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1

Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age

Sergio Sánchez-García; Carmen García-Peña; María Ximena Duque-López; Teresa Juárez-Cedillo; Alma Rosa Cortés-Núñez; Sandra Reyes-Beaman

2007-01-01

2

Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation.

Zamberlan, Patricia; Leone, Claudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

2012-01-01

3

Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the associations between health and BMI, waist circumference and WHR in the elderly.

Sanchez-Garcia, Sergio; Garcia-Pena, Carmen; Duque-Lopez, Maria Ximena; Juarez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortes-Nunez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

2007-01-01

4

Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional profile of young amateur swimmers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional and anthropometric profiles of young swimmers belonging to semiprofessional teams. Thirty-six caucasian adolescent swimmers (22 boys and 14 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. Anthropometric data, dietary intake, and blood parameters were determined. Female swimmers had greater values of triceps, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. Endomorphic somatotype was twofold greater in girls compared with in boys. Energy intake and protein intake per kilogram of body weight were significantly greater in boys compared to in girls. On the other hand, girls had significantly greater polyunsaturated fatty acid intake compared that of boys. Energy intake of boys and girls was below their requirements. In contrast, protein intake doubled the requirements of the study population. Furthermore, inadequate intake of carotenes, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D, and folic acid was found in both boys and girls; girls also had inadequate intake of iron and calcium. Plasma levels of iron, vitamins C and E, and carotenes were similar in male and females swimmers, and they were within the normal range. In conclusion, young swimmers participating in the present study had differences between sexes in somatotypes. Adolescent swimmers had low average total energy intakes, excessive protein intake, and lower intake of several micronutrients in both sexes. PMID:20838252

Martínez, Sonia; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Romaguera, Dora; Arasa, Cati; Tauler, Pedro; Aguiló, Antoni

2011-04-01

5

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2012-01-01

6

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2011-01-01

7

Effect of Workplace-Visiting Nutrition Education on Anthropometric and Clinical Measures in Male Workers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of nutrition education at worksite program in male workers. The subjects were 75 male workers who had received nutrition education by a clinical dietitian for 4 months. The anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical blood indices were measured before and after nutrition education. Dietary habits and lifestyle were investigated by self-administered questionnaires. Nutrients intake was determined by 24-hour dietary recall method. The results showed significant decreases in body mass index (p < 0.05), fasting blood sugar (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.05), and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) after nutrition education. The correlation analyses among anthropometric and clinical parameters after nutrition education indicated that there was a significantly positive correlations between blood pressure and weight, r-GTP. A significantly positive correlations was observed between fasting blood sugar and triglycerides. A significantly positive correlations was observed between triglycerides and body mass index, r-GTP, SGPT. A significantly positive correlations was observed between SGPT and weight, body mass index. A significantly negative correlations was observed between HDL-cholesterol and weight. It could be concluded that nutrition education might be effective tool to improve anthropometric measures and clinical parameters in male workers. Continuing and systematic nutritional management programs should be developed and implemented for male workers at the worksites to maintain optimal health status.

Kim, Hye-Jin; Mok, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Mi

2012-01-01

8

Anthropometric and nutritional assessment in Italian elderly subjects.  

PubMed

The aims of this anthropometric study on 486 non-institutionalized subjects aged 60 and over were to assess the body mass index (BMI), to evaluate possible sex and age-linked differences of BMI and to find whether there were any correlations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. To this end, the subjects were divided into three age groups: A: 60-69 years, B: 70-79 years and C: > or =80 years old. The results showed a high prevalence (74%) of overweight or clearly obese subjects (BMI >25.1 for men and BMI > 23.9 for women) (70% male and 77% female). Both the BMI and diastolic blood pressure showed a decreasing trend in the three age groups and were significantly correlated in the total population (p < 0.001). A dietary investigation using a 24-hour recall method, repeated on three separate days, was carried out on a subsample of 90 subjects, selected at random from the total population. They underwent in-depth anthropometric assessment (BMI, four skinfolds, mid-arm, waist and hip circumferences, midarm muscle and fat areas, body fat percent). The trend of the anthropometric assessment reflected that of the total population. Total energy intake in both sexes did not significantly differ from the Italian RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance). As regards the three macronutrients, no significant differences in protein and carbohydrate intakes were found between the sexes. However, in the females, fat intake was over the Italian DRA (30%) and below it in the males. Calcium intake was lower than the Italian RDA (1,000 mg/day) in most males (77%) and females (89%). However, iron and vitamin intakes were adequate in most subjects. As regards age-linked differences, there were non significant changes in the percentage of energy intake from proteins of the males whereas this decreased with age and was significantly different (p < 0.05) in the females. No significant differences were found in the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates and fats. PMID:10995087

Lancia, B; Tedesco, M; Sergio, G; Tenna, M

1997-01-01

9

Nutritional and anthropometric profile of adolescent volleyball athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's participation in volleyball began in 1928. In 1944, the first Brazilian volleyball championship happened. Flexibility, strength, power, agility and aerobic fitness are all necessary to be a master in this sport. Women's partici- pation in sport activity has increased. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil about nutrition assessment, especially amongst female volleyball players. Therefore, the aim

Tania Abreu de Almeida; Eliane Abreu Soares

2003-01-01

10

Combination with Anthropometric Measurements and MQSGA to Assess Nutritional Status in Chinese Hemodialysis Population  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the nutritional status, combination with anthropometric measurements and modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) was used in multi-center hemodialysis population in South China. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed in 4 teaching hospitals in South China, dated from January 2010 to December 2011. Nutritional status was assessed with MQSGA and related anthropometric indexes. Serum albumin and transthyretin were also determined for nutritional assessment. Results: Eighty-two randomly selected hemodialysis patients participated in the nutritional assessment, of which 75 hemodialysis patients completed all assessments. The average age was 62.70 ± 14.21 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 3.29 ± 1.08 years. Of the included patients, 32% patients were well nourished, 60% were mild to moderately malnourished, and 8% were severely malnourished. Along with the malnutrition severity, the serum transthyretin significantly decreased. However, no obvious changes were found in serum albumin. The mean value (Mean ± SD; 25.78 ± 4.09 cm) of mid arm circumference (MAC) was negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.365; P = 0.002). Body mass index (BMI) (Mean ± SD; 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) was also significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.392; P = 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.664 and 0.726, respectively. Conclusions: Malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population. Both BMI and MAC were effective markers for assessing nutritional status.

Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Kun; Xiao, Long; Huang, Jialian; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

2013-01-01

11

Nutritional Assessment of Macronutrients in Primary School Children and its Association with Anthropometric Indices and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood nutrition is known to have a considerable impact on children's health. Protein and fat are the two most important macronutrients with high impact on children's growth and energy provision. The aim of the present study is the assessment of children's nutrition based on energy, protein and fat intake with respect to their anthropometric and oral health. A total of

Sayed Jalal Pourhashemi; Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Banafsheh Golestan

2007-01-01

12

The role of Anthropometric and Nutritional Factors on Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women  

PubMed Central

Objective While the role of nutrition, physical activity, and body size on breast cancer risk has been extensively investigated, most of these studies were conducted in Caucasian populations. However, there are well known differences in tumor biology and the prevalence of these factors between African American and Caucasian women. The objective of this paper was to conduct a review on the role of dietary factors, anthropometry, and physical activity on breast cancer risk in African American women. Design Twenty-six research articles that presented risk estimates on these factors in African American women and five articles involving non-US Black women were included in this review. Setting Racial disparities in the impact of anthropometric and nutritional factors on breast cancer risk Subjects African American and non-US Black women Results Based on the few studies that presented findings in African American women, an inverse association with physical activity was found for pre and postmenopausal African American women, while the association for anthropometric and other dietary factors, such as alcohol, was unclear. Studies assessing the effect by molecular subtypes in African American women were too few and based on sample sizes too small to provide definitive conclusions. Conclusions The effect of certain nutrition and lifestyle factors on breast cancer in African American is not starkly distinct from those observed in White women. However, there is an enormous need for further research on this minority group to obtain more confirmatory findings.

Chandran, Urmila; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Bandera, Elisa V.

2013-01-01

13

Dependence of the Geriatric Depression on Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in Elderly Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Malnutrition and depression are highly prevalent in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. The aims of the current study were to determine the association between malnutrition and depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in free living elderly. Method In this cross-sectional study, 337 elderly subjects (193 females) were selected using cluster sampling. Depressive symptoms and nutritional status were determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores questionnaires, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured all in standard situations. Chi squared test and t-test were used when necessary. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for linear relations between variables. Results Of all the total subjects, 43.62% were depressed; and of whom, 48.01% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. GDS had a significant negative dependence with the MNA for the entire sample (r=-0.58, p <0.0001). However, there was no significant correlation between age and GDS or MNA scores. Moreover, the mean GDS scores differed significantly between men and women (p <0.05), and women were more depressed than men (27.9% vs. 15%, respectively). The elderly subjects living in urban areas were more depressed than those living in rural areas (39.46% vs. 3.85% respectively). Conclusion The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of depression and malnutrition among old subjects. Moreover, depression was associated with worsening of nutritional status. The mechanism of this association needs further study.

Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Kooshesh, Seyed-Mohammad-Ali; Sarikhani, Yaser; Peimani, Payam; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

2013-01-01

14

Race, Anthropometric Factors, and Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study suggested that the greater prevalence of severe obesity among African-American women explained almost one third of the observed differences between African-American and White women in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. The objective of this investigation was to attempt to replicate these findings in a second, larger population and to expand the analyses by including a measure

Patricia G. Moorman; Beth A. Jones; Robert C. Millikan; Ingrid J. Hall; Beth Newman

15

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate responses and the temporal pattern of the effort/recovery during a simulated canoe polo match. The main results are as follows: body fat, 12.3 ± 4.0%; upper-body peak and mean power, 6.8 ± 0.5 and 4.7 ± 0.4 W · kg(-1), respectively; 1-RM bench press, 99.1 ± 11.7 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 44.3 ± 5.8 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); total energy intake, 42.8 ± 8.6 kcal · kg(-1); protein, carbohydrate, and fat intakes, 1.9 ± 0.1, 5.0 ± 1.5, and 1.7 ± 0.4 g · kg(-1), respectively; mean heart rate, 146 ± 11 beats · min(-1); plasma lactate, 5.7 ± 3.8 mmol · L(-1) at half-time and 4.6 ± 2.2 mmol · L(-1) at the end of the match; effort time (relative to total match time), 93.1 ± 3.0%; number of sprints, 9.6 ± 4.4. The results of this study will assist coaches, trainers, and nutritionists in developing more adequate training programmes and dietary interventions for canoe polo athletes. PMID:22168392

Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Pasqua, Leonardo; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni; Roschel, Hamilton; Solis, Marina; Tobias, Gabriel; Klansener, Christian; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Franchini, Emerson; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

2011-12-15

16

[Dietary patterns and selected anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of men between 20 and 60 years old from Krakow population].  

PubMed

The purpose of research was to analyze relations between dietary patterns and anthropometric parameters of nutritional status among working men, living in big city population. Tests involved a group of 1451 men between 20 and 60 years old, employed in Steelworks of T. Sendzimir (HTS) in Krakow, Poland. Comparison was done for average values of anthropometric indexes of men in sections of 10 years of age and two categories of persons--of the least (I section) and of the most reasonable nutrition choices (II section). Research pointed out the relation between the quality measurement of nutrition method and some of anthropometric indexes of nutritional status. In selected sections of the least and of the most reasonable nutrition choices there were no differences between average values of 4 skinfolds, waist and arm perimeter, Waist to Hip Ratio distribution index (WHR) and average values of Fat Free Mass (FFM). Unawares characteristically higher average values of BMI were found at men of 20-30 years old (23.91 vs. 25.45 kg/m2, p < 0.05) and 50-60 years old (26.42 vs. 28.00 kg/m2, p = 0.01) declaring more rational nutrition behaviors. Similar regularity was ascertained for percentage of body fat tissue (%BF); higher nutrition habit mark is accompanied with higher average value of %BF at 20-30 years old (15.17 vs. 18.24%, p < 0.01) and 50-60 years old (22.76 vs. 25.01, p < 0.05). PMID:18807923

Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

2008-01-01

17

The use of calf circumference measurement as an anthropometric tool to monitor nutritional status in elderly inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly and verify if calf circumference\\u000a can be a tool to monitor nutritional status in this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 inpatients (79 men and 91 women) aged more than 60 years were assessed. Anthropometric and dietary assessments\\u000a were done according to standard procedures. The software STATISTICA

Kátia Cristina Portero-McLellan; C. Staudt; F. R. F. Silva; J. L. Delbue Bernardi; P. Baston Frenhani; V. A. Leandro Mehri

2010-01-01

18

The use of calf circumference measurement as an anthropometric tool to monitor nutritional status in elderly inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly and verify if calf circumference\\u000a can be a tool to monitor nutritional status in this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 inpatients (79 men and 91 women) aged more than 60 years were assessed. Anthropometric and dietary assessments\\u000a were done according to standard procedures. The software STATISTICA

Kátia Cristina Portero-Mclellan; C. Staudt; F. R. F. Silva; J. L. Delbue Bernardi; P. Baston Frenhani; V. A. Leandro Mehri

19

Use of Anthropometric Indices to Reveal Nutritional Status: Normative Data from 10,226 Chinese Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Measures of body size at birth are widely used for the evaluation of prenatal growth but limitations exist in their interpretation. Objective: To establish the percentile curves for the six common anthropometric indices (PI: ponderal index, BMI: body mass index, THR: thigh circumference\\/head circumference ratio, MAC\\/OFC: mid-arm circumference\\/head circumference, W\\/OFC: weight\\/head circumference, and W\\/L: weight\\/length) and determine the best

Tai-Fai Fok; Kam-Lun Hon; Pak-Cheung Ng; Eric Wong; Hung-Kwan So; Joseph Lau; Chun-Bong Chow; Wai-Hong Lee

2009-01-01

20

Nutrition and education. IV. Clinical signs of malnutrition and its relationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical signs of malnutrition, and to measure the interrelationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters. A random sample of 550 Chilean elementary and high school graduates (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1) and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was chosen in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. SES was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale. Clinical signs of malnutrition were assessed according to Jelliffe. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: percentages of weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were compared with the WHO Tables; head circumference/age (HC/A) with the Tanner Tables, and branchial anthropometric parameters by applying the Frisancho norms. Standard procedures for the 24 hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO pattern. Educational achievement (EA) was measured through the Achievement Evaluation Program, (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. Results showed that apart from caries (87.5%), most prevalent clinical signs of malnutrition were dermatosis (13.4%), follicular hyperkeratosis type I (13.2%), nasolabial dyssebacea (7.9%), lustreless hair (7.7%), angular stomatitis (4.4%) and cheilosis (2.7%). The number of clinical signs of malnutrition was found inversely and significantly associated with SES, H/A, vitamin A and calcium intake, as well as with EA, besides registering a lower nutrient intake, specially for energy, riboflavin and niacin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1308641

Ivanovic Marincovich, D

1992-03-01

21

Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer Population:demographic and anthropometric characteristics1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to compare nutritional and metabolic parameters on subjects with a spectrum of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. The method of selection of the study population, the description of its characteristics, and the data collection protocol are described. Anthropometric measurements of vegetarians and nonvegetarians are reported and compared with previously reported measurements on similar populations. Am J

BeverlyM Calkins; Donna J Whittaker

22

Anthropometric Predictors of Blood Pressure : National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthrppometric measurements, which’can be sensitive indicators of health, are valuable in assessing nutritional status. Data from the United States National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994) were used to test relationships of percentage body fat and body fat distribution to blood pressure (BP) levels. The sample included 770 adults, (males = 355, females = 415), who were subdivided

H. A. B Hiza; C. S. Welch

1999-01-01

23

A study of the geographical clustering of districts in Uttar Pradesh using nutritional anthropometric data of preschool children  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Worldwide variations in human growth and its genetic and environmental factors have been described. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the morphological differences and similarities among under 5 year children of rural areas of Uttar Pradesh State in India, and to determine differences or similarities of body size among children living in diverse regions. Methods: For this purpose, a cross-sectional district nutrition profile study conducted during 2002-2003 was used. The data on 10,096 children drawn from 1080 villages in 54 districts were part of the district level Diet and Nutrition Assessment survey. The mean values for height and weight for 54 districts were taken as the input data for subsequent analysis. The data were first normalized by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and then K-means clustering was performed. Results: The PCA and cluster analysis yielded four distinguishable clusters or patterns in the anthropometric data of children. These clusters were ordered according to the average body size (weight and height) of children. The mean stature and body weight of these children in cluster I were 3.2 cm and 1.4 kg higher than those of cluster IV indicating differences between clusters. Also, the variations between clusters in their social, demographic, health and nutrition parameters were compared. Interpretation & conclusions: The use of PCA and cluster analysis methods and their merits in studying the Uttar Pradesh preschool children growth variations are discussed. These results helped in identifying the districts with higher prevalence of undernutrition and the contributing factors.

Rao, M. Vishnu Vardhana; Kumar, Sharad; Brahmam, G.N.V.

2013-01-01

24

Randomized, controlled nutrition education trial promotes a Mediterranean diet and improves anthropometric, dietary, and metabolic parameters in adults.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that uptake of a Mediterranean diet could prevent many chronic diseases, such as cancer. However, the effectiveness of Mediterranean diet promotion interventions has not been well researched. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention for promoting the Mediterranean diet, by assessing changes in anthropometric, physical activity, dietetic and metabolic parameters in healthy adult subjects, before and after the intervention. Eighty participants, both sexes, aged 51-59 years, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or the control group. The intervention group participated in the Med-Food Anticancer Program (MFAP), designed to promote a Mediterranean diet. This was organized into 15 weeks of intensive training and 10 weeks of consolidation. Participants of the two groups were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 25 weeks (T1) for anthropometric, physical activity, dietetic, and metabolic parameters. The hypothesis was that subjects participating in MFAP would show an improvement in these parameters. The primary endpoint was an improvement of the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI), calculated by dividing the percentage of total energy from typical Mediterranean food groups by the percentage of total energy from non-typical Mediterranean food groups. At T1, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.3%, P = 0.045), body mass index (-12.4%, P = 0.05), cheese (53.0%, P < 0.0001) and meat (-49.3%, P = 0.005) intake, fasting glycaemia (-9.2%, P = 0.012), and fasting insulin (-32.6%, P = 0.014), C-Reactive Protein (-34.0%, P = 0.005). They showed a significant increase in MAI (+213, P < 0.0001), physical activity (expressed in steps per day, +200.4%, P < 0.0001), fruit (+38.8, P < 0.0001), vegetables (29.3%, P < 0.0001), and dietary fiber (+38.6%, P = 0.04) intake. In contrast, the control group presented non-significant variations in measured parameters, for exception of cheese intake (+18.2%, P < 0.0001). The MFAP was found to promote uptake of the Mediterranean diet, and improve anthropometric, physical activity, dietary, and metabolic parameters in healthy subjects. PMID:21736003

Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Antoniciello, A; Cela, E P; Ferguson, L R; D'Ambrosio, P

25

Effect of the PACE Concept on Improvement in Nutrition Related Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement in or stability of nutritional status parameters of frail elderly from entry (Tl) into the Bienvivir PACE program in El Paso, Texas until nine to twelve months (T2) of participation. The accessible population was all of the persons (n = 107) participating at the two sites operated by Bienvivir PACE

Yu Chun Hsu; Margaret Ann Bock; Lisa McKee; Merrilyn Cummings; Dawn Vanleeuwen; Laura Lujan-Duran; S. Yusoof

2001-01-01

26

The Efficacy of Medical Nutrition Therapy on Anthropometric Parameters in HIV\\/AIDs Clients in a Community Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV\\/AIDS is one of the most challenging interventions a medical nutrition therapist will approach. Premorbidity, metabolic complications and wasting complicate and compromise nutrition status. The efficacy of whether early nutrition intervention by providing food, nutrition education and supplementation stop the trends toward wasting\\/complications was studied. Clients received nutrition assessment to determine nutritional risk, and were placed in nutritional risk categories

Anthony S. Beard; Michele Z. Trnavsky

1998-01-01

27

Validity of child anthropometric measurements in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) serves 50% of infants and 25% of preschool-aged children in the U.S. and collects height and weight measurements from eligible children every six months, making WIC data a valuable resource for studying childhood growth and obesity. We assessed the accuracy of measurements collected by WIC staff by comparing them to “gold standard” measurements collected by trained research staff. At seven WIC clinics in southern California, 287 children ages 2–5 years measured by WIC staff using WIC standard protocol were re-measured by research staff using a research protocol (duplicate measurements with shoes and outerwear removed taken by trained personnel). Intraclass correlation coefficients measuring agreement between WIC and research protocol measurements for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.93, respectively. Although WIC measurements overestimated height by 0.6 cm and weight by 0.05 kg on average, BMI was underestimated by only 0.15 kg/m2 on average. WIC BMI percentiles classified children as overweight/obese versus underweight/normal with 86% sensitivity and 92% specificity. We conclude that height, weight and BMI measurements of children aged 2–5 years collected by trained WIC staff are sufficiently accurate for monitoring and research purposes.

Crespi, Catherine M.; Alfonso, Vivian H.; Whaley, Shannon E.; Wang, May C.

2012-01-01

28

Efeitos de um programa de orientação de atividade física e nutricional sobre a ingestão alimentar e composição corporal de mulheres fisicamente ativas de 50 a 72 anos de idade Effects of an intervention program of physical activity and nutrition orientation on nutritional habits an anthropometrical variables of physically active women aged between 50 to 72 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of an intervention program of physical activity and nutrition orientation on anthropometrical variables and nutritional habits of physically active women aged between 50 to 72 years. The sample consisted of sixty-four women participating of gymnastic program regularly. Subjects were assigned to one of four intervention groups: A- nutritional only; B-

Marcela Ferreira; Sandra Matsudo; Victor Matsudo; Glaucia Braggion

29

[Nutritional profile of the Xukuru-Kariri indigenous people in the state of Minas Gerais in accordance with different anthropometric and body composition indicators].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33) were male and 43.1% (n =25) were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body fat in relation to BMI and WC. Studies need to be conducted with different ethnic groups in order to construct indicators for specific nutritional guidance of indigenous health services. PMID:23358766

Simões, Bárbara dos Santos; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Pena, João Luiz; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de

2013-02-01

30

Modeling the effects of maternal nutritional status and socioeconomic variables on the anthropometric and psychological indicators of Kenyan infants from age 0-6 months.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the factors affecting growth and psychological development of over 100 infants from birth to age 6 months in the Embu region of Kenya. The analysis was divided into four parts. First, infants' birth weight, and length and head circumference as measured few days after birth, were modeled using multiple regression models. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestation period, and parity were associated with infants' anthropometric measurements (P < 0.05). Second, the scores on seven clusters of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were explained by health and socioeconomic indicators. While the models had poor predictive power, the scores were comparable to those reported in the literature for Puerto Rican and African American infants. The third part of the analysis modeled infant growth between 1-6 months by analyzing longitudinal data on length, head circumference, and weight. Dynamic models were postulated for the effects of nutritional, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and morbidity on anthropometric variables. The results showed that infants' calcium intakes were positively associated with length (P < 0.05). Maternal BMI and hemoglobin concentration were positively associated with infant weight (P < 0. 05); infant morbidity was negatively associated with weight (P < 0. 05). Lastly, the infants' scores at 6 months on the Bayley Motor Scale and on eight items from the Bayley Infant Behavior Record were explained using anthropometric, socioeconomic, and psychological variables. The infants' arm circumference and intake of protein were significant predictors of scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. In addition, time spent by the mother talking to the infant was positively associated with the scores on the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. The empirical results have implications for identifying vulnerable children in developing countries. PMID:10618590

Bhargava, A

2000-01-01

31

Nutritional Assessment of Cadets at the U.S. Military Academy. Part 1. Anthropometric and Biochemical Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We conducted a study of 128 male and 90 female cadet volunteers at the U.S. Military Academy in April 1990 to assess nutritional health endpoints of body composition, serum lipids, and iron status, as part of a larger nutrition study. The body composition...

D. E. Sherman K. E. Friedl L. J. Marchitelli R. Tulley

1990-01-01

32

Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

33

Adult nutrition assessment tutorial.  

PubMed

This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been selected to guide diagnosis that include medical/surgical history and clinical diagnosis, clinical signs and physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratories, dietary assessment, and functional outcomes. Knowledge of systematic nutrition assessment and appropriate diagnosis of malnutrition will help to guide proper interventions and expected outcomes. PMID:22402644

Jensen, Gordon L; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Wheeler, Dara

2012-03-08

34

[The DONALD cohort. An updated overview on 25 years of research based on the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study].  

PubMed

The DONALD study has been conducted in Dortmund, Germany since 1985 to examine the complex relations between nutritional intake, metabolism and growth from infancy to adulthood. Every year, approximately 40 infants are newly recruited into the open cohort study. Examinations conducted at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months and then annually until young adulthood, comprise anthropometry, a 3 day weighed dietary record, a 24 h urine sample (from age 3-4 years onwards), medical examinations and parental interviews. Since 2005, participants are invited for follow-up visits during adulthood (including fasting blood samples). Approximately 1,400 children have been recruited into the study up to 2010. Recent findings revealed e.g. (i) the relevance of early life factors for subsequent development of body composition and puberty timing, (ii) the relation between pubertal hormonal status and puberty onset, (iii) age and time trends in iodine status and modern dietary habits and (iv) potential furan and benzol exposition by commercial weaning foods. Future analyses will provide insight into the extent to which health in young adulthood is receptive to diet, anthropometric pattern and hormonal status in distinct potentially critical periods during childhood. PMID:22736170

Buyken, A E; Alexy, U; Kersting, M; Remer, T

2012-06-01

35

Coffee?Tree Floral Analysis as a Mean of Nutritional Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant part analysis for evaluating the nutritional state of the crops is a practice commonly used. The analysis of flowers can allow an earlier diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies, excesses or unbalances, which facilitates its correction before the occurrence of irreversible losses in productivity and quality. The objective of this study were to determine the coffee tree (Coffea arabica L.) flower

Herminia E. P. Martinez; Ronessa B. Souza; Javier Abadía Bayona; Víctor Hugo Alvarez Venegas; Manuel Sanz

2003-01-01

36

[Nutritional deficiencies in bariatric surgery patients: prevention, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

The number of people suffering from surgery and obesity in the western world is constantly growing. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined obesity as a plague and one of greatest public health hazards of our time. The National Institution of Health (NIH) declared that surgery is the only long-term solution for obesity. Today there are four different types of bariatric surgery. Each variation has different implications on the nutritional status of bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery candidates are at risk of developing vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies in the post-operative stage, due to vomiting, decrease in food intake, food intolerance, diminution of gastric secretions and bypass of absorption area. It is easier and more efficient to treat nutritional deficiencies in the preoperative stage. Therefore, preoperative detection and correction are crucial. Blood tests before surgery to detect and treat nutritional deficiencies are crucial. In the postoperative period, blood tests should be conducted every 3 months in the first year after operation, every six months in the second year and annually thereafter. Multivitamin is recommended to prevent nutritional deficiencies in all bariatric surgery patients. Furthermore, iron, calcium, Vitamin D and B12 are additionally recommended for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass patients. Patients with Biliopancreatic diversion and Duodenal Switch should also take fat soluble vitamins. PMID:21250413

Schweiger, Chaya; Keidar, Andrei

2010-11-01

37

Nutritional assessment of institutionalized elderly.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To define the nutritional profile of institutionalized elderly individuals. METHODS: Comparative correlation and quantitative field study conducted in a Long-Stay Institution in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil, between December 2010 and January 2012. To define nutritional diagnosis, data were collected from patient files, such as body mass index, circumferences, triceps skinfold, muscle area of the arm, thickness of the adductor pollicis, handgrip strength, and biochemical test results. The anthropometric variables were presented as mean, standard deviation, and percentages, and were grouped by gender and stratified by age. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: One hundred and two elderly individuals were selected, and 84 were females. Excess weight was the most common anthropometric diagnosis in men (n=11; 61%), with the detection of protein depletion in those aged 70 years, and possible cases of sarcopenic obesity. All women were in good health conditions (n=84; 100%). However, in 27% (n=23) of them, protein depletion was evident. CONCLUSION: More anthropometric studies are necessary which would allow a definition of local reference standards, stratified by gender and age group. The difference between populations and factors, such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, and methodological characteristics, limit the use of international standards, interfering in the reliability of the nutritional diagnosis. PMID:23579741

Volpini, Milena Maffei; Frangella, Vera Silvia

2013-03-01

38

THE ROLE OF LEAN BODY MASS AS A NUTRITIONAL INDEX IN CHINESE PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS—COMPARISON OF CREATININE KINETICS METHOD AND ANTHROPOMETRIC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

? ? ? ? ? Objective: To compare, in Chinese continuous am- bulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, the creati- nine kinetics method (LBM-CK) and the anthropometric method (LBM-AM) for determining lean body mass (LBM). ? ? ? ? ? Design: Single-center cross-sectional study. ? ? ? ? ? Patients and Methods: We studied 151 unselected CAPD patients (78 males, 73

Cheuk-Chun Szeto; Johnathan Kong; Alan K. L. Wu; Teresa Y. H. Wong; Angela Y. M. Wang; Philip K. T. Li

39

Anthropometric characteristics and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma is increasing steadily. It has been hypothesized that this may be due, in part, to the parallel rising prevalence of obesity. It is biologically plausible that anthropometric characteristics can infuence the risk of non- Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Design and Methods In the contest of the European Prospective Investigation into

Julie A. Britton; Aneire E. Khan; Sabine Rohrmann; Nikolaus Becker; Jakob Linseisen; Alexandra Nieters; Rudolf Kaaks; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjær; Marianne Tang Severinsen; Kim Overvad; Tobias Pischon; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Victoria Kalapothaki; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Amalia Mattiello; Giovanna Tagliabue; Carlotta Sacerdote; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Eva Ardanaz; Carmen Navarro; Paula Jakszyn; Jone M. Altzibar; Göran Hallmans; Beatrice Malmer; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Naomi Allen; Sheila Bingham; Hervé Besson; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Paolo Boffetta; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli

40

Relationships of Substance Abuse to Dietary Intakes and Anthropometric Measurements in Urban African American Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Through the use of anthropometric measurements, examine the impact of alcohol and substance abuse on the nutritional status of pregnant women.Relationships of illicit and licit drugs to dietary intakes and anthropometric measurements were examined in 163 urban African American pregnant women. Socio-demographic and dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Maternal anthropometric measurements were determined from the participants’ medical

H. A. Bourne Hiza; A. A. Johnson; E. M. Knight; C. H. Edwards; U. J. Oyemade; O. J. Cole; O. E. Westney

1996-01-01

41

Craniofacial Anthropometric Analysis in Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine, in a representative sample of young patients with Down syndrome, the specificity of craniofacial anthropometric\\u000a profile for the syndrome, which can be used in the diagnosis, monitoring of growth and eventual plastic surgical procedures\\u000a in the cranio-facial region and to identify anthropometric variables which best discriminate group of patients with Down syndrome\\u000a from healthy persons. Limited Asian reports

K. R. Asha; Subhash Lakshmiprabha; C. M. Nanjaiah; S. N. Prashanth

42

Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

2009-01-01

43

Blood lead concentration and children’s anthropometric dimensions in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association between lead exposure and children’s physical growth. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Participants: A total of 4391 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American children age 1 to 7 years. Measurements and Results: We investigated the association between blood lead concentration and stature, head circumference, weight,

Carol Ballew; Laura Kettel Khan; Rachel Kaufmann; Ali Mokdad; Dayton T. Miller; Elaine W. Gunter

1999-01-01

44

Nutrition and Survival After the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer : A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Purpose To review and summarize evidence from clinical and epidemiologic studies that have examined the relationship between nutritional factors, survival, and recurrence after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods Relevant clinical and epidemiologic studies were identified through a MEDLINE search. References of identified reports also were used to identify additional published articles for critical review. Results Several nutritional factors modify the progression of disease and prognosis after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Overweight or obesity is associated with poorer prognosis in the majority of the studies that have examined this relationship. Treatment-related weight gain also may influence disease-free survival, reduce quality of life, and increase risk for comorbid conditions. Five of 12 studies that examined the relationship between dietary fat and survival found an inverse association, which was not evident on energy adjustment in most of these studies. The majority of the studies that examined intakes of vegetables or nutrients provided by vegetables and fruit found an inverse relationship with survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival in the majority of the studies that examined this relationship. Conclusion Much remains to be learned about the role of nutritional factors in survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Healthy weight control with an emphasis on exercise to preserve or increase lean muscle mass and a diet that includes nutrient-rich vegetables can be recommended. Diets that have adequate vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods and that are low in saturated fat may help to lower overall disease risk in this population.

Rock, Cheryl L.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

2006-01-01

45

Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and near-isolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and

J. V. G. A. Durnin

1976-01-01

46

[Organic food and educational actions in schools: diagnosis for health and nutrition education].  

PubMed

This research involved a diagnosis of the educational actions and organic food of the Taste and Awareness Project (Projeto Sabor e Saber, PSS) in a state school in Florianopolis, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, a semi-structured interview, documentation analysis and focal groups were used for data collection. The participants were managers of School Meals; a school head and a group of students and teachers representing the school. The results indicated that the PSS has advanced in its objectives, combining the introduction of organic foods with educational actions involving food, health, nutrition and the environment but with no evaluations of this process; organic food is present in school meals, although there is no record of educational actions; food is a subject on the Science course; the themes of food, health and nutrition in the school environment come up without planning; the evaluation of students regarding the food is positive, but no reference was made to organic foods. It was concluded that the use of organic food, is still not an element of the pedagogical project. However, the research contributed to the teachers, on the need to develop educational actions in health, organic foods and nutrition, within the school community. PMID:20169230

da Cunha, Elisângela; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa

2010-01-01

47

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

48

Descriptive Anthropometric Reference Data for Older Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled

MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

2000-01-01

49

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental ...

50

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48?months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight.

2012-01-01

51

Alteration of nutritional status at diagnosis is a prognostic factor for survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aims were to analyse changes in nutritional parameters from diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to death and to assess their relationships with survival at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.Methods92 ALS patients were included and clinically assessed every 3 months (ALS functional rating scale, manual muscular testing, forced vital capacity, weight, BMI, percentage weight loss). Bioimpedance was

B Marin; J C Desport; P Kajeu; P Jesus; B Nicolaud; M Nicol; P M Preux; P Couratier

2010-01-01

52

Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach.

Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabre, Mateu; Campins, Lluis; Garcia-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renee; Clave, Pere

2011-01-01

53

Anthropometric Reference Data and Prevalence of Overweight, United States, 1976-80.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents descriptive data for selected anthropometric measurements and provides estimates of overweight and severe overweight by age, race, and sex. The information is from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national...

M. F. Najjar M. Rowland

1987-01-01

54

Relation of anthropometric and dynamometric variables to serious postoperative complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm

A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran

1980-01-01

55

Relationship between serum leptin level and laboratory and anthropometric indices of malnutrition in patients on hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Protein-energy malnutrition is a major problem and one of the risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients. There is no single index in evaluation of nutritional status in these patients, so leptin can be used as one of the parameters. In this study, the correlation between serum leptin with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of nutrition has been evaluated. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 60 hemodialysis patients (32 males and 28 females) in 2006. The patients on hemodialysis for under 1 year and who has a history of consumption of lipid lowering agents or glucocorticoids, or an infectious or inflammatory disease were excluded. Malnutrition laboratory parameters and serum leptin were measured before hemodialysis. Serum leptin was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with direct dbc kit and malnutrition laboratory parameters measured with standard laboratory methods, patients anthropometric parameters evaluated after hemodialysis. The mean age of patients was 47.5 ± 16.1 years and the range of serum leptin level was 0.6-64.8 ng/ml. Mean serum leptin level were 22.64 ± 19.54 ng/ml in females and 16.74 ± 20.16 ng/ml in males on hemodialysis and in spite of higher level of leptin in females there was not any statistically significant difference between females and males serum leptin. Absolute value of correlation coefficient between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters and most laboratory parameters was < 0.25 (except ferritin, iron, phosphorous in males and total protein, hemoglobin, urea, and creatinin in females which was between 0.25 and 0.50). Our results suggest that the increased serum leptin level does not have a major role in diagnosis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and there is a poor correlation between malnutrition parameters and serum leptin level.

Ahamadi, F.; Bosorgmehr, R.; Razeghi, E.

2008-01-01

56

Dietary history and nutritional state in treated coeliac patients.  

PubMed Central

The gluten content and nutritional adequacy of the diet of a group of adult coeliac patients supposedly following a gluten-free diet for at least one year were assessed. Results were considered in relation to the nutritional state of these patients, determined by anthropometric measurement, and the histological appearance of jejunal biopsies taken at the time of nutritional assessment. Imperfect gluten avoidance, mild malnutrition and mild histological abnormalities on jejunal biopsy were frequent findings. A careful dietary and nutritional assessment when considered in light of histological findings at jejunal biopsy helps to identify the causes of persisting symptoms or malnutrition in treated coeliac patients. A normal jejunal biopsy in a malnourished patient whose dietary compliance is good should prompt a search for an alternative diagnosis.

Collins, B J; Bell, P M; Thomson, J M; Fee, D B; Wilson, E A; Love, A H

1986-01-01

57

Demographic and Anthropometric Assessment of US Army Anthropometric Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been nearly 20 years since the last anthropometric survey of Army males was conducted and about eight years since the last survey of Army females. The purpose of this report is to assess the extent to which the Army's existing anthropometric data b...

B. Bradtmiller J. Ratnaparkhi I. Tebbetts

1985-01-01

58

Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

San Diego State Coll., CA.

59

Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2008  

PubMed Central

Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.10-0.57) were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

2012-01-01

60

Anthropometric Decline of the Roman Empire? Regional differences and temporal development of the quality of nutrition in the Roman provinces of Germania and Raetia from the first century to the fourth century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary study examines nutritional status during the antiquity namely from the first century to the fourth century AD in the North Western Roman provinces in comparison with anthropological and demographic measures. In recent research, the variation in average height is often employed as an indicator of the quality of nutrition, because biological research has shown that quantitative und qualitative

Nikola Koepke

61

[The canopy and leaf spectral characteristics and nutrition diagnosis of tomato in greenhouse].  

PubMed

A green house experiment was conducted to research the characteristics of tomato canopy spectral reflectance and leaf spectral reflectance under different nutrition treatments, and the relationships between spectral reflectance and the water content, chlorophyll content, as well as nitrogen content were analyzed. Substrate cultivation method was used to grow the plants. The substrate was made from a mixture of peat and vermiculite. Test area was prepared for four levels of nutrition to form nutritional stress. There were 12 seedlings under each nutritional condition and a total of 48 seedlings were planted for the experiment. The canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance were measured by an ASD handheld spectroradiometer and a FT-NIR spectrometer respectively. It was observed that the trend of tomato canopy reflectance was similar to each others. There was a reflection peak at about 550 nm, and the reflectance in the visible light region was lower than that in near-infrared region. The results of analysis also indicated that under different nutrient conditions, canopy spectral reflectance characteristics of tomato took on disciplinary change. At near-infrared bands, the reflectance gradually increased with adding nutrition, while reduced at visible light bands. The leaf spectral reflectance characteristics at near-infrared bands had the similar change with the canopy reflectance. There were four sensitive wavelengths of water at near-infrared bands: about 980, 1450, 1 930, and 2 210 nm, and the results of single linear regression (SLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) indicated that the reflectance at these sensitive wavelengths could be used to estimate the water content in tomato leaves. R2 were 0.5903 and 0.7437 respectively. NDCI as one of the most important spectral parameter was calculated by the spectral reflectance of 530 and 760 nm, and the result indicated that there existed a good correlation between NDCI and the nitrogen content, with R2 = 0.7511. Meanwhile, red edge inflection points were analyzed under four nutrition treatments based on the first derivative of canopy spectral reflectance. The analysis results illustrated that red edge inflection position moved to direction of red light (long wavelength) with the nutrition supply. PMID:21284192

Zhao, Rui-jiao; Li, Min-zan; Yang, Ce; Yang, Wei; Sun, Hong

2010-11-01

62

Nutrition Screening in the Frail Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To appraise the use of anthropometric measurements and standards in determining body composition as part of nutritional screening in frail elderly.Anthropometric assessment is an important tool in identifying elderly at risk, but may be problematic in frail elderly in the clinical setting. Reference standards may not be appropriate for older elderly. This study was done in frail elderly

G. Aylward; J. Davidson

1997-01-01

63

Impact of anthropometric measurements in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Anthropometry helps to assess nutritional status which is an important determinant of clinical outcome in many patients, including the number of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Weight gain after successful kidney transplantation is a well-known phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that intensive counseling, based of menu analysis by a dietitian of CKD patients with a kidney transplant, can prevent the significant body weight (BW) gain after the transplant operation. The aim of the investigation was to study long-term anthropometrical, biochemical and dual-energy densitometry changes in the kidney transplant patients, to study correlations between the studied parameters and to compare those with the follow-up data. The prospective long-term study was carried out in 28 clinically stable renal transplant patients. Control groups consisted both transplant patients (47 patients), receiving ordinary nutritional counseling, and of healthy population subjects (342). Anthropometry and biochemistry were studied in patients twice: the first follow-up (FU1) data were collected 1.3 +/- 0.2 years, and the second follow-up (FU2) data were collected 2.7 +/- 0.3 years after the transplant. Significant BW gain was found only in renal transplant male patients (FU1 vs. FU2, p < 0.001) but not in females. The mean weight gain in control group patients was significant both in the male and female groups. In males, the mean C-reactive protein was significantly correlated with different body circumferences. But, in females, no clear associations were found. In females, significant correlation was found between mean body weight, body mass index and triglycerides. We conclude that the use of anthropometry in clinical practice, together with intensive and individual counseling by a dietitian, should be regular in the kidney transplant patients' population to prevent overweight. Monitoring of the dynamics of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters are clinically relevant in the post-transplant period together with densitometry. PMID:23390829

Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

2012-12-01

64

Associations of Body Mass Index and Anthropometric Indicators of Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass with All-cause Mortality among Women in the First and Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Follow-up Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study tests whether fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) have opposite associations with mortality in a nationally representative sample of females.METHODS: Data on 13,369 female participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I and II (aged 25 to 75 years) were analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 16.1 years. Ninety-seven percent of the participants with

Shankuan Zhu; Moonseong Heo; Michael Plankey; Myles S Faith; David B Allison

2003-01-01

65

Winter wheat nutrition diagnosis under different N treatments based on multispectral images and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to rapidly and accurately acquire winter wheat growing information and nitrogen content, a non-destructive testing method was developed combined with multi-spectral imaging technique and remote sensing technology to research wheat growing and nutrition status. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image collecting platform was developed to acquire visible image and NIR image synchronously, meanwhile, the canopy spectral reflectance and the nitrogen content of wheat leaves were measured and analyzed to research the characteristics of the canopy spectral reflectance. Secondly, using calibration panels the experiential linear calibration model was established between image gray value and spectral reflectance. Thirdly, NIR image was processed to segment wheat canopy from soil and then gray value of wheat leaves was achieved by image processing of Red, Green, and Blue channels. Finally, the gray value of wheat leaves was transformed into spectral reflectance by aforementioned experiential linear model, and the vegetation index were calculated and analyzed to research the winter wheat growing and nitrogen content status. Experiment results showed that it was reasonable to diagnose nitrogen content of winter wheat based on multi-spectral imaging system and experiential linear model. There existed remarkable correlation between vegetation index (NDVI, GNDVI) and nitrogen content of winter wheat, and the correlation coefficients (R2 ) were 0.633 and 0.6.

Zhao, Ruijiao; Li, Minzan; Li, Shuqiang; Ding, Yongjun

2010-10-01

66

Anthropometric Atlas. Recommendations on Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents anthropometric data on Armenian, Russian and Lithuanian men and women and on various Russian professional and age groups. The research was based on 102 measurable signs. For most signs, the Latin equivalents are also given as are referen...

S. V. Ermakova T. P. Podstavkina A. N. Strokina

1985-01-01

67

Anthropometric Changes at High Altitude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight men (18-25 yr) were evaluated before, during and after 18-days residence on the summit of Pikes Pake, CO (4300 m; HA) to describe the anthropometric changes associated with weight loss and to test the accuracy of a number of previously published pre...

C. S. Fulco A. Cymerman N. A. Pimental A. J. Young J. T. Maher

1984-01-01

68

Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, Number 361, July 5, 2005. Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: U.S. Population, 1999-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents national anthropometric reference data based on health examination survey results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, for all ages of the U.S. population. Weighted population means, standard ...

C. D. Fryar C. L. Ogden M. A. McDowell R. Hirsch

2005-01-01

69

Nutrient Intakes and Some Socio-Anthropometric Characteristics of Twentynine Palms Marine Corps Personnel Before Food Service System Modifications - March 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data were collected on nutrient intakes, dining hall attendance, and some socio-anthropometric characteristics of enlisted Marine Corps personnel at Twentynine Palms (TNP), California. The study was designed to (1) assess the nutritional adequacy of the a...

M. J. Kretsch D. D. Schnakenberg R. D. Fults R. A. Nelson Y. C. LeTellier

1979-01-01

70

The Effect of Dietary Behavior Modification on Anthropometric Indices in Obese Adolescent Female Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity is currently the most prevalent nutritional disease of children and adolescents, prevention and treatment of which, is required. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dietary behavior modification on anthropometric indices in the obese adolescent female students of Shiraz, 2007. Methods: In this Quasi-experimental research, 53 obese adolescent girls (BMI>95th percentile), aged 11 to

Raheleh Sabet-Sarvestani

2008-01-01

71

Nutritional management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.  

PubMed

The effect of a chemosensory disturbance on nutrition and quality of life is not clear and may show individual variance. It is important for the clinician to become sensitive to this relationship and pursue appropriate nutritional management. Nutritional management of an individual with a chemosensory disorder requires nutritional assessment with appropriate dietary intake measurements, dietary and weight history, food behavior questions, and anthropometric measures. A registered dietitian can identify potential nutritional problems and provide guidance for weight control, dietary modification, and use of food-related compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nutritional status and quality of life in the person suffering from chemosensory disturbances. PMID:2663436

Duffy, V B; Ferris, A M

1989-05-01

72

Isolated Premature Pubarche: Report of Anthropometric and Metabolic Profile of a Brazilian Cohort of Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Isolated premature pubarche (PP) is commonly caused by premature adrenarche (PA), and links between PA, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and insulin resistance have already been made in some populations. Subjects and Methods: We assessed anthropometric data, pubertal landmarks and metabolic profile at diagnosis and during the study in 52 girls with the diagnosis of isolated PP

Karina de Ferran; Isla Aguiar Paiva; Leonardo dos Santos Garcia; Maurício de Pinho Gama; Marilia Martins Guimarães

2011-01-01

73

Assessment of growth and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth is a dynamic process that is characterized by physiological changes in an individual from infancy into adulthood. Growth should be monitored sequentially and is an important tool in the early detection of chronic disease in children. Growth occurs in three phases: infancy, childhood and puberty (adolescence). The adequacy of nutritional status can be assessed by anthropometric measurements that include

Ranjana Gokhale; Barbara S Kirschner

2003-01-01

74

Anthropometric studies on the Turkish population--a historical review.  

PubMed

A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. PMID:23419421

Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, H Nurçin; Kurto?lu, Selim

2013-02-19

75

Medical impacts of anthropometric records.  

PubMed

Anthropology is now one of the inter-disciplinary scientific fields that is gaining much attention in forensic, socio-cultural, industrial and bio-medical applications. There is a need for a better awareness of some of the impacts--past and present, in the medical practice, of the records that were obtained by workers in this field in view of their proper applications, and future reference. Compilation of anthropometric works and records was conducted to evaluate the previous and current implications with the aim to highlight the importance of this seemingly old but yet evolving and dynamic subject and to elucidate its usefulness. However, despite the arduous efforts to get reliable data from anthropometric investigations, errors had most times characterized the concluding postulations of many workers in this field in the past, creating skepticism. But with better attention being given to the exercise, possible improvement in the methodology of the study with resultant authentic records and more reliable conclusion is anticipated. PMID:18702249

Adebisi, S S

2008-03-01

76

Anthropometric study of Swedish engine drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the investigation was to obtain a representative sample of anthropometric measurements of Swedish engine drivers. The selection of measurements was made with respect to their ergonomic relevance for the design of the cab in the Swedish Rapid type c (Re) engine. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from 150 engine drivers and 91 driver trainees. The results indicated

GUDRUN E. HEDBERG; T. MARIANNE BJÖRKSTÉN; K. ELISABETH OUCHTERLONY-JONSSON; BENGT JONSSON

1981-01-01

77

Anthropometric study of Mexican primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on male and female Mexican primary school children age 6–11 years in the metropolitan area of the city of Guadalajara. A set of 50 body dimensions was taken based on international standards. The sample consisted of 4758 children (boys and girls). The anthropometric measurements were compared to those of American,

Lilia R Prado-León; Rosal??o Avila-Chaurand; Elvia L González-Muñoz

2001-01-01

78

Pediatric nutrition assessment: identifying children at risk.  

PubMed

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials. Level 2 involves individualized nutrition assessment and intervention for problems such as anemia, chronic constipation, low- or high-calorie diets, feeding problems, and growth monitoring. Level 3 nutrition services are for children with identified disabilities such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and metabolic disorders that require specific complex nutrition interventions. The five major components of assessment of nutritional status in children are: anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, dietary, and feeding skill development. PMID:9336567

Baer, M T; Harris, A B

1997-10-01

79

Early nutritional supplementation immediately after diagnosis of infectious disease improves body weight in psychogeriatric nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Many elderly people with Alzheimer's disease experience weight loss. Illness and inadequate regain after a period of illness are considered as contributory causes of progressive weight loss in psychogeriatric patients. We studied whether early use of a liquid nutrition supplement immediately after onset of acute illness from infection can prevent weight loss in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home

W. Wouters-Wesseling; E. Slump; C. N. Kleijer; Groot de C. P. G. M; Staveren van W. A

2006-01-01

80

Anthropometric evaluation of internal horizontal circulation environments.  

PubMed

The relevant research is questioning the essence of the existence of an adequate internal circulation to human dimensions. The research was based on the method of anthropometric assessment of internal circulation de Barros (2009), which was applied in three different sizes of apartments in the city of Caruaru-PE. These apartments were evaluated through the floor plans and furniture layouts, suggested by the builders, with the use of anthropometric models in simulation of movement. The study found that traffic problems are not just a consequence of small rooms, but projects that do not bother to match the anthropometric measurements to the space environment. PMID:22317306

Seabra, Sadi; Barros, Bruno

2012-01-01

81

Effect of disease localization on the anthropometric and metabolic features of Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of disease localization on the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of inactive Crohn's disease (CD).Methods:Forty-three patients with biopsy or radiology proven CD (23 men; age, 33.8 yr; range, 18–54 yr) in clinical remission (simplified Crohn's diseases activity index [SCDAI] < 3) and not receiving steroid therapy or nutritional support were enrolled in the

E. Capristo; G. Addolorato; G. Mingrone; A. V. Greco; G. Gasbarrini

1998-01-01

82

Dietary and anthropometric assessment of adults with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Research on nutrition and cerebral palsy (CP) has been directed at newborns and young children, leaving practitioners with a limited understanding of the nutritional status of the adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine the anthropometric profile and nutrient intakes of 86 adults with cerebral palsy. When compared with growth standards for healthy individuals, the mean body fat percentages and body mass indexes of both men and women with CP were within the normal range. However, 40% of the sample had heights below the 5th percentile for their age and gender, indicating permanent growth stunting. In general, the diets of these individuals were similar to the typical American diet. Both men and women had low nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) for calcium (0.86 and 0.76, respectively); the women also had low NARs for iron (0.69) and niacin (0.86). Although nutrients obtained from supplements were not included in the NAR score, 26% of the men and 50% of the women reported using nutritional supplements. Fifty-five percent of the sample reported feeding problems. Multivariate analysis illustrated that individuals who participated in regular exercise programs had significantly higher mean adequacy ratios and lower body fat percentages than those who did not exercise regularly. PMID:1512365

Ferrang, T M; Johnson, R K; Ferrara, M S

1992-09-01

83

Comprehensive Study of the Nutritional Status of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status and health behaviors of fourth grade students in Virginia were studied using a survey and collection of anthropometric data. A total of 904 students were surveyed to determine nutrition and physical activity behaviors. The surveys were conducted in a classroom setting using the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) survey tool. Selection was based on

C. P. Shufflebarger; E. L. McGarvey; G. J. Clavet

1998-01-01

84

Assessment of Nutritional Status, Body Composition, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Morphologic Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical mea- surements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological

Karol Moen; Diana Johansen; Nicholas Paton

2003-01-01

85

Food and nutrition insecurity: a marker of vulnerability to asthma symptoms.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between food and nutrition insecurity and asthma in children from Latin America. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, north-eastern Brazil. SUBJECTS: The study included 1307 children aged 6-12 years from public elementary schools. Asthma symptoms were collected using a questionnaire that was translated and adapted from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase III. The diagnosis of asthma was determined based on reports of wheezing in the previous 12 months. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was used to identify food insecurity. We also obtained demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric information for each participant. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the associations of interest. RESULTS: Of the children surveyed, 10·4 % had a history of wheezing and 64·5 % had some degree of food and nutrition insecurity. We found a positive dose-response relationship and statistically significant associations of asthma with moderate (OR = 1·71, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·89) and severe (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·28, 4·93) food and nutrition insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that moderate and severe food and nutrition insecurity are markers of vulnerability to wheezing. It is important to note that the results of studies in this field have potential implications for social policies that promote food security. Further studies to identify the mechanisms involved in the relationship between food and nutrition insecurity and asthma are needed. PMID:23332100

Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Oliveira-Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Junqueira, Samuel Badaró; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Barreto, Maurício Lima; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; da Silva, Luce Alves; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2013-01-21

86

Nutritional Assessment of Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences were investigated between dietary intake of children with autism and the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid (Pyramid) and kcals and protein levels of the RDA, and differences in subject anthropometric measurements from the 50th percentile for the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts and data adapted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for

SC Chapman; MJ Lucas; S McCamman

1998-01-01

87

Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

2013-07-11

88

Anthropometric Relationships of Body and Body Segment Moments of Inertia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of a study aimed at demonstrating that mass distribution properties of the human body and its segments can be predicted from anthropometric dimensions. Investigators combined stereophotometric and anthropometric technique...

J. T. McConville C. E. Clauser T. D. Churchill J. Cuzzi I. Kaleps

1980-01-01

89

Investigation of hemorheological parameters at the diagnosis and the follow-up of nutritional vitamin b12 deficient children.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on hemorheological parameters, and the changes in these parameters following vitamin B12 treatment. 33 patients (mean-age:7 ± 5.7 years) diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency, and 31 age and sex matched controls (mean-age:7.1 ± 5.2 years) were enrolled. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. The differences between patients and controls were compared. Hemorheological parameters were repeated in the patient group following vitamin B12 treatment, and the results were compared with the initial results. In vitamin B12 deficiency, erythrocyte deformability and whole blood viscosity were found to be significantly decreased, eythrocyte aggregation was found to be significantly increased compared with the controls. Plasma viscosity was found to be decreased in deficiency but this decrease was not statistically significant. In patient group, erythrocyte deformability, whole blood and plasma viscosities were found to be significantly increased and erythrocyte aggregation was significantly decreased, after treatment. This study indicates that vitamin B12 deficiency has important effects on hemorheological parameters and adequate treatment of deficiency not only corrects the hematological parameters, but also by helping to normalize the hemorheological parameters, may contribute to the regulation of microvascular perfusion. PMID:23719423

Tancer-Elci, Hazal; Isik-Balc?, Yasemin; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Senol, Hande; Aybek, Hülya

2013-05-29

90

An anthropometric face model using variational techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

1998-01-01

91

Anthropometric characteristics evolution in elite rhythmic gymnasts.  

PubMed

The aims of this research were to assess anthropometric characteristics of high-level senior and junior rhythmic gymnasts; and was to investigate the changes of anthropometric characteristics over a 4 years period, in different senior and junior groups of the same technical level. Twenty anthropometric variables of 63 participants were collected and body composition and sitting-height-to-stature-ratio measures were calculated. The two-way (gymnast category and time) ANOVA of the anthropometric characteristics showed significant main effect of time period for biacromial and bicristal diameters indicating that the majority of variables had similar values in 2002 and 2006. A significant main effect of category (junior or senior) was present in most the analyzed variables with higher values in senior gymnasts than juniors. The significant category by time interaction for height, weight, limbs' length, and fat-free mass, indicated that some differences between junior and senior gymnasts increased over the 4 yr time period. The training hours per week were significantly higher in seniors, but did not differ over the 4 yr period. The study shows that the criteria, followed for the recruitment of elite gymnasts, in the two different periods considered (2002 and 2006) were almost the same. Moreover, higher differences between seniors and juniors of FFM values in 2006 indicated the more intensive training of the second period for seniors. PMID:18491452

di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Guidetti, Laura; Piazza, Marina

92

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition of Italian national wrestlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of wrestlers from the Italian national team. The study was carried out on a sample of 23 wrestlers (9 females and 14 males) aged 18–33 years. Various anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, sitting height, some girths and skinfold thicknesses) and anthropometric indices calculated (body mass

Luciana Zaccagni

2012-01-01

93

Anthropometric characteristics and body composition of Italian national wrestlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of wrestlers from the Italian national team. The study was carried out on a sample of 23 wrestlers (9 females and 14 males) aged 18–33 years. Various anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, sitting height, some girths and skinfold thicknesses) and anthropometric indices calculated (body mass

Luciana Zaccagni

2011-01-01

94

[Diagnosis of malnutrition].  

PubMed

A diagnostic program for routine determination of the nutritional status during initial examination is presented. This program includes anthropometric methods (body weight, height, triceps skin fold, circumference of mid-arm muscle) and chemical parameters (creatinine index, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterinase). In addition, determination of the immune status through the absolute lymphocyte count in peripheral blood and intracutaneous testing with streptokinase-dornase, mumps skin test antigen and candida vaccine is recommended. This test plan allows assessment of fat stores, muscle mass, functional proteins and immune competence. The results of this study should be considered when planning adequate nutritional treatment. The results obtained for 168 patients in this test program are reported. PMID:570962

Gofferje, H; Fekl, W

1979-04-01

95

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty.

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

96

Anthropometric assessment of muscularity during growth: estimating fat-free mass with 2 skinfold-thickness measurements is superior to measuring midupper arm muscle area in healthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to determine body composition, especially in children. Objective: Our aim was to compare 2 of the simplest anthro- pometry-based equations available for determining nutritional sta- tus and muscularity in children and adolescents, examined in rela- tion to other methodologically independent muscle variables. Design: Midupper arm muscle area (UAMA) and fat-free mass (FFM) according to

Kai R Boye; Triantafillia Dimitriou; Friedrich Manz; Eckhard Schoenau; Christina Neu; Stefan Wudy; Thomas Remer

97

Nutrition Fair  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To quantify changes in nutritional knowledge in the WIC population when an alternative method of nutrition education was used.Nutrition education is a very important component of WIC program. It is aimed to further the nutritional knowledge of WIC participants resulting in improving general health of the entire family. New methods of nutrition education that involve an active participation

B. J. Kowtha; C. J. Bruce

1997-01-01

98

Optimal nutritional indexes in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

A population of 70 patients with liver cirrhosis, most of whom were nonalcoholic, was studied. Distribution of ideal body weight and body mass index was below the median of controls, but very few patients were below the cut-off points for normalcy. Distribution of triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference was also below the median and, in most patients, was also below the cut-off points. Serum visceral protein concentrations and anthropometric parameters each were reciprocally correlated with one another, but no correlation was observed between visceral proteins and anthropometric parameters. Serum visceral proteins appeared to correlate better with the degree of liver damage than with the degree of malnutrition. Therefore, anthropometric parameters seem preferable to serum visceral proteins for the assessment of nutritional status in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:3669265

Merli, M; Romiti, A; Riggio, O; Capocaccia, L

99

Childhood Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Living > Nutrition > Childhood Nutrition Healthy Living Listen Childhood Nutrition Article Body Hey , What’s to Eat? Unless ... loop, it’s likely you’ve heard about the childhood obesity epidemic. Nearly 1 in 3 children in ...

100

Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection in a total parenteral nutrition population: inclusion of sepsis defervescence after removal of culture-positive central venous catheter.  

PubMed

Defervescence of sepsis after removal of culture-positive central venous catheters (CVCs) has been advocated for diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) even without positive blood culture. However, most studies report CRBSI incidence only when blood cultures, and CVC tip, are positive (standard definition). We examined the effect of inclusion of defervescence criteria on CRBSI incidence in a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) population. The study was carried out in a 525 bed tertiary referral hospital for a period of 12 years. CRBSI incidence was compared between standard definition (positive CVC tip culture and positive blood culture) and when 'defervescence criteria' were included. Sepsis defervescence was defined as a fall in temperature, white cell count and sepsis resolution after CVC removal, with positive CVC tip culture, but negative blood cultures. CRBSI episodes in which a blood culture was omitted were excluded. The study population included 1365 patients in whom 2536 CVCs were used over a period of 15 234 CVC-days. There were 192 CRBSI episodes in 165 patients. In all, 152 CRBSI episodes met only the standard criteria for CRBSI whereas 40 episodes met the defervescence criteria. The standard definition alone resulted in a mean (+/- SD) incidence of 10.6+/-5.8 per 1000 CVC-days. This increased to 13+/-6.4 per 1000 CVC-days when defervescence criteria were included. Inclusion of defervescence criteria increased CRBSI incidence by a mean of 2.5+/-1.4 episodes per 1000 days or 27% (95% CI: 1.61-3.339; P<0.001). This study implies that the scale of CRBSI may be higher than is currently recognised and that the blood culture positivity rate for CRBSI is 79% (152/192). PMID:20554348

Walshe, C M; Boner, K S; Bourke, J; Hone, R; Phelan, D

2010-06-16

101

Nutritional status and muscle amino acids in children with end-stage renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status and muscle amino acids in children with end-stage renal failure. Nutritional status, assessed by anthropometric and biochemical methods, and muscle water, protein and amino acid composition, were evaluated in a control group of 10 children with normal renal function who were undergoing elective surgery, and in 15 children with end-stage chronic renal failure. Samples of the rectus abdominis

Alberto Canepa; José C Divino Filho; Ann-Marie Forsberg; Francesco Perfumo; Alba Carrea; Rosanna Gusmano; Jonas Bergström

1992-01-01

102

Do home gardens improve the nutrition of rural pre-schoolers in Lesotho?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the contribution of household gardens to the nutritional status of pre-schoolers in Lesotho was investigated. The anthropometric status of children under five years of age was measured in five randomly selected villages in five districts of Lesotho during November and December 1999. In each district, the nutritional status of an average of 538 children was assessed. Production

Likeleli Makhotla; Sheryl Hendriks

2004-01-01

103

Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation. Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein?calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4?day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment

Stanton H. Cohn; David Vartsky; Ashok N. Vaswani; Arthur Sawitsky; Kanti Rai; Willa Gartenhaus; Seiichi Yasumura; Kenneth J. Ellis

1982-01-01

104

Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

1989-01-01

105

Effects of maternal smoking on fetal growth and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard anthropometric measurements were made on 320 term neonates to investigate the influence of smoking on fetal growth and nutrition. Maternal height and triceps skinfold thickness were also measured. Of 320 infants, 126 (39%) were born to mothers who smoked. Maternal triceps skinfold thickness was significantly smaller in smoking mothers. A correlation existed between maternal and infant triceps skinfold thickness.

A R Bosley; J R Sibert; R G Newcombe

1981-01-01

106

Assessment of the nutrition status of patients with Huntington's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of the present study was to compare the nutrition status of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) with that of control subjects by analyzing anthropometric and biochemical indicators, energy, and macronutrient intake and to determine which indicators are most altered in HD patients.

Araceli Trejo; Rosa Mar??a Tarrats; Ma. Elisa Alonso; Marie-Catherine Boll; Adriana Ochoa; Leora Velásquez

2004-01-01

107

Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive appraisal of the mycorrhizal literature provides data for 336 plant families representing 99% of flowering\\u000a plants, with regard to mycorrhizas and other nutritional adaptations. In total, arbuscular (AM), orchid, ectomycorrhizas (EM)\\u000a and ericoid mycorrhizas and nonmycorrhizal (NM) roots occur in 74%, 9%, 2%, 1% and 6% of Angiosperm species respectively.\\u000a Many families of NM plants have alternative nutritional

Mark C. Brundrett

2009-01-01

108

[Nutritional status and physical condition of adolescent football players after consuming fishmeal as a nutritional complement].  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to identify the changes in the nutritional parameters and the physical condition of teenage players after eating fishmeal as a nutritional complement. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study, blinded for investigators, was conducted, involving 100 teenage football players, divided in two groups, homogeneous in terms of all study parameters, one of which received fishmeal for four months. After evaluating the nutritional status and physical condition, before and after the intervention, no change was found in the nutritional and anthropometric status or laboratory results, or in the physical condition. However, those who received fishmeal did report a change in their hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of fishmeal did not lead to changes in the nutritional status or the physical condition of teenage football players. PMID:23612812

Accinelli-Tanaka, Roberto; López-Oropeza, Lidia

2013-03-01

109

Anthropometric measures, plasma adiponectin, and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is a peptide hormone secreted exclusively by adipocytes, and obesity is an established risk factor for breast cancer. We have, thus, evaluated the associations of anthropometric measures of adiposity and adiponectin with the development of breast cancer in a case-control study. Questionnaire information, anthropometric measures, and blood samples were taken before treatment from 244 incident cases with breast cancer,

Yu-Feng Tian; Chi-Hong Chu; Mei-Hsuan Wu; Chia-Lin Chang; Tsan Yang; Yu-Ching Chou; Giu-Cheng Hsu; Cheng-Ping Yu; Jyh-Cherng Yu; Chien-An Sun

110

School furniture and the user population: an anthropometric perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between reported spinal symptoms in an adolescent student population, and the match between their individual anthropometric dimensions and their school furniture. The hypothesis was that students who were too large or too small for their school furniture, i.e. with anthropometric measurements furthest from the group whose anthropometry was the ‘best

S Milanese; K Grimmer

2004-01-01

111

Anthropometric Characteristics of Mohawk Children Aged 6 to 11 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Recent studies have concluded that Native North American children have higher proportions of overweight and obesity than children from the general North American population. This study presents anthropometric data on a representative sample of children from the Mohawk Nation that can be used for comparison with other Native American populations.Design This is a cross-sectional study comparing distributions of anthropometric

LOUISE POTVIN; SERGE DESROSIERS; MARY TRIFONOPOULOS; NICOLE LEDUC; MICHÈLE RIVARD; ANN C MACAULAY; GILLES PARADIS

1999-01-01

112

Anthropometrics for the design of Bahraini school furniture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey carried out on a sample of male and female Bahraini school children aged 6–12years (N=1174), to throw some light on the anthropometric parameters of Bahraini students in order to provide school furniture designers and importers with relevant data. A set of 44 body dimensions covering most body parts were measured, from

M. Mokdad; M. Al-Ansari

2009-01-01

113

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

114

Update on pediatric nutrition: breastfeeding, infant nutrition, and growth.  

PubMed

Recent studies continue to point out the critical nature of a patient's nutritional status in helping to determine important health outcomes in pediatrics. We review recent data concerning the composition of breast milk and its adequacy to support infant growth in the first six months of life, as well as trials that support breastfeeding as an important method to delay or reduce the incidence of atopic diseases such as eczema, allergies, and asthma. Studies have also been published that show how physician education and training about breastfeeding can be optimized. Studies showing how nutritional status is measured (using standard anthropometric techniques as well as more modern measures of basal metabolic rate) are highlighted, as well as the role of micronutrient supplementation of patients with the human immunodeficiency virus infection and diarrheal diseases. PMID:12806265

Fulhan, Jill; Collier, Sharon; Duggan, Christopher

2003-06-01

115

Quantitative evaluation of the orofacial morphology: anthropometric measurements in healthy and mouth-breathing children.  

PubMed

The anthropometric orofacial measurements of mouth-breathing children were compared to those of children with no history of speech-language disorders, according to age. Methods: 100 children participated, both males and females, with ages ranging from 7 to 11 years and 11 months, leukoderm, in mixed dentition period, with a mouth-breathing diagnosis. The control group was comprised of 254 children, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 7 to 11 years and 11 months, leukoderm, in mixed dentition period, with no history of speech-language disorders. The control group did not demonstrate any mouth-breathing. The children were submitted to anthropometric assessment and the orofacial measurements obtained were upper lip, lower lip, philtrum, upper face, middle face, lower face, and sides of the face. The instrument used was the electronic digital sliding caliper Starrett Series 727. There was statistically significant difference between the majority of the orofacial measurements of mouth-breathing children and the measurements of children with no history of speech-language disorders. Some orofacial measurements were different in the studied populations. The possibility of comparing orofacial measurements of children with and without mouth-breathing behavior allows the clinician to determine normal and altered structures of the orofacial morphology. The main advantages of the anthropometry are its noninvasive nature, its technological simplicity, low cost and objective analysis. The anthropometric procedures also have clinical applications in myofunctional assessment and therapy. PMID:20572437

Cattoni, Débora Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; De Latorre, Maria Do Rosário Dias Oliveira

2009-11-01

116

The influence of arthritis on the anthropometric parameters of the feet of older women.  

PubMed

Age-related and arthritis-related foot modifications have been described in literature, but there is a lack of references that allow shoes to be designed on the basis of specific anthropometric measurements of older women. The aim of this study was to identify the anthropometric characteristics of the feet of elderly women with and without arthritis. This is an observational transversal study. The right and left feet of 227 older women aged between 60 and 90 years (69.6 + or - 6.8 years) were evaluated, of whom 45 reported a diagnosis of arthritis (non-osteoarthritis). The anthropometric evaluation of the feet comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, foot length, first and fifth metatarsophalangeal angles, the arch-index and the foot posture index (FPI). The data were analyzed using the analysis of probability to compare the groups (arthritic and non-arthritic women). The differences between the means were significant in the case of the FPI and some of its criteria, such as the calcaneal frontal plane position, the bulge in the region of the talo-navicular joint and the forefoot alignment. The width of the right foot was also significantly greater in the women with arthritis. These results are preliminary findings that may help direct larger studies of foot characteristics among older adults with arthritis. PMID:19349085

Castro, Alessandra Paiva; Rebelatto, José Rubens; Aurichio, Thaís Rabiatti; Greve, Patrícia

2009-04-05

117

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

Zehner, Gregory Franklin

118

What's Nutrition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video presents a brief history of nutrition, emphasizing the importance of forming food habits for a lifetime. It stresses attitudes toward food, nutrition, and eating, and how they affect the job of the school food service worker.

1994-01-01

119

Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer I. An assessment by dietary recall--compared with body mass index and body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.  

PubMed

The nutritional status of children with cancer is clinically important. In an effort to separate the influences of disease and treatment, we studied children at the time of diagnosis. A total of 99 children underwent assessment by 24 hours dietary recall, measurement of body mass index (BMI), and analysis of body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan). The group averages for calorie intake and BMI were close to the median population norms but ranged widely among individuals. As a group the study participants exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake for protein. Nine children (9%) had a BMI nutritional status in individual children with cancer at diagnosis. However, DXA scans cannot be undertaken in a timely fashion on all children at this point. Alternative methods of assessment are being explored. PMID:20962676

Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D

2010-11-01

120

The NAC Pilot Project: A Model for Nutrition Screening and Intervention for Developmentally Disabled Children with Behavior Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-nine autistic and developmentally disabled children participated in a 3-phase pilot nutrition screening project. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical measures of nutritional status were taken. Food sensitivity testing was included. Elimination diets and food challenge schedules were prepared; behavior was rated separately by parents and teachers during baseline, elimination, and challenge periods. Parents rated behavior as improved more frequently than did

Danielle M. Torisky; Constance V. Torisky; Sidney Kaplan; Cheryl Speicher

121

Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

2006-01-01

122

Goat Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the purchase price of the animals, feed is the single largest cost associated with raising goats, typically accounting for 60 percent or more of to- tal production costs. Nutrition exerts a very large influence on flock reproduction, milk production, and kid growth. Late-gestation and lactation are the most critical periods for doe nutrition, with lactation placing the highest nutritional

Justin McDaniel; Brian Freking

123

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

124

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1991-01-01

125

Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta

2003-01-01

126

Malaria and Under-Nutrition: A Community Based Study Among Under-Five Children at Risk of Malaria, South-West Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background The interaction between malaria and under-nutrition is not well elucidated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of under-nutrition and its correlation with malaria among under-five children in south-west Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken during March–February, 2009 as part of the baseline assessment of a cluster randomized trial around Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric dam, south-west Ethiopia. A total of 2410 under-five children were included for anthropometric measurement and blood investigation for the diagnosis of malaria and anemia. The nutritional status of children was determined using the International Reference Population defined by the U.S National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Blood film was used to identify malaria parasite and haemoglobin concentration was determined by Hemo Cue analyzer (HemoCue Hb 301, Sweden). Results Significant proportion (40.4%) of under-five children were stunted (height-for-agenutrition. There was no association between malaria and under-nutrition. Children who had malaria parasite were 1.5 times more likely to become anaemic compare to children who had no malaria parasite, [OR?=?1.5, (95% CI: 1.1–2.0)]. Conclusion In this study, there is no association between malaria and under-nutrition. Children who have malaria are more likely to be anaemic. Malaria prevention and control program should consider nutrition interventions particularly anemia.

Deribew, Amare; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Tessema, Fasil; Sena, Lelisa; Birhanu, Zewdie; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Sudhakar, Morankar; Abdo, Nasir; Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

2010-01-01

127

A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case–control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe.

Luigino Dal Maso; Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi; Susan Preston-Martin; Elaine Ron; Fabio Levi; Wendy Mack; Steven D. Mark; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Dimitrios Linos; Eva Negri

2000-01-01

128

Digital Anthropometric Video-Imaging Device (DAVID) Versus Anthropometer Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric data are essential in the development and design of items in industry, transportation, and housing. Anthropometry is particularly important in military aviation due to restrictive environments found in cockpits and the limited range of moti...

C. L. Lords F. R. Patterson J. L. Saxton

2001-01-01

129

Abridged Procedural Guide to Aircrew Anthropometric Accommodation Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NAVAIRSYSCOM (AIR-531) tasked us to investigate and develop new procedures for determining the ranges and limitations of anthropometric accommodation in military aircraft. These procedures quantify what types of aircrew based on their body's morphologies ...

S. A. Price

1993-01-01

130

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players.Method: Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using

M J Duncan; L Woodfield; Y al-Nakeeb

2006-01-01

131

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

132

Subjective global nutritional assessment in critically ill children.  

PubMed

Background: Underweight children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) have a higher risk of mortality than normal-weight children. The authors hypothesized that subjective global nutrition assessment (SGNA) could identify malnutrition in the PICU and predict nutrition-associated morbidities. Methods: The authors prospectively evaluated the nutrition status of 150 children (aged 31 days to 5 years) admitted to the PICU with the use of SGNA and commonly used objective anthropometric and laboratory measurements. Each child was administered the SGNA by a dietitian while anthropometric measurements were performed by an independent assessor. To test interrater reproducibility, 76 children had SGNA performed by another dietitian. Occurrence of nutrition-associated complications was documented for 30 days after admission. Results: SGNA ratings of well nourished, moderately malnourished, or severely malnourished demonstrated moderate to strong correlation with several standard anthropometric measurements (P < .05). The laboratory markers did not demonstrate any correlation with SGNA. Interrater agreement showed moderate reliability (? = 0.671). Length of stay, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III were not significantly different across the groups and did not correlate with SGNA. PMID:22730117

Vermilyea, Sarah; Slicker, Julie; El-Chammas, Khalil; Sultan, Mutaz; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Wakeham, Martin; Goday, Praveen S

2012-06-22

133

Anthropometric and body composition characteristics among preschool children of Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology in India.  

PubMed

The present cross-sectional study was aimed to compare anthropometric and body composition characteristics of preschool children in the three contrasting ecological niches namely Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology. A total of 989 randomly selected children (aged < 6 years) in which 306 children (164 boys and 142 girls) belong to Coastal Ecology, 327 children (177 boys and 150 girls) belong to Himalayan Ecology and 356 children (168 boys and 188 girls) belong to Desert Ecology. Anthropometric measures namely height, weight, skinfolds at biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac were measured for each child. Body mass index (BMI), sum of four skinfolds (SF4), trunk extremity ratio (TER), arm muscle circumference (AMC), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) was computed accordingly using standard equations. No significant sex difference was observed for the mean age within and between the groups. There existed significant sex differences for SF4, TER across the ecological zones. One way ANOVA with Scheffe's posthoc test revealed that Group II (Himalayan Ecology) had significantly higher means than both Group I (Coastal Ecology) and Group III (Desert Ecology) for BMI, SF4 and AFA. On the other hand, Group I had significantly higher means than Group II and Group III for TER (girls only), AMC and AMA. Percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th) were also calculated for anthropometric and body composition variables. It was observed that there existed significant sex differences for anthropometric and body composition variables both within (p < 0.05) and between (p < 0.001) the groups (ecological zones) except for AFA (p = 0.07). The 50th percentiles of BMI for Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology were 11.65, 13.00 and 11.85, respectively. The 95th percentile of AFA was 4.81, 8.15 and 6.06 respectively. Significant group differences for variables reiterated the fact that ecology does influence nutrition and body composition measures through underlying physiology of growth. PMID:20405697

Ghosh, Arnab; Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar

2009-09-01

134

Evaluation of nutritional status in persons with spinal cord injury: a prerequisite for successful rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Evaluation of nutritional status is a pre-requisite for planning a comprehensive and appropriate nutritional care plan for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. A nutritional assessment reveals the nutritional status of a patient and identifies the objectives of nutritional care. There is no single measurement that totally reflects the state of a patient's nutritional health. Besides anthropometric, laboratory, and dietary intake, a patient's social and medical history are needed to develop an individualized plan. The outcome of establishing a screening and assessment program results in quality and cost-effective nutritional care for patients. Providing optimal nutritional care at the onset of SCI can help reduce complications, decrease length of hospital stay, and enhance the rehabilitation outcome. PMID:8484107

Houda, B

1993-03-01

135

Nutrition and growth.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays a fundamental role in determining the growth of individuals. An appropriate growth progression is considered a harbinger of adequate nutrient intake and good health. On the other hand growth deceleration with or without short stature may indicate inadequate nutrition, even when there is no body weight deficit for height. Nutritional growth retardation (NGR) is most prevalent in populations at risk of poverty. However in affluent communities patients with NGR are often referred to the specialist because of short stature and delayed sexual development. The diagnosis may be overlooked and/or be established after exhaustive evaluations, if the pattern of weight progression over time is not considered. Patients with so-called idiopathic short stature may present diminished nutrient intake and decreased IGF-I levels, however their nutritional status and body weight progression patterns are usually not addressed by pediatric endocrinologists. NGR patients may cease to gain appropriate weight and fail to grow in height, even without exhibiting body weight deficits for height. They adapt to decreased nutrient intake by decreasing growth progression and thereby achieve equilibrium by decreasing the nutrient demands. This occurs by diminishing their metabolic rates and erythrocyte Na+, K+- ATPase activity, however they may not present alterations in other clinical biochemical markers of malnutrition. Therefore accurate weights and heights plotted on the growth chart over time are necessary to detect NGR. Nutritional rehabilitation is accompanied with catch up growth, though it may be difficult to change the dietary habits of adolescents who exhibit NGR. PMID:21274290

Lifshitz, Fima

2009-05-01

136

Nutritional rickets.  

PubMed

Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short- or long-term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and multiple sclerosis. Among the factors responsible for the high prevalence of VDD in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries is limited sunshine exposure due to individuals' spending more time indoors (watching television and working on computer) or avoiding sun exposure intentionally for fear of skin cancer. Traditional clothing (covering the entire body except the face and hands) further limits the exposure time to sunlight and, thus, decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal VDD and exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation were reported to be the most prominent reasons leading to NR. The diagnosis of NR is established by a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Recent reports draw attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) - the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium and to suppress excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone. This type of prevention will also reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effect of vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:21274312

Ozkan, Behzat

2010-11-01

137

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

138

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

139

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

140

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

141

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

142

Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness.  

PubMed

Central obesity is known to be an important risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and intraabdominal fat thickness has been found to be a reliable indicator of central obesity. Many anthropometric indicators have been suggested for measuring intraabdominal fat. The aim of this study was to relate various anthropometric measurements to intraabdominal fat thickness and to determine which among these is a better predictor of intra abdominal fat in normal subjects. This cross sectional study was carried out. in 60 healthy subjects (32 males and 28 females) in the age group of 25-55 years. Anthropometric measurements such as BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were assessed by using standard methods. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured 1 cm above umbilicus by ultrasonography. Intraabdominal fat thickness was correlated with the anthropometric measures by Pearson's test. Multivariate linear regression test was used to find the best anthropometric measurement as a predictor of abdominal fat. Waist circumference showed a significant positive correlation with subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Waist circumference was found to be the best predictor of intraabdominal fat thickness in normal subjects and therefore of central obesity. PMID:20329373

Roopakala, M S; Suresh, Anagha; Ashtalakshmi; Srinath; Ashok; Giridhar; Anand; Silvia, Wilma Delphine

143

Anthropometric evaluation of the Creches children furniture in Turkey.  

PubMed

The dimensions of the living and working space and buildings, the types of material and different riggings should be designed to conform to the users' anthropometric measures. The first requirement to design on ergonomic system is to measure the human being who will work and live in that system. Because of this, anthropometric measures are the most frequently used ergonomic data during the design process. In this research paper, we attempt to organize a new data base of anthropometric data to use in the design of children's equipment and furniture used in crèches. A starting point for research on the proper dimensions of creche furniture is to investigate how the dimensions of furniture reflect the body dimensions and the functional needs of the children using furniture. The anthropometric data of 3, 4 and 5 year-old-children in crèches was used. We report the results of the measurements of 18 anthropometric characteristics of children which constitute a set of basic data for the design of functional spaces and furniture. PMID:17243561

Barli, Onder; Sari, Reyhan Midilli; Elmali, Derya; Aydintan, Erkan

2006-12-01

144

Assessment of nutritional risk in the elderly.  

PubMed

To enhance physicians' awareness of nutritional problems in the elderly, a nutritional risk assessment scale was developed and validated. 126 patients (mean age 82.0 +/- 6.7, range 65-96 years) admitted from home to a geriatric hospital were enrolled in the study. After informed consent was obtained, they underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment of physical, emotional, and cognitive functions, overall functional capacity, and social situation. The nutritional status was assessed by the nutritional risk assessment scale. This scale consists of items relating to gastrointestinal disorders, chronic diseases with pain, immobility, alterations in body weight, appetite, difficulties in eating, cognitive or emotional problems, medication, smoking and drinking habits, and social situation. The maximum score which indicates a high risk is 12. The scores from the nutritional risk assessment scale were compared with a physician's clinical judgement (patients being graded as "obese', "well-nourished', "undernourished') as the "gold standard' and with body mass index, other anthropometric findings, and serum albumin and prealbumin levels. The nutritional risk assessment scale was reliable (inter- and intrarater) and showed construct and concurrent validity. There was a significant correlation with clinical judgement (p < 0.01) and other parameters of nutritional status (p < 0.05). The scores of undernourished patients (n = 37; 5.35 +/- 1.60, range 3-8) were significantly different (p < 0.05) from those who were classified as well nourished (n = 63; 2.66 +/- 1.59, range 0-7) or obese (n = 26; 2.73 +/- 1.76, range 0-7). When implemented as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, this questionnaire can be completed within 5-10 min. The nutritional risk assessment scale is simple and reliable and helps in the identification of elderly patients at risk of poor nutrition. PMID:8678469

Nikolaus, T; Bach, M; Siezen, S; Volkert, D; Oster, P; Schlierf, G

1995-01-01

145

Relationship of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with nutritional status in pediatric patients with malignant diseases-a single Romanian center experience.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) serum level in pediatric patients with cancer compared with pediatric patients with nononcological diseases and to assess the relationship between IGF-I and nutritional status of oncological patients. From January 2009 to July 2012, we assessed 151consecutively hospitalized patients in a tertiary emergency pediatric hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: group I, consisting of patients with malignant diseases (64 patients), and group II, the control group, consisting of 87 age- and gender-matched patients with different pediatric diseases. The anthropometric parameters (weight, height, body mass index, middle upper arm circumference (MUAC), and tricipital skinfold thickness (TST) and biochemical parameters (proteins, albumin, and total IGF-I) were comparatively evaluated at the diagnosis and after intensive chemotherapy in the malignant group. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters in group I were significantly different from those in group II for height, MUAC, TST, total proteins, and albumin (p?diagnosis of the malignant disease. Also, we identified positive correlations between IGF-I, protein, and albumin. Serum IGF-I levels in cancer patients were significantly lower at diagnosis than after chemotherapy (48.3 ng/ml, range 25.00-662.00 ng/ml vs 110.0 ng/ml, range 25.00-573.00 ng/ml; p?=?0.04). Conclusion: IGF-I seems to be an accurate biochemical parameter used in malnutrition assessment of children with cancer. IGF-I correlated with the anthropometric parameters of the arm, serum protein, and albumin. These parameters most accurately characterize the nutritional status. PMID:23756917

Chince?an, Mihaela Ioana; M?rginean, Oana; Pitea, Ana-Maria; Dobreanu, Minodora

2013-06-12

146

Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators  

SciTech Connect

Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

You-Hin Liau

1982-12-01

147

Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ?45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

Patil, Virendra C.; Parale, G. P.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Patil, Harsha V.

2011-01-01

148

Nutritional status of children with moderate chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status was evaluated in 15 children (11 males) with moderate chronic renal failure (CRF). Two 3-day prospective dietary records, anthropometric measures and biochemical determinations were performed 3 months apart. Energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid intakes, expressed as percentages of international recommendations, were 87±14, 223±42, 73±12, 110±27, 55±31, 129±51 and 111±26%, respectively. The relative distribution

G. Orejas; F. Santos; S. Málaga; C. Rey; A. Cobo; M. Simarro

1995-01-01

149

Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger

Zhenmei Zhang; Danan Gu; Mark D. Hayward

2010-01-01

150

Indicators and Nutritional Outcomes of Household Food Insecurity among a Sample of Rural Malaysian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the indicators and nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among a sample of poor rural communities in Malaysia. The Radimer\\/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument was utilized to categorize food secure and insecure households. Demographic, socioeconomic, coping strategies and anthropometric information were collected through in- depth interviews with Malay and Indian women

2004-01-01

151

Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2004-01-01

152

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. 9 / Health and Human Services / US Food and Drug Administration Nutrition Initiative Enforcement Letters The front ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

153

Nutritional Disabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malnutrition has been identified as a cause for physical and mental disabilities in about 100 million people in the world. Nutritional disabilities are major public health problems in developing countries. This report illustrates some of the consequences ...

M. M. Ram

1981-01-01

154

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... All Natural Nutrition Strict ingredient standards • No added refined sugar • No artificial colors or flavors • No artificial preservatives • No modified ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

155

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... yrs of age because appropriate dietary levels have not been established for children in this age range. Nestle Nutrition More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

156

Nutritional hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hormesis, the biological and toxicological concept that small quantities have opposite effects from large quantities, is reviewed with emphasis on its relevance to nutrition.Results:Hormetic and other dose–response relationships are categorized, depicted, and discussed. Evidence for nutritional hormesis is presented for essential vitamin and mineral nutrients, dietary restriction, alcohol (ethanol), natural dietary and some synthetic pesticides, some herbicides, and acrylamide. Some

D P Hayes

2007-01-01

157

Fetal nutrition  

PubMed Central

The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy.

Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

1970-01-01

158

Validation of a Statistical Matching Procedure Used to Create United States Marine Corps Anthropometric Databases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric databases containing extensive body size and shape information are critical for the proper design and sizing of military clothing, equipment and workstations. The last anthropometric survey of United States Marine Corps males was conducted ...

S. M. Donelson C. C. Gordon

1996-01-01

159

Anthropometric characteristics of rural elderly females in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected anthropometric measurements were examined for 305 Malay females age 55 and older from selected rural villages in Malaysia. Although height and indicators of stature were similar to elderly Asian females living in similar environments, the Malay females were comparatively heavier with more body fat. Age was negatively and significantly related to changes in standing and sitting heights, arm span,

Zaitun Yassin; Rhonda Dale Terry

1991-01-01

160

Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of Chinese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.

LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN

2008-01-01

161

Anthropometric Changes Associated with High Altitude Acclimatization in Females.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anthropometric effects of prolonged high altitude exposure were studied in eight college women who lived on the summit of Pikes Peak (14,100 ft.) for 2.5 months. Acclimatization to altitude was associated with a decrease of skinfold thickness and a re...

J. P. Hannon J. L. Shields C. W. Harris

1969-01-01

162

Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical–functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of

H. I. Castellucci; P. M. Arezes; C. A. Viviani

2010-01-01

163

Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.  

PubMed

Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

2008-06-01

164

Simple anthropometric indices associated with ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,

Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg

1996-01-01

165

Anthropometric measurements and body composition of English and Malaysian footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative study was conducted to determine the anthropometric measurements and body composition of football teams in the UK and Malaysia. A total of 32 footballers from two teams were studied. The teams were the St Mary's University team (UK) and the Selangor Reserved League team. The height and body weight of the subjects were measured using SECA digital balance

Reeves SL; Poh BK; Brown M; Tizzard NH; Ismail MN

166

Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.

2013-01-01

167

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

Elaine Kilmer (John Burroughs School REV)

1995-06-30

168

The Integrated Rural Nutrition Project, Kawambwa, Zambia: successes of a nutrition education programme.  

PubMed

This article presents some findings from an evaluation of the Integrated Rural Nutrition Project (IRNP) in Kawambwa, Zambia. The IRNP was initiated in 1985. The program relied on a multisectoral approach by the Ministries of Health, Education, Agriculture, and Community Development. The program aimed to reduce the rate of malnutrition. Breast feeding was encouraged, and farmers were encouraged to increase production of beans and groundnuts. Extension workers were trained. Findings indicate that nutrition education programs had a significant, positive effect on the nutritional status of children aged under 5 years. The nutrition education component, which aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices, was more successful than the activities that aimed at increasing food availability. A continuing question was raised by program staff about whether training of extension workers, social marketing, mass education, or direct extension were capable of having an impact on nutrition without addressing food productivity issues. The availability of legumes improved throughout the intervention period. The length of the hunger season was shortened. However, increased food availability did not improve anthropometric measurements, and some children, who were not part of the seed multiplication program, showed improved anthropometric measurements. Children in the intervention area were exposed to better breast-feeding practices: breast feeding for longer periods and fewer introductions to non-milk liquids. After the first month, under 20% of children in the project area and 80-95% in the non-project areas had received breast milk substitutes. Young children in the project area had better weight-for-height, after controlling for wealth, access to services, maternal and paternal education, gender, and age. 3-year-old children in the project area weighed 0.3 of a z-score more than non-project children. PMID:12293178

Friedrich, J

1997-12-01

169

Genome-wide association study of anthropometric traits and evidence of interactions with age and study year in Filipino women.  

PubMed

Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first GWA study of anthropometric traits in Filipinos, a population experiencing a rapid transition into a more obesogenic environment. In addition to identifying suggestive evidence of additional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association signals (P < 10(-5)), we replicated (P < 0.05, same direction of additive effect) associations previously reported in European populations of both BMI and weight with MC4R and FTO, of BMI with BDNF, and of height with EFEMP1, ZBTB38, and NPPC, but none with waist circumference. We also replicated loci reported in Japanese or Korean populations as associated with BMI (OTOL1) and height (HIST1H1PS2, C14orf145, GPC5). A difference in local linkage disequilibrium (LD) between European and Asian populations suggests a narrowed association region for BDNF, while still including a proposed functional nonsynonymous amino acid substitution variant (rs6265, Val66Met). Finally, we observed significant evidence (P < 0.0042) for age-by-genotype interactions influencing BMI for rs17782313 (MC4R) and rs9939609 (FTO), and for a study year-by-genotype interaction for rs4923461 (BDNF). Our results show that several genetic risk factors are associated with anthropometric traits in Filipinos and provide further insight into the effects of BDNF, FTO, and MC4R on BMI. PMID:20966902

Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Ethan M; Lee, Nanette R; Adair, Linda S; Lange, Leslie A; Mohlke, Karen L

2010-10-21

170

Nutritional epigenetics.  

PubMed

Within the last two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression as a consequence of gene-environment interactions. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. This article aims to provide insights into the usefulness of the mouse model for epigenetic studies involving nutrition as well as the inherent limitations when compared with epigenetic phenomena in humans. Mice are one of the most versatile models for nutrition and epigenetic studies because of several features, such as short life-span, relative low cost for generating samples, the existence of well-characterized genetically engineered lines, the detailed sequencing of genomes, and the relative similarity of their metabolic processes to human metabolism. However, several limitations have to be acknowledged, such as the different location of genes on the chromosomes (and hence possibly different consequences of some epigenetic alterations), differences in the epigenetic patterns established during late embryogenesis, and possible epigenetic differences associated with cellular senescence caused by the different structure of telomeres when compared with humans. All these aspects have to be carefully analyzed when deciding whether a mouse model should be considered for a study in nutrition and epigenetics. Consequently, the results obtained from mouse studies should be carefully interpreted regarding their relevance to humans. PMID:23744966

Niculescu, Mihai D

2012-12-01

171

Nutritional Assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

172

Nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

173

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

174

Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report  

SciTech Connect

The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

Parris, H.L.

1981-07-01

175

Preadmission nutrition screening: expanding hospital-based nutrition services by implementing earlier nutrition intervention.  

PubMed

The need to screen patients earlier than within the first 24 hours of hospital admission has resulted in the development of preadmission nutrition screening. At Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center (PSJMC), a 455-bed acute-care facility, this procedure has been used since 1994. The preadmission screening method was developed because of the use of critical pathways for patients in specific diagnosis-related groups. Critical pathways specified that registered dietitians must assess these patients within 24 hours of admission at PSJMC. However, at that time there was minimal data in the chart from which to assess the patient's nutritional status and the ability to interview the patient was often limited as a result of intubation or postoperative pain. Family members were not always available at the hospital to discuss a patient's preadmission nutritional status. To address this problem, we developed a system to call people at home before their admission to the hospital to obtain specific nutrition information. To analyze the effectiveness of the procedure, the Food and Nutrition Services Department developed a process to assess this method of screening and to improve the system. Patients were enrolled in a study over a 1-month period, demographics were identified for this sample population, and patient satisfaction was determined via an interview conducted by a dietetic technician after the patient was admitted. Most patients found this to be a very helpful process and an example is presented here on the role of preadmission nutrition screening in improving patient outcome. To better define the population of the case study presented, additional information was gathered on a second study group of patients screened before admission who were admitted for hip and knee surgery, one of the specific diagnosis-related groups with a critical pathway. Our findings indicate that preadmission nutrition screening has the potential to improve patient outcomes by increasing nutrient intake before their hospital admission, reducing hospitalization length, and enhancing patient satisfaction during their hospital stay. PMID:10646009

Schwartz, D B; Gudzin, D

2000-01-01

176

Anthropometric Measurements for Assessment of Body Fat in Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Excessive body fat is associated with various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy. The\\u000a aim of our study was to assess body fat mass by anthropometric measurements and to compare the results with those obtained\\u000a by bioelectrical impedance

D. Sirbu; D. Curseu; M. Popa

177

Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

2002-01-01

178

Anthropometric measurements and body composition of English and Malaysian footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This comparative ,study was ,conducted ,to determine ,the anthropometric measurements,and body composition of football teams in the UK and Malaysia. A total of 32 footballers from two teams were studied. The teams were the St Mary’s University team (UK)and the Selangor Reserved League team. The height and body weight of the subjects were measured,using SECA digital balance with height

Sl Reeves; Bk Poh; Nh Tizzard; Mn Ismail

179

Nutritional Status and Physical Activity in Relation to Cognitive Function in a Group of Elderly in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity levels, and cognitive performance in a group of healthy, non-institutionalized elderly population aged 55-95 years. Anthropometric techniques and a 24-hour dietary recall were employed to assess the nutritional status. A physical activity assessment questionnaire was used to determine the physical activity levels. Subjects' cognitive capacity was assessed

E. O. Ojofeitimi; K. T. Ijadunola; V. A. Jegede; Y. A. Freeman; O. O. Owolabi; A. S. Freeman; T. M. Pedro; A. K. Fabiyi

2002-01-01

180

Nutritional status and performance in test of verbal and non-verbal intelligence in 6 year old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and biochemical indicators (iron status, red cell folate and total plasma homocysteine concentration (tHcy)). IQ was evaluated using

Victoria Arija; Griselda Esparó; Joan Fernández-Ballart; Michelle M. Murphy; Elisabeth Biarnés; Josefa Canals

2006-01-01

181

The Nutritional Status of Finnish Home-living Elderly People and the Relationship between Energy Intake and Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The nutritional status and the impact of non-progressive chronic diseases on energy intake were determined in 90 home-living people aged from 73 to 94 years. The nutritional status was assessed by dietary, anthropometric, biochemical and haematological methods. Energy intake (6.0, SD 1.7 MJ) in women was low compared with the Nordic Nutrient Recommendation but in men it (8.0, SD

PÄIVI M. RISSANEN; EINI I. LAAKKONEN; SIRPA SUNTIOINEN; ILKKA M. PENTTILÄ; MATTI I. UUSITUPA

1996-01-01

182

Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.

Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

2013-01-01

183

Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.  

PubMed

The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

2011-11-21

184

Anthropometric risk factors for patellar tendon injury among volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objective Abnormal imaging in the patellar tendon reveals pathology that is often associated with knee pain. Anthropometric measures of body size and mass, such as height, weight and waist?to?hip ratio (WHR), have been individually associated with abnormal imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric factors that have the strongest relationship with abnormal imaging in volleyball players. Methods Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist girth, hip girth and WHR were measured in a cohort of 113 competitive volleyball players (73 men, 40 women). The univariate (ANOVA) and multivariable (discriminant function analysis) association between abnormal imaging and these anthropometric factors were investigated. Results No significant association was found in the female volleyball players. A significant univariate association was observed between abnormal imaging and heavier weight, greater BMI, larger waist and hip girth and larger WHR in the male volleyball players. Waist girth was the only factor that retained this association in a multivariable model (p<0.05). Conclusions Men with a waist girth greater than 83?cm seem to be at greater risk of developing patellar tendon pathology. There may be both mechanical and biochemical reasons for this increased risk.

Malliaras, P; Cook, J L; Kent, P M

2007-01-01

185

[Nutritional assessment in a Moroccan university population during Ramadan].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to assess nutritional status in Muslim population, bigger and bigger in our universities, in a period during which its dietary habits change considerably. The study has been performed in a population of Muslim students from the University of Granada, and has been compared to a non-Muslim population within the same setting. Study subjects undertook a questionnaire in which they reported the diet consumed each day during the Ramadan period. Macronutrient analysis for such diet was performed with Dietsource software. On the other hand, anthropometrical parameters were taken before and after the study period to observe their change and obtain conclusions on nutritional status. It has been observed that lipid intake of Muslims during the Ramadan period was excessive (48% of total energy), by decreasing hydrocarbons and particularly proteins. This is highlighted by means of the anthropometrical study, observing a decrease in measurements such as muscular area of the arm, the arm area, the muscle perimeter of the arm, and weight, with an increase in arm fat, perimeter of the arm, leg and mid-ieg circumference in the Muslim group, which are in contrast with parameters in the non-Muslim group. From our results, we may stress that during the Ramadan period macronutrient intake values are not appropriate as compared to standard recommendations in Spain. Besides, it is striking to observe how anthropometrical measurements related to fat increase whereas those related to muscular mass decrease. PMID:16771113

Oliveras López, M J; Agudo Aponte, E; Nieto Guindo, P; Martínez Mart?ez, F; López García de la Serrana, H; López Martínez, M C

186

Nutritional intake and physical performance capacity in Flemish schoolchildren (seven to12 years): issues for responsible marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is the aim of the present paper to describe the nutritional intake, the physical performance capacity and certain anthropometric variables of a group of schoolchildren (n=297) aged seven to 12 years. The findings on this population may be used to give advice in specific marketing situations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The subjects were asked to complete a three-day food

Peter Deriemaeker; J. Taeymans; D. Aerenhouts; M. Hebbelinck; P. Clarys

2007-01-01

187

Nutritional Status Adiposity and Body Composition of Oraon and Sarak Females in Ranchi District, India—A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oraon and the Sarak are two distinct ethnic groups with respect to their own religion, culture, language, and food habits, and they live in similar environmental conditions in Ranchi District in Jharkhand, India. Age differences in anthropometric and body composition measurements and nutritional status of adult (?18 years) female Oraons (N = 216) and Sarak (N = 110) were

Sudip Datta Banik

2011-01-01

188

Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals. PMID:20525424

Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

2010-01-01

189

Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?  

PubMed

With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 ± 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 ± 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart® 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

2012-06-27

190

Parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

2012-10-12

191

Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

2013-07-11

192

Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.  

PubMed

Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. PMID:22185910

Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

2011-12-06

193

Nutrition Knowledge And Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to measure the nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward nutrition of caregivers in child care programs and relate these to the behaviors of caregivers as they interact with children at mealtime. The relationship between the independent variables: caregiver nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, years of teaching experience, prior nutrition training, and level of education was

M. L. Nahikian-Nelms; P. O. Sarvela; C. Mogharreban; S. L. Andersen

1995-01-01

194

Principles of Sports Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To measure if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles.The objectives of this study were to determine if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles and to identify athletes’ resources for nutrition information. Questionnaires were distributed to 40 athletes at a state university. Seventeen completed surveys were returned and included members from

L. D. Tartamella; D. S. Kemler

1996-01-01

195

Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older.

Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

2006-01-01

196

Metabolic, nutritional, and toxic myelopathies.  

PubMed

This review article identifies and describes the clinical manifestations of various metabolic, nutritional, and toxic conditions that result in symptoms of myelopathy and, in some cases, myeloneuropathy. It includes discussions of the clinical pictures that occur secondary to these causes. Familiarity with the clinical symptoms may lead to accurate diagnosis through laboratory and imaging studies and to treatment with successful identification of the underlying causes. PMID:23186901

Schwendimann, Robert N

2013-02-01

197

Nutrition for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily ...

S. M. Smith

2005-01-01

198

Pediatric nutrition surveillance.  

PubMed

This article illustrates trends observed in recent data from the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) and provides recommendations for nutrition intervention, nutrition monitoring, health advances as well as health concerns in the PedNSS population. PMID:14982041

Polhamus, B; Dalenius, K; Thompson, D; Scanlon, K; Borland, E; Smith, B; Grummer-Strawn, L

199

Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.  

PubMed

We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

2009-08-20

200

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Method Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath?Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using a leg and back dynamometer, low back and hamstring flexibility was assessed using the sit and reach test, and the vertical jump was used as a measure of lower body power. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using the 20?m multistage fitness test. Results Setters were more ectomorphic (p<0.05) and less mesomorphic (p<0.01) than centres. Mean (SD) of somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) for setters and centres was 2.6 (0.9), 1.9 (1.1), 5.3 (1.2) and 2.2 (0.8), 3.9 (1.1), 3.6 (0.7) respectively. Hitters had significantly greater low back and hamstring flexibility than opposites. Mean (SD) for sit and reach was 19.3 (8.3)?cm for opposites and 37 (10.7)?cm for hitters. There were no other significant differences in physiological and anthropometric variables across playing positions (all p>0.05). Conclusion Setters tend to be endomorphic ectomorphs, hitters and opposites tend to be balanced ectomorphs, whereas centres tend to be ectomorphic mesomorphs. These results indicate the need for sports scientists and conditioning professionals to take the body type of volleyball players into account when designing individualised position specific training programmes.

Duncan, M J; Woodfield, L; al-Nakeeb, Y

2006-01-01

201

Anthropometric approximation of body weight in unresponsive stroke patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Thrombolysis of acute ischaemic stroke is based strictly on body weight to ensure efficacy and to prevent bleeding complications. Many candidate stroke patients are unable to communicate their body weight, and there is often neither the means nor the time to weigh the patient. Instead, weight is estimated visually by the attending physician, but this is known to be inaccurate. Methods Based on a large general population sample of nearly 7000 subjects, we constructed approximation formulae for estimating body weight from simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference). These formulae were validated in a sample of 178 consecutive inpatients admitted to our stroke unit, and their accuracy was compared with the best visual estimation of two experienced physicians. Results The simplest formula gave the most accurate approximation (mean absolute difference 3.1 (2.6)?kg), which was considerably better than the best visual estimation (physician 1: 6.5 (5.2)?kg; physician 2: 7.4 (5.7)?kg). It reduced the proportion of weight approximations mismatched by >10% from 31.5% and 40.4% (physicians 1 and 2, respectively) to 6.2% (anthropometric approximation). Only the patient's own estimation was more accurate (mean absolute difference 2.7 (2.4)?kg). Conclusions By using an approximation formula based on simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference), it is possible to obtain a quick and accurate approximation of body weight. In situations where the exact weight of unresponsive patients cannot be ascertained quickly, we recommend using this approximation method rather than visual estimation.

Lorenz, M W; Graf, M; Henke, C; Hermans, M; Ziemann, U; Sitzer, M; Foerch, C

2007-01-01

202

Ethnicity-specific anthropometric predictors of metabolic risk in women.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine associations of anthropometric measures of thigh and abdominal adipose tissue with metabolic risk factors, and whether these associations differed with ethnicity. We hypothesized that thigh circumference (ThC) would have an independent favorable association with insulin sensitivity, lipids, and blood pressure, whereas waist circumference (WC) would have an independent deleterious association with these variables in both African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). METHODS: Subjects were 228 healthy, overweight, premenopausal AA and EA women. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Simple relationships between anthropometric measures and risk factors were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Partial correlation coefficients were determined for circumference measures adjusted for thigh and abdominal skinfolds to differentiate relationships between thigh and abdominal subcutaneous fat from thigh muscle and deeper abdominal fat, respectively. RESULTS: In EA but not AA, ThC was positively associated with insulin sensitivity, independent of thigh skinfold. In both EA and AA, ThC was associated with a desirable lipid profile. In AA but not EA, WC was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and a less desirable metabolic profile. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that thigh muscle (ThC adjusted for thigh skinfold) may be metabolically protective in EA but not AA. In contrast, WC was a better indicator of insulin sensitivity and metabolic health in AA. Further investigation is needed to verify the association between thigh muscle and metabolic health, and to probe the reason for the observed ethnic specificity of the associations between anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors. PMID:21921993

Bush, Nikki C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Hunter, Gary R; Brock, David W; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Gower, Barbara A

2010-01-01

203

Ethnicity-specific anthropometric predictors of metabolic risk in women  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine associations of anthropometric measures of thigh and abdominal adipose tissue with metabolic risk factors, and whether these associations differed with ethnicity. We hypothesized that thigh circumference (ThC) would have an independent favorable association with insulin sensitivity, lipids, and blood pressure, whereas waist circumference (WC) would have an independent deleterious association with these variables in both African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). Methods Subjects were 228 healthy, overweight, premenopausal AA and EA women. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Simple relationships between anthropometric measures and risk factors were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Partial correlation coefficients were determined for circumference measures adjusted for thigh and abdominal skinfolds to differentiate relationships between thigh and abdominal subcutaneous fat from thigh muscle and deeper abdominal fat, respectively. Results In EA but not AA, ThC was positively associated with insulin sensitivity, independent of thigh skinfold. In both EA and AA, ThC was associated with a desirable lipid profile. In AA but not EA, WC was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and a less desirable metabolic profile. Conclusion Results suggest that thigh muscle (ThC adjusted for thigh skinfold) may be metabolically protective in EA but not AA. In contrast, WC was a better indicator of insulin sensitivity and metabolic health in AA. Further investigation is needed to verify the association between thigh muscle and metabolic health, and to probe the reason for the observed ethnic specificity of the associations between anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors.

Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Hunter, Gary R.; Brock, David W.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Gower, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

204

Extent and Correlates of Change in Anthropometric and Fitness Outcomes Among Participants in a Corporate Team -Based Weight Loss Challenge in Singapore: Lose to Win 2009.  

PubMed

The authors describe a national corporate team-based weight loss intervention targeting groups of overweight/obese employees and assess its effectiveness. A 12-week weight loss program comprising nutrition education and physical activity sessions, enhanced by a nationwide media campaign, was organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. A total of 285 participants, forming 72 teams (1 per workplace), had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index [BMI], and body fat percentage) and fitness (fitness index score based on UKK 2-km walk test) measurements taken pre-intervention and post-intervention. Average decreases, from baseline to end of intervention, in weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were 3.58 kg, 1.32 kg/m(2), and 2.14%, respectively. The fitness index score increased by 34.1 units. Greater participation in physical activity and nutrition education sessions was associated with more beneficial anthropometric and fitness changes. The intervention was well received and effective in producing short-term weight loss. Further research needs to be done to ascertain its long-term effectiveness and generalizability. PMID:22887805

Vasquez, Kathryn; Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Chan, Mei Fen; Amin, Handy; Khoo, Gary; Choo, Lin; Chew, Ling; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala

2012-08-10

205

The association of anthropometric measures and osteoarthritis knee in non-obese subjects: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) and knee osteoarthritis have a strong association, but other anthropometric measures lack such associations. To date, no study has evaluated non?obese knee osteoarthritis to negate the systemic and metabolic effects of obesity. This study examines the validity of the contention that BMI and other anthropometric measures have a significant relationship with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: In total, 180 subjects with a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis were recruited and classified according to Kellgren?Lawrence (KL) grades. Body mass index, mid?upper arm circumference, waist?hip ratio and triceps?skinfold thickness were recorded by standard procedures. Osteoarthritis outcome scores (WOMAC) were evaluated. RESULTS: (1) In both genders, the BMI was significantly higher for KL grade 4 than for grade 2; triceps?skinfold thickness was positively correlated with the joint space width of the tibial medial compartment. (2) In males, triceps?skinfold thickness significantly increased as the KL grades moved from 2 to 4; the significantly higher BMI found in varus aligned knees was positively correlated with WOMAC scores. (3) In females, the waist?hip ratio was significantly higher for KL grade 4 than for grade 2; a significant correlation was found between BMI and WOMAC scores. The waist?hip ratio was significantly associated with varus aligned knees and it positively correlated with WOMAC scores and with the joint space width of the tibial medial compartment. The mid?upper arm circumference demonstrated no correlation with knee osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: This study validates the contention that BMI and other anthropometric measures have a significant association with knee osteoarthritis. Contrary to common belief, the triceps?skinfold thickness (peripheral fat) in males and the waist?hip ratio (central fat) in females were more strongly associated with knee osteoarthritis than BMI.

Sanghi, Divya; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath; Singh, Ajai; Kumari, Reema; Mishra, Rachna; Mishra, Abhishek

2011-01-01

206

Children's work, earnings, and nutrition in urban Mexican shantytowns.  

PubMed

For many children living in conditions of urban poverty, earning money can provide additional resources to them and their families, and this raises interesting questions about the potential biological consequences (costs and benefits) of children's work in 'modern' settings. This study uses time allocation, ethnographic, dietary, and anthropometric data collected with 96 urban Mexican shantytown children (aged 8-12 years) and their older and younger siblings (aged 1-18 years) to test hypotheses related to the effects of children's cash earning and cash contributions to their households for their own and their sibs' nutritional status. Regression models show that children's contributions to household income and the time they allocate to working outside the home makes no difference to their own or their younger siblings' nutritional status assessed anthropometrically. Dietary quality, based on food recalls, is worse in working than non-working children, even taking household income into account. Children's allocation of time to work and their cash contributions to the household do however significantly improve the weight of their older siblings, especially sisters. This suggests children's work in urban ecologies might have different constraints and opportunities for their own and siblings' growth and nutrition than typically observed in subsistence settings. PMID:19533611

Brewis, Alexandra; Lee, Sarah

207

Metabolic and anthropometric changes with weight cycling in wrestlers.  

PubMed

Repeated cycles of weight loss and regain have come to be known as weight cycling. This phenomenon is frequently observed in athletes who must meet specific weight categories to qualify for competition. The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic and anthropometric changes that occur with rapid weight loss/regain cycles in competitive wrestlers. Collegiate wrestlers were divided into two groups, "cyclers" (N = 8) and "noncyclers" (N = 6), based on their reported dieting history. Measurements included a 3-d diet record, resting energy expenditure (REE), skinfold and girth measures, and biochemical tests at three time points: preseason, peak season, and off-season. All anthropometric measures changed with time, and a diet group by time interaction was observed for the trunk to extremity skinfolds ratio (T/E) (P < 0.05), with greater fat loss and regain from the trunk area of the cyclers. There were no differences in REE within or between groups. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) values decreased over time (P < 0.01). Large weight losses appear to have occurred due to both dieting and short-term dehydration, and although physiological changes were observed, a training effect may have overridden any metabolic influence of weight cycling. PMID:1435178

McCargar, L J; Crawford, S M

1992-11-01

208

Osteoporosis: nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Nutrition has important potential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Ensuring the adequacy of calcium intake is central to any program of osteoporosis control, but it must be considered in the context of the many factors, including other nutrients, diseases, and drugs, which influence calcium absorption, utilization, and excretion. The dietary consumption of calcium by large segments of the U.S. population remains inadequate. More attention must be paid not only to increasing calcium intake, but also to maximizing its availability from food sources and its retention by the body. As individuals age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain adequate calcium balance; dietary selection must be made with special care for older persons to ensure that all of the nutrients are consumed in sufficient quantities and that neither excessive weight loss nor weight gain occurs.

Rivlin, R S

1987-01-01

209

Evaluation of nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was performed to investigate nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients by using anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Methods: Data from the last 6 months of 22 adult hemodialysis patients with a mean age of 61 ± 14 years were analyzed retrospectively. Dialysis vintage, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), serum biochemical parameters, mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were determined as mean and standard deviation. Correlations between the variables were computed by coefficient p of Pearson. Results: We found significant positive correlations: age of patients versus C-reactive protein, MAMC versus LDL-Cholesterol, MAMC versus body mass index, albumin versus hemoglobin. There were also significant negative correlations: age versus serum creatinine, age versus albumin, age versus intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), dialysis vintage versus MAMC. Conclusion: In conclusion, age seem to be negatively associated with iPTH and albumin. As dialysis vintage increases, muscle mass seems to decrease.

Kaynar, k; Songul Tat, T; Ulusoy, S; Cansiz, M; Ozkan, G; Gul, S; Bektas, O

2012-01-01

210

Anthropometric parameters in screening for excess of adiposity in Argentinian and Spanish adolescents: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Various anthropometric parameters have been proposed for defining overweight in adolescence, but few studies have evaluated their diagnostic accuracy in comparative terms, using samples from different regions. Aim: To compare the performance of anthropometric parameters in determining the excess of adiposity in Argentinian and Spanish adolescents. Subjects and methods: The sample is composed of 1781 Argentinian and 1350 Spanish subjects, aged 12-17 years. Excess adiposity was defined as percentage BF in the 90th percentile or higher. ROC curves established the validity of parameters to define excess adiposity. Results: Descriptive statistics showed differences between the Argentinian and Spanish samples. ROC curves indicate that all the parameters analysed had, in the Spanish and Argentinian samples, a positive and elevated association with excess of adiposity. The waist-to-height ratio had the highest value of the area under ROC curve (AUC), while conicity index and waist-to-hip ratio had the lowest. Conclusions: Differences exist with respect to size and body composition between the Argentinian and Spanish samples. ROC curves reflect a general pattern of variation. Waist-to-hip ratio and conicity index are less desirable in the diagnosis of excess adiposity and the most desirable is waist-to-height ratio. PMID:23802560

Mesa, María Soledad; Marrodán, María Dolores; Lomaglio, Delia Beatriz; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Moreno-Romero, Susana; Bejarano, José Ignacio; Dipierri, José Edgardo; Pacheco, José Luis

2013-06-27

211

Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. METHODS: Study

Catherine M Olsen; Maria Celia Hughes; Nirmala Pandeya; Adèle C Green

2006-01-01

212

Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army Personnel: Summary Statistics, Interim Report for 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the 1987-1988 anthropometric survey of Army personnel are presented in this reported in the form of summary statistics and percentile data. These anthropometric data are presented for a subset of personnel (1774 men and 2208 women) sampled to m...

B. Bradtmiller C. C. Gordon C. E. Clauser J. T. McConville T. Churchill

1989-01-01

213

Reproducibility of anthropometric and body composition measurements: the HERITAGE Family Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of anthropometric and body composition measures using the HERITAGE Family Study protocol. DESIGN: Anthropometric and body composition measures were obtained on three separate days within a 3-wk period at each of the four HERITAGE Clinical Centers. SUBJECTS: Sixty men and women representative of the HERITAGE subject population, 15 from each of four Clinical Centers. MEASUREMENTS:

JH Wilmore; PR Stanforth; MA Domenick; J Gagnon; EW Daw; AS Leon; DC Rao; JS Skinner; C Bouchard

1997-01-01

214

Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: It is important to determine what values of simple anthropometric measurements are associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension to provide an indication for further detailed investigations. In this analysis, we aimed to assess which anthropometric cutoff values are best at predicting the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria in Hong

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; CS Cockram; J Woo; Gary TC Ko

1999-01-01

215

Prediction of elite schoolboy 2000-m rowing ergometer performance from metabolic, anthropometric and strength variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 19 elite schoolboy rowers, the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, metabolic parameters, strength variables and 2000-m rowing ergometer performance time were analysed to test the hypothesis that a combination of these variables would predict performance better than either individual variables or one category of variables. Anthropometric characteristics, maximal oxygen uptake (V O 2m ax ), accumulated oxygen deficit, net efficiency,

A. P. Russell; P. F. Le Rossignol; W. A. Sparrow

1998-01-01

216

Survival of women with colon cancer in relation to pre-cancer anthropometric characteristics: the Iowa Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that pre-cancer anthropometric variables are associated with mortality among women who developed colon cancer in a prospective cohort, the IWHS. Methods Over 1986-2005, 1096 incident cases of colon cancer were identified (mean age at diagnosis was 73y). Anthropometric characteristics were self-measured before colon cancer diagnosis (in 1986). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause and colon-cancer mortality, adjusted for age at cancer diagnosis, stage, education, smoking status, and pack-years of smoking. Results During the follow-up of up to 20 years, 493 women died; 289 had colon cancer as the underlying cause. The HRs of all-cause death were increased for the highest versus lowest tertile for weight: HR=1.39 (95%CI, 1.10;1.76) (p-trend=0.005), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR): HR=1.36 (95%CI, 1.08;1.72) (p-trend=0.008), and waist: HR=1.45 (95%CI, 1.15;1.82) (p-trend=0.001). Compared to body mass-index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, HRs were increased for BMI ?30 kg/m2: HR=1.45 (95%CI, 1.14;1.85), and among the few women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2: HR=1.89 (95% CI, 1.01;3.53). Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with WHR and waist: HR=1.37 (95%CI, 1.02;1.85) (p-trend=0.04) and HR=1.34 (95%CI, 1.01;1.80) (p-trend=0.05), respectively, for the highest versus lowest tertile. Conclusion Greater pre-cancer anthropometric measures and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 predicted poorer survival among colon cancer patients. Higher abdominal adiposity measured by WHR and waist was associated with increased risk of colon cancer death. Impact If true, pre-diagnostic obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for death in colon cancer patients.

Prizment, Anna E; Flood, Andrew; Anderson, Kristin E; Folsom, Aaron R

2010-01-01

217

Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were

Chin-En Yen; Chi-Hua Yen; Men-Chung Huang; Chien-Hsiang Cheng; Yi-Chia Huang

2008-01-01

218

The nutritional status of disabled children in Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the nutritional status of disabled children in Nigeria with their non-disabled siblings and neighbours. A second aim was to investigate anthropometric techniques appropriate for disabled children in this situation.Design: A cross-sectional survey.Setting: Nasarawa and Plateau States and the Federal Capital Territory in Central Nigeria.Subjects: 311 children under 10 years of age were studied: 112 with various disabilities,

J Tompsett; AK Yousafzai; SM Filteau

1999-01-01

219

Obesity and nutrition in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse the association between nutritional and familial factors and obesity in boys and girls.Design: Randomized, cross-sectional population study.Setting: Province de Luxembourg, Belgium.Subjects: One thousand and twenty-eight boys and girls in age strata 6–8, 8–10 and 10–12 y, comprising 70.3% of primary cohort.Methods: Examinations included anthropometric measurements and questionnaires covering familial, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. A three day dietary

M Guillaume; L Lapidus; A Lambert; D-M Guillaume

1998-01-01

220

Nutritional status of outpatients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Maintenanceofagoodnutritionalstatusisassociated with prolonged survival in many chronic diseases. To date, the nu- tritionalstatusofoutpatientswithimmunoglobulinlight-chain(AL) amyloidosis has not been evaluated. Objective: The aims of this study were to obtain information re- garding the nutritional status of AL amyloidosis outpatients and to investigate its prognostic role. Design: One hundred six consecutive patients with histologically confirmed AL amyloidosis were enrolled. Anthropometric, bio- chemical, and

Riccardo Caccialanza; Giovanni Palladini; Catherine Klersy; Hellas Cena; Christina Vagia; Barbara Cameletti; Paola Russo; Francesca Lavatelli; Giampaolo Merlini

221

Pediatric nutrition support.  

PubMed

Pediatric patients now survive and thrive because of advancements made in nutrition support. Growth and development is of paramount importance in this population and adequate nutrition is necessary. Growth of premature infants receiving nutrition support mirrors intrauterine rates. Survival without nutrition support is not always assured because of inadequate nutrient stores. Institution of nutrition support in children with chronic illnesses also promotes growth and development. Enteral nutrition is preferred because of immunologic benefits, lower cost, and less frequent infectious complications. Parenteral nutrition should be considered when enteral nutrition fails or is contraindicated. Successful nutrition rehabilitation can result if both enteral and parenteral nutrition are initiated slowly and advanced as tolerated. Ongoing monitoring is essential while promoting "normal" growth and development. PMID:8302252

Marian, M

1993-10-01

222

Systematic review: nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: NUTRITION IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN’S  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background At least 25% of individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) have onset of disease in childhood. Almost all children with CD have nutri- tional impairments, such as weight loss or stunting, at diagnosis or sub- sequently. Nutritional therapy (exclusive enteral nutrition) is established as a valid and effective treatment in paediatric CD. The advantages of this approach are

A. S. DAY; K. E. WHITTEN; M. SIDLER; D. A. LEMBERG

2007-01-01

223

U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey Database: Downsizing, Demographic Change, and Validity of the 1988 Data in 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric distributions of consumer groups, such as the U.S. Army, are to a large extent determined by their demographic composition. In fact, demographic change constitutes a primary driver of anthropometric changes over time and thus is a significa...

C. C. Gordon

1996-01-01

224

Nutritional treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is nutritional strategies for weight loss. Following a review of general nutritional principles, the evidence behind specific nutritional weight-loss strategies is presented. These strategies include nutritional supplements, nutrient-limited diets, and energy-limited diets. A brief discussion of nutritional considerations relevant to other weight-loss strategies--pharmacologic, surgical, and exercise-based--is included. Specific evidence-based recommendations are presented. PMID:19501248

Shewmake, Roger A; Huntington, Mark K

2009-06-01

225

Socio-demographic and nutritional assessment of the elderly Yorubas in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Three hundred and five Nigerian elderly from the Yoruba tribe of both rural and urban areas in the south Western zone of Nigeria were studied. The objective was to assess their nutritional status and identify indicators of nutritional vulnerability. Using a structured household questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and checklist of nutritional vulnerability, nutritional status was assessed and classified into various levels of vulnerability. The demographic characteristics showed that half of the population studied were between 60-69 years, 53% male, 61% married and 58% had no formal education. Based on Body Mass Index (BMI), more than half of the respondents had an acceptable nutritional status with a BMI between 18- 25 (63%male; 58% female) whilst 15% of the males and 14% of the females were underweight with BMIs below 18 and 3% of the males had severe malnutrition (BMI below 15). According to the nutritional vulnerability checklist, only 10% of the males and 4% of the females were not nutritionally vulnerable. The majority were either moderately vulnerable or (50% male; 50% female) or highly vulnerable (39% male and 46% female). Stepwise regression analysis identified ten factors contributing to nutritional vulnerability in the elderly: environmental health; food intake, food security; family life; psychological situation; functional capacity; health status; economic situation; alcoholism; and bereavement, with the coefficient of multiple determination of 0.94 at P < 0.05 (R = 0.94 P<0.05). In conclusion, under nutrition was common among the Yoruba elders and women were more vulnerable than men. PMID:16500884

Olayiwola, Ibiyemi Olasunbo; Ketiku, Adegboyega Olubode

2006-01-01

226

Ferret nutrition.  

PubMed

The unusually short intestinal tract of ferrets and closely related mustelids lacks a cecum and ileocolic valve. As a result, the transit time of ingesta in these carnivores is very rapid compared with other animals, and their food is inefficiently digested. Although the precise nutritional requirements of ferrets have not been determined by feeding defined diets, information has been compiled from experience feeding commercial and analyzed homemade diets to breeding ferrets, fitch, and mink at all stages of their lives. The requirements of spayed or neutered pet ferrets are met by allowing them constant access to drinking water and a palatable, pelleted, or extruded, 90% dry matter, premium cat or ferret food that, as fed, contains at least 15% fat and 30% high quality, meat source protein, less than 30% carbohydrates, and approximately 4 Kcal of metabolizable energy per gram. Lower density diets with more carbohydrate and less protein are associated with poor reproductive performance and growth and greater susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases. PMID:11228691

Bell, J A

1999-01-01

227

Nutritional support in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Nutritional status and 'well-being' were compared prospectively in 39 children (mean age 8.1 years) who received nutritional support following bone marrow transplantion (BMT): 20 received enteral tube feeding (ETF; six received parenteral nutrition [PN] subsequently) and 19 with oral mucositis received PN (one received ETF subsequently). Poor nutritional status (height for age and/or weight for height and/or mid-arm circumference z-scores <-1) was present in 18 patients and was associated with a longer hospital stay (P = 0. 01). Both ETF and PN groups were comparable with respect to age, pretransplant nutritional status and conditioning regimens. No significant deterioration in anthropometric indices in either group occurred following BMT. However, significant correlations were found between the duration of ETF (and not PN) and improvements in nutritional status. Furthermore, PN was associated with more frequent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency than ETF (P = 0.001). Oral mucositis was associated with poorer 'well being' at the start of PN compared with ETF (P < 0.0001), but this was reversed by the end of PN. Bone marrow recovery, hospital stay and positive blood cultures were similar in the two groups. Hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia and biochemical zinc deficiency were common in both groups but hypoalbuminaemia and biochemical selenium deficiency were worse in the PN group. In conclusion, both ETF and PN are effective in maintaining nutritional status post-BMT. When ETF is tolerated, it is associated with better nutritional response. With the existing ETF and PN regimens close monitoring of the trace element and mineral status is required. PMID:10205318

Papadopoulou, A; Williams, M D; Darbyshire, P J; Booth, I W

1998-04-01

228

Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Relying on self-reported anthropometric data is often the only feasible way of studying large populations. In this context,\\u000a there are no studies assessing the validity of anthropometrics in a mostly vegetarian population. The objective of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the validity of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We selected a representative sample of 911 participants

Maira Bes-Rastrollo; Joan Sabaté; Karen Jaceldo-Siegl; Gary E Fraser

2011-01-01

229

Predicting the throwing velocity of the ball in handball with anthropometric variables and isotonic tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the influence of general anthropometric variables, handball-specific anthropometric variables, and upper-limb power and strength on ball-throwing velocity in a standing position (?ball), and (2) predict this velocity using multiple regression methods. Forty-two skilled male handball players (age 21.0 ± 3.0 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m; body mass = 78.3 ± 11.3 kg) participated in the study. We measured general anthropometric variables

Thierry Debanne; Guillaume Laffaye

2011-01-01

230

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)|

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

231

Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 29–38 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 0–12 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score.

Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

2009-01-01

232

Nutrition Research--USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews selected Soviet nutrition research having military significance in terms of meeting nutritional requirements in typical military environments, as well as in adverse natural environments in which military forces operate. Addressed are n...

V. Dibbern

1981-01-01

233

Nutrition Research Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment is an analysis of nutrition research alternatives -- alternative goals and priorities, alternative definitions and funding, and alternative research personnel requirements. Its principal finding is that Federal human nutrition research prog...

1978-01-01

234

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a child based public health surveillance system that monitors the nutritional status of low income children in federally funded maternal and child health programs. Data on birth weight, short stature...

2004-01-01

235

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a child based public health surveillance system that monitors the nutritional status of low income children in federally funded maternal and child health programs. Data on birth weight, short stature...

2004-01-01

236

The San Antonio Biethnic Children's Blood Pressure Study: anthropometric findings.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are very prevalent today, and early detection of the precursors of these diseases is important. Increased weight and body mass indexes (BMIs) are known to be risk factors for these adult diseases. The objectives of this portion of the study were to obtain anthropometric measurements known to correlate with children's blood pressure levels and to compare these measurements among Mexican-American (M-A) females and males and non-Hispanic white (W) females and males. These data will allow healthcare providers to know normal weights and BMIs for different ethnic groups so that early detection of risk factors can be done. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and arm circumference) were obtained on 4,195 M-A and 2,039 W children in kindergarten through 12th grade in two school districts in the San Antonio, Texas, area. Data were statistically analyzed and related to age. M-A males had a tendency to be heavier than W males throughout the ages studied. M-A females had a tendency to be heavier than W females until 11 years of age, but that trend was reversed between ages 14 and 18. For all four subgroups, there was a marked skewness toward obesity based on BMI (kg/m2). Height of M-A children beginning as early as 5 years of age was slightly but significantly (P > or = .05) less than that of W children of the same gender. M-A males and females had either a tendency for or significantly higher values (P > or = .05) for BMI than W counterparts. M-A children had larger subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness than their W counterparts, with females showing greater values than males. The data indicate that there are several important differences in weight, height, BMI, and skinfold thickness between M-A and W children and between boys and girls as noted above. There are also considerable increases in weight with a relatively stable height in all four subgroups since the last published growth charts. PMID:10476088

Menard, S W; Park, M K; Scholfield, J

1999-01-01

237

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

238

Much Ado About Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

Deringer, Shirley K.

1973-01-01

239

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

240

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

241

Nutrition and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

1978-01-01

242

National Nutrition Month  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine if consumer magazines communicate information about National Nutrition Month to Americans.National Nutrition Month (NNM) provides the public with basic nutrition knowledge, but who is aware of this campaign and does it have an educational impact on the average American? From a list of the top 200 consumer magazines 47 were chosen because they feature health related

S. C. Fredericks

1997-01-01

243

Successful Nutrition Screening Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial nutrition screening can be a labor intensive activity that is a key to the entire nutrition care process. A flow chart of a nutrition screening protocol for a tertiary care hospital revealed a need for improved timeliness and efficiency. The original screening protocol relied on medical record review and patient interviews to obtain screen data. Patient interviews were frequently

P. Fraker; J. Christy-Given

1995-01-01

244

Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.  

PubMed

This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

Harris, B

1994-08-01

245

Prevalence of Neck and Back Pain amongst Aircrew at the Extremes of Anthropometric Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back and neck pain are a significant cause of morbidity among helicopter aircrew. The majority of studies evaluating the influence of anthropometry are limited to body mass index and stature. Nine anthropometric parameters were measured and a survey was i...

A. J. Hathaway J. M. Cox K. Clayborne P. L. Walters

2012-01-01

246

The AMRL Anthropometric Data Bank Library. Volume IV. 1950 Survey of USAF Flying Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anthropometric study of flying personnel was conducted, in 1950, at 14 Air Force bases in Mass, Mich, Colorado, Washington, California, Texas, and Louisiana. The original statistical analyses were the initial activity of the Anthropology Research Proje...

C. Clauser P. Kikta

1978-01-01

247

A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

2013-04-01

248

The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture - an anthropometric appraisal of surgical outcomes.  

PubMed

Before undergoing repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, most patients are worried about their postoperative appearance. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the selection of the surgical approach to the inferior orbita and resulting eyelid deformities. We present a photo-assisted postoperative evaluation of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair based on reference anthropometric data. Two hundred and twenty-one patients underwent zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. An analysis of standardized postoperative photographs included measurements of eye fissure width and height, lid sulcus height, upper lid height, upper and lower coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, and whether a transconjunctival or a subciliary approach was performed. Surgery per se significantly influenced eyelid deformities as measured by its impact on eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show and ectropion. The surgical approach selected significantly affected eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show, indicating distortion of the lower eyelid. Investigations regarding orbital fractures should clearly differentiate the type of fracture. The subciliary approach included the highest risk of postoperative lower eyelid deformity in zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. The standardized measurements described here are accurate and objective to evaluate postoperative results. PMID:23218980

Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Hagemeister, Christoph; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

2012-12-06

249

Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. Images p16-a p19-a

Maud, P. J.

1983-01-01

250

Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17

Matthew John Barlow; Malcolm Findlay; Karen Gresty; Carlton Cooke

2012-01-01

251

Pitirim A. Sorokin's early contributions to the development of anthropometric history.  

PubMed

The genealogy of the field of anthropometric history has received relatively little scholarly attention over the years. This paper discusses the contributions to the development of the field made by sociologist Pitirim A. Sorokin and colleagues in the 1920s and early 1930s. In so doing, attention is also called to a number of important, but little-utilized anthropometric sources employed by Sorokin. PMID:23410664

Coclanis, Peter A

2013-01-22

252

Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data – a data set for the validation of models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is

Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes

2001-01-01

253

Analysis of performance of prepubertal swimmers assessed from anthropometric and bio-energetic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between anthropometric and bio-energetic data and timed performance over 50 to 400 m was studied in 25 young male swimmers [11.3 (SD 1) years]. Anthropometric measurements included height, body mass, body fat mass, body area, thoracic section area (A\\u000ats) thoracic circumferences, lengths of upper limb, bi-acromial and bi-iliac diameters. Maximal oxygen consumption (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2max; direct

P. Duché; G. Falgairette; M. Bedu; G. Lac; A. Robert; J. Coudert

1993-01-01

254

[Anthropometric indicators and psychodynamics in 20-54 year old ethnic Georgian men].  

PubMed

Aim of our research is establishing interrelation of anthropometric and psychodynamic indicators of ethnic Georgian men with normal physical development. Totally 125 men from 20 to 54 years old were observed. The were divided into 7 age groups. The anthropometric data were processed by mathematical statistics methods. For the research of character and temperament a questionnaire by Aizenk and scales of temperament by Sheldon were used. The types of mood were determined by D. Uznadze method. For determination of intellect the schemes and tests approved in England and USA were used. It was found that among ethnic Georgian men phlegmatic and sanguine persons prevail; the interconnection between of anthropometric data and temperament are 0.4-0.5. Correlation between of anthropometric data and forms of character (introversion) increases by 0.4-0.54; interrelation between the forms of intellect (mathematical, verbal) and of anthropometric data grow by 0.4-0.6; with the age interconnection between the types of mood and anthropometric data decreases by 0.1-0.2. Thus, it was established that ethnic Georgian men of normal physical development from 20 to 54 years old are mainly dolichomorphic, of sanguine temperament, extravert, they have average verbal (logical) intellect, by type of mood they are plastic-dynamic, constant-stable, with average excitement, which means they are harmonious constitutional types. PMID:19202233

Hadashvili, L A

2009-01-01

255

Maternal nutrition and birth weight.  

PubMed

Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation during pregnancy. Ethnic differences in the development of the newborn are worth studying after discounting confounding factors. PMID:12344922

Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

1987-01-01

256

Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms.

Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

2013-01-01

257

Health and nutrition education program in primary schools of Crete: changes in blood pressure over 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the long-term effects of the ‘Cretan Health and Nutrition Education Program’ on blood pressure.Subjects:A representative population of 176 pupils (85 from the intervention schools and 91 from the control schools).Design:Blood pressure, dietary, anthropometrical and physical activity data were obtained at baseline (academic year 1992–1993) and at follow-up examination (academic year 2001–2002).Results:The findings of the current study revealed that

I Kafatos; Y Manios; J Moschandreas; A Kafatos

2007-01-01

258

Head size and intelligence, learning, nutritional status and brain development. Head, IQ, learning, nutrition and brain.  

PubMed

This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 +/- 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC < or = 2 S.D.) had significantly lower values mainly for brain volume (BV), parental Z-HC, IQ, SA, AAT, birth length (BL) and a significantly higher incidence of undernutrition in the first year of life compared with their macrocephalic peers (Z-HC > 2S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV, parental Z-HC and BL were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child's Z-HC variance (r(2) = 0.727). These findings confirm the hypothesis formulated in this study: (1) independently of age, sex and SES, brain parameters, parental HC and prenatal nutritional indicators are the most important independent variables that determine HC and (2) microcephalic children present multiple disorders not only related to BV but also to IQ, SA and nutritional background. PMID:15093150

Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Olivares, Manuel G; Díaz, Nora S; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Miller, Patricio T; Bosch, Enrique O; Larraín, Cristián G

2004-01-01

259

[Nutritional status, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk in lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivore].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess socioeconomic characteristics, dietary intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk (using anthropometric indicators of central obesity) in lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for gender and age) in order to increase the power of the statistical tests. The sample was made up of 87 individuals (58.6% males; 29 vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians) with a mean age of 40 +/- 13 years. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only the number of residents per household differed between groups, with a greater percentage of homes with five or more residents in the vegetarian group. Concerning lifestyle, the groups differed with regard to smoking habits (p < 0.001), with a higher proportion of smokers among the non-vegetarians. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the anthropometric variables studied. Concerning dietary intake, no difference between groups was found with regard to total calorie intake, but the consumption of proteins, total lipids, saturated fat and cholesterol was higher among the non-vegetarians, whereas carbohydrate and fiber intake was higher among the vegetarians. The results of the present study suggest that, although a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is considered healthier due to the lower consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, there are no significant differences in nutritional status or anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk when lifestyle and total calorie intake are similar. PMID:21614817

Fernandes Dourado, Keila; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Rojas, Hernando Flores; Simiões, Shirley Kelly dos Santos; de Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira

2010-09-01

260

Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development.

Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

1995-01-01

261

Nutrition risk screening in acute care: a survey of practice.  

PubMed

The Joint Commission-accredited acute care hospitals are required to screen patients for nutrition risk, but criteria and procedures in use have not been described. The purpose of this study was to survey managers of clinical nutrition services in acute care hospitals regarding procedures for screening for nutrition risk. Members of the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group were surveyed using an e-mailed link to an electronic survey. Of 1668 members contacted, 522 usable surveys were completed (31%). Most respondents (84%) reported that nursing staff had primary responsibility for nutrition screening; 10% used nutrition services staff; 4% used a computerized system. Where nursing staff did nutrition screening (n=441), 57% (n=252) said that nutrition services staff do a secondary admission screen. Dietitians most often performed secondary screens (70%), followed by dietetic technicians (16%), 4-year-degreed staff (4%), and clerks (3%). Most nutrition services staff screens (61%) used different data than nursing staff screens; 12% collected the same data as nursing staff. Screening criteria most often used by nursing staff were a history of weight loss (95%), poor intake prior to admission (81%), nutrition support (79%), chewing/swallowing issues (75%), and skin breakdown (72%). Criteria most commonly used by nutrition services staff were diagnosis (90%), nutrition support (81%), nothing by mouth (NPO)/clear liquid diet order (78%), visceral proteins (71%), and specific diet orders (68%). Most respondents had not formally evaluated their screening systems for sensitivity or specificity. There is a need to further evaluate the nutrition screening systems used in acute care hospitals in the U.S. PMID:18682594

Chima, Cinda S; Dietz-Seher, Christin; Kushner-Benson, Susan

262

Nutrition in the adolescent.  

PubMed

This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R

1999-02-01

263

A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students  

PubMed Central

The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.

Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta-Jimenez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patino, Eliju; Ibarra, Carlos

2011-01-01

264

Length of stay in surgical patients: nutritional predictive parameters revisited.  

PubMed

Nutritional evaluation may predict clinical outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS). We aimed to assess the value of nutritional risk and status methods, and to test standard anthropometry percentiles v. the 50th percentile threshold in predicting LOS, and to determine nutritional status changes during hospitalisation and their relation with LOS. In this longitudinal prospective study, 298 surgical patients were evaluated at admission and discharge. At admission, nutritional risk was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and nutritional status by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), involuntary % weight loss in the previous 6 months and anthropometric parameters; % weight loss and anthropometry were reassessed at discharge. At admission, risk/undernutrition results by NRS-2002 (P< 0.001), MUST (P< 0.001), % weight loss (P< 0.001) and SGA (P< 0.001) were predictive of longer LOS. A mid-arm circumference (MAC) or a mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMA) under the 15th and the 50th percentile, which was considered indicative of undernutrition, did predict longer LOS (P< 0.001); conversely, there was no association between depleted triceps skinfold (TSF) and longer LOS. In-hospital, there was a high prevalence of weight, muscle and fat losses, associated with longer LOS. At discharge, patients with a simultaneous negative variation in TSF+MAC+MAMA (n 158, 53 %) had longer LOS than patients with a TSF+MAC+MAMA positive variation (11 (8-15) v. 8 (7-12) d, P< 0.001). We concluded that at risk or undernutrition evaluated by all methods, except TSF and BMI, predicted a longer LOS. Moreover, MAC and MAMA measurements and their classification according to the 50th percentile threshold seem reliable undernutrition indicators. PMID:22717003

Almeida, Ana Isabel; Correia, Marta; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paula

2012-05-01

265

Estimates of body water, fat-free mass, and body fat in patients on peritoneal dialysis by anthropometric formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of body water, fat-free mass, and body fat in patients on peritoneal dialysis by anthropometric formulas.BackgroundAnthropometric formulas that are used to estimate body water in peritoneal dialysis patients can also be used to estimate fat-free mass and body fat. Evaluation of body composition by the anthropometric formulas rests on two assumptions: (1) fat contains no water, and (2) the

Antonios H Tzamaloukas; Glen H Murata; Dorothy J Vanderjagt; Robert H Glew

2003-01-01

266

Consumer use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

267

Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional

Olson, Christine; And Others

268

Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.  

PubMed

The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight the high level of nutritional risk in rural dwelling older adults of Asian Indian Origin. Clinicians conducting assessments in this population need to take these measures into account in order to fully account for potential health risks. PMID:21846245

Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

2011-01-01

269

Birth order influence on the anthropometric properties of the boys from Tuzla region (Bosnia and Herzegovina).  

PubMed

Birth order and its effect on growth and development of children and youths have rarely been studied so far. The objective of this research was an analysis of the birth order effects on some anthropometric properties of the boys 11-16 years old. The sample consisted of 748 boys from the Tuzla region. As the sample included very few boys born as the third, forth, or fifth child, we decided to consider only the differences in the mean values for some anthropometric parameters between the groups of the first- and the second-born. Measurements were taken according to IBP and the following parameters were investigated: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper arm circumference, upper leg circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, length and width of head. We established that in most generations the firstborn boys have larger mean values for most anthropometric variables in comparison to the second-born. PMID:15629024

Hadzihalilovi?, Jasminka; Redzi?, Amira; Terzi?, Rifat; Jusupovi?, Fatima; Hadzihalilovi?, Amir; Osmi?, Munevera

2004-05-01

270

Neonatal weight gain and nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Newborn nutrition; Nutritional needs -- premature infants ... have trouble coordinating sucking, breathing, and swallowing. Also, newborns with breathing problems, very low oxygen levels, gagging, ...

271

Optimizing Nutrition for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Optimizing Nutrition for Toddlers Article Body Since his very first feeding, you’ve probably paid plenty of attention to what your child eats. Remember, in making dietary decisions early in your youngster’s life, your primary focus should be on good nutrition ...

272

Total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Providing nourishment to the sick is one of the basic tenets of nursing practice. Today, as this fundamental human need is met through the modern technology of parenteral nutrition, nursing's role in providing nutritional care for patients has become more significant. Conscientious nursing management of the patient receiving TPN is essential for preventing complications and for ensuring that therapeutic goals are met. PMID:2498847

Worthington, P H; Wagner, B A

1989-06-01

273

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition.…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

274

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

275

Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher

276

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

277

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)|

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

278

Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

279

Day Care: Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

Foster, Florence P.; And Others

280

Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify improved clinical outcomes and cost savings resulting from nutrition therapy in Connecticut.Members of the Consulting Nutritionists of Connecticut and dietitians from hospitals were asked to track and report case studies documenting clinical outcomes resulting from medical nutrition therapy. We received reports on 25 patients. Dietitians included the following information: site of counseling, age, diagnoses, laboratory data

M. G. Holl; T. P. Liskov

1997-01-01

281

Nutrition in centenarians.  

PubMed

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-26

282

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

283

On-Line Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

Kongshem, Lars

1995-01-01

284

Sudbury Schools' Mission Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To show RDs how to facilitate, integrate, and communicate effective nutrition education in school cafeterias, the classrooms, and the home.A grant was received from the Sudbury Education Resource Fund, Inc., (SERF) in Sudbury, Massachusetts, from September 1996 to June 1997, to facilitate the translation of nutrition awareness and education. In June of 1996, a survey was sent home

J. S. Blake; R. Skog; A. Lynch

1997-01-01

285

Nutrition and sports performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of nutrition playing an important role in sports performance. Many factors can impact the performance of a sports person during competition which may be related to different domains. The most commonly encountered nutritional related problem among sports person is their failure to consume sufficient total of food energy. Food is composed of six basic substance: carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

S Manikandan; D Selvam

2010-01-01

286

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

Black, Susan

2000-01-01

287

Nutrition and Multifetal Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

JUDITH E BROWN; MARCIA CARLSON

2000-01-01

288

Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy

2002-01-01

289

Ethics of artificial nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent decades have seen dramatic improvements in our ability as a profession to care for patients with critical illness and chronic disease. One consequence of this is that patients now more often survive to a point where nutrition becomes a limiting factor in their care. In addition, we now have the skills and technology to maintain a patients’ nutritional status

John MacFie

2006-01-01

290

Implementing School Nutrition Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools provide an important venue for promoting healthy eating. In recent years, local and national governments have recognized that school nutrition policies can play an important role in achieving positive health outcomes for students. The New Brunswick Department of Education was at the forefront of action in 1991 when it developed the Food and Nutrition Policy for New Brunswick Schools.

Mary McKenna

291

Nutrition for winter sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable

Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle

2011-01-01

292

Association of Anthropometric indexes with chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Objective: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the best anthropometric obesity measure remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the associations of anthropometric indexes with CKD risk and which anthropometric index is a better predictor of CKD. Methods: Data was drawn from a cross-sectional study in China. We used four anthropometric indexes: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-tohip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/ min/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ? 30 mg/g. Logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Results: 1,834 participants were included in the analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, BMI, WC and WHtR were significantly associated with CKD in men and women. The respective odd ratios for BMI (every SD increment), WC (every SD increment), and WHtR (every SD increment) were 1.46, 1.40, and 1.45 in men as well as 1.21, 1.31, and 1.38 in women. After adjusting for potential confounders, WHR was associated with CKD in women but not men. In women, the associations of WC, WHR and WHtR with CKD was independent of other MetS components. No difference in WHtR was observed between men and women. Conclusion: Anthropometric indexes are associated with CKD. The associations of anthropometric indexes with CKD are independent of other MetS components in women but not men. In women, central obesity indexes are better than BMI for predicting of CKD. *Both authors contributed equally. PMID:24091315

Chen, Shanying; Wu, Bide; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Youming; Li, Yongqiang; Li, Mi; Liang, Yan; Shao, Xiaofei; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

2013-11-01

293

Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.  

PubMed

Published literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is anthropometric profile. The Long Term Player Development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland the Train-to-Train stage of the LTPD model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train- to-Train stage of the LTPD model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the LTPD model was assessed using total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat %, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, as well as for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards.The results of the present study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the LTPD model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, as this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the LTPD model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran Tj; Green, Brian S

2013-03-27

294

Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.  

PubMed

This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been reported among OC users, and requirements of thiamine and riboflavin may be increased. In cases where the therapy is justified, the nutritional consequences can often be justified. However, every effort should be made to identify nutritional side effects by proper assessment procedures and to manage them by oral or parenteral supplementation where feasible. PMID:6764730

Young, R C; Blass, J P

1982-01-01

295

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation.

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2013-01-01

296

[Evolution of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients during 4 years of follow].  

PubMed

Protein-calorie malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis), which contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This work has followed 90 patients of both sexes with chronic kidney disease who were treated with hemodialysis periodically in our unit for four years. All patients were performed quarterly measurements of plasma albúmina (A1b), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and monthly transferrin (Tr), Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were taken on all patients by using a balance/stadiometer (Perperson 113481); weight was measured in kilograms and height in centimetres. BMI was calculated with this formula: weight/height2 and classified according to the WHO criteria: BMI < 18.50: Underweight; from 18.50 to 24.99: Normal range; from 25.00 to 29.99: Overweight; and BMI > or =30.00: Obese. The aim of this work was evaluate the nutritional status of these patients through the assessment of biochemical parameters and anthropometric parameters and determine if these patients suffer alterations suggesting nutritional deterioration directly related to the time on dialysis. During the 4 years all patients showed a significant decline of biochemical parameters, on the other hand the BMI did not significant changes in relation to malnutrition. Malnutrition in patients on dialysis is therefore evident, the BMI does not correspond with the biochemical parameters observed, so nutritional deterioration of these patients is mainly manifested by biochemical parameters studied. PMID:23094520

Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth

2011-12-01

297

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa.  

PubMed

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation. PMID:23157586

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2012-12-06

298

Carrier Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Hemophilia How Do You Get Hemophilia? Severity of Hemophilia Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment Hemophilia in Pictures FAQs Resources Carriers and Women ... Hemophilia How Do You Get Hemophilia? Severity of Hemophilia Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment Hemophilia in Pictures FAQs Resources Carriers and Women ...

299

Anthropometric, Gait and Strength Characteristics of Kenyan Distance Runners  

PubMed Central

This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports.

Kong, Pui W.; de Heer, Hendrik

2008-01-01

300

Nutritional status deteriorates as the severity of diabetic foot ulcers increases and independently associates with prognosis  

PubMed Central

The prognosis for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remains poor. Nutritional status has not been identified as one of the factors affecting the outcome of DFUs. Therefore, indicators correlated with nutritional status and outcome were analyzed to investigate their relationship. A total of 192 hospitalized patients with Wagner grade 1–5 ulcers and 60 patients with Wagner grade 0 ulcers (all had type 2 diabetes) were assessed by the following: subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and physical examinations to evaluate nutritional status, severity of infection and complications. Patient outcome was recorded as healing of the ulcer and the patients were followed up for 6 months or until the wound was healed. The percentage of malnutrition was 62.0% in the DFU patients. The SGA was closely correlated with infection (r=0.64), outcome (r=0.37) and BMI (r=?0.36), all P<0.001. The risk of poor outcome increased with malnutrition [odds ratio (OR), 10.6, P<0.001]. The nutritional status of the DFU patients was independently correlated with the severity of infection and outcome (both P<0.001) and Wagner grades and nutritional status (SGA) were independent risk factors for patient outcome (both P<0.001). Nutritional status deteriorated as the severity of the DFU increased, and malnutrition was a predictor of poor prognosis.

ZHANG, SHAN-SHAN; TANG, ZHENG-YI; FANG, PING; QIAN, HONG-JIE; XU, LEI; NING, GUANG

2013-01-01

301

Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

Pulliam, L.W.

1985-01-01

302

Associations between nutritional markers and inflammation in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between clinical, laboratory, demographic, and nutritional markers with inflammatory state and malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Fifty-two patients on regular HD were evaluated by clinical, demographic, laboratory, and nutritional parameters (food intake, anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance, subjective global assessment--SGA and appetite characteristics). Inflammation (serum C-reactive protein >or= 0.9 mg/dl) was present in 13 (25%) and malnutrition (SGA) in 16 (30.7%) patients. Body mass index (BMI), total lymphocytes count, and phase angle were negative and independently associated with malnutrition. Values of BMI >or= 25 kg/m2 were associated with diabetes, positively associated with adipose tissue percentage (BIA) and negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure. Phase angle was positively associated with hematocrit, total lymphocytes count and serum creatinine, and was negatively associated with age. A negative and independent association between muscle mass percentage (BIA) and inflammation was observed. These results suggested that inflammatory state induces muscle mass depletion, while high BMI is associated with diabetes and with lower diastolic blood pressure, a recognized cardiovascular risk factor in uremic patients. Phase angle and SGA were associated with traditional nutritional markers, reinforcing their validity for HD patients. PMID:19363697

Vannini, Franciele D; Antunes, Aline A; Caramori, Jacqueline C T; Martin, Luis C; Barretti, Pasqual

2009-12-01

303

Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements

S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee

1995-01-01

304

Sensitivity of the anthropometrical and geometrical parameters of the bones and muscles on a musculoskeletal model of the lower limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling is necessary to understand and evaluate the musculoskeletal system of the human body. Most of the developed models used anthropometrical and geometrical parameters of the bones and muscles from the literature. The aim of the present work was to study the sensitivity of anthropometrical (segment mass) and geometrical (physiologic cross-sectional area of the muscle) parameters on musculoskeletal model of

Tien Tuan Dao; F. Marin; M. C. Ho Ba Tho

2009-01-01

305

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parameters and Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Index among an Adult Iranian Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric

Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

306

Vitamin nutrition in older adults.  

PubMed

Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

2002-11-01

307

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

308

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

309

Nutritional status of young female elite gymnasts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of a group of 10 young female elite gymnasts aged 13-17 years, who do a physical exercise of 48 h/wk. Assessment included dietary intake for 7 days, body mass index, ideal body weight, and skinfold thickness. In addition, the number of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 were counted. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 50 volunteer students doing less than 12 h/wk of physical exercise, who were matched by sex, age, and sociocultural level. The total weekly calorie intake was lower in gymnasts than in controls; gymnasts showed a higher calorie intake from dietary protein together with a lower calorie intake from lipid and carbohydrate sources in comparison with controls. All the anthropometric parameters, except height which was not different in the two groups, were lower in gymnasts than in controls. The lymphocyte and leukocyte counts were also lower in gymnasts in relation to controls, except CD19 and CD56 subsets which were similar in both groups. It is suggested that gymnasts are at risk of malnutrition, which when compounded with intense physical exercise could lead to immunosuppression in these athletes. PMID:10989768

López-Varela, S; Montero, A; Chandra, R K; Marcos, A

2000-07-01

310

Nutritional scientist or biochemist?  

PubMed

When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

Suttie, J W

2011-08-21

311

Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.  

PubMed

Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

2013-09-01

312

Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods: subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI). METHODS: The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients, aged 18-84 years (average life span 55.57 ± 12.84), with different gastrointestinal pathology, admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical and Hospital Center “Bezanijska Kosa” during a period of 180 d. All the patients, after being informed in detail about the study and signing a written consent, underwent nutritional status analysis, which included two different nutritional indices: SGA and NRI, anthropometric parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and biochemical markers, within 24 h of admission. RESULTS: In our sample of 299 hospitalized patients, global malnutrition prevalence upon admission varied from 45.7% as assessed by the SGA to 63.9% by NRI. Two applied methods required different parameters for an adequate approach: glucose level (5.68 ± 1.06 mmol/L vs 4.83 ± 1.14 mmol/L, F = 10.63, P = 0.001); body mass index (26.03 ± 4.53 kg/m2 vs 18.17 ± 1.52 kg/m2, F = 58.36, P < 0.001); total body water (42.62 ± 7.98 kg vs 36.22 ± 9.32 kg, F = 7.95, P = 0.005); basal metabolic rate (1625.14 ± 304.91 kcal vs 1344.62 ± 219.08 kcal, F = 9.06, P = 0.003) were very important for SGA, and lymphocyte count was relevant for NRI: 25.56% ± 8.94% vs 21.77% ± 10.08%, F = 11.55, P = 0.001. The number of malnourished patients rose with the length of hospital stay according to both nutritional indices. The discriminative function analysis (DFA) delineated the following parameters as important for prediction of nutritional status according to SGA assessment: concentration of albumins, level of proteins, SGA score and body weight. The DFA extracted MAMC, glucose level and NRI scores were variables of importance for the prediction of whether admitted patients would be classified as well or malnourished. CONCLUSION: SGA showed higher sensitivity to predictor factors. Assessment of nutritional status requires a multidimensional approach, which includes different clinical indices and various nutritional parameters.

Filipovic, Branka F; Gajic, Milan; Milinic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Branislav; Filipovic, Branislav R; Cvetkovic, Mirjana; Sibalic, Nela

2010-01-01

313

2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. PMID:22616443

2011-12-01

314

VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France).

Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frederic

2013-01-01

315

Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

2012-01-01

316

Chronobiology and nutrition.  

PubMed

Numerous long-term studies have investigated the circadian clock system in mammals, which organizes physiological functions, including metabolism, digestion, and absorption of food, and energy expenditure. Food or nutrition can be a synchronizer for the circadian clock systems, as potent as the external light-dark signal can be. Recent studies have investigated different kinds of food, frequency of consumption, and time of consumption for optimizing body clock and ensuring healthy habits. In this review, we discuss recent studies investigating chronobiology and nutrition, and then summarize available information as "Chrono-nutrition" for the development of a new standardized research strategy. PMID:24007937

Tahara, Y; Shibata, S

2013-09-03

317

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

318

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

319

USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

320

The Economics of Nutritional Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition is a basic need and as such one of the desired outcomes of economic development. There are compelling reasons for investing in nutrition other than its economic benefits. Nevertheless, quantifying these economic benefits can be useful for advocating increased resources for nutrition programs. Economic analysis can also help to make informed decisions about the type of nutrition interventions to

Susan Horton

321

Biomechanical factors in 100 m freestyle swimming and their relationships with anthropometric characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between stroke rate, stroke length and velocity in each 10 m distance in 100-m freestyle competitive in order to compare male and female swimmers' results and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Sixteen male and six female of Chandigarh's elite swimmers were tested during competition. Each of the 22 subjects

Mohsen Barghamadi; Zohreh Behboodi

2010-01-01

322

Absence of correlation between Y chromosome heterochromatin and several anthropometric measurements in a Mexican population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between nine anthropometric variables and six different measurements of the Y heterochromatic regions of 146 young Mexican adults was investigated. Only the absolute heterochromatic width showed a significant correlation at the 0.02 level with the upper segment\\/lower segment ratio, but the biological significance of this finding is strongly questioned.

S. Armendares; R. Lisker; O. Mutchinick; F. Sánchez; Leonora Buentello; Eyra Cárdenas; Josefina Calójero; Lizbeth Ruz

1983-01-01

323

Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses anthropometric and archival data to reassess the standard of living in the Soviet Union. In the prewar period, the population was small in stature and sensitive to the political and economic upheavals experienced in the country. Significant improvements in child height, adult stature, and infant mortality were recorded from approximately 1945 to 1970. While this period of

Elizabeth Brainerd

2010-01-01

324

Effects of Vehicle Interior Geometry and Anthropometric Variables on Automobile Driving Posture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering wheel position, and seat cushion angle. Two seats differing in stiffness and seat back contour were used in testing. Driving postures were recorded using

Matthew P. Reed; Miriam A. Manary; Carol A. C. Flannagan; Lawrence W. Schneider

2000-01-01

325

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

326

Anthropometric Survey of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anthropometric and equipment evaluation surveys of the military personnel of the Republic of Korea were conducted between May and November of 1965. Body measurements and equipment evaluation data were obtained on a series of 3,747 men (3,249 Army, 190 Air...

G. L. Hart G. E. Rowland R. Malina

1966-01-01

327

Cross-Sectional Changes in Anthropometric Variables among Wapishana and Patamona Amerindian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract Although anthropometric information on South American Indi- an populations has been collected for many years, remarkably little is known about age-related changes in their body size in adulthood. The lack of base- line information on the normal pattern of aging among Amerindian adults hinders investigations into the health consequences of the many economic, environmental and demographic changes that

Alan D. Dangour

2003-01-01

328

Cross-Sectional Changes in Anthropometric Variables among Wapishana and Patamona Amerindian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although anthropometric information on South American Indian populations has been collected for many years, remarkably little is known about age-related changes in their body size in adulthood. The lack of baseline information on the normal pattern of aging among Amerindian adults hinders investigations into the health consequences of the many economic, environmental and demographic changes that are currently occurring among

Alan D. Dangour

2011-01-01

329

Effects of vehicle interior geometry and anthropometric variables on automobile driving posture.  

PubMed

The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering wheel position, and seat cushion angle. Two seats differing in stiffness and seat back contour were used in testing. Driving postures were recorded using a sonic digitizer to measure the 3D locations of body landmarks. All test variables had significant independent effects on driving posture. Drivers were found to adapt to changes in the vehicle geometry primarily by changes in limb posture, whereas torso posture remained relatively constant. Stature accounts for most of the anthropometrically related variability in driving posture, and gender differences appear to be explained by body size variation. Large intersubject differences in torso posture, which are fairly stable across different seat and package conditions, are not closely related to standard anthropometric measures. The findings can be used to predict the effects of changes in vehicle and seat design on driving postures for populations with a wide range of anthropometric characteristics. PMID:11324849

Reed, M P; Manary, M A; Flannagan, C A; Schneider, L W

2000-01-01

330

Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels in rural Wardha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Overweight and obesity are important determinants of health leading to adverse metabolic changes, including increase in blood pressure. Being overweight is associated with two- to six-fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension. Studies in urban Indian population showed strong relationship between different anthropometric indicators and blood pressure levels. Surprisingly, little is known about these relationships in

P. R. Deshmukh; S. S. Gupta; A. R. Dongre; M. S. Bharambe; C. Maliye; S. Kaur; B. S. Garg

2006-01-01

331

Approaches in researching human measurement : MMU model of utilising anthropometric data to create size charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a model of researching clothing anthropometrics at the Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK (MMU model), to demonstrate steps in devising size charts by analysing raw data, to relate key aspects of size charts to raw data, and to generate debate on such methods that impinge on the disseminated knowledge

Rose Otieno

2008-01-01

332

Anthropometric Study of U.S. Army National Guard Personnel, Fort Polk, Louisiana (2003).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report highlights the collection of anthropometric and demographic data for a group of Army National Guard (ARNG) personnel (N=451) who were preparing, at Fort Polk, Louisiana, for active duty in Bosnia and Kosovo in July 2003. These data provide inf...

T. N. Garlie C. C. Gordon

2005-01-01

333

Anthropometric assessment of youth national championship basketball players in relation to playing position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiling can be a valuable means of identifying talent, strengths and weaknesses, assigning player positions and helping in the optimal design of training programmes. The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric profile of elite national basketball players. A squad of youth national championship basketball players (n = 44) provided informed consent to participate in this study. Using ISAK

J Viswanathan; A S Nageswara; S Baskar

2010-01-01

334

Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2007-01-01

335

Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness— a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they

A Molarius; JC Seidell

1998-01-01

336

Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

2009-01-01

337

Effect of regular training on the anthropometric parameters and urine steroids in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the anthropometric data and urine steroid metabolites caused by regular training in children in two age groups (11 and 14 years old) were investigated. The skinfolds of older girls participating in regular athletic, swimming or soccer training were thinner compared with age-matched control groups (P P P P P P P P P P P P P

Z. Juricskay; B. Mezey

1994-01-01

338

Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2007-01-01

339

The prognostic significance of basic anthropometric data in children with advanced solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pediatric cancer patients, malnutrition is commonly observed. This may represent the metabolic effect of the primary disease or it may be a consequence of multimodal therapy. This report evaluates the efficacy of using basic anthropometric measurements to predict morbidity during therapy. Twenty children with Wilms’ tumor (Stage III, IV, and V) or neuroblastoma (Stage IV) diagnosed at Children's Hospital

John M. Lahorra; Denis R. King

1989-01-01

340

Physical fitness indices and anthropometrics profiles in schoolchildren with sickle cell trait\\/disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current studies aimed at determining physical fitness indices and anthropometrics pro- files of school children with sickle cell trait (SCT) and sickle cell disease (SCD). Male school children (150) comprising 3 Groups participated in the studies. Group 1 has 50 normal healthy controls, while Groups 2 and 3 each has 50 children who were suffering from SCT and SCD,

Hisham Moheeb; Yasser A. Wali; Mahmoud S. El-Sayed

2007-01-01

341

The use of anthropometric proportion indices in the measurement of facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study used anthropometric data in the form of Farkas' proportion indices in order to quantify facial attractiveness, and to relate measured change through surgery, to clinical judgement. Standardized photographs of 15 orthognathic patients were used in album form and rated by 10 experienced clinicians: album 1 for facial attractiveness (before surgery) and album 2 for improvement in facial

Raymond Edler; Pragati Agarwal; David Wertheim; Darrel Greenhill

2006-01-01

342

Analysis of performance of prepubertal swimmers assessed from anthropometric and bio-energetic characteristics.  

PubMed

The relationship between anthropometric and bio-energetic data and timed performance over 50 to 400 m was studied in 25 young male swimmers [11.3 (SD 1) years]. Anthropometric measurements included height, body mass, body fat mass, body area, thoracic section area (Ats) thoracic circumferences, lengths of upper limb, bi-acromial and bi-iliac diameters. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max; direct method), maximal anaerobic power (W(an),max; force-velocity test) and mean power in 30 s sprint (W30 s; Wingate test) were also measured. Each of these bio-energetic variables was expressed in absolute terms, relating to body mass, body area and Ats. The stepwise regression method was used to determine contribution of the variables (anthropometric and/or bio-energetic) of the time achieved over the distance. The W30 s/Ats accounted for 46% of the time over 50 m (negative correlation). The VO2max/Ats and height were negatively correlated with the times of performances over 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, these two variables accounted for 71% to 77% of the performance. These results would indicate that even in young boys, anthropometric and bio-energetic characteristics are both important in swimming performance, particularly the bio-energetic variables expressed per Ats. PMID:8330618

Duché, P; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Lac, G; Robert, A; Coudert, J

1993-01-01

343

An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography  

PubMed Central

Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.

2012-01-01

344

Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used\\u000a to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected\\u000a for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural\\u000a contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food

Laura Fortunato; Andrea G. Drusini

2005-01-01

345

Food consumption, energy and nutrient intake and nutritional status in rural Bangladesh: changes from 1981–1982 to 1995–96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrient intake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses.Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981–1982 and 1995–1996.Setting: Two villages with different production patterns.Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households.Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in

O Hels; N Hassan; I Tetens; S Haraksingh Thilsted

2003-01-01

346

Anthropometric, biochemical and clinical assessment of malnutrition in Malaysian patients with advanced cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the nutritional status of Asian patients with various aetiologies of cirrhosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to compare nutritional differences between various aetiologies. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study of adult patients with decompensated cirrhosis was conducted. Nutritional status was assessed using standard anthropometry, serum visceral proteins and subjective global assessment

Mei-Ling S Tai; Khean-Lee Goh; Siti Hawa Mohd-Taib; Sanjay Rampal; Sanjiv Mahadeva

2010-01-01

347

Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow.

Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

2013-01-01

348

Nutrition and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present available information concerning the effects of maternal nutrition upon the growth and development of the offspring is summarized. Studies in rats have indicated a widespread effect on growth, metabolism, mental development and behavior of ani...

B. F. Chow R. Q. Blackwell R. W. Sherwin

1968-01-01

349

Teach Nutrition With Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulated games have been designed to teach not only factual material but to provide opportunities for understanding some of the complex systems of our society. The use of this valuable tool is encouraged in the teaching of nutrition. (Author)|

NJEA Review, 1975

1975-01-01

350

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

351

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

352

Nutrition in humanitarian crises.  

PubMed

It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

2004-11-01

353

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

354

Dissemination of Nutritional Knowledge in Germany – Nutrition Circle, 3D Food Pyramid and 10 Nutrition Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Presentation of the general concept of the German Nutrition Society for a successful dissemination of nutritional knowledge. Methods: Evaluation of actual material used for nutrition education and teaching. Results: In Germany, different validated instruments on the basis of actual scientific evidence are available. Quantitative aspects can be easily enlightened with the help of the Nutrition Circle. Information concerning optimal

Peter Stehle

2007-01-01

355

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

2008-11-08

356

Relationship between balance performance in the elderly and some anthropometric variables.  

PubMed

Ability to maintain either static or dynamic balance has been found to be influenced by many factors such as height and weight in the elderly. The relationship between other anthropometric variables and balance performance among elderly Nigerians has not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these other anthropometric variables and balance performance among old individuals aged >60 years in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post facto design and involved two hundred and three apparently healthy (103 males and 100 females) elderly participants with ages between 60 years and 74 years, selected using multiple step-wise sampling techniques from churches, mosques and market place within Ibadan. They were without history of neurological problem, postural hypotension, orthopeadic conditions or injury to the back and/or upper and lower extremities within the past one year. Selected anthropometric variables were measured, Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) was used to assess static balance and dynamic balance respectively. All data were summarized using range, mean and standard deviation. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the physical characteristics, anthropometric variables and performance on each of the two balance tests. The results showed that there were low but significant positive correlations between performance on FRT and each of height, weight, trunk length, foot length, shoulder girth and hip girth. (p<0.05). There was low significant and positive correlation between SRT with eyes closed and arm length, foot length and shoulder girth. (p<0.05) and there was low but significant positive correlation between SRT with eyes opened and shoulder girth and foot length (P<0.05). Anthropometric variables affect balance performances in apparently healthy elderly. PMID:19301708

Fabunmi, A A; Gbiri, C A

2008-12-01

357

ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman

2009-01-01

358

Perinatal and pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies develop rapidly in the very low birth weight infants because of a lack of third-trimester accumulation of fat, minerals, trace elements, and fat-soluble vitamins. Symptomatic zinc deficiency and hypernatremic dehydration may occur unexpectedly in the wholly breast-fed full-term or premature infant, and nutritional adequacy should be carefully monitored even in breast-fed full-term infants. PMID:8319426

Lockitch, G

1993-06-01

359

The influence of clinical and anthropometric parameters on the serum levels of the endothelin-1 in pregnant women and their newborns.  

PubMed

Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is major contributor to maternal death in developing countries. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most potent vasoconstriction agent known and its serum levels are increased in PIH. Therefore it is important to elucidate maternal and neonatal factors which influence endothelin-1 serum levels. 100 pathological pregnancies and 88 controls were analyzed for blood endothelin-1 and their anthropometric and clinical data were collected. In maternal blood ET-1 levels were strongly predicted by diagnosis, therapy and BMI, while umbilical cord ET-1 levels were strongly predicted by gestational age, therapy and delivery termination. Positive correlation between BMI and ET-1 levels suggest that obese pregnant women have increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Inverse relationship between Apgar and umbilical ET-1 indicates that ET-1 could be considered as a prognostic marker in cases of neonatal asphyxia. PMID:22856221

Saruni?, Alenka Vukeli?; Cvijanovi?, Olga; Dudari?, Luka; Denona, Branko; Vukeli?, Lucian; Bobinac, Dragica; Finderle, Aleks

2012-06-01

360

Phylogenesis and nutrition.  

PubMed

The evolution of man is connected with a life-style of hunting and gathering, and with the development and use of tools. The success of tools promoted the evolution of brain, thinking and skills. The food sources--animal and plant--remained the same during the whole of evolution. But the proportions of foods, preferences, preparations and the attainability changed. Evolution was a process continuously based on omnivorous nutrition. Compared to modern nutrition, paleolithic nutrition is richer in animal protein, vitamins, calcium, potassium and fibre, and poorer in fat and sodium. Saccharose, lactose and alcohol play no roles. The quality of the fat is marked by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This shift from a paleolithic diet to a modern diet caused nutritional risks, partly responsible for the dramatic increase in modern chronic diseases of heart, circulation and so on. Man's metabolism works in a stable genetic frame, derived during phylogenesis. We have to adapt our nutritional behaviour to its tolerances or we may succumb to disease and premature death. While our paleolithic metabolism is overdone with modern nutrition, our psychological heritages press in the direction of overdoing. PMID:2697806

Haenel, H

1989-01-01

361

Recipes and nutrition education.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

Hertzler, A A

1983-10-01

362

Clinical neurosciences in the Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the change of JNHA from bimonthly to monthly, it may be useful to review the current state of papers published in the Clinical Neurosciences section and indicate the future directions. In 2007, there were four major areas covered by papers in JNHA Clinical Neuroscience section: nutritional interventions aimed at prevention of cognitive decline with aging, diagnosis and management of

L. Volicer

2008-01-01

363

Nutritional screening and risk factors in elderly hospitalized patients: association to clinical outcome?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the intervalidity of three different nutrition screening tools towards a broad population of elderly hospitalized patients. The association with risk factors and mortality was investigated. This is a prospective cohort study in three medical, surgical and geriatric settings, in Denmark and Sweden. Patients >65 years were consecutively included. Patients were screened by mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) and nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002). Anthropometrics, cognitive test (SPMSQ), as well as a questionnaire investigation regarding eating problems and life situation, were performed. Mortality within 12 months was investigated. In total, 233 patients mean (SD) age 81(7.64) years were included. A large variation in prevalence of nutritional risk was determined between the screening tools, MNA was 68% vs. MUST, 47% and NRS 54%, p < 0.0001. An overall agreement of 67% was seen (? 0.52-0.55). Risk factors were associated with nutritional risk, including depressive mood. Only handgrip strength, fungus in mouth, serum albumin, CRP and cognitive function were associated with mortality. Fungus had the strongest association (OR 3.7; CI 1.19-11.30). The overall mortality rate was 27% during 12 months. However, none of the three screening tools predicted 12-month mortality. The findings show great variation in the prevalence of nutritional risk of under nutrition both between the tools and the settings. The level of agreement between the tools was moderate, and none of the three tools were capable of predicting 12-month mortality. A functional and psychological evaluation including oral health seems recommendable in elderly patients at nutritional risk. PMID:23181396

Holst, Mette; Yifter-Lindgren, Elinor; Surowiak, Mirek; Nielsen, Kari; Mowe, Morten; Carlsson, Maine; Jacobsen, Bent; Cederholm, Tommy; Fenger-Groen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik

2012-11-26

364

Transcultural diabetes nutrition therapy algorithm: the Asian Indian application.  

PubMed

India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India-coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures-has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant India-specific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. PMID:22354498

Joshi, Shashank R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Marchetti, Albert

2012-04-01

365

Preimplantation diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

Preimplantation embryonic biopsy and analysis offer couples at increased risk of having offspring affected with a genetic disorder the possibility of an early prenatal diagnosis. For many couples, this approach would avoid the issue of the selective termination of affected fetuses. Substantial advances have been made in the area of preimplantation diagnosis, but the possible difficulties with this approach cannot be ignored. Images

Goldberg, J D; Martin, M C; Lebo, R V; Pedersen, R A

1993-01-01

366

Determinants of child nutrition and mortality in north-west Uganda.  

PubMed Central

An anthropometric survey of children aged 0-59 months in north-west Uganda in February-March 1987 indicated a high prevalence of stunting but little wasting. Use of unprotected water supplies in the dry season, prolonged breast-feeding, and age negatively affected nutrition; in contrast, parental education level improved nutrition. Mortality during the 12 months following the survey was higher among those who had low weight-for-age and weight-for-height, but children who had low height-for-age did not have higher mortality. Weight-for-age was the most sensitive predictor of mortality at specificities > 88%, while at lower specificity levels weight-for-height was the most sensitive. Children whose fathers' work was associated with the distillation of alcohol had a higher risk of mortality than other children. The lowest mortality was among children whose fathers were businessmen or who grew tobacco.

Vella, V.; Tomkins, A.; Borghesi, A.; Migliori, G. B.; Adriko, B. C.; Crevatin, E.

1992-01-01

367

Understanding the nutrition transition.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of nutrition transition and experiences in China and Russia with monitoring of economic and health changes. Fogel (1994) showed that improvements in nutrition were associated with significant shifts in economic productivity. Over the past 300 years, the pace of dietary change has increased to some extent worldwide. Dietary changes are evident in changes in average stature and body composition and parallel major changes in health status. The nutrition transition follows the pattern of collecting food, famine, receding famine, degenerative disease, and behavioral change. The author's first proposition is that nutritional trends and dietary change are associated with population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution. Urban population has a distinctly different diet from rural population. Urban diets include superior grains, more milled and polished grains, higher fat content, more animal products, more sugar, and more prepared and processed food. Urban and rural diets are farther apart in low-income countries. The author's second proposition is that diet and activity are affected by income, patterns of work, and socioeconomic changes. Women's role changes affect household food preparation. Income allows for the purchase of goods or services that affect diet. Income increases are related to greater expenditures on food. The third proposition is that diet changes are associated with changes in knowledge and access to mass media. The last proposition is that interaction between epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic changes determines the nature and pace of nutrition transition. PMID:12178476

Popkin, B M

1996-09-01

368

Risk of type 2 diabetes according to traditional and emerging anthropometric indices in Spain, a Mediterranean country with high prevalence of obesity: results from a large-scale prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A proper anthropometric characterisation of T2DM risk is essential for disease prevention and clinical risk assessement. Methods Longitudinal study in 37 733 participants (63% women) of the Spanish EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort without prevalent diabetes. Detailed questionnaire information was collected at baseline and anthropometric data gathered following standard procedures. A total of 2513 verified incident T2DM cases occurred after 12.1 years of mean follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios of T2DM by levels of anthropometric variables. Results Overall and central obesity were independently associated with T2DM risk. BMI showed the strongest association with T2DM in men whereas waist-related indices were stronger independent predictors in women. Waist-to-height ratio revealed the largest area under the ROC curve in men and women, with optimal cut-offs at 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The most discriminative waist circumference (WC) cut-off values were 99.4 cm in men and 90.4 cm in women. Absolute risk of T2DM was higher in men than women for any combination of age, BMI and WC categories, and remained low in normal-waist women. The population risk of T2DM attributable to obesity was 17% in men and 31% in women. Conclusions Diabetes risk was associated with higher overall and central obesity indices even at normal BMI and WC values. The measurement of waist circumference in the clinical setting is strongly recommended for the evaluation of future T2DM risk in women.

2013-01-01

369

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP...State. Such other agencies may include the WIC Program which routinely offers nutrition...wishing to coordinate nutrition education with WIC shall enter into a written cooperative...

2010-01-01

370

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP...State. Such other agencies may include the WIC Program which routinely offers nutrition...wishing to coordinate nutrition education with WIC shall enter into a written cooperative...

2009-01-01

371

From diagnosis to social diagnosis.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, research on the sociology of diagnosis has attained considerable influence within medical sociology. Analyzing the process and factors that contribute to making a diagnosis amidst uncertainty and contestation, as well as the diagnostic encounter itself, are topics rich for sociological investigation. This paper provides a reformulation of the sociology of diagnosis by proposing the concept of 'social diagnosis' which helps us recognize the interplay between larger social structures and individual or community illness manifestations. By outlining a conceptual frame, exploring how social scientists, medical professionals and laypeople contribute to social diagnosis, and providing a case study of how the North American Mohawk Akwesasne reservation dealt with rising obesity prevalence to further illustrate the social diagnosis idea, we embark on developing a cohesive and updated framework for a sociology of diagnosis. This approach is useful not just for sociological research, but has direct implications for the fields of medicine and public health. Approaching diagnosis from this integrated perspective potentially provides a broader context for practitioners and researchers to understand extra-medical factors, which in turn has consequences for patient care and health outcomes. PMID:21705128

Brown, Phil; Lyson, Mercedes; Jenkins, Tania

2011-06-12

372

Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

2013-01-01

373

Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*  

PubMed Central

Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system.

Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

2013-01-01

374

Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:24109700

Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

2013-07-01

375

Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

2000-10-01

376

Nutritional counseling in German general practices: a holistic approach.  

PubMed

There is consensus among all German health professionals, including primary care physicians, that a holistic approach to healthy living begins with good nutrition. In northern Baden, 2100 general practitioners and internists were asked about their nutritional attitudes and preventive counseling in daily practice. Of responding physicians, 75% attributed great importance to prevention in general and 92% to nutrition in particular, 65% were providing special programs such as "How to treat diabetes by myself" or "Reducing hypertension by losing weight." Together with the highest German Committee of Physicians, the Lectures in General Medicine of the University of Heidelberg held a meeting on nutritional counseling in general practice. The 23 participants collected statements and information on the topics of education and counseling, support for improved teaching, and knowledge about nutritional attitudes and food. The Heidelberg agreements are as follows: 1) good nutritional counseling can reduce morbidity of important diseases, 2) nutritional counseling must be improved in general practice, 3) diagnosis-related written cases for systematic counseling should be available, 4) family doctors should cooperate with nutritionists, and 5) for quality assurance, the three-level strategy of primary care should be recommended because of the positive results of the Bruchsal-Oestringen program (reduction of obesity and hypercholesterolemia). General practice can become a place of improved nutritional counseling and education if the use of programs proven to be successful, additional exercise-based community approaches, and quality assurance can be facilitated. The outcome of practice-based studies may encourage primary care physicians to spend more time and training on nutrition guidance. PMID:9174503

Wiesemann, A

1997-06-01

377

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

378

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

379

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

380

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

381

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

382

Analysis of Seating Position and Anthropometric Parameters of Pregnant Japanese Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. An anthropometric study was performed to understand the quantitative characteristics of the seating posture of Japanese pregnant drivers.Methods. Twenty pregnant women with a mean gestation of 31.4 ± 1.9 weeks and 20 age-matched, non-pregnant women provided written informed consent to participate in this study. A mid-sized, sedan-type passenger vehicle was used for measurement. The subjects, wearing light clothing, sat

Yasuki Motozawa; Masahito Hitosugi; Shogo Tokudome

2008-01-01

383

The clinical significance of body composition and anthropometric evaluation in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body composition and anthropometric assessment provide the sports physician with useful information on the health state of\\u000a the athlete and with some necessary elements to plan specific training loads in the most appropriate way. In practice, the\\u000a chemical composition of an athlete’s body (especially those who carry out 1–2 daily workouts) is always in a physiologic condition\\u000a that we can

Michelangelo Giampietro; Erminia Ebner; Iacopo Bertini

2011-01-01

384

Defined weight expectations in overweight women: anthropometrical, psychological and eating behavioral correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine associations between defined weight expectations and anthropometric profile and to identify psychological and eating behavioral factors that characterize women having more realistic weight expectations.Methods:A nonrandom sample of 154 overweight\\/obese women completed the ‘Goals and Relative Weight Questionnaire’, which assessed four weight expectations: (1) dream weight (whatever wanted to weight); (2) happy weight (would be happy to achieve); (3)

V Provencher; C Bégin; M-P Gagnon-Girouard; H C Gagnon; A Tremblay; S Boivin; S Lemieux

2007-01-01

385

Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric,\\u000a dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the\\u000a phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present\\u000a reference curves for this population. Healthy children

Jesus M. Lavado-Garcia; Julian F. Calderon-Garcia; Jose M. Moran; Maria Luz Canal-Macias; Trinidad Rodriguez-Dominguez; Juan D. Pedrera-Zamorano

386

Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat.  

PubMed

The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (T(c)) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured T(c) of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m(-2) walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378?±?32 w·m(-2) for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1). PMID:21573821

Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Bathalon, Gaston P

2011-05-15

387

The role of anthropometric characteristics in modern pentathlon performance in female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the role of body build characteristics in modern pentathletes, 65 female participants at the IXth World Modern Pentathlon Championships, 1989 (Wiener Neustadt, Austria) were investigated. Of these, 54 participated in the competition; the other 11 were reserves. Their mean ( + S.D.) age was 22.34 ± 3.97 years (range 16.08–32.58 years). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass, lengths,

A. L. Claessens; S. Hlatky; J. Lefevre; H. Holdhaus

1994-01-01

388

Comparison of several anthropometric indices with insulin resistance proxy measures among European adolescents: The Helena Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to compare the association of several anthropometric indices, with insulin resistance (IR)\\u000a proxy measures in European adolescents. The present study comprises 1,097 adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 from ten European cities\\u000a participating in the HELENA study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference, skinfolds thickness, fat\\u000a mass (FM), fasting plasma glucose (G\\u000a F) and

Katerina Kondaki; Evangelia Grammatikaki; David Jiménez Pavón; Yannis Manios; Marcela González-Gross; Michael Sjöstrom; Frédéric Gottrand; Dénes Molnar; Luis A. Moreno; Anthony Kafatos; Chantal Gilbert; Mathilde Kersting; Stefaan De Henauw

2011-01-01

389

Evaluation of Body Fat Changes during Weight Loss by Using Improved Anthropometric Predictive Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Skinfold-based equations are widely used to evaluate body fat (BF), but over-\\/underestimation is often reported. We evaluate the capacity of improved skinfold-based equations to estimate BF changes during weight reduction and compare them against well-established equations. Methods: Overweight adults (n = 44) participated in a 4-month weight reduction intervention. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were taken at

Ada L. García; Karen Wagner; Christiana Einig; Ulrike Trippo; Corinna Koebnick; Hans-Joachim F. Zunft

2006-01-01

390

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...

391

WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study had four key research objectives: To assess pregnant women's nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors at the time of WIC enrollment; To describe the processes used by local agencies in delivering WIC nutrition educatio...

C. Price J. Golay M. K. Fox N. Burstein

1999-01-01

392

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

393

Molds, mycotoxins, and nutrition.  

PubMed

Many of the patients with mold and chemical exposure that come to Environmental Health Center - Dallas (EHC-D) show signs of impaired digestion. Improving their digestion improves their nutritional status and also improves their detoxification abilities. Mold and chemical exposure also affect the patient's short-term memory and executive function. This presents a challenge when it comes to teaching the patient how to improve their nutritional status and detoxification. At the EHC-D, we use several instructions methods that have resulted in the patient's grasping the concepts and then being able to implement the required changes. PMID:19854822

Overberg, Ron

394

Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms  

PubMed Central

Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

2012-01-01

395

Growth curves of anthropometric indices in a general population of French children and comparison with reference data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The description of growth patterns of the different anthropometric measurements mainly used in epidemiological studies is useful to better understand the development of obesity in children and its consequences.Objective:Our aim was to establish growth curves of anthropometric indices in a general population of French children born during the 1980s and to compare them with the French reference curves based on

B Heude; A Kettaneh; B de Lauzon Guillain; A Lommez; J-M Borys; P Ducimetière; M-A Charles

2006-01-01

396

Anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk among urban and rural women in South India: a multicentric case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) incidence in India is approximately twice as high in urban women than in rural women, among whom we investigated the role of anthropometric factors and body size. The study was conducted at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, and in three cancer hospitals in Chennai during 2002–2005. Histologically confirmed cases (n=1866) and age-matched controls (n=1873) were selected. Anthropometric

A Mathew; V Gajalakshmi; B Rajan; V Kanimozhi; P Brennan; B S Mathew; P Boffetta

2008-01-01

397

The study of anthropometric sizes and physical fitness factors of boy students aged 12–14 in Shahrood city  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to study of anthropometric sizes and physical fitness factors of boy students aged 12–14 in Shahrood City. This cross-sectional study was performed on 368 boy students aged 12–14 years in Shahrood (2010). Subjects were selected via random sampling. Anthropometric measurements included: height, weight, sitting height, arms span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC),

Ali Fahiminezhad

2010-01-01

398

Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.

Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pego-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

2013-01-01

399

Nonlinear relationships between anthropometric and physical fitness variables in untrained pubescent boys.  

PubMed

Previous studies evidently actualized nonlinear regressions as a step forward in defining the true nature of the relationships between anthropometric and physical fitness (PF) variables in trained subjects. In this paper we have sampled 1176 nontrained boys aged 14-16 years and tested them on (1) five anthropometric predictors, including: body height, body weight, triceps skinfold, upper arm circumference, and body mass index (BMI); and (2) five PF criteria measuring: static (static strength) and dynamic muscle endurance (repetitive strength), aerobic endurance, explosive strength, and coordination. Linear (y = a + bx) and nonlinear (second-order polynomial: y = a + bx + cx2) regressions were calculated simultaneously. BMI is found to be the most significant anthropometric predictor of PF status. Although the calculation and interpretation of nonlinear regressions are far more complicated in comparison to those of linear regressions, the variance of the criteria are in some cases far better explained through a significant nonlinear model. Even more, we have found evidence that an exclusive discussion of the linear correlation model could lead to serious interpretative mistakes. This mostly relates to the fact that a linear regression model implies a continuous relationship (dependence) between the predictor and the criteria, while a nonlinear one effectively identifies possible breakpoints in the regression line and consequently highlights the real nature of the relationship between variables. PMID:23914503

Zeni?, Natasa; Foreti?, Nikola; Blazevi?, Mateo

2013-05-01

400

Environmental factors associated with preschool obesity. III. Dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study of children from six months to six years of age showed differences by age, sex, and race in dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements. Except for calories and iron at all ages and calcium between two and four years, most children consumed at least two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary protein was consistently high at all ages. There was no apparent relationship between the use and need for vitamin or mineral supplements. At six years of age, most children ate five meals or snacks per day. Television commercials, children accompanying mothers to grocery stores, and the publicized relationships of dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary disease influenced food practices of families. Anthropometric measurements revealed that boys were consistently taller and heavier than girls. However, at all ages, even at six months, girls had higher skinfold values than boys. These data on dietary intakes, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements will be correlated with obesity indexes at each age in subsequent papers. PMID:670612

Crawford, P B; Hankin, J H; Huenemann, R L

1978-06-01

401

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2012-09-19

402

Dietary patterns and anthropometric indices among Iranian women with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Major depression is a common mental disorder among women. A number of studies have demonstrated the association between some nutrients and food items with depression, but the studies on the association of dietary patterns with depression, especially in the Middle East, are rare. Further, the literature examining the relationship between anthropometric status and depression are inconsistent. In this study, 45 women with major depression and 90 patients with no mental disorder participated. We collected dietary intakes by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and measured anthropometric indices (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences). Using factor analysis, two major dietary patterns were extracted: Healthy and Unhealthy. After adjusting for confounders, individuals who gained higher scores in healthy dietary pattern, had 84% lower odds of major depression; while the odds of major depression in participants who gained higher scores in unhealthy dietary pattern showed no significant association. No significant association was found between anthropometric indices and major depression. These results suggest that the healthy dietary pattern is significantly associated with lower odds of major depression in adult women. Further researches are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23806625

Rashidkhani, Bahram; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Zareiy, Sanaz; Kargarnovin, Zahra

2013-06-24

403

Multiparametric Body Composition Analysis and Anthropometric Empirical Indicator: Obesity based South Indian Perspective.  

PubMed

Background: Obesity has emerged to be global threat to mankind. Many abnormalities such as Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes emerge as outcomes of obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed at bringing out a technique, which considers the combinational measurement of all essential anthropometric circumferences and BMI, so that the accurate assessment of obesity can be made. Till date, BMI has been considered to be the main adiposity index. But, the distribution of body fat was not taken into account by BMI. The contradictory outcomes by BMI pertaining to risk factor detection in various ethnicities and populations were witnessed. Also, BMI failed to gauge obesity in muscular body builders who possess small waists and large torsos Materials and Methods: The study adopted cross-sectional design in which 107 subjects from urban south India were participated. The measurements of body composition and anthropometry were manifested on the studied population. Results: The higher significant difference of ?0.001 was witnessed in male and female studied population, when AEI (BIA1), AEI (EXTERNAL) and BMI were compared against BFM (measured by both the devices BIA1 and BIA2). Conclusion: The results exhibited the prominence of AEI {Anthropometric Empirical Indicator, which is the combinational measurement of all essential anthropometric circumferences and BMI} over BMI.Also,the validity of the effective functioning of low cost,portable,simple protocol based body composition analyzer on par with the higher cost, standard body composition analyzer was demonstrated by the present study. PMID:23558309

Kishore, Mohan K B; Anburajan, M

2013-04-01

404

Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test – a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired ‘t’ test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Out of 31 judo players 20 had ?5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance.

Katralli, Jayasudha; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

2012-01-01

405

Normative Findings for Periocular Anthropometric Measurements among Chinese Young Adults in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions.

Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

2013-01-01

406

Traditional occupations and nutritional adaptation among Central Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450

Gautam, Rajesh K

2007-12-19

407

[Nutritional behavior of female and male high performance gymnasts].  

PubMed

Elite gymnasts pass through their whole physical and intellectual development with intensive physical training. In this period malnutrition can lead to delayed pubertal development with insufficient growth spurt and an increased incidence of stress fractures or osteoporoses. Different aspects about nutrition like body composition, objective and subjective eating-behaviour and sex-specific differences will be evaluated in our study. We examined 22 elite female gymnasts (age: median = 13.5 [12.0-16.1] years) und 19 elite male gymnasts (age: median = 12.3 [10.1-14.8] years). The following anthropometric measurements were carried out: weight, length, body mass index, upper arm circumference, arm muscle area, triceps skinfold, arm fat area. Eating diaries were compared with the recommendations of the German Federation of Nutrition and subjective eating behaviour was evaluated by questionnaires. Measurement of body composition showed an increase of musclemass at the cost of fatmass. The girls were smaller and leaner than the boys. Caloric intake in both groups was insufficient. Moreover the girls showed a tendency towards pathologic eating behaviour. PMID:9736973

Schwidergall, S; Weimann, E; Witzel, C; Mölenkamp, G; Brehl, S; Böhles, H

1998-01-01

408

Dietary intake and nutritional status in patients with systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects.

Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B

1992-01-01

409

Fibromyalgia Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

Donate | Join | Shop | eAlert | Contact Us About Fibromyalgia Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevalence Causes Prognosis Science of FM Newly Diagnosed Patients FM Fact Sheet Economic Burden Research Abstract Clinical Trials Home > Fibromyalgia > ...

410

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

411

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

412

Do consumers value nutritional labels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is contemplating making the provision of nutritional labels in food products mandatory. Using data collected from food shoppers, we assessed consumers' valuation of nutritional labels by analysing their willingness to pay a premium for a box of cookies with a nutritional label. On average, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a box of cookies with a

Maria L. Loureiro; Azucena Gracia; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2006-01-01

413

Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

414

Public nutrition: Why, What, How?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Nutrition is a field of professional study and practice that has existed for many years without being named as such. It encompasses the disciplines that deal with factors affecting the food consumption and nutritional outcomes of populations, and goes beyond the definition of Public Health Nutrition by including the study of public policy in areas outside of health and

Beatrice Lorge Rogers

2001-01-01

415

Alabama's Child Nutrition Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.

416

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

417

Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers.

Latt, Evelin; Jurimae, Jaak; Maestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Ramson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jurimae, Toivo

2010-01-01

418

Development and validation of anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass in elderly women  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine the cross validity of two anthropometric equations commonly used and propose simple anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass (AMM) in elderly women. Methods Among 234 physically active and functionally independent elderly women, 101 (60 to 89 years) were selected through simple drawing to compose the study sample. The paired t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to perform cross-validation and concordance was verified by intraclass correction coefficient (ICC) and by the Bland and Altman technique. To propose predictive models, multiple linear regression analysis, anthropometric measures of body mass (BM), height, girth, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI) were used, and muscle perimeters were included in the analysis as independent variables. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (AMMDXA) was used as criterion measurement. The sample power calculations were carried out by Post Hoc Compute Achieved Power. Sample power values from 0.88 to 0.91 were observed. Results When compared, the two equations tested differed significantly from the AMMDXA (p <0.001 and p?=?0.001). Ten population / specific anthropometric equations were developed to estimate AMM, among them, three equations achieved all validation criteria used: AMM (E2)?=?4.150 +0.251 [bodymass (BM)] - 0.411 [bodymass index (BMI)]?+?0.011 [Right forearm perimeter (PANTd) 2]; AMM (E3)?=?4.087?+?0.255 (BM) - 0.371 (BMI)?+?0.011 (PANTd) 2 - 0.035 [thigh skinfold (DCCO)]; MMA (E6)?=?2.855?+?0.298 (BM)?+?0.019 (Age) - 0,082 [hip circumference (PQUAD)]?+?0.400 (PANTd) - 0.332 (BMI). The equations estimated the criterion method (p?=?0.056 p?=?0.158), and explained from 0.69% to 0.74% of variations observed in AMMDXA with low standard errors of the estimate (1.36 to 1.55 kg) and high concordance (ICC between 0,90 and 0.91 and concordance limits from -2,93 to 2,33 kg). Conclusion The equations tested were not valid for use in physically active and functionally independent elderly women. The simple anthropometric equations developed in this study showed good practical applicability and high validity to estimate AMM in elderly women.

2013-01-01

419

Nutrition for Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Day Index Nutrition for Older Men What is the best line of defense for older men to stay healthy? Eating a well-balanced diet filled with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean animal and ... fats. The Difference Diet Can Make Healthy eating can keep ...

420

Nutrition and stomach cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and stomach cancer is reviewed. Stomach cancer shows a distinct international variation and dramatic worldwide decline. These descriptive features suggest that dietary factors are important in determining the risk of stomach cancer. The authors assessed relevant data regarding specific dietary hypotheses in the etiology of stomach cancer. A negative association with fresh vegetables

Suminori Kono; Tomio Hirohata

1996-01-01

421

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

422

Interdisciplinary Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and evaluates a successful one-quarter 26-curriculum hour course in clinical nutrition, which focuses on practical aspects of diet prescriptions, dietary customs, attitudes, and behavior modifications. Required for sophomore medical students and dietetic interns, the course in taught by faculty from several disciplines and includes…

Baumslag, Naomi; And Others

1976-01-01

423

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

424

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

425

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

426

Evaluating Nutritional Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple electrical board programed to provide measurement of a nutrition day camp's objectives was fun for eight and nine year old inner-city youths to use; incorporation of pictures aided comprehension. Results indicate that the testing technique was appropriate to the clientele and the program content on the right track. (AJ)

Lindsey, Daniel E.

1973-01-01

427

Nutrition Labels and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) imposed significant changes in the information about calories and nutrients that manufacturers of packaged foods must provide to consumers. This paper tests whether the release of this information impacted body weight and obesity among American adults. We estimate the effect of the new label using a difference-in-differences method. We compare the change before

Jayachandran N. Variyam; John Cawley

2006-01-01

428

Nutrition transition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this review is to examine the demographic and nutrition transition in India in relation to its contribution to the emerging epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in this country. Setting: India, the country as a whole and its different states with a population exceeding 1 billion in 2001. Subjects: The review examines demographic changes in the

Prakash S Shetty

2002-01-01

429

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

430

Nutrition and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of the Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, on the influence of early diet on the development of preterm infants is reviewed. Then further consideration is given to the implication of the findings. Malnutrition during a sensitive period may result in disease in adult life, and studies strongly suggest the development of the brain and retina can

Neil Gordon

1997-01-01

431

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

432

Nutrition on match day  

Microsoft Academic Search

What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

2006-01-01

433

Nutrition and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

Andrew Prentice

2004-01-01

434

CHARACTERISTICS IN SWIMMER'S NUTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In swimmers nutrition carbohydrate should participa te with at least 60% of daily energy intake or 8,8 -11 g per kilogram body mass. Swimmers should take carbohydrate with low, intermediate and high glycemic index, in dependence if they take the food before, during or after the exercise. It's the best if they take carbohydrate with high glycemic index during and

435

The Science of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

2000-01-01

436

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Lee, Carolyn

437

Nutrition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

438

Nutrition for distance events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2007-01-01

439

Tuberculosis and nutrition  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host's susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

Gupta, Krishna Bihari; Gupta, Rajesh; Atreja, Atulya; Verma, Manish; Vishvkarma, Suman

2009-01-01

440

Director of Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

2005-01-01

441

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

442

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

443

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

444

Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

2009-01-01

445

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

446

Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

2011-01-01

447

Nutrition, sleep and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

Shona L. Halson

2008-01-01

448

Nutrition for the sprinter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary roles for nutrition in sprints are for recovery from training and competition and influencing training adaptations. Sprint success is determined largely by the power-to-mass ratio, so sprinters aim to increase muscle mass and power. However, extra mass that does not increase power may be detrimental. Energy and protein intake are important for increasing muscle mass. If energy balance

Kevin D. Tipton; Asker E. Jeukendrup; Peter Hespel

2007-01-01

449

ISS Update: Space Nutrition  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Scott M. Smith, NASA Nutritionist, about nutrition experiments taking place aboard the International Space Station. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Russell Todd D

2012-02-10

450

Nutrition in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors can modify nutritional status in cancer patients, including cachexia, nausea and vomiting, decreased caloric intake or oncologic treatments capable of determining malabsorption. Cachexia is a complex disease characterized not only by a poor intake of nutrients or starvation, but also by metabolic derangement. Nausea and vomiting may limit the nutrient intake and are most often the consequences of

Sebastiano Mercadante

1996-01-01

451

[Nutrition and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].  

PubMed

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a frequent complication of extreme prematurity. In preterm neonates catch-up and pulmonary alveolar growth occur during the first two years of life. However 10 to 25% of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are under-nourished after two years of age, and 30 to 60% of them also suffer from persistent airway obstruction, hyperinflation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Recommendations on nutritional requirements in this population are not yet clearly defined, but an adequate nutritional status in prenatal and early postnatal period can have long-term consequences on brain and lung development. There are a few randomised trial of nutrition for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after discharge. Caloric and protein requirements in this population are probably higher than in full-term infants. Moreover there are potential benefits in using specific nutrients: supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could decrease lung inflammation injuries, glutamine is the main source of energy of pneumocyte, vitamin A is essential for lung development, inositol is necessary for surfactant synthesis, vitamin E and selenium have anti-oxidant effects. Controlled nutritional trial are needed with a long term follow-up in late childhood in order to test their effects on growth and pulmonary status. PMID:15049287

Bott, L; Béghin, L; Pierrat, V; Thumerelle, C; Gottrand, F

2004-03-01

452

NUTRITION AND FEEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

453

Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia  

PubMed Central

One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.

Ghosh, Amitabha

2010-01-01

454

Effect of Peer Nutrition Education on Nutritional Status and Nutritional Knowledge of University Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of peer nutrition education on nutritional status and nutrition knowledge and attitudes of university athletes. Participants were 32 female student-athletes and 4 DPD students (peer educators) at Clemson University. Each peer educator was assigned to 8 student-athletes with whom they were expected to meet 1 time per week for 7

M. E. Kunkel; Lynne B. Bell; B. D. Luccia

1999-01-01

455

Sports nutrition for young athletes.  

PubMed

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the nutrition knowledge of athletes and their sources of nutrition information. Topics covered include energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat and micronutrient needs, hydration requirements, timing of meals, and issues related to age, gender, and specific sports. Other issues addressed include "making weight" and ergogenic aids. Proper nutrition for young athletes is critical not only to their athletic success, but more importantly to their growth, development, and overall health. Nutritional recommendations should be based on the most current scientific data; we provide information about appropriate resources for the school nurse when advising student athletes and their coaches and parents. PMID:16419340

Cotunga, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; McBee, Sheldon

2005-12-01

456

Granulicatella infection: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Granulicatella species, along with the genus Abiotrophia, were originally known as 'nutritionally variant streptococci'. They are a normal component of the oral flora, but have been associated with a variety of invasive infections in man and are most noted as a cause of bacterial endocarditis. It is often advised that Granulicatella endocarditis should be treated in the same way as enterococcal endocarditis. We review here the published data concerning diagnosis and treatment of Granulicatella infection, and include some observations from local cases, including four cases of endocarditis. PMID:22442291

Cargill, James S; Scott, Katharine S; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Sandoe, Jonathan A T

2012-03-22

457

Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition constitutes a public health problem throughout the world and particularly in developing countries. Aims The objective of the study is to assess the impact of an elementary integrator composed of Spiruline (Spirulina platensis) and Misola (millet, soja, peanut) produced at the Centre Medical St Camille (CMSC) of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on the nutritional status of undernourished children. Materials and methods 550 undernourished children of less than 5 years old were enrolled in this study, 455 showed severe marasma, 57 marasma of medium severity and 38 kwashiorkor plus marasma. We divided the children randomly into four groups: 170 were given Misola (731 ± 7 kcal/day), 170 were given Spiruline plus traditional meals (748 ± 6 kcal/day), 170 were given Spiruline plus Misola (767 ± 5 kcal/day). Forty children received only traditional meals (722 ± 8 kcal/day) and functioned as the control group. The duration of this study was eight weeks. Results and Discussion Anthropometrics and haematological parameters allowed us to appreciate both the nutritional and biological evolution of these children. The rehabilitation with Spiruline plus Misola (this association gave an energy intake of 767 ± 5 kcal/day with a protein assumption of 33.3 ± 1.2 g a day), both greater than Misola or Spiruline alone, seems to correct weight loss more quickly. Conclusion Our results indicate that Misola, Spiruline plus traditional meals or Spiruline plus Misola are all a good food supplement for undernourished children, but the rehabilitation by Spiruline plus Misola seems synergically favour the nutrition rehabilitation better than the simple addition of protein and energy intake.

Simpore, Jacques; Kabore, Fatoumata; Zongo, Frederic; Dansou, Deleli; Bere, Augustin; Pignatelli, Salvatore; Biondi, Daniela M; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Musumeci, Salvatore

2006-01-01

458

Nutritional status and eating habits of older Manitobans after relocating to a personal care home.  

PubMed

We explored the effect of relocating to a personal care home (PCH) on older adults' nutritional status and eating habits. Fourteen Caucasian older adults (F=57%) with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation = 9.79) consented to participate. Anthropometric information (height, weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical and clinical information (diagnoses, data from scales measuring risk or function), and dietary information (three-day plate waste analysis) were collected at time points A (two to three months after relocation) and B (six to seven months after relocation) through face-to-face interviews and medical chart reviews, and from nursing staff. At time B, cognitive function declined (z = -2.185, p<0.05) and the number of medications prescribed increased (z = -2.00, p<0.05). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were insufficient among 83% of participants at both time points. Mean serum albumin was 34.4 ± 7.2 g/L at time B, and the prevalence of potential nutritional risk increased from 57% to 77%. Dietary intake was inadequate at both time points. Nutritional risk became more prevalent at time B. Protein-energy malnutrition and other nutritional inadequacies may result if dietary intakes do not improve. Strategies to improve dietary intakes should be implemented within PCHs to reduce potential malnutrition. PMID:21645429

Sitter, Melissa; Lengyel, Christina

2011-01-01

459

Arsenicosis: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of arsenicosis relies on both clinical and laboratory criteria, but principally it can be diagnosed on the basis of its cutaneous manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations (melanosis, keratosis, and cutaneous cancers) are essential clues in the diagnosis, and trained dermatologists or arsenic experts are able to clinically confirm a case even without laboratory backup. Although systemic manifestations are not considered as diagnostic hallmarks, yet their presence serves as important telltale signs in arriving at the diagnosis. In countries where laboratory facilities are available, measuring the level of arsenic in drinking water (consumed in the last 6 months), urine, hair, and nails is of immense value. Newer biomarkers of arsenic exposure are being explored to provide early information about arsenic intoxication, of which urinary porphyrin level, blood metallothionein have shown promising results. Controlling the problem of arsenicosis depends on various factors, of which the most important is cessation of intake of arsenic-contaminated water. Deep wells, traditional dug wells, treatment of surface water, rainwater harvesting, and removing arsenic from the contaminated water by arsenic removal plant or arsenic treatment unit are the available options for providing arsenic-free drinking water. The role of nutrition and antioxidants in preventing the onset of symptoms of arsenicosis is also of importance. Nonspecific therapies (e.g., keratolytics for hyperkeratosis) cannot also be ignored and serve as palliative measures. The persons affected need to be followed up at regular intervals to detect the onset of cancers (if any) at the earliest. Role of counseling and education should never be underestimated since absence of public awareness can undermine all efforts of mitigation measures. PMID:19171979

Das, Nilay Kanti; Sengupta, Sujit Ranjan

460

Nutritional essentiality of vanadium  

SciTech Connect

Evidence to support the essentiality of vanadium is inconclusive. Thus, it cannot be unequivocally stated that vanadium is an essential nutrient. The basis for this statement can be appreciated more fully if the following definitions are accepted. In this section, a substance is considered nutritionally essential if a dietary deficiency consistently results in a suboptimal biological function that is preventable or reversible by physiological amounts of the element. In this definition, physiological is construed as those quantities usually found in biological material. For vanadium, the usual amounts are measured in nanograms per gram, or parts per billion. The other term that should be defined is pharmacologic action. Here it means the effect of a relatively high dietary intake of a substance that alleviates an abnormality caused by something other than a nutritional deficiency.

Nielsen, F.H.

1986-02-01

461

Nutrition and aging.  

PubMed

Nutritional concerns are common among older adults seen in the primary care office. The food pyramid for people over the age of 70 years is a useful starting point for discussions about what reasonably healthy older adults should be eating and drinking. If there is a decline in the ability to perform IADLs or if there is a decrease in appetite or the discovery of unintended weight loss, careful assessment followed by targeted interventions may improve health outcomes and the quality of life. Restrictive diets are often not well tolerated, especially by frail older adults. Dietary recommendations blending the elements of the pyramid and the essential components of accepted medical nutritional therapy that are most consistent with the patient's lifelong eating patterns are most likely to succeed. PMID:16140121

Noel, Mary; Reddy, Mohan

2005-09-01

462

[Sports and nutrition].  

PubMed

A varied, well-balanced, healthy diet, rich in carbohydrates, is one of the cornerstones of sports nutrition. In addition, an equilibrated supply in energy and nitrogen, the ideal distribution of the nutrients (6 to 9 g carbohydrates per kilogram body weight, 1 to 1.5 g fat per kilogram body weight, 1.2 to 1.8 g protein per kilogram body weight), a well-balanced fluid intake and the choice of food with a high density of nutrients constitute an important cornerstone. All the forementioned elements, which are contained in a basic nutrition, guarantee the needs of the micro- and macronutrients in combination with a cautious substitution of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The endurance capacity is supported by this high-quality basic diet which can be modified minimally during performance and for regeneration. PMID:7481288

Mannhart, C

1995-09-01

463

Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.  

PubMed

As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be use