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1

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2011-01-01

2

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2012-01-01

3

Nutritional and anthropometric profile of adolescent volleyball athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's participation in volleyball began in 1928. In 1944, the first Brazilian volleyball championship happened. Flexibility, strength, power, agility and aerobic fitness are all necessary to be a master in this sport. Women's partici- pation in sport activity has increased. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil about nutrition assessment, especially amongst female volleyball players. Therefore, the aim

Tania Abreu de Almeida; Eliane Abreu Soares

2003-01-01

4

Sensitivity and Specificity of Maternal Anthropometric Measures Relative to Infant Nutritional Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study was done in July 1990 at health posts of two subdistricts in Cilandak, South Jakarta, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of maternal anthropometric measures against the functional outcome of infant nutritional status (weight-for-age). The study population consisted of 175 mother-infant pairs, who were between 14-45 years old, and their

Nugroho Abikusno; Rachel Novotny

1997-01-01

5

Anthropometric measurements in both sides of the body in the assessment of nutritional status in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the impact of choosing the left or the right side of the body on the anthropometric measurements and derived nutritional indices, in prepubertal children.Design: Cross-sectional pilot nutrition survey.Setting: General prepubertal school-age population.Subjects: One-hundred and sixty-four children (97 boys and 67 girls) aged 7–9 y.Interventions: None.Results: The agreement between anthropometric measurements in both sides of the body showed

LA Moreno; G Rodríguez; J Guillén; MJ Rabanaque; JF León; A Ariño

2002-01-01

6

Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05). The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010) requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status. PMID:25136157

Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

2014-01-01

7

Malnutrition in women with rheumatoid arthritis is not revealed by clinical anthropometrical measurements or nutritional evaluation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate diagnostic instruments for assessment of nutritional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to objective body composition data.Subjects and methods:Study subjects include 60 in-ward patients (83% women, median age 65 years). Anthropometric measures and the nutritional tools Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening tool 2002

A-C Elkan; I-L Engvall; B Tengstrand; T Cederholm; I Hafström

2008-01-01

8

Nutritional Assessment of Macronutrients in Primary School Children and its Association with Anthropometric Indices and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood nutrition is known to have a considerable impact on children's health. Protein and fat are the two most important macronutrients with high impact on children's growth and energy provision. The aim of the present study is the assessment of children's nutrition based on energy, protein and fat intake with respect to their anthropometric and oral health. A total of

Sayed Jalal Pourhashemi; Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Banafsheh Golestan

2007-01-01

9

Validity of child anthropometric measurements in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children  

E-print Network

2012. Validity of child anthropometric measurements in thelongitudinal anthropometric measurements of young childrenanthropometric measurements from WIC. It is informative to compare our findings with the accuracy of child

Crespi, Catherine M; Alfonso, Vivian H; Whaley, Shannon E; Wang, May C

2012-01-01

10

Racial Difference in Lung Function in African-American and White Children: Effect of Anthropometric, Socioeconomic, Nutritional, and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American children have lower lung volumes than White children. However, the contributions of anthropometric, socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental factors to this difference are unknown. From participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors selected 1,462 healthy nonsmoking children (623 White and 839 African-American) aged 8-17 years. The African- American children were taller and heavier but

Raida I. Harik-Khan; Denis C. Muller; Robert A. Wise

11

Anthropometric normality in adults: the geographical and socio-economic paradox of the nutritional transition in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to consolidate secondary data and provide some as yet unpublished information on changes in the nutritional status of Brazilian children, and, prin- cipally, adults, from an anthropometrical point of view as evaluated in the course of the most recent surveys, laying emphasis on geographical and socio-economic features. Methods: tables and graphs were used to consolidate data published by the

Malaquias Batista Filho; Teresa Cristina Miglioli; Marcela Carvalho dos Santos

2007-01-01

12

Effect of a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women from the Québec city metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern on anthropometric profile in healthy women.Design:Nutritional intervention study.Setting:Laval University, Canada.Subjects:Seventy-seven healthy women started the study and four did not complete the study.Methods:A 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses on nutrition and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed

J Goulet; A Lapointe; B Lamarche; S Lemieux

2007-01-01

13

Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria. Part II: Anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of anthropometric measures. The following variables were determined in a sample of 278 disabled children (171 males, 107 females) aged 6 to 24 years, recruited from five specialized day care centers for retarded children in Alexandria: birth order, type of disability, socioeconomic status, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin level. Mentally retarded children represent the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and autism. There is an increase in the mean body weight of males with the increase in age among the three type of disability except at age from 14 to 18 years, while there is a fluctuation in the mean body weight between ages and disability among females. Down syndrome groups at all ages are shorter than the other groups, while disabled males are taller than females at all ages. Based on BMI for age, the incidence of obesity was higher among Down's syndrome and mentally retarded females and among autistic males (19.8%, 16.1% of males versus 15.8%, 6.7% of females with mental retardation and autism were underweight). Majority of subjects have mild degree anemia. Hemoglobin levels below the cut-off levels issued by WHO were found higher among autistic and mentally retarded females. The levels were comparable among males with autism and mental retardation and among Down's syndrome males and females. The results also revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity were more common in subjects who showed an evidence of anemia. PMID:17265606

Shabayek, Magda M

2004-01-01

14

Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic childhood malnutrition remains common in India. As part of an initiative to improve maternal and child health in urban slums, we collected anthropometric data from a sample of children followed up from birth. We described the proportions of underweight, stunting, and wasting in young children, and examined their relationships with age. Methods We used two linked datasets: one based on institutional birth weight records for 17 318 infants, collected prospectively, and one based on follow-up of a subsample of 1941 children under five, collected in early 2010. Results Mean birth weight was 2736 g (SD 530 g), with a low birth weight (<2500 g) proportion of 22%. 21% of infants had low weight for age standard deviation (z) scores at birth (Nutrition), and The Wellcome Trust (081052/Z/06/Z). Subsequent collection, analysis and development of the manuscript was funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award: Population Science of Maternal and Child Survival (085417ma/Z/08/Z). D Osrin is funded by The Wellcome Trust (091561/Z/10/Z). PMID:23173787

2012-01-01

15

The nutritional status of some New Guinean children as assessed by anthropometric, biochemical and other indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of 1180 0–14 year old New Guinean children in two contrasting areas where dietary intakes were often less than recommended levels, was assessed by various methods. Clinical examination revealed the presence of two or more signs of protein?energy malnutrition in only six children. Vitamin deficiencies and obesity were absent. Weight deficits were common and 2nd plus 3rd

N. G. Norgan; J. V. G. A. Durnin

1978-01-01

16

Anthropometric sourcebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

1979-01-01

17

Anthropometric differences among occupational groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of

Hongwei Hsiao; Daniel Long; Karl Snyder

2002-01-01

18

Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging - A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Husing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

2014-01-01

19

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

20

Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

2008-12-01

21

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Library Home > Understanding Breast Cancer > Beyond the Basics > Quality-of-Life Issues > Nutrition Terms Used On This Page Understanding ... Basics Beyond the Basics Symptoms and Side Effects Quality-of-Life Issues Fitness and Exercise Nutrition Financial Concerns Planning ...

22

Nutritional Aspects in Diagnosis and Management of Food Hypersensitivity--The Dietitians Role  

PubMed Central

Many common foods including cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat may cause food allergies. The prevalence of these immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods ranges from 0.5% to 9% in different populations. In simple terms, the cornerstone of managing food allergy is to avoid consumption of foods causing symptoms and to replace them with nutritionally equivalent foods. If poorly managed, food allergy impairs quality of life more than necessary, affects normal growth in children, and causes an additional economic burden to society. Delay in diagnosis may be a further incremental factor. Thus, an increased awareness of the appropriate procedures for both diagnosis and management is of importance. This paper sets out to present principles for taking an allergy-focused diet history as part of the diagnostic work-up of food allergy. A short overview of guidelines and principles for dietary management of food allergy is discussed focusing on the nutritional management of food allergies and the particular role of the dietitian in this process. PMID:23150738

Venter, Carina; Laitinen, Kirsi; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

2012-01-01

23

[Contemporary criteria of the diagnosis and current recommendations for nutritional therapy in anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

The basic criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia (AN - anorexia nervosa) by ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10) is the body weight less than 15% of the expected normal body weight. According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, version IV) the basic feature of AN is a refusal to maintain body weight equal or greater than the minimal normal weight. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa is 0.3-0.5% or even 1.3-3.7% if include pre-anorexic states (eg. the phenomenon of pro-ana). The main feature of anorexia is a reduction of caloric intake. According to the recommendations of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for nutritional treatment of patients with AN the main goals in therapy of AN are: restoration of body weight, normalization of eating patterns, achievement a normal feeling of hunger and satiety and correction of the consequences of improper nutrition. APA suggests that achievable weight gain is about 0.9-1.4 kg per week in the case of hospitalized patients and approximately 0.23-0.45 kg per week in the case of outpatients. During the nutritional treatment of AN numerous side effects including anxiety, phobia, occurrence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, suicidal thoughts and intentions may occur. According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) the most important goal of AN therapy is weight gain in the range of 0.5-1 kg per week in hospitalized patients and 0.5 kg per week for outpatients. A person suffering from anorexia in the initial period of nutritional treatment spends twice more energy to maintain elevated body temperature, which significantly increases during the night rest. This phenomenon is called nocturnal hyperthermia and has a negative effect on the healing process. "Refeeding syndrome" is an adverse effect of nutritional treatment in anorexia. It is caused by too rapid nutrition in a patient suffering from chronic starvation. It can endanger the patient's life. PMID:24964516

Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Musialik, Katarzyna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

24

Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

2009-01-01

25

Nutritional Status of Children below Five Years in Malaysia: Anthropometric Analyses from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS, 2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia. Over 21,000 children aged 0-17.9 years were measured for body weight and stature according to the protocol of the World Health Organization. This article describes the nutritional status of children aged 0-59.9 months. Mean z score for weight-

Khor GL; Noor Safiza MN; Jamalludin AB; Alan Wong N F; Suzana S; Ahmad FY

26

Alteration of nutritional status at diagnosis is a prognostic factor for survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aims were to analyse changes in nutritional parameters from diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to death and to assess their relationships with survival at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.Methods92 ALS patients were included and clinically assessed every 3 months (ALS functional rating scale, manual muscular testing, forced vital capacity, weight, BMI, percentage weight loss). Bioimpedance was

B Marin; J C Desport; P Kajeu; P Jesus; B Nicolaud; M Nicol; P M Preux; P Couratier

2010-01-01

27

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

28

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

29

Nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

Durnin, J V

1976-07-01

30

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Elementary Middle High Percentage of Schools in Which Teachers Taught * Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Topics as Part of Required Instruction, by School Level Topic Elementary Middle High Dietary Guidelines for Americans NA 67.0 73.7 Food guidance using MyPyramid 76.9 76.1 77.7 ...

31

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

32

New anthropometric instruments.  

PubMed

Anthropometric examinations have been carried out since 1901 (USA) with the aim of developing and furthering the garment and footwear size system. The contribution to the solution of these problems was noticed in the last decades when a technical board was founded and the propositions in ISO norm series as well as in European norm (EN) series were prescribed. Two methods are employed in anthropometric measurements: the conventional one using anthropometric instruments and the one applying a 3D body scanner. The method using 3D scanning is faster and more accurate, but at the same time it is more complicated and expensive. In the framework of STIRP Croatian Anthropometric System the classical method was applied because out of the total number of examinees (0.68% of the whole population of the Republic of Croatia) 6,380 children up to the age of 5, 4 were examined. That was the reason why the development of new anthropometric instruments was taken up with the aim of developing and improving the existing ones. In this paper a new anthropometer with two legs has been described: it contributes to the stability of the instrument when a larger number of examinees has to be tested. In addition to this, new goniometers for determining the shoulder-tilt have been presented and described. PMID:18217454

Ujevi?, Darko; Nikoli?, Gojko; Dolezal, Ksenija; Szirovicza, Lajos

2007-12-01

33

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

34

Anthropometric History: What Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

Komlos, John

1992-01-01

35

Body composition in children based on anthropometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fatfree mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric approach is therefore relevant because of its simplicity. In this study skinfold thicknesses and midupperarm

W. J. M. Gerver; R. de Bruin

1996-01-01

36

Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.10-0.57) were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups. PMID:22974404

2012-01-01

37

CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

38

ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications).  

PubMed

When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion and maintenance. These too depend on appropriate choice of device, skilled implantation and correct positioning of the catheter, adequate stabilization of the device (preferably avoiding stitches), and the use of infusion pumps, as well as adequate policies for flushing and locking lines which are not in use. PMID:19464090

Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek

2009-08-01

39

Winter wheat nutrition diagnosis under different N treatments based on multispectral images and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to rapidly and accurately acquire winter wheat growing information and nitrogen content, a non-destructive testing method was developed combined with multi-spectral imaging technique and remote sensing technology to research wheat growing and nutrition status. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image collecting platform was developed to acquire visible image and NIR image synchronously, meanwhile, the canopy spectral reflectance and the nitrogen content of wheat leaves were measured and analyzed to research the characteristics of the canopy spectral reflectance. Secondly, using calibration panels the experiential linear calibration model was established between image gray value and spectral reflectance. Thirdly, NIR image was processed to segment wheat canopy from soil and then gray value of wheat leaves was achieved by image processing of Red, Green, and Blue channels. Finally, the gray value of wheat leaves was transformed into spectral reflectance by aforementioned experiential linear model, and the vegetation index were calculated and analyzed to research the winter wheat growing and nitrogen content status. Experiment results showed that it was reasonable to diagnose nitrogen content of winter wheat based on multi-spectral imaging system and experiential linear model. There existed remarkable correlation between vegetation index (NDVI, GNDVI) and nitrogen content of winter wheat, and the correlation coefficients (R2 ) were 0.633 and 0.6.

Zhao, Ruijiao; Li, Minzan; Li, Shuqiang; Ding, Yongjun

2010-11-01

40

Belgian consensus on chronic pancreatitis in adults and children: statements on diagnosis and nutritional, medical, and surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in a progressive and irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. Clinicians should attempt to classify patients into one of the six etiologic groups according to the TIGARO classification system. MRI/MRCP, if possible with secretin enhancement, is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of early-stage disease.In CP, pain is the most disabling symptom, with a significant impact on quality of life. Pain should be assessed using the Izbicki score and preferably treated using the "pain ladder" approach. In painful CP, endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered as early as possible. This procedure can be combined with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the presence of large (> 4 mm), obstructive stone(s) in the pancreatic head, and with ductal stenting in the presence of a single main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with a markedly dilated MPD. Pancreatic stenting should be pursued for at least 12 months in patients with persistent pain relief. On-demand stent exchange should be the preferred strategy. The simultaneous placement of multiple, side-by-side, pancreatic stents can be recommended in patients with MPD strictures persisting after 12 months of single plastic stenting. We recommend surgery in the following cases: a) technical failure of ET ; b) early (6 to 8 weeks) clinical failure ; c) definitive biliary drainage at a later time point; d) pancreatic ductal drainage when repetitive ET is considered unsuitable for young patients; e) resection of an inflammatory pancreatic head when pancreatic cancer cannot be ruled out; f) duodenal obstruction. Duodenopancreatectomy or oncological distal pancreatectomy should be considered for patients with suspected malignancy. Pediatricians should be aware of and systematically search for CP in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain. As malnutrition is highly prevalent in CP patients, patients at nutritional risk should be identified in order to allow for dietary counseling and nutritional intervention using oral supplements. Patients should follow a healthy balanced diet taken in small meals and snacks, with normal fat content. Enzyme replacement therapy is beneficial to symptomatic patients, but also in cases of subclinical insufficiency. Regular follow-up should be considered in CP patients, primarily to detect subclinical maldigestion and the development of pancreatogenic diabetes. Screening for pancreatic cancer is not recommended in CP patients, except in those with the hereditary form. PMID:24761691

Delhaye, Myriam; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Cesmeli, Ercan; Pelckmans, Paul; Putzeys, Virginie; Roeyen, Geert; Berrevoet, Frederik; Scheers, Isabelle; Ausloos, Floriane; Gast, Pierrette; Ysebaert, Dirk; Plat, Laurence; van der Wijst, Edwin; Hans, Guy; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Deprez, Pierre H

2014-03-01

41

Isolated Premature Pubarche: Report of Anthropometric and Metabolic Profile of a Brazilian Cohort of Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Isolated premature pubarche (PP) is commonly caused by premature adrenarche (PA), and links between PA, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and insulin resistance have already been made in some populations. Subjects and Methods: We assessed anthropometric data, pubertal landmarks and metabolic profile at diagnosis and during the study in 52 girls with the diagnosis of isolated PP

Karina de Ferran; Isla Aguiar Paiva; Leonardo dos Santos Garcia; Maurício de Pinho Gama; Marilia Martins Guimarães

2011-01-01

42

Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

1977-01-01

43

Nutritional Status of Older Adults in Personal Care Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that there would be a high prevalence of nutrition related problems in older adults in personal care homes (21 homes, 80 residents, 79 ± 9 years of age, 86% Caucasian, 11% Black, 2% Hispanic). All homes were licensed and had 2 to 15 residents. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and feeding

M. A. Johnson; M. E. Quinn; E. L. Andress; M. Mahadevan; M. Ramesh

1999-01-01

44

Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

Zehner, Gregory F.

1994-01-01

45

Anthropometric study of Mexican primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on male and female Mexican primary school children age 6–11 years in the metropolitan area of the city of Guadalajara. A set of 50 body dimensions was taken based on international standards. The sample consisted of 4758 children (boys and girls). The anthropometric measurements were compared to those of American,

Lilia R Prado-León; Rosal??o Avila-Chaurand; Elvia L González-Muñoz

2001-01-01

46

Estimation of living stature from selected anthropometric (soft tissue) measurements: applications for forensic anthropology.  

PubMed

Estimation of living stature has obvious utility in the identification process. Typically, anthropologists estimate stature from the measurement of long bone length. This type of analysis is traditionally conducted on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, so collection of the necessary bone measurements is relatively simple. As the role of anthropologists expands into medical examiner offices and mass fatality incidents, the analysis of fleshed bodies and body parts is a more common scenario. For stature estimation in these types of cases (e.g., analysis of body portions recovered from an aircraft crash site or from intentional dismemberment), the presence of soft tissue on the human remains would usually necessitate dissection to expose skeletal elements to derive metric data for stature estimation. In order to circumvent this step, this paper provides various formulae that allow for standard anthropometric (i.e., soft tissue) measurements to be used in place of skeletal measurements. Data were compiled from several anthropometric studies (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] and U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey [ANSUR]) and numerous regression models are presented. Results are compared between skeletal measurements and the anthropometric measurements from each study. It was found that the ANSUR models are similar to the skeletal models, while the NHANES models exhibit weaker correlation coefficients and higher standard errors. Overall, this study finds that stature estimates derived from anthropometric data provide good results and remove the necessity for dissection when working with fleshed body portions. PMID:19486443

Adams, Bradley J; Herrmann, Nicholas P

2009-07-01

47

Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).  

PubMed

The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ?6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ?12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status. PMID:25117987

Crume, T L; Crandell, J; Norris, J M; Dabelea, D; Fangman, M T; Pettitt, D J; Dolan, L; Rodriguez, B L; O'Connor, R; Mayer-Davis, E J

2014-11-01

48

Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

Pencharz, P. B.

1982-01-01

49

Approaching the diagnosis of growth-restricted neonates: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of in utero growth restriction have been attracting scholarly attention for the past two decades. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of growth-restricted neonates is as yet an unresolved issue. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the performance of simple, common indicators of nutritional status, which are used in the identification of growth-restricted neonates. Methods In a cohort of 418 consecutively born term and near term neonates, four widely used anthropometric indices of body proportionality and subcutaneous fat accretion were applied, singly and in combination, as diagnostic markers for the detection of growth-restricted babies. The concordance of the indices was assessed in terms of positive and negative percent agreement and of Cohen's kappa. Results The agreement between the anthropometric indices was overall poor with a highest positive percent agreement of 62.5% and a lowest of 27.9% and the ? ranging between 0.19 and 0.58. Moreover, 6% to 32% of babies having abnormal values in just one index were apparently well-grown and the median birth weight centile of babies having abnormal values of either of two indices was found to be as high as the 46th centile for gestational age (95%CI 35.5 to 60.4 and 29.8 to 63.9, respectively). On the contrary, the combination of anthropometric indices appeared to have better distinguishing properties among apparently and not apparently well-grown babies. The median birth weight centile of babies having abnormal values in two (or more) indices was the 11th centile for gestational age (95%CI 6.3 to 16.3). Conclusions Clinical assessment and anthropometric indices in combination can define a reference standard with better performance compared to the same indices used in isolation. This approach offers an easy-to-use tool for bedside diagnosis of in utero growth restriction. PMID:20122167

2010-01-01

50

Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition. Methods Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo, we studied incidence of clinical versus anthropometrical malnutrition in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. Results Incidence rates were highest in the rainy season for all indices except McM. Incidence rates of McM and marasmus tended to be higher for boys than for girls in the dry season. Malnutrition rates increased from the 0–5 to the 6 – 11 months age category. McM and marasmus had in general a higher incidence at all ages than their anthropometrical counterparts, moderate and severe wasting. Shifts back to normal nutritional status within 3 months were more frequent for clinical than for anthropometrical malnutrition (62.2-80.3% compared to 3.4-66.4.5%). Only a minority of moderately stunted (30.9%) and severely stunted children (3.4%) shifted back to normal status. Alteration from severe to mild malnutrition was more characteristic for anthropometrically than for clinically defined malnutrition. Conclusions Our data on age distribution of incidence and course of malnutrition underline the importance of early life intervention to ward off malnutrition. In principle, looking at incidence may yield different findings from those obtained by looking at prevalence, since incidence and prevalence differ approximately differ by a factor “duration”. Our findings show the occurrence dynamics of general malnutrition, demonstrating that patterns can differ according to nutritional assessment method. They suggest the importance of applying a mix of clinical and anthropometric methods for assessing malnutrition instead of just one method. Functional validity of characterization of aspects of individual nutritional status by single anthropometric scores or by simple clinical classification remain issues for further investigation. PMID:24467733

2014-01-01

51

[Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].  

PubMed

This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

1993-03-01

52

Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer playershave to adapt to the physical demandsof the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess

T. Reilly; J. Bangsbo; A. Franks

2000-01-01

53

An anthropometric face model using variational techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

1998-01-01

54

Assessment of anthropometric indices among residents of Calabar, South-East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus which may be addressed by application of intensive lifestyle interventions. Thus, establishing normative values of anthropometric indices in our environment is crucial. This study aimed to determine normative values of anthropometric indices of nutrition among residents of Calabar. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional observational study recruited residents of Calabar aged between 15-79 years using a multistage sampling method. Trained research assistants collected socio-demographic data and did anthropometric measurements. Results: There were 645 (56.5%) males and 489 (43.1%) females. Males had significantly lower general adiposity and hip circumference (HC) than females while females had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) than males. The WHR increased with age particularly among males. Body mass index (BMI) also increased with age in both males and females with a peak in the middle age bracket, followed by a decline among the elderly. The mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.0) kg/m2. Males had a mean (SD) BMI of 27.0 (4.4) kg/m2, while females had a mean (SD) BMI of 28.5 (5.5) kg/m2 respectively. WC correlated positively and significantly with BMI and WHR in males and females. WHR correlated positively and significantly with BMI in males and females. Conclusion: There are positive linear inter relationships between the indices of nutrition which is strongest between WC and BMI. In view of the strong independent association of DM with indices of nutrition, it is appropriate to derive normal cut-off values for WC, WHR and BMI nationally. PMID:24944936

Egbe, Enang Ofem; Asuquo, Otu Akaninyene; Ekwere, Essien Okon; Olufemi, Fasanmade; Ohwovoriole, A. E.

2014-01-01

55

Anthropometric characteristics of elite cricket fast bowlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to describe the current anthropometric profiles of elite Australian female and male cricket fast bowlers and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. The participants were 26 female (mean age 22.5 years, s = 4.5; height 1.71 m, s = 0.05; body mass 66.2 kg, s = 7.5) and 26

Max Stuelcken; David Pyne; Peter Sinclair

2007-01-01

56

Auxological and anthropometric evaluation in skeletal dysplasias.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is the technique of expressing body shape in quantitative terms. The measurements are compared with the standard growth curves for the general population and expressed as a SD score or percentiles. The comparison of the different parameters with normal standards requires: standardized landmarks on the body, standardized methods of taking measurements, and standard equipment. Skeletal dysplasias generally present with disproportionate short stature, that may be caused primarily by a short trunk or short limbs. If short limbs are observed, the reduction may affect the proximal (rhizomelic), the middle (mesomelic) or distal (acromelic) segments. Anthropometric measurements should include all the segments of the arms and the legs with a comparison with the normal standards for height age. Short stature homeobox- containing (SHOX) gene defects determine a highly variable phenotype, that includes an osteochondrodysplasia with mesomelic short stature and Madelung deformity, but also presentations without evident malformations. Anthropometric indicators of SHOX deficiency are: disproportionate short stature, reduction of lower limb, reduction of the ratio between arm span and forearm length with respect to height, increase in the sitting/ height stature ratio, increase in limb circumference (arm, forearm, thigh, and leg) with respect to height and increased body mass index. In some forms of skeletal dysplasias and in particular in SHOX gene anomalies that have many characteristics superimposable to idiopathic short stature, only an accurate auxo-anthropometric and dysmorphologic evaluation enable us to propose, fairly accurately, the subjects for the gene study. PMID:21057181

Mazzanti, L; Matteucci, C; Scarano, E; Tamburrino, F; Ragni, M C; Cicognani, A

2010-06-01

57

Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down's syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167

Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko

2003-01-01

58

Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.  

PubMed

Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

2005-03-15

59

Nutritional status and cardiac mass and function in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition, skeletal muscle wasting, and changes in cardiac muscle mass and function have been described in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This report analyzes the relation of nutritional status to cardiac muscle mass and function in HIV-infected children. Thirty-six children with symptomatic HIV infection underwent simultaneous anthropometric and echocardiographic evaluations before antiretroviral therapy or supplemental feedings. Nutritional

Tracie L Miller; E John Orav; Steven D Colan; Steven E Lipshultz

60

Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

Mukudi, E.

2003-01-01

61

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

62

Medical Position Paper The Need for Nutrition Support Teams in Pediatric Units: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reported prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals ranges from 15% to 30% of patients, with an impact on growth, morbidity and mortality. Major deficits in nutrition care have been highlighted in European hospitals, and the implementation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) has been suggested as a means to improve malnutrition diagnosis and nutrition care for hospitalized patients.

Carlo Agostoni; Irene Axelson; Virginie Colomb; Olivier Goulet; Berthold Koletzko; Kim F. Michaelsen; John W. L. Puntis; Jacques Rigo; Raanan Shamir; Hania Szajewska

63

The Effect of Nutritional Status on the Post-treatment Prophylactic Effect of Two Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) in Ugandan Children Treated for Malaria  

E-print Network

anthropometric measurements and measurements of iron status and susceptibility to malaria in Gambian children.anthropometric, clinical and dietary measurements of nutritional status as predictors of morbidity of young childrenanthropometric measurements and multiple malaria episodes in each patient will help to inform clinicians if malnourished children

Verret, Wendy Joy

2010-01-01

64

Nutritional status of Lebanese school children from different socioeconomic backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nutritional status of school children in private and public schools in West Beirut. The objectives of the study were to measure the impact of the socio?economic status on the magnitude and severity of malnutrition in school children. Anthropometric data (height and weight) were collected on 400 children from private and public schools. The private schools were

Nahla Baba; Shady Hamadeh; Nada Adra

1991-01-01

65

Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

1989-01-01

66

Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools.

Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

2014-01-01

67

An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 7–11 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.56±5.33 kg and 36.63±9.45 kg in boys and between 20.79±3.48 kg and 35.88±9.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/02±53.98 mm and 1420.83± 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.90±51.01mm and 1421.27±70.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

2010-01-01

68

Nutrition Transition, Socioeconomic Differentiation, and Gender Among Adult Xavante Indians, Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are increasingly common among indigenous Amazonian societies experiencing\\u000a greater involvement in market economies. An important factor in such nutritional transition is internal socioeconomic differentiation,\\u000a which partially accounts for fatness frequencies. We report the results of a diachronic anthropometric comparison and cross-sectional\\u000a anthropometric and socioeconomic survey of Xavante adults from a single, large community.

James R. Welch; Aline A. Ferreira; Ricardo V. Santos; Silvia A. Gugelmin; Guilherme Werneck; Carlos E. A. Coimbra

2009-01-01

69

Anthropometric-based selection and sprint kayak training in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12 week kayak training programme was evaluated in children who either had or did not have the anthropometric characteristics identified as being unique to senior elite sprint kayakers. Altogether, 234 male and female school children were screened to select 10 children with and 10 children without the identified key anthropometric characteristics. Before and after training, the children completed an

David A. Aitken; David G. Jenkins

1998-01-01

70

Anthropometrics for the design of Bahraini school furniture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey carried out on a sample of male and female Bahraini school children aged 6–12years (N=1174), to throw some light on the anthropometric parameters of Bahraini students in order to provide school furniture designers and importers with relevant data. A set of 44 body dimensions covering most body parts were measured, from

M. Mokdad; M. Al-Ansari

2009-01-01

71

A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.  

PubMed

The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes. PMID:24094549

Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

2013-12-01

72

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

73

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

74

Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

2006-01-01

75

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

Zehner, Gregory Franklin

76

Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

2012-04-01

77

Comparisons of body composition derived from anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance methods.  

PubMed

This study compared bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements with current bedside techniques for determination of body composition in 18 normal volunteers to evaluate the relative usefulness of these methods as adjuncts to assessment in surgical nutrition. Anthropometrics (weight, height, and two skinfold thicknesses) and age and sex were used to derive body density (D) or total body water (TBW) by two methods. Method 1: D was calculated from the logarithm of skinfold thickness according to Durnin and Womersley, adapted for age and sex. Method 2: TBW was calculated from height, weight, and sex according to Hume and Weyers. Resistance and reactance were measured with a four terminal impedance plethysmograph; from these data plus height, weight, and sex, lean body mass (LBM) was derived. In each instance, Siri's and Pace and Rathburn's equations were used to derive the remaining parameters of body composition: D, total body fat (TBF), TBW, and LBM. Using the paired t-test, no statistically significant differences were seen in any parameter determined by the different methods. These results show that D, TBW, TBF, and LBM in a population of healthy individuals under steady-state conditions can be estimated by anthropometric-derived formulas with the same relative accuracy as that provided from estimates based upon BIA measurements. PMID:2621290

Campos, A C; Chen, M; Meguid, M M

1989-12-01

78

Intercorrelations of Anthropometric Measurements: A Source Book for USA Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Correlation matrices based on data from USAF anthropometric surveys of women (1968, 127 variables), flying personnel (1950, 128 variables; 1967, 190 variables), and basic trainees (1965, 161 variables); a U. S. Army survey of women separatees (1946, 60 va...

E. Churchill, P. Kikta, T. Churchill

1978-01-01

79

A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case–control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe.

Luigino Dal Maso; Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi; Susan Preston-Martin; Elaine Ron; Fabio Levi; Wendy Mack; Steven D. Mark; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Dimitrios Linos; Eva Negri

2000-01-01

80

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

81

Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694

Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

2014-01-01

82

A novel anthropometric chart for craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Various indices and measurements of the growing cranial vault exist, but there is no single head-shape chart specific to craniofacial surgery. The authors have produced a reliable head-shape chart that will enable accurate charting of patients with craniosynostosis both in the preoperative and postoperative period.One thousand eighty-two participants were used to obtain normal anthropometric measurements, specifically the ear-to-ear measurement and the glabella-to-external occipital protuberance measurement. Both male and female participants aged 6 months to 25 years were used to obtain these measurements. These measurements were correlated with the cephalic index as described by Farkas according to the different age groups.A head-shape chart has been created for males and females using the normal ear-to-ear measurements and the cephalic index that define both qualitative and quantitative elements of the growing skull. Craniofacial surgeons may find this chart useful for managing patients with craniosynostosis. This chart is also useful in the assessment of how the skull grows after surgery. PMID:20186088

Christofides, Efthimios Andreas; Steinmann, Mark Eugene

2010-03-01

83

Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

2003-05-01

84

A critical review of the prognostic value of the nutritional status at diagnosis in the outcome of therapy of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

The impact of undernutrition in the outcome of treatment of children with ALL has been analyzed by several authors who have highlighted undernutrition as another relevant prognostic factor in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). There are, however, some papers which have not confirmed the prognostic value of malnutrition at diagnosis in children with ALL. Overall, data from 1,123 children with ALL worldwide support the concept of malnutrition at diagnosis being useful as a prognostic factor, whereas data from 1,271 children fail to support this concept. We here critically analyze the information of these publications referring to a total of 2,394 children with ALL. Detailed information was available only from 500 of the 2,394 patients, stemming from six publications; of these individuals, at diagnosis, 376 were well nourished and 124 were malnourished. In this subset of patients, the analysis of the data shows that the 5-year (or longer) overall survival of undernourished children (UNC) was 26%, whereas that of well-nourished children (WNC) was 59% (p < 0.001); along the same line the relative risk of dying during this period was 1.8 times higher for UNC than WNC (p < 0.01; Interval of Confidence [IC] 95%: 1.72-1.88). On the other hand, the censoring time of these 500 children is different: 293 were censored at 5 years after diagnosis, whereas 207 where censored at 8-10 years: The overall survival for each of these periods was also different: 36% versus 2% for UNC (p < 0.001), and 56% versus 63% (p > 0.10) for WNC, data which support the concept that the differences in survival are more apparent in UNC if the period of observation is extended. These data suggest that undernutrition at diagnosis by itself and without interacting with other variables, may be a significant prognostic factor in the long-term outcome of treatment of pediatric patients with ALL. After identifying these variables as important, imaginative approaches to the treatment of cancer in childhood in the years ahead may lead into the improvement of the results of these treatments. PMID:12708161

Lobato-Mendizábal, Eduardo; López-Martínez, Briceida; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

2003-01-01

85

Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

2013-01-01

86

A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing!  

PubMed Central

Background A limited body of research suggests that ongoing maintenance enteral nutrition (MEN) can be beneficial in maintaining disease remission in Crohn’s Disease (CD). We aimed to assess how achievable MEN is and whether it helps to prolong remission. Methods Patients newly diagnosed with CD in 2010 and 2011 who commenced exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for 8 weeks were followed up for a year post diagnosis. All patients who took EEN were encouraged to continue MEN post EEN. Data on azathioprine use was also collected. Categorical variables were compared using chi–square/Fischer’s exact test. Medians were expressed along with complete data ranges. Results 59 patients (34 male, median age 11.07 years, range 2.5-16.33 years) were identified. 11/59 (18%) had a poor response to EEN and were switched to steroids. 48/59 patients completed 8 weeks EEN and achieved clinical remission/response. 46/48 patients received Modulen IBD®, 29/48 (60%) consumed EEN orally and 19/48 (40%) via NGT. 15/48 (31%) patients were able to continue MEN post EEN completion. MEN was consumed for a mean of 10.8 months (range 4–14 months). 14/15 patients drank MEN and 1/15 had MEN via NGT. Remission rates at 1 year in patients continuing MEN were 60% (9/15) compared to15% (2/13) in patients taking no treatment (p?=?0.001) and 65% (13/20) in patients taking azathioprine (p?=?0.14). Conclusion A sub group of patients can continue MEN as a maintenance treatment and this seems a useful strategy, especially in those who are not commencing azathioprine. PMID:24645851

2014-01-01

87

Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ?7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

2014-01-01

88

Indicators and Nutritional Outcomes of Household Food Insecurity among a Sample of Rural Malaysian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the indicators and nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among a sample of poor rural communities in Malaysia. The Radimer\\/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument was utilized to categorize food secure and insecure households. Demographic, socioeconomic, coping strategies and anthropometric information were collected through in- depth interviews with Malay and Indian women

2004-01-01

89

The implications of female household headship for food consumption and nutritional status in the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female control of household resources is often associated with consumption preferences which favor basic needs and child welfare. Using data from the Dominican Republic, this study tests differences in spending patterns, consumption preferences, and child nutritional (anthropometric) status according to four definitions of female household headship. Female-headed households (FHH) allocate the same amount or less of their budgets to food

Beatrice Lorge Rogers

1996-01-01

90

Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2004-01-01

91

[Food and nutrition education in school: a literature review].  

PubMed

Food and nutrition education is viewed as a key strategy for promoting healthy eating habits, and the school is an appropriate space for developing these activities. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the scientific literature on intervention studies on food and nutrition education in Brazilian schools. A literature review was conducted, selecting articles published from 2000 to 2011. Despite the topic's current importance, there were few articles, and most were published after 2009. The main results showed improvement in the children's nutritional knowledge and food choices. However, most studies that performed anthropometric measurements failed to show changes in nutritional status. In addition, the studies chose designs based on epidemiological intervention studies, indicating the need for interventions based on innovative health education methodologies and research models that are consistent with the study's objects. PMID:24233031

Ramos, Flavia Pascoal; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa

2013-11-01

92

[Role of impedance measurement in nutritional screening].  

PubMed

Nutritional status has a prognostic value in the clinical evolution of patients who are malnourished, are becoming malnourished or are in process of being rehabilitated. The evaluation of nutritional status is based on a comprehensive approach, and includes body composition measurement by bio-impedance analysis (BIA). BIA determines the quantity of body fat-free and fat mass and has a precision around 4%. The reliability of BIA depends on the use of body composition prediction equations that are adapted to the subjects studied and on the inclusion of various anthropometric parameters (weight, height, sex, age, race, etc). BIA remains imprecise in the presence of abnormal distribution of body compartments (ascites, dialysis, lipodystrophy) or of extreme weights (cachexia, severe obesity). Multi-frequency or segmental BIA were developed to overcome hydration abnormalities and variations in body geometry. However, these techniques require further validation. This review discusses the indications and limitations of BIA. PMID:15573504

Maisonneuve, Nadine; Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Kyle, Ursula G; Dupertuis, Yves M; Pichard, Claude

2004-10-01

93

Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (?9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p?=?0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men. PMID:24516542

Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

2014-01-01

94

Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

2013-01-01

95

Predicting insulin resistance in children: anthropometric and metabolic indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To predict insulin resistance in children based on anthropometric and metabolic indicators by analyzing the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 109 children aged 7 to 11 years, 55 of whom were obese, 23 overweight and 31 well-nourished, classified by body mass index (BMI) for age. Measurements were taken to

Sérgio R. Moreira; Aparecido P. Ferreira; Ricardo M. Lima; Gisela Arsa; Carmen S. G. Campbell; Herbert G. Simões; Francisco J. G. Pitanga; Nanci M. França

2008-01-01

96

Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

97

Influence of anthropometric parameters on ultrasound measurements of os calcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data have been published concerning the influence of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) on broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and Lunar “stiffness” index, and always in small population samples. The first aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether anthropometric factors have a significant influence on ultrasound measurements. The second objective was

D. Hans; A. M. Schott; M. E. Arlot; E. Sornay; P. D. Delmas; P. J. Meunier

1995-01-01

98

Medical Issues: Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

99

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

100

[Nutritional assessment of a university population].  

PubMed

In this work, we have planned to perform a nutritional assessment of a group of 50 students from the University of Granada, to which questionnaires have been administered relating to 24-hour remembrance of type and frequency of food consumption, for 30 days. In order to know macro- and micronutrients intake, the results have been analyzed with DietSource software. At the same time, anthropometrical measurements have been taken to verify their possible change during the study period. We have been able to observe a protein intake slightly higher than the recommended intake, similarly to what occurs with lipids. The studied group positively values menus with high content in meat, whereas deficiencies in fruit and vegetable intake are observed. In addition, there is a variation of anthropometrical measurements of these individuals during the study period. We also noticed a deficiency in some micronutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, cupper, selenium, vitamin E, and folic acid in all the studied population. However, vitamin C and thiamine levels in both groups and riboflavin levels in women may be considered adequate. From these results, we may highlight a nutrition unbalance in this population group since we have observed some deficiencies in the intake of important micronutrients for health maintenance and promotion, and macronutrient consumption that diverges from the established recommendations. PMID:16734070

Oliveras López, M J; Nieto Guindo, P; Agudo Aponte, E; Martínez Martínez, F; López García de la Serrana, H; López Martinéz, M C

2006-01-01

101

Noontime Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary report by the Department of Agriculture shows that school lunches are still fattier and saltier than they should be. Cites examples of how some nutrition-conscious school dietitians are improving school lunches. Lists statistics about the National School Lunch Program. (MLF)

Bushweller, Kevin

1993-01-01

102

Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.  

PubMed

Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS?=?66, YDBE?=?75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. PMID:24740687

Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

103

Nutritional status of Ribeirinhos in Brazil and the nutrition transition.  

PubMed

Anthropometric and household data (size, composition, economic activity) were collected from a population of Ribeirinhos living in a rural setting in the eastern Amazon. Data are compared to international reference standards and to other Amazonian populations with the goals of increasing our understanding of the Amazon's largest ethnic group and identifying the relationship between changes in subsistence strategies and nutritional status. Data on height, weight, skinfolds, and circumferences were collected from 471 adults and subadults. The population showed a high degree of stunting with an average HAZ below -2.0 for all age groups over 3 years, and 60% of adult men and 70% of adult women were stunted. Wasting was rare. Average skinfold thicknesses and upper-arm muscle area were near or below average but within the normal range compared to the reference standard, indicating adequate energy and protein stores. Thirty-one percent of males and 29% of females were overweight/obese, and the highest average BMIs were found among men and women in their 40s. Adult males who participated in wage labor had higher weights, BMIs, and UMA values, and were more likely to be overweight and obese compared with those who did not work in wage-labor jobs. Children of fathers who worked in wage labor had higher BMI and UMA values, but there was no significant effect on the nutritional status of other adults in these same households. Signs of the nutrition transition were most noticeable among adult males involved in wage labor because of changes in their diet and activity patterns. PMID:17405126

Piperata, Barbara A

2007-06-01

104

Measuring the Impact of Nutrition Education and Physical Activity on Older Adults Participating in Government Sponsored Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal, four-year study (2004–2007) with a cohort of 139 older adults (majority women;71%) was conducted to examine the impact of community-based nutrition and physical activity programs on health outcome measures. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected and nutrition screening was performed. Blood pressure, serum cholesterol and glucose levels, and pulse rate were also measured. The blood pressure, both mean

Shahla Wunderlich; Charlotte McKinnon; Jacqueline Piemonte; Zaira Naveed Ahmad

2009-01-01

105

[Values of the phase angle by bioelectrical impedance; nutritional status and prognostic value].  

PubMed

Phase angle (PA) is the most established parameter from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for diagnosis of malnutrition and clinical prognosis, both associated with changes on cellular membrane integrity and alterations on fluids balance. PA expresses changes in quantity and quality of soft tissue mass (ie, cell membrane permeability and soft tissue hydration). A large body of clinical trials propose PA as a useful prognostic marker in clinical conditions like liver cirrhosis and breast, colon, pancreatic and lung cancer; positive association between PA and survival was also observed in surgical and HIV infected patients. Several authors suggest that PA can be an important tool in the evaluation of the clinical result or of the progression of the disease, and it can even be superior to other nutritional, biochemical or anthropometric indicators. Lack of reference values has limited its use in clinical and epidemiological situations. The purpose of this review is to describe PA reference values according to different clinical conditions as proposed in published scientific works. PMID:23822677

Llames, L; Baldomero, V; Iglesias, M L; Rodota, L P

2013-01-01

106

Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of israeli female combat recruits participating in a nutrition education program.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a pilot nutrition intervention program on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female combat soldiers in basic training serving in the Israeli army and to determine changes in nutrient intake. Seventy recruits participated in the intervention. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: at enlistment, at 2 months, and at 4 months. Additional questionnaires to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered preintervention and postintervention. Baseline results indicated that intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D were below recommended levels. After 2 months (8 weeks), suboptimal consumption of many nutrients was observed. At this time point, a nutrition education program was initiated and activities were carried out for the final 2 months of basic training. Following completion of the intervention, a marked improvement in nutrient intake was reported, accompanied by significant changes in attitudes toward healthy eating and increased nutrition knowledge. One-year follow-up evaluation indicated that approximately 20% of participants had made long-term dietary changes. In conclusion, nutrition education increased knowledge, modified attitudes, and led to dietary changes in female recruits. Programs of this type should be considered for implementation in the military. PMID:23756010

Herzman-Harari, Sarit; Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon; Lencovsky, Zvi; Stark, Aliza H

2013-05-01

107

Validity of child anthropometric measurements in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children  

E-print Network

of childhood obesity in the United States and many otherObesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States,Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children-United States,

Crespi, Catherine M; Alfonso, Vivian H; Whaley, Shannon E; Wang, May C

2012-01-01

108

Nutritional intake and physical performance capacity in Flemish schoolchildren (seven to12 years): issues for responsible marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is the aim of the present paper to describe the nutritional intake, the physical performance capacity and certain anthropometric variables of a group of schoolchildren (n=297) aged seven to 12 years. The findings on this population may be used to give advice in specific marketing situations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The subjects were asked to complete a three-day food

Peter Deriemaeker; J. Taeymans; D. Aerenhouts; M. Hebbelinck; P. Clarys

2007-01-01

109

[Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Puerto Rican cyclists].  

PubMed

This study was conducted to describe various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 31 athletes (F = 5, M = 26) members of the Puertorrican Cycling Federation's national pre-selection. The athletes were divided into four categories according to their sex and age. The mean and standard deviation of all the variables in each category was computed. An Analysis of Covariance was conducted to determine significant differences between the mean's of the four categories. Male cyclists showed superior results compared to female cyclists in all the variables studied except body mass, ectomorphy, VO2 max, max HR, max power (W), and neuromuscular function in which they showed no statistical differences. The anthropometric, body composition, max power (W) and cardiorespiratory characteristics of our cyclists compared with those reported for international cyclists. The groups means for push ups, sit ups and flexibility were below the excellent classification when compared to the general population's health related physical fitness norms. PMID:1475344

Ramírez Marrero, F A; Rivera, M A

1992-12-01

110

Comparison of three anthropometric techniques for tooth selection.  

PubMed

The absence of a reliable method to assess the proper dimension of artificial teeth can lead to errors that reduce aesthetic outcomes of the dental treatment. Previous studies indicate facial anthropometric parameters as guides to estimate the width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Nasal width, distance between the medialis angles of the eyes and mouth width were measured in young subjects Brazilian as well as the width of their six maxillary anterior teeth. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p < or = 0.05). The distance between the medialis angles of the eyes is a reliable anthropometric method to indicate the width of artificial teeth similar to the natural extracted. PMID:22852522

Lucas, B L; Bernardino-Júnior, R; Lopes-Júnior, I; Gonçalves, L C; Gomes, V L

2012-06-01

111

Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand.  

PubMed

For the design of farm machinery, body dimension data is essential. There are little such anthropometric data available on agricultural laborers from developing countries. This research, therefore, aimed to collect anthropometric data of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand. Forty-four physical dimensions of both 50 men and 50 women agricultural laborers were measured. These laborers were selected randomly from two provinces in the central plains of Thailand. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were determined. No significant difference was observed in most of the body dimensions of men and women laborers in different age groups used in this study. Body dimensions of length were in constant proportion to stature. The body dimensions of Thai laborers obtained in this study were also compared with the data of body dimensions from some Asian as well as Western countries. PMID:7844358

Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M; Intaranont, K

1994-06-01

112

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

113

Enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Enteral nutrition (EN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients beyond the oesophagus via feeding tubes, and the oral intake of dietary foods for special medical purposes. It should be provided in patients with at least a partially functioning gut, whose energy and nutrient needs cannot be met by a regular food intake. Further indications are when the liquid diet is used as a treatment of the disease, and when a feeding time in the disabled child is excessively prolonged. Advantages of enteral intake over parenteral nutrition are well recognized, however there are clinical settings such as intensive care units where nutritional needs can often be met only by their combination despite the functioning gut. For the majority of paediatric patients on EN, age-adapted standard polymeric formula enriched with fibres is an appropriate choice. There is also a wide array of different disease-adapted enteral formulations that may be beneficial in certain clinical conditions, however for most of them, results of controlled studies are either missing or do not support the claims. For the delivery of EN, both the stomach and intermittent feeding mode are more physiological; continuous mode is reserved for patients with severely diseased gut, postpyloric feeding is indicated in patients with the high risk of tracheal aspiration, and feeding over gastrostomy is preferable if the anticipated duration of EN is exceeding 4-6 weeks. Although EN is a well-established and effective feeding method, it may be poorly tolerated and associated with numerous complications. To minimize the risks, development of procedural protocols with regular quality controls and audits, and monitoring by a dedicated nutrition support team are recommended. PMID:24029791

Kola?ek, Sanja

2013-01-01

114

Classifying children for sports participation based upon anthropometric measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study proposes a classification system for youth sports that is maturation-based, using the anthropometric prediction of vertical jump impulse potential. Methods: Impulse was calculated for children between 8.0 and 17.9 years of age from vertical jump height [I = m × (2 gh)0.5] in a truncated version of the Coquitlam Growth Study database. A series of stepwise regressions

Gregory Anderson; Richard Ward

2002-01-01

115

Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to under- stand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, rela- tive stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m\\/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension

Pui W. Kong; Hendrik de Heer

2008-01-01

116

Physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To identify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance.Methods—Forty four climbers (24 men, 20 women) of various skill levels (self reported rating 5.6–5.13c on the Yosemite decimal scale) and years of experience (0.10–44 years) served as subjects. They climbed two routes on separate days to assess climbing performance. The routes (11 and 30 m in distance) were set

Christine M Mermier; Jeffrey M Janot; Daryl L Parker; Jacob G Swan

2000-01-01

117

[Preoperative nutrition in abdominal surgery: recommendations and reality].  

PubMed

Malnutrition concerns up to 50% at in-hospital admission. Its diagnosis and treatment are fundamental parts of the surgical approach because nutritional status directly influences the clinical outcome. The Nutritional Risk Score (NRS-2002) represents the recommended screening tool by the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN). Patients with a score > or = 3 and aged > 70 years old, should receive a nutritional support during 7-14 day before surgery. Depending on patient's clinical conditions, the enteral route of administration should be preferred. Despite strong evidence in favor of nutritional supplementation, much effort must be done to implement these supportive strategies in the everyday clinical practice. PMID:21815536

Cristaudi, A; Cerantola, Y; Grass, F; Demartines, N; Hubner, M; Schaefer, M

2011-06-22

118

Effect of Cigarette Smoking in Pregnancy on Infants Anthropometric Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The main goal of this research is to correlate anthropometric characteristics of newborns in pregnant women who consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics Clinic of the Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. Methods: The retrospective study covered a period of two years. Main inclusion criteria for the study was that pregnant women consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The research included respondents who had a singleton pregnancy, without pathological conditions that can affect the outcome and duration of pregnancy. Results: At the Obstetrics Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. In that period 393 pregnant women completed labor who in the personal history had data on smoking during pregnancy. Of the total number of subjects enrolled in this study 38.17% smoked up to 10 cigarettes a day, 33.08 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes a day, while up to 30 cigarettes per day smoked 28.75 % of respondents. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the average values of all anthropometric parameters, in relation to the number of cigarettes consumed by the subjects during the day. We also found negative correlation in the average values of anthropometric measures and the number of cigarettes consumed (p <0.05). PMID:25126013

El-Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Izetbegovic, Sebija; El-Ardat, Khalil A. Abou

2014-01-01

119

Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707

Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J; Goncalves, José; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J

2014-04-01

120

Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.  

PubMed

The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

2012-03-01

121

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

122

Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.  

PubMed

Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

2012-01-01

123

Pediatric Nutrition Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and\\/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials.

MARION TAYLOR BAER; ANNE BRADFORD HARRIS

1997-01-01

124

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

125

Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG?200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

2011-01-01

126

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

127

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Method Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath?Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using a leg and back dynamometer, low back and hamstring flexibility was assessed using the sit and reach test, and the vertical jump was used as a measure of lower body power. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using the 20?m multistage fitness test. Results Setters were more ectomorphic (p<0.05) and less mesomorphic (p<0.01) than centres. Mean (SD) of somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) for setters and centres was 2.6 (0.9), 1.9 (1.1), 5.3 (1.2) and 2.2 (0.8), 3.9 (1.1), 3.6 (0.7) respectively. Hitters had significantly greater low back and hamstring flexibility than opposites. Mean (SD) for sit and reach was 19.3 (8.3)?cm for opposites and 37 (10.7)?cm for hitters. There were no other significant differences in physiological and anthropometric variables across playing positions (all p>0.05). Conclusion Setters tend to be endomorphic ectomorphs, hitters and opposites tend to be balanced ectomorphs, whereas centres tend to be ectomorphic mesomorphs. These results indicate the need for sports scientists and conditioning professionals to take the body type of volleyball players into account when designing individualised position specific training programmes. PMID:16799112

Duncan, M J; Woodfield, L; al-Nakeeb, Y

2006-01-01

128

Systematic review: nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: NUTRITION IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN’S  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background At least 25% of individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) have onset of disease in childhood. Almost all children with CD have nutri- tional impairments, such as weight loss or stunting, at diagnosis or sub- sequently. Nutritional therapy (exclusive enteral nutrition) is established as a valid and effective treatment in paediatric CD. The advantages of this approach are

A. S. DAY; K. E. WHITTEN; M. SIDLER; D. A. LEMBERG

2007-01-01

129

Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ? 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players. PMID:23942164

Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

2014-02-01

130

Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

Chesak, D. D.

1981-01-01

131

Scabies Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies infestation usually is made based ... and the presence of burrows. Whenever possible, the diagnosis of scabies should be confirmed by identifying the ...

132

Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

2011-01-01

133

Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.  

PubMed Central

Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

1986-01-01

134

Condição nutricional e prevalência de anemia em crianças matriculadas em creches beneficentes Nutritional condition and prevalence of anemia in children enrolled in daycare centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status and the prevalen- ce of anemia in children enrolled in non-profit daycare centers. Method: This cross-sectional study examined 942 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 8 Cruzada Pró-Infância daycare centers in São Paulo, Brazil. The nutritional evaluation was con- ducted with anthropometric measurements (weigh and height). Z-scores of weight-for-height (W\\/H) were used

Edna H. S. Machado; Anne L. D. Brasil; Domingos Palma; José A. A. C. Taddei

135

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on diet and nutrition relating to osteoporosis and provide recommendations for preventing osteoporosis, in particular, osteopototic fracture. Approach: Firstly, to review the definition, diagnosis and epidemiology of osteoporosis, to discuss the difficulties in using bone mineral density to define osteoporosis risk in a world-wide context and to propose that fragility fracture should be considered as

A Prentice

2004-01-01

136

Obesity and nutrition in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse the association between nutritional and familial factors and obesity in boys and girls.Design: Randomized, cross-sectional population study.Setting: Province de Luxembourg, Belgium.Subjects: One thousand and twenty-eight boys and girls in age strata 6–8, 8–10 and 10–12 y, comprising 70.3% of primary cohort.Methods: Examinations included anthropometric measurements and questionnaires covering familial, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. A three day dietary

M Guillaume; L Lapidus; A Lambert; D-M Guillaume

1998-01-01

137

Malnutrition in Geriatric Patients: Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Nutritional Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were

Dorothee Volkert; Wolfgang Kruse; Peter Oster; Günter Schlierf

1992-01-01

138

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

139

New Sources and New Techniques for the Study of Secular Trends in Nutritional Status, Health, Mortality, and the Process of Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe the full dimensions of a new and rapidly growing research program that uses new data sources on food consumption, anthropometric measures, genealogies, and life-cycle histories to shed light on secular trends in nutritional status, health, mortality, and the process of aging. The exploitation of these types of data involves integration of analytical

Robert William Fogel

1993-01-01

140

Fatty liver in obese children: prevalence and correlation with anthropometric measurements and hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Arslan N, Büyükgebiz B, Öztürk Y. Fatty liver in obese children: prevalence and correlation with anthropometric measurements and hyperlipidemia. Turk J Pediatr 2005; 47: 23-27. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of ultrasonography-proven fatty liver with liver functions, serum lipid levels and anthropometric measurements in children with exogenous obesity. Three hundred and twenty- two patients

Nur Arslan; Benal Büyükgebiz; Yeþim Öztürk; Handan Çakmakçý

2005-01-01

141

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and

T. Jürimäe; T. Hurbo; J. Jürimäe

2009-01-01

142

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Measurements of Idealized Females and Young Women in General  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant Winners, and Fashion Models) and Young Women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. Body mass index (BMI) for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jessica Murray; Yvette R. Schlussel

2005-01-01

143

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

144

Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR) at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population. Methods Data from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and ?-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-?, respectvely). Results The mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015). The mean body mass index (BMI) of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001). The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012). Conclusion Korean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men. PMID:24627831

2014-01-01

145

Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

2014-12-15

146

[Research advance in assessment of nutritional status of children].  

PubMed

Malnutrition is not a simple disease, which occurs in the condition when the body does not get the right amount of nutrients to maintain healthy tissues and organ functions. Malnutrition generally refers both to undernutrition and overnutrition, but usually it is used to refer solely to a deficiency of nutrition. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable because of their high nutritional requirements for growth and development. Growth is an important indicator of health and nutritional status of a child. Generally, underweight, studding and wasting are used as the indicators of malnutrition. In fact, a gain in height is a better indicator of the adequacy of a diet than a gain in weight. Rates of weight gain needs to accompany accelerated height gain to maintain normal body proportions (weight-for-height). Now therefore WHO recommends using weight-for-height as the indicator of malnutrition of epidemic intensity in communities and of nutritional condition evaluation, including treatment assessment. The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarized by the mnemonic "ABCD," which stands for anthropometric measurement (A), biochemical or laboratory tests (B), clinical indicators (C) and dietary assessment (D). Children with malnutrition are required to ingest more than 30 essential nutrients including both functional, protective nutrients (type I) and growth nutrients (type II), in order to have a catch-up growth in weight and height. PMID:24461169

Li, Hai-Qi

2014-01-01

147

Some sociodemographic factors influencing the nutritional awareness of the Saudi teens and adults: preliminary observations.  

PubMed

Three hundred and eleven (311) Saudi visitors (teenagers and adults) participated in a nutritional awareness and anthropometric study in a Health Week Exhibition campaign sponsored by the Ministry of Health in 1408 H (1988). The study revealed that the average adult male and female heights were 167cm and 155cm against the American standard heights of 178cm and 163cm respectively. Adult females weighed more than males (43.2% vs 19.8%), and the married subjects of both sexes were heavier than the unmarried subjects (male: 15.4% vs 4.4%; female: 35.1% vs 8.1%). A good number of subjects consumed a variety of foods from the four food groups daily which reflected a good trend in food and nutrition awareness. However, the study emphasizes the importance of nutrition education and propagation for the improvement of general health and nutritional status of the population. PMID:2126290

al-shoshan, A A

1990-12-01

148

Morphologic and anthropometric characteristics of high level Dutch korfball players.  

PubMed

In this study a morphologic and anthropometric characterisation of Dutch korfball players (N = 36) is performed. Data, compared with those of other sports populations, showed that (1) korfball athletes are smaller and lighter than basketball and volleyball players but heavier and taller than other team-sport players; (2) korfball players have less relative body fat, more lean body mass, more limb fat, and less or similar trunk fat than the other athletes. (3) Male korfball players presented a somatotype (1.9-4.4-3.4) similar to endurance athletes and an endomorphic value lower than or similar to the other athletes. (4) The only apparent similarity between female korfball somatotype (3.2-4.0-2.8) and other athletes' somatotypes is the dominance of mesomorphy. PMID:8668500

Godinho, M; Fragoso, I; Vieira, F

1996-02-01

149

Carrier Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex Determination Labour and Delivery Treatment of Bleeding Quality of Life Resources Inhibitors ...

150

Dermatomyositis: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... to Help MDA Search form Search Dermatomyositis (DM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In DM, the ...

151

Polymyositis: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... to Help MDA Search form Search Polymyositis (PM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In PM, the ...

152

Food & Nutrition Resource Guide  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Food Safety Resources4-H Food & Nutrition Resource Guide Developed by: 4-H Food & Nutrition Issue Group Renee Sanders System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating #12;Food

153

Nutrition Training Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.

154

Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.  

PubMed

Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years. PMID:16572719

2006-03-01

155

Seminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics"  

E-print Network

subsequent indications of plagiarism will be handled as an academic integrity matter. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES and politics: Part 2 Unit 3 Food aid: World Food Program, North Korea 2/13 Intersection of nutrition and politics: Part 3 Unit 4 Food assistance: SNAP, World Bank, Haiti 2/20 Intersection of nutrition

Chen, Kuang-Yu

156

Effect of parental consanguinity on anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of Delhi.  

PubMed

The study of consanguineous marriage is an efficient way to elucidate the genetic structure of human populations. Such matings give an opportunity for recessive genes to manifest themselves by becoming homozygous. The present attempt examines the effects of parental consanguinity on various anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of old Delhi between the ages of 11 and 16 years. A slight inbreeding depression has been observed for all eight anthropometric measurements, i.e., stature, span, sitting height, head length, head circumference, chest girth, and calf circumference. The results support earlier studies in regard to the effect of consanguinity on anthropometric measurements. PMID:3728657

Krishan, G

1986-05-01

157

Nutrition Source Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

158

Aging and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

Bazzarre, Terry L.

1978-01-01

159

Nutrition and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

1978-01-01

160

Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

2002-01-01

161

Nutritional training in gastroenterology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the clear importance of nutritional knowledge for health professionals, such education has long been notoriously patchy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Gastroenterologists in particular have a special responsibility to provide advice and expertise, not only in general nutrition but also in artificial nutrition support in the setting of extreme risk of malnutrition and intestinal failure. Recently, with the

Jacquelyn Anne Helen Harvey; Penny Jane Neild

2010-01-01

162

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

163

Nutritional Status Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

Smith, Scott M.

2008-01-01

164

Maternal nutrition and birth weight.  

PubMed

Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation during pregnancy. Ethnic differences in the development of the newborn are worth studying after discounting confounding factors. PMID:12344922

Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

1987-01-01

165

Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.  

PubMed

This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

Harris, B

1994-08-01

166

IRON STATUS AND DIETARY AND ANTHROPOMETRIC RISK FACTORS IN US TODDLERS  

E-print Network

, its application in children is limited. Our objective was to determine the body iron of middle-class US toddlers using this equation and to compare calculated body iron to dietary and anthropometric covariates previously associated with ID. Eighty...

Kerling, Elizabeth Helen

2008-05-01

167

Effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on child nutrition in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To examine the association between Brazil’s Bolsa Familia programme (BFP), which is the world's largest conditional cash transfer programme, and the anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in children. Methods Using the opportunity provided by vaccination campaigns, the Brazilian government promotes Health and Nutrition Days to estimate the prevalence of anthropometric deficits in children. Data collected in 2005–2006 for 22?375 impoverished children under 5 years of age were employed to estimate nutritional outcomes among recipients of Bolsa Família. All variables under study, namely child birth weight, lack of birth certificate, educational level and gender of family head, access to piped water and electricity, height for age, weight for age and weight for height, were converted into binary variables for regression analysis. Findings Children from families exposed to the BFP were 26% more likely to have normal height for age than those from non-exposed families; this difference also applied to weight for age. No statistically significant deficit in weight for height was found. Stratification by age group revealed 19% and 41% higher odds of having normal height for age at 12–35 and 36–59 months of age, respectively, in children receiving Bolsa Familia, and no difference at 0–11 months of age. Conclusion The BFP can lead to better nutritional outcomes in children 12 to 59 months of age. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21734763

Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Miazaki, Edina Shisue

2011-01-01

168

Relationship between anthropometric variables and lipid levels among school children: The Taipei Children Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between anthropometric parameters and lipid levels among Taiwanese school children.DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a probability-proportional-to size sampling and multi-stages sampling procedure, we sampled 1500 school children from 10 schools in Taipei city. Anthropometric parameters including body weight, body height, waist circumference, hip circumference and skinfolds were measured. Serum total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), high density

N-F Chu; EB Rimm; D-J Wang; H-S Liou; S-M Shieh; Nain-Feng Chu

1998-01-01

169

Anthropometric measurement of the Chinese elderly living in the Beijing area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric data of the elderly have become an immediate need for ergonomic design of health care and living products even in a developing country like China. The first aim of this survey was to collect anthropometric data of the Chinese elderly (aged over 65) living in the Beijing area. 58 females (age range 65.0–80.7, mean 71.2, SD 4.1) and 50

Haitao Hu; Zhizhong Li; Jingbin Yan; Xiaofang Wang; Hui Xiao; Jiyang Duan; Li Zheng

2007-01-01

170

Anthropometric measurements and estimating body composition in ballet dancers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in female ballet dancers. One hundred twelve, 11- to 25-yr old, female dancers had FFM measured by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and anthropometrics, including skinfold and circumference measurements. The regression equation that best estimated FFM in the dancers was FFM = 0.73 x body weight (kg) + 3.0, (R2 = 88%, SEE = 1.5 kg, P < 0.001). This equation was then cross-validated on a separate group of 23 female dancers who also had FFM measured by TOBEC. FFM estimated by this equation correlated with FFM measured by TOBEC (r = 0.94, SEE = 0.9 kg), and the difference in the FFM values using the two methods (the equation and TOBEC) did not change with the size of the FFM of the dancers. FFM in accomplished female ballet dancers can be best estimated from body weight alone. This is related to the homogeneity of body size and body composition in female ballet dancers at this level. PMID:8423748

Hergenroeder, A C; Brown, B; Klish, W J

1993-01-01

171

Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of male volleyball players.  

PubMed

Fourteen Finnish and ten Russian elite male volleyball players were studied for their anthropometric dimensions, maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion, leg extension strength and vertical jumping height. In addition, the height of rise of the body centre of gravity h (C.G.), and the height of the hand and ball were analyzed from a video tape in spike and block jumps taken during actual competition. The two teams were found to differ significantly in the h (C.G.) during a vertical jumping test where a preliminary counter movement was allowed and in the lengths of lower limbs and legs; the Russian volleyball players jumped higher and had longer lower extremities. In actual competition, the hands of the Russian players while performing a spike were on the average ten centimeters higher (p less than .01) than the hand of the Finnish players. No significant differences were found, however, between the teams in the h (C.G.) during spiking. This finding seems to suggest that the Russians have better spike technique. PMID:7127653

Viitasalo, J T

1982-09-01

172

The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn.

DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

2014-01-01

173

[Anthropometric characteristics of school children graduated from basic and secondary education in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile].  

PubMed

An anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of students graduating from Basic (8th grade) and Secondary (4th grade) Education was carried out. A group sample of 522 students from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, was randomly selected. The same number of students by sex, dependency (public and private schools) from high, medium and low socioeconomic levels (SEL) was chosen. SEL was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale, and the percentage of weight for age (% W/A), height/age (% H/A) and weight/height (% W/H) were evaluated in accordance with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference pattern. The % adequacy of head circumference/age (% HC/A) was determined by the Tanner Tables, and the % of upper to lower segment ratio (% US/LS), by the Tables of Muzzo et al. Results revealed that the % of W/A and of H/A were diminished in students of both sexes, while the % of UP/LS, was increased in males of low SEL, from Basic Education; this impact is lost in males graduating from Secondary Education and persists only in the LSE females. No differences in the nutritional status (% W/H) of students according to SEL, were found. Females registered values over 110% of the WHO standard, a finding suggesting a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We conclude that there is a growth retardation in students graduating from 8th Basic Grade, which persists only in females from 4th grade of Secondary Education. This finding indicates that, in addition to possible environmental factors, other factors, probably of genetic order, also influence the latter. Overweight and obesity, therefore, constitute an important problem that merits measures of preventive nature directed to avoid future consequences. PMID:3842049

Ivanovi?, D; Barrera, G; Alvarez, M L; Muzzo, S

1985-09-01

174

Nutrition in the adolescent.  

PubMed

This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R

1999-02-01

175

Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

2011-05-01

176

Evaluation of parenteral nutritional support in the surgical and medical wards of a referral teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Malnutrition is a common problem in patients who are hospitalized in surgical and medical wards. Surgical patients, geriatric populations and individuals with severe illness are more vulnerable to malnutrition during their hospitalization course. The purpose of this study was evaluation of parenteral nutrition services in a referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Medical records of 72 patients who received parenteral nutrition during one year period in different surgical and medical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were reviewed retrospectively by clinical pharmacists. Criteria for initiation of parenteral nutrition, selection of appropriate formulation and monitoring parameters were assessed based on the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations. Results Based on the patients' anthropometric parameters and serum albumin levels, 4.2%, 75% and 20.8% of the patients were well-nourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished respectively at the hospital admission and before nutritional support. Adequate calorie, protein, carbohydrate and lipid supports were achieved in 21.1%, 32.4%, 23.7% and 10.5% of the patients respectively. About 91% of the patients experienced at least one complication of the nutritional support. Conclusion In this evaluation, several errors in assessment, establishing goals, and monitoring of parenteral nutrition regimens have been detected. Approximately all of the patients did not receive to the trace elements supports goals. PMID:23351175

2012-01-01

177

Prognostic Indices of Poor Nutritional Status and Their Impact on Prolonged Hospital Stay in a Greek University Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background. To ascertain the potential contributors to nutritional risk manifestation and to disclose the factors exerting a negative impact on hospital length of stay (LOS), by means of poor nutritional status, in a nonselected hospitalized population. Materials and Methods. NutritionDay project questionnaires were applied to 295 adult patients. Study parameters included anthropometric data, demographics, medical history, dietary-related factors, and self-perception of health status. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) were calculated for each participant. MUST score was applied for malnutrition assessment, while hospital LOS constituted the outcome of interest. Results. Of the total cohort, 42.3% were at nutritional risk and 21.4% malnourished. Age, gender, BMI, MUST score, autonomy, health quality, appetite, quantity of food intake, weight loss, arm or calf perimeter (P < 0.001, for all), and dietary type (P < 0.01) affected nutritional status. Poor nutrition status (P = 0.000), deteriorated appetite (P = 0.000) or food intake (P = 0.025), limited autonomy (P = 0.013), artificial nutrition (P = 0.012), weight loss (P = 0.010), and arm circumference <21?cm (P = 0.007) were the most powerful predictors of hospital LOS >7 days. Conclusion. Nutritional status and nutrition-related parameters such as weight loss, quantity of food intake, appetite, arm circumference, dietary type, and extent of dependence confer considerable prognostic value regarding hospital LOS in acute care setting. PMID:24779021

Tsaousi, Georgia; Stavrou, George; Tsouskas, John; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Kotzampassi, Katerina

2014-01-01

178

Dual diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual diagnosis denotes the co-occurrence of severe mental illness and substance use disorder. This contribution summarizes the literature on dual diagnosis by reviewing epidemiology, phenomenology, clinical correlates, assessment, treatment and current research. Epidemiological data from several countries show that substance abuse or dependence is common (approximately 50%) among persons disabled by severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or

Robert E. Drake

2007-01-01

179

Dual diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual diagnosis in psychiatry and addiction refers to the presence of a substance use disorder coexisting with another major psychiatric disorder. This article reviews the prevalence and timing of occurrence of the various disorders and their combinations. The problems in diagnosis and management associated with these diagnoses are explored both from the point of view of the patient and of

Michael Finbar Sheehan; CAROLINE HAWKINGS

1993-01-01

180

Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

Olson, Christine; And Others

181

Relationship between anthropometric and physiological characteristics in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between anthropometric and physiological performances among youth soccer players and the positional differences for these variables. Seventy U14 male soccer players (goalkeeper: 10, defender: 20, midfielder: 25, and forward: 15) participated in this study. Body mass was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.58) and 30 m sprint time (r = -0.54). Body height was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with vertical jump height (r = 0.36), 10 m (r = -0.32) and 30 m (r = -0.64) sprint times, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance run (YYIER) distance (r = 0.26), and running time during maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) (r = 0.35). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.31), 30 m sprint time (r = -0.24), Hoff test dribble distance (r = -0.29), YYIER distance (r = -0.25), submaximal running cost (r = -0.38), Vo2max (r = -0.42), and the corresponding running time (r = -0.24). Significant positional differences were observed in anthropometry (body mass [p < 0.01], height [p < 0.01], and BMI [p < 0.01]) but not in physiological performances. This study provides a scientific rationale behind the coaches' practice of selecting young soccer players according to their anthropometry for short-term benefits such as heavier players for higher ball shooting speed and 30-m sprint ability as an example. However, this does not justify such practice in the long-term process of player development. PMID:19528844

Wong, Pui-Lam; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisløff, Ulrik

2009-07-01

182

Nutritional Management of Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a cornerstone of treatment for the estimated 20.8 million people with diabetes in the United\\u000a States. MNT is a more intensive and focused comprehensive nutrition therapy service that relies heavily on follow-up and provides\\u000a repeated reinforcement to help change behavior. The long-term goal of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes is to prevent\\u000a and\\/or delay diabetes

Norica Tomuta; Nichola Davis; Carmen Isasi; Vlad Tomuta; Judith Wylie-Rosett

183

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary supplementation should be made as indicated by nutritional history, complications of the disease, and, in children, growth status. Typically multivitamin supplementation without iron is suggested (e. ...

184

Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

Barthelat, Francois

185

Nutrition and Athletics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

186

Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

1981-01-01

187

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

188

Day Care: Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

Foster, Florence P.; And Others

189

Nutrition and Multifetal Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

JUDITH E BROWN; MARCIA CARLSON

2000-01-01

190

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

Black, Susan

2000-01-01

191

Continuity of Nutrition Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe a method to improve the continuity of nutrition care.As length of stay in the acute care setting decreases and care is shifted to the home, long term care and rehabilitation settings, it becomes imperative for dietitians to develop methods to improve the continuity of nutrition care. At a 747 acute care hospital, a system was developed

E. S. Loreck

1997-01-01

192

Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy

2002-01-01

193

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.

194

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

195

Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

196

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

197

Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics  

E-print Network

is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

McConnell, Terry

198

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

199

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parameters and Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Index among an Adult Iranian Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric

Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

200

Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

201

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

202

Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. PMID:24630782

Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

2014-04-01

203

Nutrition and Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually ... lifestyle changes on the development and progression of prostate cancer. Which foods and nutrients have been shown to ...

204

Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

205

Nutrition and OI  

MedlinePLUS

Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) should eat a ... Suggested Vitamin D-3 Intake for People with OI: Weight IU per day 50 lbs. (20 kg) ...

206

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

207

Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis  

MedlinePLUS

... to get proper nutrition when you are having difficulty with eating and drinking. Prepare foods in a way that makes them soft, tender and easy to chew and swallow. Chop, mash or puree foods. Moisten dry foods ...

208

Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

2013-04-26

209

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

210

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

-date information. I am now working as the breastfeeding coordinator for Hawaii State WIC and I use what I learned relating to public health issues and indispensable breastfeeding and infant nutrition knowledge so that I

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

211

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Soy and Cancer: Wish You Were Young Again Star Speaker Stephen Barnes, PhD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama Meeting Date Monday, October 04, 2010

212

Dual Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that 10 million persons in me United States have at least one mental disorder and at least one substance-related disorder in any given year. Dual disorders are common in psychiatry, but misdiagnosis may be even more common. Drug and alcohol testing should be expanded from routine use in the Olympics and intercollegiate athletics to psychiatric diagnosis of

Mark S. Gold

2005-01-01

213

Dissemination of Nutritional Knowledge in Germany – Nutrition Circle, 3D Food Pyramid and 10 Nutrition Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Presentation of the general concept of the German Nutrition Society for a successful dissemination of nutritional knowledge. Methods: Evaluation of actual material used for nutrition education and teaching. Results: In Germany, different validated instruments on the basis of actual scientific evidence are available. Quantitative aspects can be easily enlightened with the help of the Nutrition Circle. Information concerning optimal

Peter Stehle

2007-01-01

214

Nutrition and Pharmacologic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and a progressive, debilitating condition. People with CKD\\u000a are at high risk of malnutrition, and the first priority of nutrition therapy must focus on the prevention and\\/or treatment\\u000a of protein energy malnutrition. Additional nutrition therapy goals include slowing the progression of CKD and its uremic complications\\u000a and preventing renal osteodystrophy,

Kathy Schiro Harvey

215

Nutritional requirements of sesame  

E-print Network

L)&RARYi ~st t~6~ 0F TEXACO NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis By JOE C. ELLER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in. partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M... AS TER 0 F SCIENC E January 1958 Major Subject: Agronomy NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis JOE C. ELLER Approved. as to style and content by. ' Chairman of Committee Head qg Department January 1958 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes...

Eller, Joe C

2012-06-07

216

Nutritional support in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms and mediators behind the complex syndrome of cancer cachexia are being elucidatedslowly. Recent evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines and tumour-specific cachectic factors may be important. The failure of conventional nutritional support to improve nutritional status and hence improve the efficacy of standard anti-neoplastic therapy (surgery or chemotherapy) may be explained at least in part by the persistent action

K. C. H. Fearon

2001-01-01

217

Cystic fibrosis: managing nutrition.  

PubMed

A crucial part of the management of patients with cystic fibrosis is ensuring that dietary requirements are met, and therefore weight gain and growth are achieved. The author outlines the nutritional problems faced by this client group and suggests how they may be overcome. She argues that optimum nutrition contributes not only to an improved standard of health, but also to the overall quality of life of patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:1467229

Duncan-Skingle, F

218

Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district  

PubMed Central

Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431

Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

2014-01-01

219

Utility of anthropometric measures in a multiethnic population: their association with prevalent diabetes, hypertension and other chronic disease comorbidities.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratios, waist-to-height ratios, and chronic disease extent, as confirmed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, and/or two or more other chronic conditions as defined by a composite indicator 'comorbidity'. To account for race/ethnicity, age, gender, and cigarette smoking frequency, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were generated and reported for each of the regression analyses. Whereas being overweight was associated with hypertension alone (aOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.12-3.94), obesity was associated with hypertension (aOR 5.04; 95% CI 2.80-9.06) as well as diabetes (aOR 5.28; 95% CI 2.25-12.3) and comorbidity (aOR 3.69; 95% CI 2.02-6.77). In whites and African-Americans, BMI and WC were positively related to diabetes, hypertension and comorbidity. In Hispanics, BMI and WC were also positively related to diabetes and comorbidity, but only the former measure was associated with hypertension (p < 0.050). In Asians, BMI was not a significant predictor of diabetes, hypertension and/or comorbidity. Collectively, the findings suggest that BMI is not universally informative and waist circumference and its derivatives may represent a viable, more racially/ethnically appropriate alternative for use with selected minority groups. PMID:24132872

Tarleton, Heather P; Smith, Lisa V; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

2014-06-01

220

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

221

Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation.

Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

2014-01-01

222

Anthropometric study of Malaysian youths - a case study in Universiti Teknologi Mara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric data has become crucial when it comes to designing consumer products that involves ergonomic factors such as in health care and automotive areas. Most products are designed according to United States and European countries anthropometry data. The nearest anthropometry data we can refer to is Japan for Asian measurements. The continuous growth of youth population in Malaysia has created

Nursalbiah Nasir; Abdul Halim Abdullah; Mohammad Fitri Shuib; Helmi Rashid

2011-01-01

223

Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses anthropometric and archival data to reassess the standard of living in the Soviet Union. In the prewar period, the population was small in stature and sensitive to the political and economic upheavals experienced in the country. Significant improvements in child height, adult stature, and infant mortality were recorded from approximately 1945 to 1970. While this period of

Elizabeth Brainerd

2010-01-01

224

Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method  

PubMed Central

Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

2013-01-01

225

Ergonomic evaluation and redesign of children bicycles based on anthropometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper bicycle fit is very important for cycling performance, efficiency, comfort and injury prevention. This is especially true in the case of children cyclists that do not have the necessary cycling experience, balance and the fully developed musculoskeletal system of the adults. Bicycle fit depends on both the design and dimensions of the bicycle as well as on the anthropometric

Lambros Laios; John Giannatsis

2010-01-01

226

The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on the Anthropometric Measures of Children: Evidence from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the associations between macroeconomic policies and the health status of children in Bangladesh. We use three waves of a repeated cross-section dataset: Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2000, 2004 and 2007. We measure the health status of children by their anthropometric measures. The policies we evaluate are the Millennium Development Goals Focused Comprehensive Maternal Care

M. I. Hossain

2010-01-01

227

An anthropometric survey of Indian schoolchildren aged 3–5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergartens of age group 3–5 years, a distinct and small subgroup of Indian schoolchildren, need special emphasis on human factors. The paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on schoolchildren. These data, previously lacking in India, can be of benefit for the designers of kindergartens. A set of 81 different body dimensions was taken from a sample of

G. G. Ray; S. Ghosh; V. Atreya

1995-01-01

228

Using data mining technique to explore anthropometric data towards the development of sizing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis

Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah

2008-01-01

229

An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography  

PubMed Central

Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance. PMID:22436534

2012-01-01

230

Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Respirator Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sizing data generated by the military for use in fitting respirators have been the normative basis for commercial respirator sizing. Anthropometric data developed for males and females of military age in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use today and form the only comprehensive body of information available on this subject. The twofold objective of this study was to:

Ziqing Zhuang; Bruce Bradtmiller

2005-01-01

231

Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase understanding of the interaction between macronutrients and insulin resistance (IR), this study sought to determine the influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric differences on IR and inflammation responses to eccentric resistance exercise. Men and women (n = 12, 19-36 years old) participated in a crossover study and completed 6 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the

Mary P. Miles; Chris M. Depner; Rochelle D. Kirwan; Sara J. Frederickson

2010-01-01

232

Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

2009-01-01

233

Association of Childhood and Adolescent Anthropometric Factors, Physical Activity, and Diet with Adult Mammographic Breast Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life exposures may influence the development of breast cancer. The authors examined the association of childhood and adolescent anthropometric factors, physical activity levels, and diet with adult mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Women in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study cohort who had undergone mammograms but had not had breast cancer (n ¼ 1,893) formed

T. A. Sellers; C. M. Vachon; V. S. Pankratz; C. A. Janney; Z. Fredericksen; K. R. Brandt; Y. Huang; F. J. Couch; L. H. Kushi; J. R. Cerhan

2007-01-01

234

Impact of physical activity interventions on anthropometric outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Considerable research has tested physical activity (PA) interventions to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the anthropometric effects of supervised exercise interventions and motivational interventions to increase PA. Eligible intervention studies included healthy participants with reported anthropometric outcomes [e.g., body mass index (BMI)]. Extensive searching located 54,642 potentially eligible studies. We included data from 535 supervised exercise and 283 motivational interventions in our syntheses, which used random-effects analyses. Exploratory moderator analyses used meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression. We synthesized data from 20,494 participants in supervised exercise and 94,711 undergoing motivational interventions. The overall mean effect sizes (ES, d) for treatment versus control groups in supervised exercise interventions were 0.20 (treatment vs. control within-group comparison) and 0.22 (between-group comparison). The ES of 0.22 represents a post-intervention BMI of 26.7 kg/m(2) for treatment participants relative to 27.7 kg/m(2) for controls. The corresponding mean ES for motivational interventions was significantly smaller (d = 0.09 for between group, d = 0.10 for treatment vs. control within-group). Control group within-group comparisons revealed slightly worsening anthropometric outcomes during study participation (d = -0.03 to -0.04). Moderator analyses identified potential variables for future research. These findings document significant improvements in anthropometric effects from both supervised exercise and motivational interventions. PMID:24852179

Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam; Phillips, Lorraine J; Ruppar, Todd M; Chase, Jo-Ana D

2014-08-01

235

Grip strength and endurance: Influences of anthropometric variation, hand dominance, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of grip strength typically examine maximum force during a single repetition, but this type of exertion is relatively rare in the workplace, where tasks frequently involve repeated forceful dynamic grasping or prolonged static holding. This study examined grip strength and endurance in three experiments: single-repetition, 10-repetition, and 30-second static hold. The relationships between anthropometric variation and grip performance were

Christopher W. Nicolay; Anna L. Walker

2005-01-01

236

Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer  

E-print Network

for publication in American Journal of Epidemiology following peer review. The definitive publisherAlcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but no inverse dose-response relationship

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

2013-01-01

238

Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2007-01-01

239

The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers’ anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mario C; Silva, Antonio J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

2013-01-01

240

Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.  

PubMed

India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

2012-04-01

241

Melanoma Diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

Horsch, Alexander

242

Nutrition of the elderly.  

PubMed Central

The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

1991-01-01

243

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...

244

7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150...Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...nutritional principles, including the role of milk and dairy products...

2010-01-01

245

[Nutrition and HIV infection].  

PubMed

The HIV infection leads to many nutritional problems. For a long time, the Wasting Syndrome was one of the most frequent inaugural features of AIDS and still concerns many patients. The weight loss worsens the prognosis of the disease. The reduced dietary intakes, the increased digestive losses and energetic expenditure result in severe malnutrition. Therefore, the nutritional support and its association with orexigenes, anabolic agents and physical activity has to be carefully selected. The adverse events of new antiretroviral drugs influence the nutritional state and the patient's compliance towards their treatments. For lipodystrophy, whose etiology is still unknown, no treatment has yet been found. Metabolic disorders (dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes, etc.) in this presently chronic disease require particular attention since they increase cardiovascular risks. In general they are sensitive to a dietary approach. PMID:11723703

Karsegard, V L; Genton, L; Raguso, C; Pichard, C

2001-09-01

246

Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

2012-01-01

247

Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

248

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition  

E-print Network

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table ................................................................................................. 5 Awards Pharmacy Management Business Plan Competition 2012 Faculty Highlights ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5

Saskatchewan, University of

249

Nutrition Education for Native Americans: A Guide for Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for professionals working with food assistance and other programs with a nutrition component, this guide is intended to aid in understanding the cultural characteristics and basic health and diet-related problems of Native Americans and to promote more effective nutrition counseling and community nutrition education. The background section…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

250

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety experts, provides a unique training ground for individuals seeking graduate education in food safety

Heller, Barbara

251

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

252

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

253

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

254

Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L

1993-09-01

255

Subacute combined degeneration without nutritional anemia.  

PubMed

Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a rare neurological complication of cobalamin deficiency, characterized by demyelination of the dorsal and lateral spinal cord. The diagnosis and treatment of SCD can be delayed if a patient does not present with clear clinical and laboratory signs of nutritional anemia, which has a marked effect on neurological recovery. We report a 62-year-old man with SCD with a history of gastric cancer and chronic alcoholism who presented with ataxia, gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and limb weakness, but without other clinical or laboratory signs of cobalamin deficiency. The SCD diagnosis was confirmed by 3-Tesla MRI, which showed intramedullary signal alteration in the posterior columns of the entire spinal cord. PMID:23022212

Miscusi, M; Testaverde, L; Rago, A; Raco, A; Colonnese, C

2012-12-01

256

Risk of type 2 diabetes according to traditional and emerging anthropometric indices in Spain, a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity: results from a large-scale prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A proper anthropometric characterisation of T2DM risk is essential for disease prevention and clinical risk assessement. Methods Longitudinal study in 37 733 participants (63% women) of the Spanish EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort without prevalent diabetes. Detailed questionnaire information was collected at baseline and anthropometric data gathered following standard procedures. A total of 2513 verified incident T2DM cases occurred after 12.1 years of mean follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of T2DM by levels of anthropometric variables. Results Overall and central obesity were independently associated with T2DM risk. BMI showed the strongest association with T2DM in men whereas waist-related indices were stronger independent predictors in women. Waist-to-height ratio revealed the largest area under the ROC curve in men and women, with optimal cut-offs at 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The most discriminative waist circumference (WC) cut-off values were 99.4 cm in men and 90.4 cm in women. Absolute risk of T2DM was higher in men than women for any combination of age, BMI and WC categories, and remained low in normal-waist women. The population risk of T2DM attributable to obesity was 17% in men and 31% in women. Conclusions Diabetes risk was associated with higher overall and central obesity indices even at normal BMI and WC values. The measurement of waist circumference in the clinical setting is strongly recommended for the evaluation of future T2DM risk in women. PMID:23388074

2013-01-01

257

Use the Nutrition Facts Label  

MedlinePLUS

... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

258

Nutrition and Health in Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of nutrition in Canadian society, focussing particularly on those aspects which influence individual choices and preferences. The material is organized as follows: Section II examines the setting of nutrition in Canada in t...

I. M. Ducharme, M. Adam, J. A. Bachynsky, M. Ballantyne, P. G. Banister

1979-01-01

259

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...

260

Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia  

PubMed Central

One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia. PMID:21369420

Ghosh, Amitabha

2010-01-01

261

Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Ines Marulanda, Maria; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

2014-01-01

262

Transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan application.  

PubMed

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Marulanda, María Inés; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

2014-04-01

263

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

264

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

265

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition…

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

266

Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation. PMID:18074487

Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N

2007-09-01

267

Nutrition for healthy pregnancy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many healthcare professionals and their patients are aware of the importance of proper nutrition during preg- nancy, but may not be aware of specific nutritional recommendations on how to achieve a healthy pregnancy outcome. This review article aims to discuss the implications maternal nutritional status and weight gain have in both the short and long terms. Babies born to mothers

Tannys Vause; Pat Martz; Francesca Richard; Leah Gramlich

2006-01-01

268

Nutrition, health and human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us begin with an unequivocal assertion: proper nutrition and health are funda- mental human rights. What does this mean? What are the primary links between nutrition and health seen from a human-rights perspective? Firstly, nutrition is a cornerstone that affects and defines the health of all people, rich and poor. It paves the way for us to grow, develop,

Gro Harlem Brundtland

269

The Federal Government and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

Powers, Margaret A.

1980-01-01

270

Influence of passive smoking on basic anthropometric characteristics and respiratory function in young athletes.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the maintenance difference in basic anthropometric characteristics and to outline the dynamics of respiratory function change in youngsters athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) and athletes not exposed to passive smoking in their families (NPS). High and weight were determined as basis anthropometric characteristics. Measured parameters for respiratory function were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% forced vital capacity (MEF 50) and forced expiratory flow at 25% forced vital capacity (MEF 25). Significant statistical differences in separate spirometric variable were found in three variables (FEV1, MEF50, and MEF25) for group older youngsters. Analysis of variance showed statistical differences between athletes unexposed to passive smoking (NPS) and athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) in even four spirometric variables (VC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25). PMID:17058533

Goi?-Barisi?, Ivana; Bradari?, Anteo; Erceg, Marko; Barisi?, Igor; Foreti?, Nikola; Pavlov, Neven; Tocilj, Jadranka

2006-09-01

271

Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

2000-10-01

272

Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and ?2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ? 23) and lean (18.5 ? BMI ? 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979

2013-01-01

273

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

274

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

275

Teenage Nutrition and Physique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

276

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after faster and minimizing fatigue after exercise. Are sports drinks better than water for athletes? Water

277

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

278

Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional

Erin L. MacLeod; Denise M. Ney

2010-01-01

279

Nutrition and HIV.  

PubMed

Good nutrition is key to a healthy lifestyle, regardless of whether one is living with HIV/AIDS. Optimal nutrition can help boost immune function, maximize the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, reduce the risk of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and contribute to a better overall quality of life. In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, many people with HIV were dealing with wasting and opportunistic infections (OIs) linked to unsafe food or water. While these problems are less common today in developed countries with widespread access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), many HIV positive people have traded these concerns for worries about body shape changes, elevated blood lipids, and other metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy. Fortunately, maintaining a healthy diet can help address these problems. As HIV positive people live longer thanks to effective treatment, good nutrition can also help prevent problems (such as bone loss) associated with normal aging. But there is no single, optimal eating regimen appropriate for every person living with HIV/AIDS. Instead, HIV positive people should adopt a sensible balanced diet and consult an experienced nutrition specialist for individualized recommendations. PMID:16610116

Highleyman, Liz

2006-01-01

280

Nutrition, sleep and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

Shona L. Halson

2008-01-01

281

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

282

Nutrition and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and lung cancer is reviewed. Observational studies of diet and lung cancer, both prospective and retrospective, continue to suggest strongly that increased vegetable and fruit intake is associated with reduced risk in men and women; in various countries; in smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers; and for all histologic types of lung cancer. Prospective studies

Regina G. Ziegler; Susan Taylor Mayne; Christine A. Swanson

1996-01-01

283

Nutritional issues for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the health concerns of women at different life stages are affected by nutrition. Diet is one lifestyle factor that is amenable to change. Health practitioners have a major role to play in helping women to adopt a healthier diet in order to gain the benefits that this offers. Women of all ages cite losing weight as one of

Orla Hugueniot

2004-01-01

284

Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

2007-01-01

285

Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

286

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

are online. Important Dates Please visit the program web site for application deadlines and program datesNutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work from anywhere in the world with three unique programs for mid-career professionals. Online Programs in

Tufts University

287

Nutritional optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy. PMID:25345287

Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

2014-01-01

288

Nutrition in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological evidence shows that women living in affluent circumstances have bigger babies with a lower mortality than underpriviliged women. How much of that effect is due to nutrition alone is not known but supplementary feeding in pregnancy of chronically ill nourished women does appear to increase mean birth weight, and famine conditions in a basically well nourished community reduce the

F. E. Hytten

1979-01-01

289

Nutrition and Stroke Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Nutrition is much,more important in prevention of stroke than is appreciated by most physicians. The powerful effects of statin drugs in lowering the levels of fasting cholesterol, combined with an unbalanced focus on fasting lipids (as opposed to postprandial fat and oxidative stress), have led many physicians and patients to believe that diet is relatively unimportant. Because the statins can

Marc Fisher; Kennedy Lees; J. David Spence

2009-01-01

290

Nutrition during teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The nutritional needs of pregnant adolescents are the greatest at a time when it is most difficult to meet them. Dieting, skipping meals, snacking, eating away from home, consuming fast foods, and trying unconventional diets are common eating behaviors among adolescents, which relate to their changing lifestyles of increased independence, busy schedules, search for self-identity, peer influence, group conformity, and body image dissatisfaction. Total nutritional needs of pregnant adolescents who are at least 2-year post-menarche are similar to those of pregnant adults. But, because of their poor dietary habits, they usually enter pregnancy with reduced nutrient stores and increased risk of nutritional deficiencies. All pregnant teens, therefore, should have their dietary habits assessed along with special dietary counseling, and vitamin-mineral supplements should be recommended if their usual nutritional intake is below standard. Also, the weight-gain pattern should be monitored to ensure that energy intakes are sufficient to support a gain of about 0.4 kg (1 lb) per week in the second and third trimester. PMID:8493060

Gutierrez, Y; King, J C

1993-02-01

291

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Lee, Carolyn

292

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque

2000-01-01

293

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

294

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

295

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

296

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

297

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

298

Director of Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

2005-01-01

299

The Science of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

2000-01-01

300

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

301

Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose–response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng\\/g of meconium and greater cocaine exposure predicted lower weight for height z score. Higher average alcohol exposure throughout

Sonia Minnes; Nathaniel H. Robin; April A. Alt; H. Lester Kirchner; Sudtida Satayathum; Bonnie Anne Salbert; Laurie Ellison; Lynn T. Singer

2006-01-01

302

Anthropometric influence on physical fitness among preschool children: gender-specific linear and curvilinear regression models.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which investigated morphological influence on physical fitness (PF) among preschool children. The aim of this study was to (1) calculate and interpret linear and nonlinear relationships between simple anthropometric predictors and PF criteria among preschoolers of both genders, and (2) to find critical values of the anthropometric predictors which should be recognized as the breakpoint of the negative influence on the PF. The sample of subjects consisted of 413 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 (mean age, 5.08 years; 176 girls and 237 boys), from Rijeka, Croatia. The anthropometric variables included body height (BH), body weight (BW), sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold (SUMSF), and calculated BMI (BMI = BW (kg)/BH (m)2). The PF was screened throughout testing of flexibility, repetitive strength, explosive strength, and agility. Linear and nonlinear (general quadratic model y = a + bx + cx2) regressions were calculated and interpreted simultaneously. BH and BW are far better predictors of the physical fitness status than BMI and SUMSF. In all calculated regressions excluding flexibility criterion, linear and nonlinear prediction of the PF throughout BH and BW reached statistical significance, indicating influence of the advancement in maturity status on PF variables Differences between linear and nonlinear regressions are smaller in males than in females. There are some indices that the age of 4 to 6 years is a critical period in the prevention of obesity, mostly because the extensively studied and proven negative influence of overweight and adiposity on PF tests is not yet evident. In some cases we have found evident regression breakpoints (approximately 25 kg in boys), which should be interpreted as critical values of the anthropometric measures for the studied sample of subjects. PMID:24611341

Kondric, Miran; Trajkovski, Biljana; Strbad, Maja; Foreti?, Nikola; Zeni?, Natasa

2013-12-01

303

Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric,\\u000a dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the\\u000a phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present\\u000a reference curves for this population. Healthy children

Jesus M. Lavado-Garcia; Julian F. Calderon-Garcia; Jose M. Moran; Maria Luz Canal-Macias; Trinidad Rodriguez-Dominguez; Juan D. Pedrera-Zamorano

304

The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

305

Association between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in HCV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p?=?0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:24473515

de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Costa, Nara Aline; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria

2013-01-01

306

Muscle Function in Saudi Children and Adolescents: Relationship to Anthropometric Characteristics During Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to determine isokinetic strength and endurance, isometric strength, and anaerobic power for untrained healthy Saudi children and adolescents. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of age in relation to anthropometric characteristics on strength and anaerobic perfor- mances. Forty-four (untrained) 11- to 19-year-old boys were grouped by age: 11-13 years, 14-16

Khalid S. Almuzaini

307

Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

2012-03-01

308

Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.  

PubMed

Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis. PMID:24662225

Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

2014-09-01

309

Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

2010-07-01

310

Prediction of rowing ergometer performance from functional anaerobic power, strength and anthropometric components.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

Akça, F?rat

2014-06-28

311

The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?

2014-01-01

312

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

2013-01-01

313

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2013-05-01

314

Effects of a soccer season on anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness in elite young soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soccer-training season on the anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite youth soccer players. Two groups (age: 14.4 years) participated in this study: (1) 24 soccer players training 8 to 10 hours per week and (2) 26 non-athletic boys used as controls. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1) and anaerobic (counter-movement-jump (CMJ), squat-jump (SqJ), five-jump-test (5JT), and speed (T5m, 10 m, 30 m)) performances were assessed twice during 8 months (T0: October; T1: May) of the competitive season. Data showed significant differences in height and weight at T0 between the two groups (P < 0.05), while no difference in the percentage of body fat (%BF) was observed. However, the soccer players were significantly taller and had lower %BF than age-matched controls at T1. Compared to the controls, the soccer players attained better results in the physical fitness test (P < 0.05) at T0 and T1 except in (T5m) sprinting speed. Hence, significant improvements (P < 0.05) in physical parameters were observed between T0 and T1 only in soccer players. The results demonstrate that soccer-training season was able to provide maturation free improvement in anthropometric and performance characteristics in young soccer players during the training season. PMID:23181693

Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; Nebigh, Ammar; Le Moal, Emmeran; Ben Ounis, Omar; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

2013-01-01

315

Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

Akca, F?rat

2014-01-01

316

Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula.  

PubMed

The concept of the study was to find the correlation between the morphometry of the suprascapular notch and basic anthropometric measurements of the human scapula. The measurements of the human scapulae included: morphological length and width, maximal width and length projection of scapular spine, length of acromion, and maximal length of the coracoid process. The glenoid cavity was measured in two perpendicular directions to evaluate its width and length. The width-length scapular and glenoid cavity indexes were calculated for every bone. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements two other measurements were defined and evaluated for every suprascapular notch: maximal depth (MD) and superior transverse diameter (STD). The superior transverse suprascapular ligament was completely ossified in 7% of cases. Ten (11.6%) scapulae had a discrete notch. In the studied material, in 21 (24.4%) scapulae the MD was longer than the STD. Two (2.3%) scapulae had equal maximal depth and superior transverse diameter. In 47 (57.7%) scapulae the superior transverse diameter was longer than the maximal depth. There was no statistically significant difference between anthropometric measurements in the group with higher MD and the group with higher STD. The maximal depth of the suprascapular notch negatively correlated with the scapular width-length index. The maximal depth of the scapular notch correlated with the morphological length of the scapulae. PMID:21630232

Polguj, M; J?drzejewski, K S; Podgórski, M; Topol, M

2011-05-01

317

Normative Findings for Periocular Anthropometric Measurements among Chinese Young Adults in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions. PMID:23957005

Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

2013-01-01

318

Nutrition in Africa.  

PubMed

Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

Murray-lee, M

1989-07-01

319

Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2008-09-01

320

Physiological, biomechanical and anthropometrical predictors of sprint swimming performance in adolescent swimmers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key pointsThis study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys.Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters.Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633

Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L; Rodriguez, Ferran A; Jürimäe, Toivo

2010-01-01

321

Body fat and fat-free mass in infants: new and classic anthropometric indexes and prediction equations compared with total-body electrical conductivity.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is frequently used for nutritional assessment. Little is known in infants about the validity of anthropometric measurements in relation to whole-body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) composition. We compared TBF and FFM estimations by total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) with anthropometry in 435 healthy infants ages 21-365 d. TBF was best correlated with weight-for-length and calf circumference (r2 = 0.84, r2 = 0.83). FFM was best correlated with body weight (r2 = 0.93). Upper-arm anthropometry, skinfold thickness, and Quetelet's and Ponderal indexes were poorly correlated with TBF and FFM (r2 < 0.65). New anthropometry-based prediction equations were calculated (r2 = 0.90 for TBF and r2 = 0.95 for FFM). New simple indexes (analogous to Quetelet's index) were calculated for TBF (weight x calf circumference/length; r2 = 0.87) and for FFM (square root of weight x length; r2 = 0.95). Prediction equations and indexes were cross-validated in a second population by a second observer. Interobserver variation was largest for equations with skinfold thicknesses included. We conclude that anthropometry can be used for rough estimations of infant body composition, although indexes different than those used in children and adults are preferred. PMID:7762517

de Bruin, N C; van Velthoven, K A; Stijnen, T; Juttmann, R E; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

1995-06-01

322

Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI) cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively) (p < 0.05). There were significant increases in the prevalence of low-BMI-for-age among the total (29% increase) and male (39%) adolescent populations when the proposal of the International Obesity Task Force was compared to current WHO BMI-for-age cut-offs (p < 0.05). It is shown that a simple change in cut-off values used to define the anthropometric nutritional status can significantly modify the nutritional profile of an adolescent population. PMID:19649426

Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de

2009-08-01

323

The importance of nutritional care in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.  

PubMed

Renewed efforts to provide proper nutritional care are essential for appropriate pediatric HIV management. Current studies support the use of vitamin A and macronutrients that increase caloric and protein intake. With additional research on key issues such as the needed composition and timing for nutritional supplementation, we can determine the best strategies to support the growth and development of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition among children is common in the resource-limited settings where HIV infection is most prevalent. While malnutrition is associated with higher morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected children, there is only limited evidence to guide the use of nutritional support for HIV-infected children. The best studied is vitamin A, which is associated with improved mortality and clinical outcomes. Zinc and multivitamin supplementation have not consistently been associated with clinical benefits. Limited research suggests macronutrient supplementation, which typically uses enriched formulas or foods, improves key anthropometrics for HIV-infected children, but the optimal composition of nutrients for supplementation has not been determined. More research is needed to understand the most efficient and sustainable ways to ensure adequate nutrition in this vulnerable population. PMID:25371264

McHenry, Megan S; Apondi, Edith; Vreeman, Rachel C

2014-12-01

324

Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assuncao, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2013-01-01

325

[Expectations of adolescents in relation to the changes of nutritional profile].  

PubMed

This article presents results of a research of nature quanti-qualitative on nutrition and adolescents of Centro Salesiano do Menor, located in Vitória (ES). The aim of this study was to know the nutritional profile and expectations of the adolescents in relation the changes in the nutritional profile. Structured interview with subjective and objective questions was realized with 43 adolescents 14 to 17 years old and collected anthropometric date to valuation of the state nutritional according to the body mass index (BMI). Fragments of the speeches were selected and transcripts in the text as form of briefing of the open answers. The majority (86%) was classified as eutrófica and had disclosed to dissatisfaction with the body and a great concern with the beauty. The results had evidenced the importance given to the aesthetic one, as the main reason to desire a corporal change. Difficulties had been told in what it says respect to the alimentary control and the accomplishment of physical activity. Feeling of discrimination of the society to that they do not correspond to the beauty standard appeared in the answers of the adolescents. One concludes that the adolescents present perception of its weight not have correspondence with the found results of BMI and low self-esteem, desiring changes. PMID:18813456

Braga, Patrícia Déa; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Cade, Nágela Valadão

2007-01-01

326

Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

Mckay, Diane

2013-01-01

327

Nutrition Support in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older cancer patients have unique qualities related to aging that place them at nutritional risk during cancer treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Routine assessment of nutritional risk is indicated in older cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Comprehensive geriatric assessment of older cancer patients can assist with determination of which older patients can tolerate\\u000a cancer treatment with acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary

Elizabeth Kvale; Christine Seel Ritchie; Lodovico Balducci

328

Nutrition and melanoma prevention.  

PubMed

Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

2010-01-01

329

Evolution of tree nutrition.  

PubMed

Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

2010-09-01

330

Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.  

PubMed

As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. PMID:19004188

Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

2008-01-01

331

USDA: Food & Nutrition Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

332

Investing in Child Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child malnutrition is pervasive and persistent in Asia, and at present rates it will take decades to halve the prevalence—a goal common to many national plans. Nutrition-oriented programs are familiar in most countries, but have far too low coverage and resources, which is wasteful as well as ineffective. A massive expansion of community-based programs is feasible, with well-established activities (usually

Joseph Hunt; David Parker; Urban Jonsson

333

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

334

Nutrition--sense and nonsense.  

PubMed

Most physicians know far more about nutrition than they are given credit for. We know there is no such thing as a nutritionally perfect food. We know that variety in foods consumed is the key to good nutrition. We know that good nutrition is an important part of convalescence. We know that obesity in the presence of other risk factors is an added hazard. We know that fortified convenience foods contribute to good health and make life easier for those who prepare meals. We know that the woods are full of food faddists, nutritional charlatans, and peddlers of nutritional nostrums, whose scare tactics and sensationalism often sway the uninformed. Where many of us err is simply in not thinking about nutrition, in not asking our patients about what they eat, and in not counseling them on better nutrition. Thus, I urge you to think nutrition when you think about the health of your patients and yourself, to utilize the services of dietitians and nutritionists, and to speak out clearly and forcefully, but without malice, to combat nutritional and other health nonsense. PMID:7352117

Stare, F J

1980-02-01

335

Nutritional adaptation and variability.  

PubMed

In current nutrition literature man's requirement for energy for a given status and pattern of physical activity and body mass is fixed. Available experimental data on the other hand show that it is variable and self-regulated over a considerable range. This homoeostatic range is associated with covariance of man's genotype with local environmental effect under a sustained perturbation of common external environment. The implication is that man can have his intake anywhere in the range without being under nutritional stress. Below the lower limit of this range man is under energy stress, growth is retarded and man adapts to small body size. Unlike the homoeostatic range, this long-term adaptation is heritable, but there is no evidence that work output equals energy intake in adaptation to low intake. On the contrary, small subjects on a lower plane of nutrition are found to be metabolically more efficient. Evidence is cited to show that it is the decrease in BMR in subjects with low intake which plays a major role in facilitating a higher level of metabolic efficiency for subjects undergoing energy stress. PMID:2707218

Sukhatme, P V

1989-02-01

336

Case report: Enteral nutritional supplement as a likely cause of false-positive galactomannan testing?  

PubMed Central

The detection of galactomannan (GM) in the serum of in immunocompromised patients is widely used for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. We report a case of a false-positive GM test presumably caused by the enteral nutritional supplement given to a non-neutropenic patient with intestinal graft-versus-host disease after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of false-positive GM results in patients on nutritional supplements. PMID:24567893

Ng, Tong-Yong; Kang, Mei-Ling; Tan, Ban-Hock; Ngan, Cecilia Cheng-Lai

2013-01-01

337

The subjective global assessment predicts in-hospital mortality better than other nutrition-related risk indexes in noncritically ill inpatients who receive total parenteral nutrition in Spain (prospective multicenter study).  

PubMed

Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with an increased risk of death and complications. The purpose of this study was to determine which nutrition-related risk index predicts mortality better in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This prospective, multicenter study involved noncritically ill patients who were prescribed total parenteral nutrition. Data were collected on Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Index, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, body mass index, albumin and prealbumin, as well as in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and infectious complications. Of the 605 patients included in the study, 18.8% developed infectious complications and 9.6% died in the hospital. SGA, albumin, Nutritional Risk Index and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index were associated with longer hospital stay. Prealbumin levels were associated with infectious complications. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed (after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein levels, mean blood glucose levels, use of corticoids, prior comorbidity, carbohydrates infused, diagnosis, and infectious complications) that the SGA, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, body mass index, albumin, and prealbumin were associated with an increased risk for in-hospital mortality. SGA was the tool that best predicted mortality and adequately discriminated the values of the other nutrition-related risk indexes studied. The SGA is a clinically effective and simple tool for nutrition assessment in noncritically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition and detects the risk of inpatient mortality better than others. PMID:23972272

2013-09-01

338

Animal milk sustains micronutrient nutrition and child anthropometry among pastoralists in Samburu, Kenya.  

PubMed

Milk has been integral to pastoralist nutrition for thousands of years, but as communities move toward settled livelihoods, milk consumption is dropping with only minimal evidence for the health and nutrition implications. This longitudinal study aimed to first test whether increased dependency on agriculture reduced household milk production and consumption, and ultimately, nutrient adequacy among the Samburu pastoralists. Second, we investigated whether household milk availability affected child milk intakes and anthropometry. Socioeconomic and dietary intake data were collected from households (n?=?200) in 2000, 2005, and 2010, and anthropometric measures and individual child milk intakes in 2012. Nutrient intakes were assessed by the probability of nutrient adequacy method, and generalized least-squared regression modeling with mixed effects was applied to identify predictors of milk consumption. Milk contributed 10% of energy intakes, below maize (52%) and sugar (11%), but over one-half of critical micronutrients, vitamins A, B12 , and C. Livestock holdings and income increased the likelihood of higher milk intakes (overall adj R(2) ?=?0.88, P?nutrition in Samburu, while deeper investigation into the diet and growth patterns of pastoralists could provide insight into leaner and taller anthropometrics for other populations globally. PMID:24942144

Iannotti, Lora; Lesorogol, Carolyn

2014-09-01

339

[Artificial nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Despite increasing knowledge and available guidelines in the fields of nutritional support in pancreatic diseases there do still exist a lot of controversies, aversions, delusions in the clinical work. Hungarian Society of Clinical Nutrition has already published it's own guideline on nutrition in pancreatic diseases in 2002. European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) also published a Consensus Statement based on the proposals of an international Consensus Conference with active Hungarian participation. The aim of this article is to clear up habitual considerations of some physicians and to share current knowledge from physiology/pathophysiology to quality control upon these guidelines, meta-analyses, and, the daily practice of Hungarian pioneers of nutrition support in pancreatic diseases. PMID:15997665

Harsányi, László

2005-05-29

340

Nutrition education in Missouri schools.  

PubMed

This survey examined the status of nutrition education in Missouri schools, profiled teacher preparation in nutrition, and identified teacher preferences for additional nutrition education resources. Questionnaires were mailed to a systematic sample of 1,664 teachers representing different grade levels K-12 and subject areas including biological science, health, home economics, and physical education. Responses from 793 teachers indicated most integrated nutrition into other subjects such as health and science. Almost all taught the concept of food groups. Teachers expressed a need for materials on a range of concepts and preferred the videotape format. About one-third of elementary teachers reported completing a college-level nutrition course: 70% of secondary teachers had completed such a course. Results indicate the need for materials to integrate nutrition into various subjects and encourage teaching on concepts beyond the food groups. PMID:7707716

Gates, G; McDonald, M; Dalton, M

1994-12-01

341

Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders > Diabetic Retinopathy > Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis Diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy You've come a long ... no better than 50/50. Today, the same diagnosis gives you a 90% chance of saving your ...

342

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

343

Massachusetts Growth and Nutrition Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:To describe three socio-demographic or nutritional characteristics of children enrolled in the Growth and Nutrition Programs.Since their inception in 1984, Massachusetts Growth and Nutrition (GN) Programs have provided care to over 3000 infants and children with growth delay (GD), also known as Failure to Thrive. Services are provided by multidisciplinary family centered teams consisting of a physician, nurse practitioner,

E. A. Colavito; K. Cunningham; E. Metallinos-Katsaras

1997-01-01

344

Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

Chen, Angela

1985-01-01

345

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental “nutritive tissue” in carnivorous plants of\\u000a Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the “nutritive\\u000a tissue” and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key

Bartosz J. P?achno; Piotr ?wi?tek

2008-01-01

346

Anthropometric and Micronutrient Status of School-Children in an Urban West Africa Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dakar (Senegal)  

PubMed Central

Background Urban areas in West Africa are not immune to undernutrition with recent urbanization and high food prices being important factors. School children often have a poor nutritional status, potentially affecting their health and schooling performance. Yet, generally school children do not benefit from nutrition programs. The objective of the study was to assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status of children from state schools in the Dakar area. Methods School children (n?=?604) aged from 5 to 17 y (52.5% girls, 47.5% ?10 y) were selected through a two-stage random cluster sample of children attending urban primary state schools in the Dakar area (30 schools × 20 children). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age2 z-scores. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was 14.4%, 39.1% and 10.6% respectively. 3.0% had vitamin A deficiency, 35.9% a marginal vitamin A status, and 25.9% zinc deficiency. Urinary iodine was <50 µg/L in 7.3% of children and ?200 µg/L in 22.3%. The prevalence of marginal vitamin A, zinc deficiency, high TfR was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P<0.05). Height-for-age and retinol were significantly lower in participants ?10 y and <10 y respectively. Conclusion Undernutrition, especially thinness, iron and zinc deficiencies in school children in the Dakar area requires special targeted nutrition interventions. PMID:24391938

Fiorentino, Marion; Bastard, Guillaume; Sembene, Malick; Fortin, Sonia; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; Icard-Verniere, Christele; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

2013-01-01

347

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

348

Anthropometric profile, vertical jump, and throwing velocity in elite female handball players by playing positions.  

PubMed

Women's handball is a sport, which has seen an accelerated development over the last decade. Although anthropometric and physical characteristics have been studied for male sports teams, in women's handball, studies are scarce. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to describe the anthropometric characteristics, throwing velocity, hand grip, and muscular power of the lower limbs in female handball players and second, to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (center, back, wing, pivot, and goalkeeper). A total of 130 elite female Spanish handball players participated in the study (age 25.74 ± 4.84 years; playing experience 14.92 ± 4.88 years). Anthropometric assessment was performed for all the subjects following the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocols. Furthermore, all the subjects performed a vertical jump test (squat jump and countermovement jump). Hand grip and throwing velocity in several situations were also assessed. A 1-way analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test were used to study the differences among individual playing positions. Wings were less heavy, shorter, and showed a smaller arm span than did goalkeepers, backs and pivots (p ? 0.001). Additionally, pivots were heavier than centers. Backs and pivots exhibited higher muscular mass than did wings. Total players' somatotype was mesomorphy endomorphy (3.89-4.28-2.29). Centers showed higher throwing velocity levels than did wings in 9-m throws from just behind the line, with a goalkeeper. Backs exhibited higher hand-grip values than did wings. Statistical differences have been established between wings and other specific playing positions, especially with pivot and backs. Coaches can use this information to select players for the different specific positions. PMID:21997459

Vila, Helena; Manchado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nuria; Abraldes, José Arturo; Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio; Ferragut, Carmen

2012-08-01

349

Yearly changes in the anthropometric dimensions of female high school gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to compare the age-related patterns of anthropometric dimensions of female high school gymnasts to those of a national representative sample of teenage girls. One hundred and one female high school gymnasts (X ± SD age = 15.8 ± 1.1 year; height [HT] = 162.2 ± 5.7 cm; body weight [BW] = 54.1 ± 6.5 kg) volunteered as subjects in the present study. The sample was divided into 4 independent age groups: age group 14 (AG14) = 14.00 to 14.99 years (n = 26); AG15 = 15.00 to 15.99 years (n = 27); AG16 = 16.00 to 16.99 years (n = 29); and AG17 = 17.00 to 17.99 years (n = 19). Nine variables including BW; HT; body mass index (BMI); subscapular and triceps skinfolds; and waist, mid-arm, maximal calf, and mid-thigh circumferences were assessed on each subject. Independent t-tests indicated that for all age groups, the female high school gymnasts exhibited lower BW, BMI, circumferences (waist, mid-arm, maximal calf, and mid-thigh) and skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) than the national sample, except AG 17 for BW and maximal calf and mid-thigh circumferences. There were no significant differences in HT between samples for any of the age groups. Furthermore, there were no differences between the high school gymnasts and the national sample for the slope coefficients for the anthropometric dimensions vs. age relationships. These findings indicated that in females, participation in high school gymnastics does not adversely affect yearly changes in anthropometric dimensions. PMID:20179650

Zuniga, Jorge; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Mielke, Michelle; Hendrix, C Russell; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J

2011-01-01

350

General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

Kondric, Miran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontic, Dean; Sekulic, Damir

2012-01-01

351

Effect of the Telephone-Delivered Nutrition Education on Dietary Intake and Biochemical Parameters in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

As prevalence of metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased over the past decade, lifestyle changes including dietary habits are considered as a therapeutic cornerstone for metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered nutrition education to improve metabolic parameters compared with a single-visit with a dietitian in subjects with metabolic syndrome. A total of seventy-one adults who met diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to either the single-visit group or the in-depth nutrition education group during a 3-month intervention study period. The in-depth telephone-delivered nutrition education group had an initial visit with a dietitian and additional two telephone counseling during the first 4 weeks of the study periods. Sixty-six subjects completed a 3-month intervention study. The trial examined participant's anthropometric changes and dietary intakes as well as changes in the metabolic syndrome factors. At the end of the trial, the in-depth nutrition education group showed significantly higher reduction in weight, body fat and abdominal circumference compared with the other group (p < 0.05). In the in-depth nutrition groups, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was decreased to 45.5%, while 69.7% of the subjects were metabolic syndrome patients in the single-visit group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the telephone-intervention counseling is a feasible mean to deliver dietary intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23908978

Kim, Juyoung; Bea, Wookyung; Lee, Kiheon; Han, Jongsoo; Kim, Sohye; Kim, Misung; Na, Woori

2013-01-01

352

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition

Raina, Ramesh

353

Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396. PMID:21936938

2011-01-01

354

The changing nutrition scenario  

PubMed Central

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C.

2013-01-01

355

Childhood nutrition and poverty.  

PubMed

One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800

Nelson, M

2000-05-01

356

Nutrition and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

Nutrition and intestinal function are intimately interrelated. The chief purpose of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease commonly results in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. For example, studies have shown that 50-70% of adult patients with Crohn's disease were weight-depleted and 75% of adolescents growth-retarded. On the other hand, chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function because food and nutrients are not only the major trophic factors to the gut but also provide the building blocks for digestive enzymes and absorptive cells. For example, recent studies of ours have shown that a weight loss of greater than 30% accompanying a variety of diseases was associated with a reduction in pancreatic enzyme secretion of over 80%, villus atrophy and impaired carbohydrate and fat absorption. Finally, specific nutrients can induce disease, for example, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, whilst dietary factors such as fibre, resistant starch, short-chain fatty acids, glutamine and fish-oils may prevent gastrointestinal diseases such as diverticulitis, diversion colitis, ulcerative colitis, colonic adenomatosis and colonic carcinoma. The role of dietary antigens in the aetiology of Crohn's disease is controversial, but controlled studies have suggested that elemental diets may be as effective as corticosteroids in inducing a remission in patients with acute Crohn's disease. In conclusion, nutrition has both a supportive and therapeutic role in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic GI disease can be reduced. On the other hand, dietary manipulation may be used to treat to prevent specific GI disorders such as coeliac disease, functional bowel disease, Crohn's disease and colonic neoplasia. The future development of nutria-pharmaceuticals is particularly attractive in view of their low cost and wide safety margins. PMID:8898436

O'Keefe, S J

1996-01-01

357

Towards a National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts testifying at the National Nutrition Policy study hearings on June 19-21, 1974 in Washington, at the invitation of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, recommended several steps which the committee staff feel merit a prompt Congressional response. This report prepared by staff incorporates those recommendations,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

358

Nutrition and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: You will assess your own nutrition and health. You will also convert units in a recipe. You will need a computer with internet access and a printer to print off your personal eating plan. You will also need a paper and pen to record information. Materials Needed: computer with internet access printer paper and pen to record information Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). Calculate Your Body Mass Index What\\'s your body mass index? Assess an Adult\\'s Health with a given scenario. Calculator For BMI Describe the adult\\'s health status and suggested ...

Neves, Ms. P.

2007-11-30

359

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition  

E-print Network

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure.............................................................................................................. 7 #12;University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure # Chemical Spills Page 3

Saskatchewan, University of

360

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

361

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

362

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

363

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

364

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

365

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION PRACTICUM March 14-18, 2005 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of Health

366

Nutrition in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Strenuous or vigorous exercise does not appear to significantly alter the requirements for any specific nutrient except calories. The major nutritional problem in sports medicine, particularly among the young, will be one of meeting caloric requirements from a variety of foods. As high- or low-energy requirements are met, so will requirements for all other essential nutrients. We should all heed the words of Sir Robert Hutchison (1871-1960), as perhaps the Food and Nutrition Board did. He wrote in the New Castle Medical Journal, vol. 12, 1932, "One swears by whole meal bread, one by sour milk; vegetarianism is the only road to the salvation of some, other insist not only in vegetables alone, but on eating those raw. At one time the only thing that matters is calories; at another time they are crazy about vitamins or about roughage. Scientific truth may be put quite briefly; eat moderately, having an ordinary mixed diet and don't worry." Robert Charles Benchley (1889-1945), an American humorist, critic, and actor, was known to say that when the thought of exercise came upon him, he would lie down until the thought passed over. Clement Richard Attlee (1883-1967), prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, said he owed his long life to resisting all forms of exercise. PMID:4028546

Vitale, J J

1985-09-01

367

Nutrition for winter sports.  

PubMed

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

368

Nutrition for cyclists.  

PubMed

Good nutrition is important at every stage of training and competition. Both the serious competitive cyclist as well as the recreational cyclist should eat a balanced diet that provides calories adequate to meet energy demands. Athletes consuming less than 2000 calories a day may have difficulty meeting nutrient needs, particularly for iron and calcium. Weight loss, glycogen depletion, and dehydration also are possible results of an inadequate diet. Dietary strategies to enhance or maintain the body's carbohydrate stores are necessary for performance, especially for cyclists with high training miles or participating in road racing and other endurance events. Additionally, cyclists should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, especially when in a hot environment. It appears that protein requirements of endurance athletes increase as the duration and intensity of exercise increases. However, factors such as total calorie intake and protein quality should be considered when determining protein needs. Many athletes are concerned about vitamin and mineral intake and often use nutritional supplements both for "insurance" as well as performance reasons. The supplements taken most often include vitamin C, the B-complex, and iron. Vitamins and minerals in excess of the RDA do not improve performance and can be toxic when consumed in large amounts. On the other hand, vegetarians and cyclists with low-calorie intakes may benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement. PMID:8111855

Grandjean, A C; Ruud, J S

1994-01-01

369

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary restrictions, anorexia, and taste alterations, promoting malnutrition in most patients entering dialysis. Intercurrent illnesses and frequent hospitalizations add to meal disturbances. A state of persistent catabolism may result from acidosis, resistance to anabolic factors such as growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1, as well as a chronic inflammatory state caused by dialysis membrane and fluid bioincompatibility. In addition, losses of nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, proteins, and vitamins, occur during the dialysis treatment. Careful monitoring of dietary intakes is mandatory even in predialysis patients. In hemodialysis patients, the dose of dialysis should be adapted to correct acidosis and to relieve anorexia caused by accumulation of uremic toxins and hyperleptinemia. When malnutrition is established, active therapeutic interventions should take place, including intradialytic parenteral nutrition if oral supplementation has failed to improve nutritional status. Anabolism has been observed during the administration of recombinant growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Emerging therapeutic strategies against malnutrition may also involve a short period of daily dialysis. PMID:10936810

Laville, M; Fouque, D

2000-08-01

370

Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight ( - 0.4 ± 4.1, - 1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18 , 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. Practitioner Summary: This study along with literature revealed that the self-reported approach is not a sustainable option for anthropometric surveys, even for gathering data from physically active professional groups, such as firefighters, who presumably are knowledgeable of their body dimensions. Self-reported anthropometric information is undependable in important population subgroups. PMID:25198061

Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

2014-12-01

371

Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns. PMID:25373064

Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

2014-11-01

372

Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy  

PubMed Central

This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

2014-01-01

373

Relationship between Anthropometric Factors, Gender, and Balance under Unstable Conditions in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788

Greve, Julia Maria D'Andrea; Cug, Mutlu; Dulgeroglu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho

2013-01-01

374

Anthropometric Comparison of the Idealized Youth and Hideous Old Man of Leonardo's Profile Drawings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare the old and ugly with the young and beautiful in Leonardo's profile drawings using soft tissue anthropometry.Thirty-one of Leonardo's profile drawings and portraits of the lateral view were collected and scanned. Among the 29, 9 young and 20 hideous old man scans had a measurable nasion-subnasale (n-sn) distance, and 49 anthropometric items (43 distances and 6 angles) were used for measurement as relative distances to the n-sn distance.The measured distances or angles did not differ significantly between the young and old in the 39 anthropometric items. However, the remaining 10 items were statistically significant. The young group had a significantly greater (P < 0.05) upper face height (n-stomion [sto]), nasolabial angle, and upper lip height (sn-sto) compared with the old group. However, the supraorbital depth (glabella-tragion), mandible height (sto-gnathion), nasal bridge height (n-pronasale), cutaneous lower lip height (labiale inferius-sublabiale), ear length (superaurale-subaurale), Rickett line-upper lip distance, and facial inclination were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the old group compared with the young group.The difference of soft tissue cephalometric results between the young and old subjects can be the index in rejuvenating surgeries. PMID:25340691

Hwang, Kun; Heo, Won Young; Jeong, Ji Myeong; Hwang, Se Won

2014-11-01

375

Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.  

PubMed

Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (<5.3%), affirmed that the selected measurements were highly reliable. The technical error of measurement (TEM) values for lengths and breadths were 0.15 to 0.80 cm, for circumferences 0.22 to 1 cm, and for skinfold thickness 0.33 to 0.58 mm. The high test-retest ICC and the low CV and TEM values confirmed the reliability of all anthropometric measurements in young artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport. PMID:21170478

Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

2010-12-01

376

Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.  

PubMed

This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

2005-01-01

377

Gender Differences in Anthropometric Predictors of Physical Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Both high body fat and low muscle mass have been associated with physical disability in older adults. However, men and women differ markedly in body composition, where men generally have more absolute and relative lean muscle mass and less fat mass than women. It is not known how these anthropometric differences differentially impact physical ability in men and women. Objectives This study examines differences in anthropometric predictors of physical performance in older women and men. Methods Participants were 470 older women and men aged 72.9±7.9y. Body composition was measured using DXA. Maximum leg strength and power were measured using a leg press. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated as relative strength (leg press strength per kg of leg muscle mass). Gait speed and chair rise were used to assess mobility performance and functional strength. Results BMI, age and muscle quality emerged as predictors (p<0.05) of functional strength and mobility in men and women somewhat differently. After accounting for age and sample, leg muscle quality was related to chair rise time and gait speed in men but not women. BMI was related to gait speed in both men and women, but BMI was related to chair rise time in only women and not men. Discussion Results implicate the prioritized importance of healthy weight and muscle maintenance in older women and men, respectively for maintained physical functioning with aging. PMID:23123187

Fragala, Maren S.; Clark, M.H.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Kleppinger, Alison; Judge, James O.; Kuchel, George A.; Kenny, Anne M.

2012-01-01

378

Nutrition Education: Selected Resources. Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended chiefly for nutrition instructors in elementary, secondary, and college classes, this bibliography can supplement the reading lists of other nutrition fields, such as food science and diet therapy. Separate sections of the document are devoted to books, documents and journal articles culled from the ERIC data base, films, multimedia…

Rhea, Harold C.

379

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

2008-01-01

380

PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

381

Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

382

NUTRITION IN RENAL, HEPATIC, AND  

Microsoft Academic Search

disease include diabetes (~40% of cases), hypertension (27%), and glomerulonephritis (13%). A decrease in kidney function greatly alters metabolism and nutritional status. These patients are at high risk for protein energy malnutrition. Common manifestations include edema, uremia, hypertension, anemia, and metabolic acidosis. Medical nutrition therapy for kidney disease becomes increasingly complex as the renal disease advances. The diet prescription is

383

International trends in adolescent nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses international trends in adolescent nutrition by reviewing the literature from English-language indexed journals and online sources from around the world. Information is presented by geographic region and by nation within region. The literature shows that malnutrition remains a significant problem for adolescents, worldwide, but that the types of nutritional problems impacting this group have changed significantly over

Dona Schneider

2000-01-01

384

Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

Evans, T. N.

1972-01-01

385

Nutrition Connections has the help  

E-print Network

, low-cost meals. Serve healthy foods and snacks that children will eat. Save money at the grocery Courses Eat Healthy Stay Fit in English and Unos Cambios Pequeños Para la Mejor Salud for our SpanishNutrition Connections has the help you need... Eat HEaltHiEr and SavE MonEy Nutrition Connections

New Hampshire, University of

386

Nutritional issues in cancer management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

1996-01-01

387

Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you have ...

388

The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Luna, Natalia Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fabio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andreia

2012-01-01

389

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nutrition Education for Improvement of Diet Quality and Inflammation in Iranian Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1?hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-?, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-? and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725

Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein

2014-01-01

390

[Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].  

PubMed

The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7997819

Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

1994-02-01

391

Nutritional Rehabilitation of HIV-Exposed Infants in Malawi: Results from the Drug Resources Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition Program  

PubMed Central

Infant malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa is a public health priority and a challenge in high HIV prevalence areas. The Drug Resources Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition program, with multiple medical centers in Sub-Saharan Africa, developed an innovative intervention for the surveillance and control of malnutrition. In a pilot initiative, 36 HIV-exposed children were evaluated at baseline upon presentation for malnutrition and at six months post- treatment. Parameters included HIV-free survival, nutritional status and change in diet. Food diary data was entered and processed using the Nutrisurvey (WHO) software. At 6 months post-intervention, a significant improvement in anthropometric parameters was noted. Slowing of linear growth was observed in patients with malaria with a mean gain in centimetres of 4.4 ± 1.7 as compared to 5.6 ± 1.7 in children with no malaria, p < 0.048 (CL 95%: ?2.32, ?0.01). Dietary diversity scores increased from 5.3 ± 1.9 to 6.5 ± 1.3, p < 0.01 at 6 months. A significant increase (+25%, p < 0.02) in the number of children eating fish meals was noted. Our pilot data describes positive outcomes from a rehabilitative nutritional approach based on use of local foods, peer education, anthropometric and clinical monitoring in areas of high food insecurity. The relationship between malaria and linear growth retardation requires further investigation. PMID:22470301

Buonomo, Ersilia; de Luca, Simona; Tembo, Dyna; Scarcella, Paola; Germano, Paola; Doro Altan, Anna Maria; Palombi, Leonardo; Liotta, Giuseppe; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Erba, Fulvio; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

392

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

393

Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

2000-01-01

394

Pilot project of the Nutrition-Friendly School Initiative (NFSI) in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Cotonou, Benin, in West Africa.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first African experience with the Nutrition-Friendly School Initiative (NFSI) in two large West African cities: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Cotonou, Benin. NFSI was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners in 2006, as a means of preventing the double burden of malnutrition: the coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition among school-children. NFSI pilot-testing is one component of the Partnership Project on the Double Burden of Malnutrition, funded by the Canadian International Development Agency for 6 years (2008-2014). The Project assisted the government in the selection of pilot schools, fostered the installation of health and nutrition committees in selected schools, and helped with the initial school self-assessments. In accordance with the empowering philosophy of health promotion, pilot schools did not follow a pre-defined schedule of interventions, except for the training of teachers in nutrition education and the nutritional (anthropometric) surveillance of schoolchildren. For the latter activities, technical assistance and seminal funds were provided. Yearly planning workshops were held for school committees, with WHO support. In both settings, training was given to street vendors in order to improve the hygiene and nutritional value of food sold to schoolchildren. Other activities included special nutrition events and sanitation measures. In both cities, NFSI showed promising results in terms of school and community mobilization towards improved nutrition and health; however, NFSI must be better understood as an endogenous and self-sustaining approach. Furthermore, household poverty and scarce school resources appear as major barriers to gaining full impact of NFSI in low-income populations. PMID:23563778

Delisle, Hélène F; Receveur, Olivier; Agueh, Victoire; Nishida, Chizuru

2013-03-01

395

Nutrition support in surgical patients with colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection. CONCLUSION: Appropriate and moderate nutritional intervention can improve the postoperative outcome of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:21483641

Chen, Yang; Liu, Bao-Lin; Shang, Bin; Chen, Ai-Shan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Sun, Wei; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Yin, Jian-Qiao; Su, Qi

2011-01-01

396

Oral health and nutritional status of semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation in Brazil.  

PubMed

Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianópolis and São José, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of individuals (68%) with heavily compromised dentition. The index of decayed, missing and filled deciduous and permanent teeth, which increased from 2.85+/-2.87 in children to 20.5+/-6.86 units in adults, was used to classify the individuals' oral health status. Anthropometric evaluation revealed the prevalence of suboptimal nutritional status in 52% of children and adolescents [22% underweight, 30% at risk of overweight or overweight], and in 60% of adults [7% underweight, 53% overweight or obese]. Significant association was found between unsatisfactory oral health status and overweight in children (chi(2)=4.627; p=0.031). Findings evidenced the existence of a relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in persons with mental retardation. PMID:19062253

Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

2009-01-01

397

Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

2002-01-01

398

Impact of cancer, type, site, stage and treatment on the nutritional status of patients  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters.

Bozzeti, F.

1982-08-01

399

Cooperative breeding and Aka children's nutritional status: is flexibility key?  

PubMed

Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to <9 months), mobility to weaning (9 to <36 months), early childhood (36 to <72 months), and middle childhood (72 to <120 months); N?=?127]. We explore the effects of allomothers and the social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to <36 month period. Camp size was also associated with greater WAZ, suggesting that children residing in small camps may be disadvantaged. Our findings also indicate that, under specific residence patterns, cooperative child rearing networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases. PMID:24452414

Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J

2014-04-01

400

Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients. PMID:25029579

Berbel, Marina Nogueira; de Goes, Cassiana Regina; Balbi, Andre Luis; Ponce, Daniela

2014-01-01

401

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

402

Nutrition and HIV infection.  

PubMed

Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is characterized by progressive destruction of the immune system, which leads to recurrent opportunistic infections and malignancies, progressive debilitation and death. Malnutrition is one major complication of HIV infection and is recognized as a significant prognostic factor in advanced disease. Malnutrition is multifactorial and poorly treated during the course of HIV. Even if a standardized approach to the management of active weight loss has not been well established, early nutritional intervention is important in HIV infected patients to maximize gain of lean body mass. From early in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), an initial decreased incidence of malnutrition was noted only in western countries while a variety of changes in the distribution of body fat and associated metabolic abnormalities have been recognized under the banner of lipodystrophy. PMID:11895147

Salomon, J; De, Truchis P; Melchior, J C

2002-01-01

403

Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?  

PubMed

Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308

Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

2014-08-01

404

Nutrition and ageing.  

PubMed

The reviewed literature indicates that, even in industrialised countries, the nutrition of mature and aged subjects is often inadequate (because of deficiency or excess), which may lead to premature or pathological senescence. Recent nutritional research on ageing laboratory animals shows that dietary restriction may be the most effective procedure to achieve a long and disease-free life span, probably owing to a better protection against mitochondria-linked oxygen stress. Likewise, the experimental and clinical work from many laboratories, including our own, indicates that age-dependent changes in the cardiovascular and immune systems are linked to oxygen stress and that an adequate intake of dietary antioxidants may protect those systems against chronic degenerative syndromes in the physiopathology of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role. The extant data indicate that the antioxidant vitamins C and E are centrally involved in defending the above two systems against ROS attack. Moreover, recent research suggests that the glutathione-related thiolic antioxidants, thiazolidine carboxylic acid (thioproline) and N-acetylcysteine, as well as the phenolic liposoluble 'co-antioxidants' of Curcuma longa, may have a significant protective effect against age-related atherogenesis and immune dysfunction. Key messages from this paper are the following. (1) It is generally accepted that oxygen free radicals released in metabolic reactions play a key role in the physiopathology of 'normal ageing' and of many age-related degenerative diseases. (2) Consumption of adequate levels of antioxidants in the diet is essential in order to preserve health in old age. (3) A certain degree of protection against atherogenesis and immune dysfunction may be achieved by preventing vitamin E deficiency and an excessive oxidation of the glutathione-supported thiol pool. PMID:11918486

Miquel, J

2001-12-01

405

Nutrition, cancer, and aging.  

PubMed

The parallel increase in cancer risk with advancing age is well recognized, and several pathophysiological mechanisms common to both conditions have been proposed to explain this interrelationship. The importance of nutrition, both in delaying the aging process and in protecting against cancer is also well recognized, and it is therefore of interest to compare the relative impact several of the more widely studied dietary manipulations may have on each of these conditions. For example, caloric restriction, which putatively reduce oxidative stress and effectively increases life span in animals also seems to reduce the incidence of many cancers, possibly due to diminished mitogenesis. Likewise, oxidative damage to DNA appears to be common to both processes but may be more important in the mitochondria with respect to aging and in the nucleus in relation to cancer. Inadequate dietary folate and impaired DNA methylation status are closely associated with increased cancer risk, and recently defective somatic cell methylation and accumulated genetic instability have been proposed as key mechanisms contributing to senescence. Several other well-established anticancer dietary strategies, which include increased fiber intake and the consumption of more fruits and vegetables, have not been studied extensively in relation to aging, although many of the phytochemicals considered important as chemopreventive agents for cancer may well contribute to delaying the aging process. Although not directly related to nutrition, but nevertheless highly relevant, is the question of physical activity, which has been strongly linked to a reduction in risk of some cancers. Although less is known with respect to exercise and biological markers of aging, physical activity does appear to retard the age-related decline in the muscle strength and in the bone density. PMID:9928445

Dreosti, I E

1998-11-20

406

Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.  

PubMed

Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

2014-04-01

407

[Enteral nutrition in cancer patients].  

PubMed

The significance of nutritional management in patients with malignant tumors is under-recognized due to the lack of clear evidence of a direct link with survival rate. However, for cancer patients, with markedly reduced food intake continuing for?7 days or intake of under 60% of estimated energy expenditure for?10 days, as referred to in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, rapid implementation of nutritional support constitutes a clinically appropriate intervention. With regard to route of administration, as with other conditions, enteral nutritional management is recommended if the gastrointestinal tract is available. The utility of enteral immunonutrition formulae containing eicosapentaenoic acid and other forms of nutritional management has also recently been reported and further studies are anticipated. However, the principles of nutritional management for cancer patients comprise not simply weight increase or improvement in nutritional markers but the maintenance of patient QOL in ways that include alleviation of symptoms and antitumor therapy side-effects, and decreased risk of infection. Administration routes such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should therefore also be discussed from this perspective. PMID:25335700

Suzuki, Yutaka

2014-10-01

408

Genome-wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits in Kor?ula Island, Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To identify genetic variants underlying six anthropometric traits: body height, body weight, body mass index, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and hip circumference, using a genome-wide association study. Methods The study was carried out in the isolated population of the island of Kor?ula, Croatia, with 898 adult examinees who participated in the larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Anthropometric measurements followed standard internationally accepted procedures. Examinees were genotyped using HumanHap 370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 316?730 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Results A total of 11 SNPs were associated with the investigated traits at the level of P?anthropometric traits makes CRIM1 and ITGA1 highly interesting for further replication and functional follow-up. Increased linkage disequilibrium between the used markers in an isolated population makes the formal significance threshold overly stringent, and changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in large outbred populations. PMID:19260139

Polasek, Ozren; Marusic, Ana; Rotim, Kresimir; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Huffman, Jennifer; Campbell, Susan; Jankovic, Stipan; Boban, Mladen; Biloglav, Zrinka; Kolcic, Ivana; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Terzic, Janos; Matec, Lana; Tometic, Gordan; Nonkovic, Dijana; Nincevic, Jasna; Pehlic, Marina; Zedelj, Jurica; Velagic, Vedran; Juricic, Danica; Kirac, Iva; Belak Kovacevic, Sanja; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

2009-01-01

409

Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them. PMID:21504619

2011-01-01

410

NUTRITION 203 as an STS course Principles of Human Nutrition  

E-print Network

in the investigation and interpretation of nutrients and their interactions within the body. The course is required of food borne illnesses 14. identify the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger 15. evaluate nutrition

Bolding, M. Chad

411

Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

412

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue.  

PubMed

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental "nutritive tissue" in carnivorous plants of Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the "nutritive tissue" and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key role in the nutrition of the female gametophyte. To date, however, the structure of this tissue has received only scant attention. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized its anatomy and histochemistry in more detail and addressed the speculations of a number of earlier researchers. Nutritive tissue during the period of flower opening in three Utricularia species, each belonging to different sections and subgenera (Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria and Utricularia), was examined by light and, in particular, electron microscopy. In all of the investigated species, nutritive tissue cells differ from placental parenchyma cells in having no huge vacuole, no large amyloplasts with starch grains, and no protein inclusions in the nucleus. The funicular nutritive tissue in U. dichotoma consists of active cells with a secretory character, while U. sandersonii has a small placental nutritive tissue consisting of colenchymatous cells accumulating lipids. The most complex nutritive tissue occurs in aquatic U. intermedia, which occupies a derived position in the genus phylogeny. In this latter species, the cells of this tissue resemble meristematic cells in having a relatively large nucleus, thin cell walls, and reduced vacuoles, but the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in some cells is similar to that in secretory cells. The cytoplasm is rich in microtubules, some of which are in close contact with the ER cisternae. We found very thick cell walls between nutritive tissue cells and parenchyma cells, but plasmodesmata between these types of cells are rare. Similarities in both the position and structure of nutritive tissue in Polypompholyx and section Pleiochasia support their classification together in one subgenus, based on results from a molecular study. The position and structure of the nutritive tissue in Utricularia spp. are related to the position of various species in the genus phylogeny. PMID:18802663

P?achno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr

2008-12-01

413

Novel omics technologies in nutrition research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key scientific objective of nutrition research is to determine the role of diet in metabolic regulation and to improve health. There are many new opportunities and challenges for the nutrition research in post-genome era. Novel omics technologies and bioinformatics tools offer enormous potential to investigate the complex relationship between nutrition and metabolism. An overview of omics technologies in nutrition

Xuewu Zhang; Yeeleng Yap; Dong Wei; Gu Chen; Feng Chen

2008-01-01

414

Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

415

Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess

Melinda Jen; Albert C. Yan

2010-01-01

416

Impact of Nutrition Screening on Patient Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrition screening program was initiated to provide early identification of patients who might benefit from nutrition intervention. All patients were screened within 72 hours of admission. Four indicators were used to determine nutritional risk 1) serum albumin or prealbumin 2) current weight as percent desirable body weight 3) percent of meals consumed or nutrition support by tube feeding (TF)

S. Kemp; M. Burck; M. Harris; M. O’Keefe Ralph; P. Nuwash

1995-01-01

417

Early Aggressive Nutrition for the Premature Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition for sick newborn infants, both term and preterm, has been evolving since the first published report of use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in an infant. The more preterm infants have posed an even greater challenge, because optimal timing for use of enteral nutrition is an additional factor for completing their nutritional demands. Although benefiting the immune system among

Anjali Parish; Jatinder Bhatia

2008-01-01

418

Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

419

Effective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http

Rhode Island, University of

420

Use of Nutrition Screening to Develop and Target Nutrition Education Interventions for Nevada's Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative tools and approaches were utilized to enhance the nutritional health of Nevada's elderly through nutrition screening, education and counseling. Participants (n = 2037) were recruited primarily from senior nutrition programs, including congregate meal sites and home health care programs. Each was screened using the “DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist.” The intensity of the intervention was then

Jamie A. Benedict; David Wilson; Gwenn Snow; Peggy Nipp; Valentina Remig; Mary Spoon; Carolyn Leontos; Marsha Read

2000-01-01

421

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2013­2014 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

422

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2014­2015 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

423

The Development of New Clothing Size Charts for Female Kenyan Children. Part I: Using Anthropometric Data to Create Size Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series of papers is based on an anthropometric survey conducted on 618 female Kenyan children aged from two to six years. Part I discusses the procedures in which correlation coefficients of 33 parameters were analysed, resulting in a centilong system based on height, outside leg, chest, and hip as key dimensions. These were categorized and size-designated.

R. B. Otieno; C. Fairhurst

2000-01-01

424

Predicting insulin resistance in children: anthropometric and metabolic indicators Predição da resistência à insulina em crianças: indicadores antropométricos e metabólicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To predict insulin resistance in children based on anthropometric and metabolic indicators by analyzing the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 109 children aged 7 to 11 years, 55 of whom were obese, 23 overweight and 31 well-nourished, classified by body mass index (BMI) for age. Measurements were taken to

Sérgio R. Moreira; Aparecido P. Ferreira; Ricardo M. Lima; Gisela Ars; Carmen S. G. Campbell; Herbert G. Simões; Francisco J. G. Pitanga; Nanci M. França

425

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. PMID:24439821

Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine

2014-02-01

426

Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images.  

PubMed

Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069

Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E

2010-07-15

427

Colorectal cancer: case-control study of sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric parameters in Riyadh.  

PubMed

This case-control study compared sociodemographic variables, lifestyle and certain anthropometric parameters of 50 patients hospitalized with colorectal cancer with those of 50 age- and sex-matched controls at a referral hospital in Riyadh. Among cases, females were generally more affected by gastrointestinal symptoms and 4% of male patients had a family history of colorectal cancer. Unlike weight and height, body mass index did not differ between cases and controls, but poor knowledge of high-fibre diets was a significant factor. Regression analysis showed low education level, unemployment and not taking exercise regularly were significant risk factors for colorectal cancer. Better education and awareness of colorectal cancer screening is recommended. PMID:20187533

Almurshed, K S

2009-01-01

428

A hybrid algorithm for selecting head-related transfer function based on similarity of anthropometric structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.

Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping

2010-09-01

429

Nutritional support of the oncology patient.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the nutritional support of the non-surgical cancer patient. The following topics are reviewed: cancer cachexia (definition and staging, prevalence and impact on clinical outcome); nutritional screening to identify potential candidates for nutritional support; nutritional requirements in terms of macro-and micro-nutrients of the advanced cancer patient. Finally, the indications and results of nutritional support are presented with a special focus on the following issues: routes of delivering nutritional support, the use of standard or n-3 fatty acids-enriched oral nutritional supplements during radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, tube feeding during RT (with/without chemotherapy), parenteral nutrition during chemotherapy, nutritional support during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, (home) enteral or total and supplemental parenteral nutrition in the incurable patient. Lastly, the bioethical aspects of feeding patients with incurable disease are briefly reviewed. PMID:23746998

Bozzetti, Federico

2013-08-01

430

Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

2013-01-01

431

Impact of breastfeeding on anthropometric changes in peri-urban Toba women (Argentina).  

PubMed

We present an analysis of the effect of lactation on average maternal anthropometric and body composition measures in a population of Toba women in Formosa, Argentina. This indigenous population is undergoing a continuing transition from a seminomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, peri-urban one. Using a mixed-longitudinal design, we measured monthly maternal body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness between birth and the 18th month postpartum in 113 breastfeeding women. The pattern of change in postpartum body composition varied with maternal age. Adult women (20 years old and older) did not show significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures during the entire study. Older adult women (30 years old and older) consistently had the highest values in measures of BMI and percentage fat, and tended to retain weight postpartum. Adolescent subjects (19 years old and younger) tended to lose weight during the first 6 months postpartum but regain their prepregnancy weight by 12 months postpartum. The same patterns were observed for changes in body fat percentage and in skinfold thickness. We conclude that in this population the energetic stress of lactation does not pose a serious challenge to the maintenance of long-term maternal energy balance or to short-term energy balance in women over 20 years of age. From a public health perspective, postpartum weight retention in older women may represent a more serious health threat. The low level of energetic stress associated with lactation may also contribute to the relatively short duration of lactational amenorrhea in this population despite a cultural pattern of intensive breastfeeding. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:717-724, 2003. PMID:12953184

Valeggia, Claudia R; Ellison, Peter T

2003-01-01

432

Effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometric and lifestyle variables in males.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic in North America has focused attention on the health risks of excess weight gain. The transition from high school to university is a critical period for weight gain, commonly referred to as the Freshman 15. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometrics and physical and sedentary activities in males. A total of 108 males completed 3 study visits: the summer prior to first year university, and the ends of the first and second semesters. Outcome measures were body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students experienced a significant weight gain, of 3.0 kg, with significant increases in BMI, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio. Energy and nutrient intake did not change. Final body mass was significantly predicted by intention for body mass to stay the same, relative to weight loss intention. Fast aerobic physical activity significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, while slow aerobic physical activity, strength training, and flexibility training did not change. Computer and studying time significantly increased, while television time and hours of nightly sleep significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university. Weekly alcoholic drinks and binge drinking frequency significantly increased over this time period. In conclusion, between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students gained an average of 3.0 kg, with increases in related anthropometrics. These changes may be due to body mass change intention and (or) the observed decreased physical and increased sedentary activities, but appear to be unrelated to dietary intake. PMID:19370046

Pullman, Allison W; Masters, Rachel C; Zalot, Lindsay C; Carde, Lauren E; Saraiva, Michelle M; Dam, Yian Yian; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Duncan, Alison M

2009-04-01

433

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors  

PubMed Central

Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

2011-01-01

434

Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR) and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents. Research design and methods Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition) were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age. Results The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity. Conclusion WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant. PMID:22924001

Wedin, William K; Diaz-Gimenez, Lizmer; Convit, Antonio J

2012-01-01

435

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities NIH Research Training & Research Career Development http://grants.nih.gov/training/index.htm Research and training opportunities at NIH, range from summer programs for high school students through employment

436

Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

Reber, Robert J.

1991-01-01

437

Primary-Graders Study Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content of an instructional unit on nutrition prepared by the Dairy Council of California for primary-level school children and the results of its large-scale tryout in 30 California schools. (SDH)

Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Moncrief, Michael H.

1975-01-01

438

Nutritional management of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission. PMID:23634187

Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

2013-01-01

439

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

440

Committee on Military Nutrition Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine's Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the period January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Activities during this time period which are described in ...

M. Oria

2007-01-01

441

Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care  

PubMed Central

There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

2013-01-01

442

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

443

Changes in Dietary Intake, Body Weight, Nutritional Status, and Metabolic Rate in a Pancreatic Cancer Patient  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer patients often have a poor prognosis and suffer from nutritional problems. Malnutrition is characterized by weight loss and decreased dietary intake, and is common among pancreatic cancer patients. The objective of this report was to describe the changes in dietary intake, body weight, nutritional status, and metabolic rate on a continuum from the time of diagnosis until the end of life in a patient with pancreatic cancer. In summary, the patient's nutritional status gradually declined, accompanied by extreme weight loss and decreased dietary intake. Conversely, resting energy expenditure, measured by indirect calorimetry, increased from 24 kcal/kg/day to 35 kcal/kg/day. Nutritional management during cancer treatment is important but may be challenging in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:23908983

Kim, So Young; Wie, Gyung Ah; Lee, Woo Jin; Park, Sang-Jae

2013-01-01

444

Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric features and body composition of athletes practising karate at a high and medium competitive level. Our study was carried out on a sample of 35 subjects practising karate and aged from 16.0 to 32.5 years. This sample was divided into two groups: group 1 ( n=14 elite athletes) and group 2 ( n=21 amateur athletes). Various anthropometric measurements were taken (weight, height both standing and sitting, diameters, circumferences and skinfold thickness) from which different anthropometric indices were calculated (body mass index, Scelic and Grant indices, arm muscle circumference and area), and the somatotype was then determined. The body composition of each subject was assessed using the skinfold technique and the Jackson-Pollock (J-P) and Sloan-Weir (S-W) equations. The two groups of athletes showed very similar measurements regarding anthropometric characteristics. Only the Scelix index presented a significantly different value in the two groups (49.6+/-1.3 for group 1 vs. 51.1+/-1.3 for group 2; p<0.01). Group 1 showed a mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, while the amateur athletes presented a balanced mesomorphic type. Moreover, a lower percentage of fat mass was more frequent in the first group (J-P=8.1+/-2.4%; S-W=8.9+/-3.3%) than in the second one (J-P=9.8+/-1.6%; S-W=11.2+/-3.7%), although the differences between the two groups were not significant. We conclude that group 1 is characterized by a slightly prominent vertical development of the skeletal frame. This could be an anthropometric characteristic that is best suited to meet the specific functional requirements of this sport. Moreover, both groups of athletes are characterized by a low percentage of fat mass, particularly the elite group. PMID:14618456

Giampietro, M; Pujia, A; Bertini, I

2003-10-01

445

Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242

Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder

2011-01-01

446

EEG and Autism Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. EEG and Autism Diagnosis HealthDay September 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Autism ... 1 in 68 children has autism spectrum disorder. Diagnosis is currently based on behavioral characteristics and symptoms. ...

447

Diagnosis of Ataxia  

MedlinePLUS

... Time (GMT) Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Diagnosis of Ataxia Being diagnosed with Ataxia can be ... Ataxia Foundation's primary emphases. How is Ataxia Diagnosed? Diagnosis is based on a person's medical history, family ...

448

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

449

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed in this chapter are ways in which inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and nutrition are intimately related. Both Crohn’s\\u000a disease and ulcerative colitis can have a profound effect on the nutritional status of those afflicted with these diseases.\\u000a This can occur as a result of decreased food intake, digestion and absorption, increased requirements, altered metabolism\\u000a of nutrients, increased losses and

Darlene G. Kelly

450

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

451

The importance of paediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This articles looks at infant nutrition, from birth and through the first year of life. Good quality foods in infancy and childhood do not only promote optimum growth and development during that time, but also play a role in helping to prevent obesity and some diseases of adulthood, particularly non-communicable diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Ensuring a good nutritional start for the paediatric population will help reduce morbidity and mortality later in life. PMID:25299659

Patience, Sara

2014-10-01