performance in youth sport. PMID:21382749
Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; Cooke, Carlton; Chapman, Chris
This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612
Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.
Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722
Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin
DXA-derived bone structural geometry has been reported extensively but lacks an accuracy standard. In this study, we describe a novel anthropometric structural geometry phantom that simulates the proximal femur for use in assessing accuracy of geometry measurements by DXA or other X-ray methods. The phantom consists of seven different interchangeable neck modules with geometries that span the range of dimensions in an adult human proximal femur, including those representing osteoporosis. Ten repeated hip scans of each neck module using two current DXA scanner models were performed without repositioning. After scanner specific calibration, hip structure analysis was used to derive structural geometry. Scanner performance was similar for the two manufacturers. DXA-derived HSA geometric measurements were highly correlated with values derived directly from phantom geometry and position; R² between DXA and phantom measures were greater than 94% for all parameters, while precision error ranged between 0.3 and 3.9%. Despite high R² there were some systematic geometry errors for both scanners that were small for outer diameter, but increasing with complexity of geometrical parameter; e.g. buckling ratio. In summary, the anthropometric phantom and its fabrication concept were shown to be appropriate for evaluating proximal femoral structural geometry in two different DXA systems. PMID:23836197
Khoo, B C C; Beck, T J; Brown, K; Price, R I
The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890
Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M
The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890
Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M
Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. PCOS is considered to be not only a reproductive endocrinopathy, but also a metabolic disorder. The objective of the present study was to characterize the anthropometric and dietary profile of women with PCOS and to compare it with that of healthy age-matched women. Design: In this case-control study, 65 women with PCOS served as cases. The control group consisted of 65 age-matched healthy women. For each participant, demographic, anthropometric and dietary intake data were gathered and compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the mean of the body mass index of the two groups, but the mean of waist circumference was significantly higher in the PCOS group, than the control group (P = 0.016). Compared to the normal weight PCOS patients, a significantly higher percentage of overweight patients had hirsutism (P = 0.009). In dietary analysis, women with PCOS consumed more calories and more fat than healthy women (P = 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded that in PCOS patients, android obesity is a common feature and this abdominal adiposity may be related to the syndrome's complications. PCOS symptoms were more severe in overweight patients than the normal weight. Regarding the dietary pattern, it was indicated that patients with PCOS consume more calories and more fat in their diets and this might have been correlated to their disease. PMID:23961484
Ahmadi, Afsane; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Marzieh; Jafari, Bahareh; Tolide-Ie, Hamid Reza
The ToyBox-study aims to develop and test an innovative and evidence-based obesity prevention programme for preschoolers in six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. In multicentre studies, anthropometric measurements using standardized procedures that minimize errors in the data collection are essential to maximize reliability of measurements. The aim of this paper is to describe the standardization process and reliability (intra- and inter-observer) of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) measurements in preschoolers. All technical procedures and devices were standardized and centralized training was given to the fieldworkers. At least seven children per country participated in the intra- and inter-observer reliability testing. Intra-observer technical error ranged from 0.00 to 0.03?kg for weight and from 0.07 to 0.20?cm for height, with the overall reliability being above 99%. A second training was organized for WC due to low reliability observed in the first training. Intra-observer technical error for WC ranged from 0.12 to 0.71?cm during the first training and from 0.05 to 1.11?cm during the second training, and reliability above 92% was achieved. Epidemiological surveys need standardized procedures and training of researchers to reduce measurement error. In the ToyBox-study, very good intra- and-inter-observer agreement was achieved for all anthropometric measurements performed. PMID:25047381
De Miguel-Etayo, P; Mesana, M I; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Gó?d?, M; Socha, P; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; Duvinage, K; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A
NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of
NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of
1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION PRACTICUM March 14-18, 2005 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of Health
1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.
1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...
...with disabilities. Also, the nutrition program must serve a variety...and Consumer Services Child Nutrition Programs as the primary source... (6) Medically-based diets or other dietary requirements...d) Family assistance with nutrition. Parent education...
Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that
Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga
One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800
This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.
The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25569622
Given the liver's multiple synthetic, regulatory and detoxifying functions, one of the characteristics accompanying severe hepatocellular dysfunction is the presence of malnutrition. This disorder is highly frequent in liver cirrhosis, even in the relatively early stages of the disease. Independently of the cause of the cirrhosis, poor nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis and therefore early intervention to correct nutrient deficiency can prolong life expectancy, improve quality of life, reduce complications and increase the probability of successful transplantation. The present article reviews current knowledge of the diagnosis and management of malnutrition in patients with cirrhosis. Special attention is paid to the concept of the late evening snack and its characteristics, composition and probable benefits in the course of the disease. PMID:22657567
Rivera Irigoin, Robin; Abilés, Jimena
Anthropometric data available through National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau surveys/studies conducted by the National Institute for Nutrition were analysed to study body mass index (BMI:kg/m2) profiles of adults and relate them to various parameters such as the nutritional status of preschool children, socio-economic status, low birth weight and mortality. The results show that nearly one-half (49%) of adult Indian rural population is suffering from some grade of chronic energy deficiency (CED). The adults' household BMI and child's nutritional status are associated. Mean BMI values were lower in landless agricultural occupational groups and in low per capita income group households compared with cultivators, artisan and higher income groups. Mean birth weights showed definite differences between BMI classes (2500 g in grade III CED and 2800 g in the normal BMI group). The odds ratio for low birth weight (LBW) was found to be three times more in severe CED groups compared to normal BMI groups of mothers. The influence of BMI on the incidence of LBW was evident despite the confounding factors of parity and maternal age. The frequency distribution of BMI values of adults who had been malnourished at the age of 5 years was distinctly different from that of the well-nourished group. The mean BMI of the group who were malnourished as children was 16, while those who had been well nourished was now 21 on average. Data from affluent and well-grown Indians suggests that a cut-off point of 18 rather than 18.5 would be more appropriate to distinguish the nutritionally normal groups from the energy deficient group (CED). PMID:7843150
Naidu, A N; Rao, N P
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviours, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases and dietary intakes with three component surveys: health interview, health examination and nutrition survey. The health interview and health examination are conducted by trained staff members, including physicians, medical technicians and health interviewers, at a mobile examination centre, and dieticians’ visits to the homes of the study participants are followed up. KNHANES provides statistics for health-related policies in Korea, which also serve as the research infrastructure for studies on risk factors and diseases by supporting over 500 publications. KCDC has also supported researchers in Korea by providing annual workshops for data users. KCDC has published the Korea Health Statistics each year, and microdata are publicly available through the KNHANES website (http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr). PMID:24585853
Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been demonstrated in about 35% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), but fewer than 8% of children with rheumatic diseases were reported in a national survey to have been seen by a pediatric dietitian. We demonstrate the development of a nutritional screening test for PEM in patients with JRA for use by all health care professionals. Nutritional assessment of 74 patients with JRA was conducted using a standardized 11 variable profile comprised of upper body anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and index of validity were calculated for individual and selected clusters of nutritional variables to predict the need for referral for PEM compared to the independent review by 2 pediatric dietitians to refer or not refer to a dietitian for further evaluation or care. Arm circumference less than or equal to 10th percentile for age and sex matched norms was selected as the screening test for PEM in patients with JRA due to a combination of excellent measurement characteristics (sensitivity 0.80, specificity 0.86, positive predictive value 0.90, negative predictive value 0.73, index of validity 0.88) and ease of measurement. PMID:1404166
Henderson, C J; Lovell, D J; Gregg, D J
This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters.
Feeding difficulties, mainly determined by oral motor problems, are common in patients with severe neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD). These problems have a negative impact on health and developmental outcome as a consequence of insufficient intake. Research data show that insufficient intake, and not enhanced caloric needs, is the major cause of malnutrition. However, no direct relation between intake and nutritional state has been shown, illustrating the wide variety in caloric needs in this population. Individual caloric needs in patients with NDD show a wide variety, but are generally lower than in normal children. Treatment of these patients is complex as data on adequate daily allowances for this population are not available and standard anthropometric cut-off points to define malnutrition need adaptation. In order to prevent and treat malnutrition in patients with neurodevelopmental problems, careful multidisciplinary follow-up is indicated, aimed at early detection of feeding problems, nutritional deficiencies and growth failure. Oral food intake can be enhanced using adapted food texture and special feeding devices, giving positional support combined with specialized dietary advice on nutrient- and caloric-dense food. When oral feeding is unsafe or inefficient, partial or total enteral nutrition is started through a gastrostomy, with or without concomitant fundoplication. Evidence based criteria guiding this decision are lacking. PMID:24261028
Gottrand, M; Van Biervliet, S; Vande Velde, S; Gottrand, F; Van Winckel, M
... and Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ...
Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...
This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.
The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...
Multiple pregnancy represents a state of magnified nutritional requirements, resulting in a greater nutrient drain on maternal resources and an accelerated depletion of nutritional reserves. The accelerated starvation which occurs in pregnancy is exaggerated with a multiple gestation, particularly during the second half of pregnancy, with more rapid depletion of glycogen stores and resultant metabolism of fat between meals and during an overnight fast. A reduced glucose stream from mother to fetus results in slower fetal growth, smaller birth size, as well as a higher risk of preterm labor and preterm birth. For this reason, diet therapy with a diabetic regimen of 20% of calories from protein, 40% of calories from carbohydrate, and 40% of calories from fat may be particularly useful. Iron-deficiency anemia has also been linked to preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mobilization of maternal iron stores, in addition to an adequate amount and pattern of gestational weight gain (including BMI-specific weight gain goals by 20 and 28 weeks gestation), has been associated with significantly better fetal growth and longer gestations in twin pregnancies. Supplementation with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, as well as multivitamins and essential fatty acids may also reduce pregnancy complications and improve postnatal health for infants born from a multiple gestation. Diet therapy for women pregnant with multiples is an important component of effective prenatal care. PMID:16360494
In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities. PMID:20383227
Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather
After selecting anthropometric parameters for preventive examinations of the population and elaborating a computer program, the authors analyzed a series of 1000 probands with respect to their nutritional state. The occurrence rate of latent and clinically manifest obesity was in the given series 22.70% in men and 15.49% in women when the classification according to the total fat percentage was applied. Measurements of circumference showed higher abdominal than thoracic circumference to occur in men only in clinically manifest obesity, whereas in women predominance of abdominal circumference was recorded in both types of obesity. On applying criteria of relative body weight, the occurrence rate of obesity amounted in men to 24.72% and in women to 28.83%. (Tab.6,Ref.19). PMID:2043964
Tkácik, J; Scheidová, L; Smolák, L; Melotová, J; Popík, P
This study is an attempt to understand the physical growth and nutritional status of Bharia, a primitive tribe of Central India. A cross sectional study was conducted on 551 children (283 boys and 268 girls) aged 4 to 18 years. Body weight, height, sitting height, head circumference, upper arm circumference, chest circumference, biceps, triceps, sub scapular and calf skin fold thickness were measured. Body Mass Index was calculated as weight/height2 to calculate chronic energy deficiency. All anthropometric measurements except skin fold measurement exhibit uniform increase with age in both the sexes. Age-specific Body Mass Index (BMI) indicated substantial changes and falls during pre-school age and rise in adolescence. The BMI according to the Indian standard was normal, but when the data was compared with the International standard malnutrition in both sexes was noticed in childhood. Boys remained undernourished after adolescence, while girls reached the normal growth patterns. PMID:17598387
Tiwari, Manis Kumar; Sharma, K K N; Bharati, Susmita; Adak, Dipak Kumar; Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda
Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308
Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V
The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764
Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nu