Science.gov

Sample records for anti gravity phenomena

  1. Anti-gravity device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  2. Discrete anti-gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  3. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-04

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  4. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-01

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  5. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  6. Casting And Solidification Technology (CAST): Directional solidification phenomena in a metal model at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    The Casting and Solidification Technology (CAST) experiment will study the phenomena that occur during directional solidification of an alloy, e.g., constitutional supercooling, freckling, and dendrite coarsening. The reduced gravity environment of space will permit the individual phenomena to be examined with minimum complication from buoyancy driven flows.

  7. The Equivalence of Precession Phenomena in Metric Theories of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    The requirement of general covariance imparts to metric theories of gravity, such as general relativity, important structural features. A precise mathematical form results, ensuring that computation of observable physical effects in the theory gives the same answers independently of the chosen system of coordinates. This coordinate independence property, in turn, can lead to an equivalence of apparently different physical effects.

  8. BRST and Anti-BRST Symmetries in Perturbative Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-02-01

    In perturbative quantum gravity, the sum of the classical Lagrangian density, a gauge fixing term and a ghost term is invariant under two sets of supersymmetric transformations called the BRST and the anti-BRST transformations. In this paper we will analyse the BRST and the anti-BRST symmetries of perturbative quantum gravity in curved spacetime, in linear as well as non-linear gauges. We will show that even though the sum of ghost term and the gauge fixing term can always be expressed as a total BRST or a total anti-BRST variation, we can express it as a combination of both of them only in certain special gauges. We will also analyse the violation of nilpotency of the BRST and the anti-BRST transformations by introduction of a bare mass term, in the massive Curci-Ferrari gauge.

  9. Critical phenomena in a low gravity environment. [in fluids as materials science models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of critical point phenomena are discussed including the gas-liquid phase transition of a fluid, the spontaneous magnetization of a ferromagnet below the Curie temperature, and structural phase transitions of solid materials. The interrelation of thermodynamic properties by scaling laws is considered noting theories for the validity of scaling laws and the principle of universality. Gravity effects are reviewed noting that in earth-based experiments the phenomena are significantly influenced by the earth's gravitational field and that fluid samples that are spatially homogeneous cannot be realized near the gas-liquid critical point.

  10. Pilot Fullerton dons EES anti-gravity suit lower torso on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit lower torso on forward port side middeck above potable water tank. Anti-g suit is an olive drab inner garment that complements EES.

  11. Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.

  12. Accuracy of unloading with the anti-gravity treadmill.

    PubMed

    McNeill, David K P; de Heer, Hendrik D; Bounds, Roger G; Coast, J Richard

    2015-03-01

    Body weight (BW)-supported treadmill training has become increasingly popular in professional sports and rehabilitation. To date, little is known about the accuracy of the lower-body positive pressure treadmill. This study evaluated the accuracy of the BW support reported on the AlterG "Anti-Gravity" Treadmill across the spectrum of unloading, from full BW (100%) to 20% BW. Thirty-one adults (15 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 29.3 years (SD = 10.9), and a mean weight of 66.55 kg (SD = 12.68) were recruited. Participants were weighed outside the machine and then inside at 100-20% BW in 10% increments. Predicted BW, as presented by the AlterG equipment, was compared with measured BW. Significant differences between predicted and measured BW were found at all but 90% through 70% of BW. Differences were small (<5%), except at the extreme ends of the unloading spectrum. At 100% BW, the measured weight was lower than predicted (mean = 93.15%, SD = 1.21, p < 0.001 vs. predicted). At 30 and 20% BW, the measured weight was higher than predicted at 35.75% (SD = 2.89, p < 0.001), and 27.67% (SD = 3.76, p < 0.001), respectively. These findings suggest that there are significant differences between reported and measured BW support on the AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill®, with the largest differences (>5%) found at 100% BW and the greatest BW support (30 and 20% BW). These differences may be associated with changes in metabolic demand and maximum speed during walking or running and should be taken into consideration when using these devices for training and research purposes. PMID:25226319

  13. Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in an Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.

  14. The Transfer Function Model (TFM) as a Tool for Simulating Gravity Wave Phenomena in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, H.; Mayr, H.; Moore, J.; Wilson, S.; Armaly, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Transfer Function Model (TFM) is semi-analytical and linear, and it is designed to describe the acoustic gravity waves (GW) propagating over the globe and from the ground to 600 km under the influence of vertical temperature variations. Wave interactions with the flow are not accounted for. With an expansion in terms of frequency-dependent spherical harmonics, the time consuming vertical integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer function (TF). (The applied lower and upper boundary conditions assure that spurious wave reflections will not occur.) The TF describes the dynamical properties of the medium divorced from the complexities of the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source is then obtained in short order to simulate the GW propagating through the atmosphere over the globe. In the past, this model has been applied to study auroral processes, which produce distinct wave phenomena such as: (1) standing lamb modes that propagate horizontally in the viscous medium of the thermosphere, (2) waves generated in the auroral oval that experience geometric amplification propagating to the pole where constructive interference generates secondary waves that propagate equatorward, (3) ducted modes propagating through the middle atmosphere that leak back into the thermosphere, and (4) GWs reflected from the Earth's surface that reach the thermosphere in a narrow propagation cone. Well-defined spectral features characterize these wave modes in the TF to provide analytical understanding. We propose the TFM as a tool for simulating GW in the mesosphere and in particular the features observed in Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). With present-day computers, it takes less than one hour to compute the TF, so that there is virtually no practical limitation on the source configurations that can be applied and tested in the lower atmosphere. And there is no limitation on

  15. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    PubMed

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption. PMID:25215842

  16. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  17. Massive higher derivative gravity in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Tekin, Bayram

    2009-09-15

    We find the propagator and calculate the tree level scattering amplitude between two covariantly conserved sources in an anti-de Sitter background for the most general D-dimensional quadratic, four-derivative, gravity with a Pauli-Fierz mass. We also calculate the Newtonian potential for various limits of the theory in flat space. We show how the recently introduced three-dimensional New Massive Gravity is uniquely singled out among higher derivative models as a (tree level) unitary model and that its Newtonian limit is equivalent to that of the usual massive gravity in flat space.

  18. Mass transport phenomena between bubbles and dissolved gases in liquids under reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will describe the experimental and analytical work that has been done to establish justification and feasibility for a Shuttle mid-deck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated, immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble have been successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration has been accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model has been developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity. The results will yield information on transport under conditions of pure diffusion.

  19. Mass transport phenomena between bubbles and dissolved gases in liquids under reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental and analytical work that was done to establish justification and feasibility for a shuttle middeck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid is described. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble were successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration was accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model was developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity.

  20. Investigations of the Effects of Altered Vestibular System Function on Hindlimb Anti-Gravity Muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Mary Sue

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different gravitational environments, both the microgravity of spaceflight and the hypergravity of centrifugation, result in altered vestibulo-spinal function which can be reversed by reacclimation to earth gravity (2). Control of orientation, posture, and locomotion are functions of the vestibular system which are altered by changes in gravitational environment. Not only is the vestibular system involved with coordination and proprioception, but the gravity sensing portion of the vestibular system also plays a major role in maintaining muscle tone through projections to spinal cord motoneurons that control anti-gravity muscles. I have been involved with investigations of several aspects of the link between vestibular inputs and muscle morphology and function during my work with Dr. Nancy Daunton this summer and the previous summer. We have prepared a manuscript for submission (4) to Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine based on work that I performed last summer in Dr. Daunton's lab. Techniques developed for that project will be utilized in subsequent experiments begun in the summer of 1998. I have been involved with the development of a pilot project to test the effects of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) on anti-gravity muscles and in another project testing the effects of the ototoxic drug streptomycin on the otolith-spinal reflex and anti-gravity muscle morphology.

  1. Mass Transport Phenomena Between Bubbles and Dissolved Gases in Liquids Under Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, K. J.; Brockwell, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The long term objective of the experiment is to observe the dissolution of isolated, immobile gas bubbles of specified size and composition in a solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Preliminary bubble dissolution experiment conducted both in the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec drop tower and in normal gravity using SO2 - Toluene system were not completely successful in their objective. The method of gas injection and lack of bubble interface stabiliy experienced due to the extreme solubility of SO in Toluene has the effects of changing the problem from that of bubble dissolution to one of bubble formation stability and subsequent dissolution in a liquid of unknown initial solute concentration. Current work involves further experimentation in order to refine the bubble injection system and to investigate the concept of having a bubble with a critical radius in a state of unstable equilibrium.

  2. Interface and transport phenomena under reduced gravity. II - Surfaces and wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewersdorff, A.; Mueller, G.; Oertel, H., Jr.; Sahm, P. R.; Sell, P.-J.; Siekmann, J.

    1983-02-01

    Liquids contained in propellant tanks under microgravity conditions are subject to reduced gravity forces, surface forces and boundary adhesion. Based on the principle of the minimum of the total potential energy, the basic equations of capillary hydrostatics are derived and the equilibrium configurations of the free fluid surface in rotationally symmetric containers are calculated. Tank geometries for technical purposes are discussed, as well as the role of outgassing of molten matter in materials processing in space. The Hele-Shaw cell is described as a simple and reliable instrument for terrestrial experiments on bubble dynamics under simulated microgravity and temperature gradients. Finally, the wetting kinetics of model tubes under simulated gravity and microgravity is examined.

  3. Transport Phenomena in Stratified Multi-Fluid Flow in the Presence and Absence of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, Norman; Humphrey, William

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted to study the effects of buoyancy on planar density-stratified shear flows. A wind tunnel generates planar flows separated by an insulating splitter plate, with either flow heated, which emerge from a two-dimensional nozzle. The objective is to isolate and define the effect of gravity and buoyancy on a stratified shear layer. To this end, both stably and unstably stratified layers will be investigated. This paper reports on the results of temperature and velocity measurements across the nozzle exit plane and downstream along the nozzle center plane.

  4. (Anti-) de Sitter electrically charged black-hole solutions in higher-derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai; Qian, Wei-Liang; Pavan, A. B.; Abdalla, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, static electrically charged black-hole solutions with cosmological constant are investigated in an Einstein-Hilbert theory of gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. Beside the analytic Schwarzschild (Anti-) de Sitter solutions, non-Schwarzschild (Anti-) de Sitter solutions are also obtained numerically by employing the shooting method. The results show that there exist two groups of asymptotically (Anti-) de Sitter spacetimes for both charged and uncharged black holes. In particular, it was found that for uncharged black holes the first group can be reduced to the Schwarzschild (Anti-) de Sitter solution, while the second group is intrinsically different from a Schwarzschild (Anti-) de Sitter solution even when the charge and the cosmological constant become zero.

  5. Plebanski-like action for general relativity and anti-self-dual gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada, Mariano; González, Diego; Montesinos, Merced

    2016-05-01

    We present a new B F -type action for complex general relativity with or without a cosmological constant resembling Plebanski's action, which depends on an SO (3 ,C ) connection, a set of 2-forms, a symmetric matrix, and a 4-form. However, it differs from the Plebanski formulation in the way that the symmetric matrix enters into the action. The advantage of this fact is twofold. First, as compared to Plebanski's action, the symmetric matrix can now be integrated out, which leads to a pure B F -type action principle for general relativity; the canonical analysis of the new action then shows that it has the same phase space of the Ashtekar formalism up to a canonical transformation induced by a topological term. Second, a particular choice of the parameters involved in the formulation produces a B F -type action principle describing conformally anti-self-dual gravity. Therefore, the new action unifies both general relativity and anti-self-dual gravity.

  6. Stability of anti-de sitter space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2015-02-20

    Recently it has been argued that in Einstein gravity anti-de Sitter spacetime is unstable against the formation of black holes for a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. We examine the effects of including a Gauss-Bonnet term. In five dimensions, spherically symmetric Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity has two key features: Choptuik scaling exhibits a radius gap, and the mass function goes to a finite value as the horizon radius vanishes. These suggest that black holes will not form dynamically if the total mass-energy content of the spacetime is too small, thereby restoring the stability of anti-de Sitter spacetime in this context. We support this claim with numerical simulations and uncover a rich structure in horizon radii and formation times as a function of perturbation amplitude. PMID:25763946

  7. Investigation of interfacial phenomena and thermocapillary effect on drop evaporation in reduced gravity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jingchang; Lin, Hai

    2013-11-01

    Based on ground-based experiments, a drop evaporation experiment will fly aboard Chinese recoverable satellite in the near future This experiment will focus on the interfacial phenomena of phase chance, heat and mass transfer and the effect of thermocapillary convection on drop evaporation process Close attention will also be paid to the contact angle behavior, the triple line shifting and their relations Our ground-based experiments observed the interior flow field and the gaseous exterior of small suspended evaporating drops, the temperature distributions inside and outside the drops. Both good heat conductor and heat insulating material were used as substrate materials to investigate their influence on heat transfer and surface temperature distribution of an evaporating drop Experimental results indicate that for a drop evaporating in ambient temperature without substrate heating, temperature gradients existed along the drop surface which results in stable thermocapillary convection and cells appeared near the surface throughout entire evaporating process. The thermocapillary convection greatly changed drop's interior temperature distribution and the way of energy and mass transfer. Temperature jump or discontinuity was also measured at drop free surface.

  8. Nanolevitation Phenomena in Real Plane-Parallel Systems Due to the Balance between Casimir and Gravity Forces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the theoretical analysis of equilibrium distances in real plane-parallel systems under the influence of Casimir and gravity forces at thermal equilibrium. Due to the balance between these forces, thin films of Teflon, silica, or polystyrene in a single-layer configuration and immersed in glycerol stand over a silicon substrate at certain stable or unstable positions depending on the material and the slab thickness. Hybrid systems containing silica and polystyrene, materials which display Casimir forces and equilibrium distances of opposite nature when considered individually, are analyzed in either bilayer arrangements or as composite systems made of a homogeneous matrix with small inclusions inside. For each configuration, equilibrium distances and their stability can be adjusted by fine-tuning of the volume occupied by each material. We find the specific conditions under which nanolevitation of realistic films should be observed. Our results indicate that thin films of real materials in plane-parallel configurations can be used to control suspension or stiction phenomena at the nanoscale. PMID:26405466

  9. The effect of gravity induced free convection upon the melting phenomena of a finite paraffin slab for thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, R. L.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Two theoretical models were developed to predict the thermal response of the phase change material to a given hot plate temperature. A two-dimensional pure conduction model was developed to predict the melting of the phase change material when heat transfer was a function of conduction. A combined conduction-convection model, also two-dimensional, was developed to predict the phase change phenomena when heat transfer was a function of conduction and gravity-induced free convection. Both models were solved using explicit finite difference approximations on a digital computer. The experimental equipment consisted of a rectangular cell utilizing a heat chamber, an expansion chamber, and a test chamber; a sixteen channel multipoint recorder, and a fluid flow system. The recorder monitered hot and cold plate temperatures and interior node temperatures at two second intervals. A comparison of theoretical temperature profiles and experimental temperature profiles is presented for six runs at various angles of inclination of the test cell with respect to the horizontal direction. A detailed discussion of results is presented.

  10. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG s unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  11. Asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M.H.

    2004-09-15

    In this paper I show that one can have asymptotically de Sitter, anti-de Sitter (AdS), and flat solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant term in field equations. First, I introduce static solutions whose three surfaces at fixed r and t have constant positive (k=1), negative (k=-1), or zero (k=0) curvature. I show that for k={+-}1 one can have asymptotically de Sitter, AdS, and flat spacetimes, while for the case of k=0, one has only asymptotically AdS solutions. Some of these solutions present naked singularities, while some others are black hole or topological black hole solutions. I also find that the geometrical mass of these five-dimensional spacetimes is m+2{alpha}|k|, which is different from the geometrical mass m of the solutions of Einstein gravity. This feature occurs only for the five-dimensional solutions, and is not repeated for the solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity in higher dimensions. Second, I add angular momentum to the static solutions with k=0, and introduce the asymptotically AdS charged rotating solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Finally, I introduce a class of solutions which yields an asymptotically AdS spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field, which presents a naked singularity, and generalize it to the case of magnetic rotating solutions with two rotation parameters.

  12. Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Mimetic F(R) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we study under which conditions the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti de Sitter black hole can be a solution of the vacuum mimetic $F(R)$ gravity with Lagrange multiplier and mimetic scalar potential. As we demonstrate, the resulting picture in the mimetic $F(R)$ gravity case, is different in comparison to the ordinary $F(R)$ gravity case, with the two descriptions resulting to a different set of constraints that need to hold true. We also investigate the metric perturbations in the mimetic $F(R)$ gravity case, for the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti de Sitter black hole metric, at first order of the perturbed variables. Interestingly enough, the resulting equations are identical to the ones corresponding to the ordinary $F(R)$ gravity Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti de Sitter black hole, at least at first order. We attribute this feature to the particular form of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti de Sitter metric, and we speculate for which cases there could be differences between the mimetic and non-mimetic case. Since the perturbation equations are the same for the two cases, it is possible to have black hole instabilities in the mimetic $F(R)$ gravity case too, which can be interpreted as anti-evaporation of the black hole.

  13. Anti-gravity training improves walking capacity and postural balance in patients with muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Vissing, John; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies in patients with muscular dystrophies suggest positive effects of aerobic and strength training. These studies focused training on using bicycle ergometers and conventional strength training, which precludes more severely affected patients from participating, because of their weakness. We investigated the functional effects of combined aerobic and strength training in patients with Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies with knee muscle strength levels as low as 3% of normal strength. Eight patients performed 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training on an anti-gravity treadmill, which offered weight support up to 80% of their body weight. Six minute walking distance, dynamic postural balance, and plasma creatine kinase were assessed 10 weeks prior to training, immediately before training and after 10 weeks of training. Training elicited an improvement of walking distance by 8±2% and dynamic postural balance by 13±4%, indicating an improved physical function. Plasma creatine kinase remained unchanged. These results provide evidence that a combination of aerobic and strength training during anti-gravity has the potential to safely improve functional ability in severely affected patients with Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. PMID:24684860

  14. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  15. Conserved charges for gravity with locally anti-de sitter asymptotics

    PubMed

    Aros; Contreras; Olea; Troncoso; Zanelli

    2000-02-21

    A new formula for the conserved charges in 3+1 gravity for spacetimes with local anti-de Sitter asymptotic geometry is proposed. It is shown that requiring the action to have an extremum for this class of asymptotia sets the boundary term that must be added to the Lagrangian as the Euler density with a fixed weight factor. The resulting action gives rise to the mass and angular momentum as Noether charges associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors without requiring specification of a reference background in order to have a convergent expression. A consequence of this definition is that any negative constant curvature spacetime has vanishing Noether charges. These results remain valid in the Lambda = 0 limit. PMID:11017591

  16. Transport phenomena in the crystallization of lysozyme by osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul; Sportiello, Michael G.; Gregory, Derek; Cassanto, John M.; Alvarado, Ulises A.; Ostroff, Robert; Korszun, Z. R.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of protein crystallization, osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion, like the vapor diffusion (hanging-drop and sessile-drop) methods allow a gradual approach to supersaturation conditions. The crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme, an extensively characterized protein crystal, in the presence of sodium chloride was used as an experimental model with which to compare these two methods in low gravity and in the laboratory. Comparisons of crystal growth rates by the two methods under the two conditions have, to date, indicated that the rate of crystal growth by osmotic dewatering is nearly the same in low gravity and on the ground, while much faster crystal growth rates can be achieved by the liquid-liquid diffusion method in low gravity.

  17. Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively. PMID:25540485

  18. Rainbow valley of colored (anti) de Sitter gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwak, Seungho; Joung, Euihun; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-04-01

    We propose a theory of three-dimensional (anti) de Sitter gravity carrying Chan-Paton color charges. We define the theory by Chern-Simons formulation with the gauge algebra (gl_2oplus gl_2)⊗ u(N) , obtaining a color-decorated version of interacting spin-one and spin-two fields. We also describe the theory in metric formulation and show that, among N 2 massless spin-two fields, only the singlet one plays the role of metric graviton whereas the rest behave as colored spinning matter that strongly interacts at large N. Remarkably, these colored spinning matter acts as Higgs field and generates a non-trivial potential of staircase shape. At each extremum labelled by k=0,dots, [N-1/2] , the u(N) color gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken down to u(N-k)oplus u(k) and provides different (A)dS backgrounds with the cosmological constants {(N/N-2k)}^2Λ . When this symmetry breaking takes place, the spin-two Goldstone modes combine with (or are eaten by) the spin-one gauge fields to become partially-massless spin-two fields. We discuss various aspects of this theory and highlight physical implications.

  19. Oxygen consumption of elite distance runners on an anti-gravity treadmill®.

    PubMed

    McNeill, David K P; Kline, John R; de Heer, Hendrick D; Coast, J Richard

    2015-06-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP), or 'anti-gravity' treadmills® have become increasingly popular among elite distance runners. However, to date, few studies have assessed the effect of body weight support (BWS) on the metabolic cost of running among elite runners. This study evaluated how BWS influenced the relationship between velocity and metabolic cost among 6 elite male distance runners. Participants ran three- 16 minute tests consisting of 4 stages of 4 minutes at 8, 7, 6 and 5 min·mile(-1) pace (3.35, 3.84, 4.47 and 5.36 m·s(-1)), while maintaining an aerobic effort (Respiratory Exchange Ratio ≤1.00). One test was run on a regular treadmill, one on an anti-gravity treadmill with 40% BWS and one with 20% BWS being provided. Expired gas data were collected and regression equations used to determine and compare slopes. Significant decreases in oxygen uptake (V̇O2) were found with each increase in BWS (p < 0.001). At 20% BWS, the average decrease in net VO2 was greater than proportional (34%), while at 40% BWS, the average net reduction in VO2 was close to proportional (38%). Across velocities, the slope of the relationship between VO2 and velocity (ΔV̇O2/Δv) was steeper with less support. The slopes at both the 20% and 40% BWS conditions were similar, especially when compared to the regular treadmill. Variability in VO2 between athletes was much greater on the LBPP treadmill and was greater with increased levels of BWS. In this study we evaluated the effect of body weight support on V̇O2 among elite distance runners. We have shown that oxygen uptake decreased with support, but not in direct proportion to that support. Further, because of the high variability in oxygen uptake between athletes on the LBPP treadmill, prediction equations may not be reliable and other indicators (heart rate, perceived exertion or directly measured oxygen uptake) should be used to guide training intensity when training on the LBPP treadmill. Key pointsWith increasing

  20. Balance control and anti-gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights.

    PubMed

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI-related changes in postural control were assessed by center-of-pressure displacements and electromyographic recordings of selected leg, arm, and neck muscles in 16 subjects with vHI while standing at heights on an emergency balcony versus standing in the laboratory at ground level. Characteristics of open- and closed-loop postural control were analyzed. Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with the subjective estimates of fear at heights. During height exposure, (1) open-loop control was disturbed by a higher diffusion activity (P < 0.001) and (2) the sensory feedback threshold for closed-loop control was lowered (P < 0.010). Altered postural control was predominantly associated with increased co-contraction of leg muscles. Body sway and leg and neck muscle co-contraction correlated with the severity of subjective anxiety (P < 0.050). Alterations in postural control diminished if there were nearby stationary contrasts in the visual surrounding or if subjects stood with eyes closed. The performance of a cognitive dual task also improved impaired balance. Visual heights have two behavioral effects in vHI subjects: A change occurs in (1) open- and closed-loop postural control strategy and (2) co-contraction of anti-gravity leg and neck muscles, both of which depend on the severity of evoked fear at heights. PMID:24744901

  1. Anti-Unruh phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenna, W. G.; Mann, Robert B.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    We find that a uniformly accelerated particle detector coupled to the vacuum can cool down as its acceleration increases, due to relativistic effects. We show that in (1+1)-dimensions, a detector coupled to the scalar field vacuum for finite timescales (but long enough to satisfy the KMS condition) has a KMS temperature that decreases with acceleration, in certain regimes. This contrasts with the heating that one would expect from the Unruh effect.

  2. Massive Vector Particles Tunneling from the Neutral Rotating Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the neutral rotating Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in conformal gravity by using the tunneling method. It is well known that the dynamics of massive vector particles are governed by the Proca field equation. Applying WKB approximation to the Proca equation, the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted particles are derived. Hawking temperature of the neutral rotating AdS black holes in conformal gravity is recovered, which is consistent with the previous result in the literature. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048, and the Foundation for Young Key Teacher of Henan Normal University

  3. Oxygen Consumption of Elite Distance Runners on an Anti-Gravity Treadmill®

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, David K.P.; Kline, John R.; de Heer, Hendrick D.; Coast, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP), or ‘anti-gravity’ treadmills® have become increasingly popular among elite distance runners. However, to date, few studies have assessed the effect of body weight support (BWS) on the metabolic cost of running among elite runners. This study evaluated how BWS influenced the relationship between velocity and metabolic cost among 6 elite male distance runners. Participants ran three- 16 minute tests consisting of 4 stages of 4 minutes at 8, 7, 6 and 5 min·mile−1 pace (3.35, 3.84, 4.47 and 5.36 m·s−1), while maintaining an aerobic effort (Respiratory Exchange Ratio ≤1.00). One test was run on a regular treadmill, one on an anti-gravity treadmill with 40% BWS and one with 20% BWS being provided. Expired gas data were collected and regression equations used to determine and compare slopes. Significant decreases in oxygen uptake (V̇O2) were found with each increase in BWS (p < 0.001). At 20% BWS, the average decrease in net VO2 was greater than proportional (34%), while at 40% BWS, the average net reduction in VO2 was close to proportional (38%). Across velocities, the slope of the relationship between VO2 and velocity (ΔV̇O2/Δv) was steeper with less support. The slopes at both the 20% and 40% BWS conditions were similar, especially when compared to the regular treadmill. Variability in VO2 between athletes was much greater on the LBPP treadmill and was greater with increased levels of BWS. In this study we evaluated the effect of body weight support on V̇O2 among elite distance runners. We have shown that oxygen uptake decreased with support, but not in direct proportion to that support. Further, because of the high variability in oxygen uptake between athletes on the LBPP treadmill, prediction equations may not be reliable and other indicators (heart rate, perceived exertion or directly measured oxygen uptake) should be used to guide training intensity when training on the LBPP treadmill. Key points With

  4. Use of an Anti-Gravity Treadmill for Early Postoperative Rehabilitation After Total Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study to Determine Safety and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, William D; Pulido, Pamela A; Goldberg, Timothy; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the safety, feasibility, and effects of anti-gravity gait training on functional outcomes (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], the Timed Up and Go test [TUG], Numerical Rating Scale [NRS] for pain) with the AlterG® Anti-Gravity Treadmill® device for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) rehabilitation. Subjects (N = 30) were randomized to land-based vs anti-gravity gait training over 4 weeks of physical therapy after TKA. Adverse events, complications, and therapist satisfaction were recorded. All patients completed rehabilitation protocols without adverse events. KOOS, TUG, and NRS scores improved in both groups with no significant differences between groups. For the AlterG group, Sports/Recreation and Quality of Life subscales of the KOOS had the most improvement. At the end of physical therapy, TUG and NRS pain scores improved from 14 seconds to 8 seconds and from 2.8 to 1.1, respectively. Subjectively, therapists reported 100% satisfaction with the AlterG. This initial pilot study demonstrated that the AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill device was safe and feasible. While functional outcomes improved over time with use of the anti-gravity gait training, further studies are needed to define the role of this device as an alternative or adjunct to established rehabilitation protocols. PMID:27327921

  5. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility, and the Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Sheredy, William A.; Flores, Ginger

    2008-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation, The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, reaction control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG and an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG. In addition, this paper will address possible changes to the MSG utilization process that will be brought about by the transition to ISS as a National Laboratory.

  6. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-07-15

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  7. Quantifying anti-gravity torques for the design of a powered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ragonesi, Daniel; Agrawal, Sunil K; Sample, Whitney; Rahman, Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Designing an upper extremity exoskeleton for people with arm weakness requires knowledge of the joint torques due to gravity and joint stiffness, as well as, active residual force capabilities of users. The objective of this research paper is to describe the characteristics of the upper limb of children with upper limb impairment. This paper describes the experimental measurements of the torque on the upper limb due to gravity and joint stiffness of three groups of subjects: able-bodied adults, able-bodied children, and children with neuromuscular disabilities. The experiment involves moving the arm to various positions in the sagittal plane and measuring the resultant force at the forearm. This force is then converted to torques at the elbow and shoulder. These data are compared to a two-link lumped mass model based on anthropomorphic data. Results show that the torques based on anthropometry deviate from experimentally measured torques as the arm goes through the range. Subjects with disabilities also maximally pushed and pulled against the force sensor to measure maximum strength as a function of arm orientation. For all subjects, the maximum voluntary applied torque at the shoulder and elbow in the sagittal plane was found to be lower than gravity torques throughout the disabled subjects' range of motion. This experiment informs designers of upper limb orthoses on the contribution of passive human joint torques due to gravity and joint stiffness and the strength capability of targeted users. PMID:23096118

  8. On a canonical quantization of 3D Anti de Sitter pure gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihun; Porrati, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    We perform a canonical quantization of pure gravity on AdS 3 using as a technical tool its equivalence at the classical level with a Chern-Simons theory with gauge group SL(2,{R})× SL(2,{R}) . We first quantize the theory canonically on an asymptotically AdS space -which is topologically the real line times a Riemann surface with one connected boundary. Using the "constrain first" approach we reduce canonical quantization to quantization of orbits of the Virasoro group and Kähler quantization of Teichmüller space. After explicitly computing the Kähler form for the torus with one boundary component and after extending that result to higher genus, we recover known results, such as that wave functions of SL(2,{R}) Chern-Simons theory are conformal blocks. We find new restrictions on the Hilbert space of pure gravity by imposing invariance under large diffeomorphisms and normalizability of the wave function. The Hilbert space of pure gravity is shown to be the target space of Conformal Field Theories with continuous spectrum and a lower bound on operator dimensions. A projection defined by topology changing amplitudes in Euclidean gravity is proposed. It defines an invariant subspace that allows for a dual interpretation in terms of a Liouville CFT. Problems and features of the CFT dual are assessed and a new definition of the Hilbert space, exempt from those problems, is proposed in the case of highly-curved AdS 3.

  9. Asymptotically warped anti-de Sitter spacetimes in topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Martínez, Cristián; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2011-12-01

    Asymptotically warped AdS spacetimes in topologically massive gravity with negative cosmological constant are considered in the case of spacelike stretched warping, where black holes have been shown to exist. We provide a set of asymptotic conditions that accommodate solutions in which the local degree of freedom (the “massive graviton”) is switched on. An exact solution with this property is explicitly exhibited and possesses a slower falloff than the warped AdS black hole. The boundary conditions are invariant under the semidirect product of the Virasoro algebra with a u(1) current algebra. We show that the canonical generators are integrable and finite. When the graviton is not excited, our analysis is compared and contrasted with earlier results obtained through the covariant approach to conserved charges. In particular, we find agreement with the conserved charges of the warped AdS black holes as well as with the central charges in the algebra.

  10. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP. PMID:26444077

  11. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  12. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Howard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the construction of the Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator, which can be used to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena, including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems behave. Presents experiments, appropriate for classroom use, to demonstrate how the behavior of common physical systems change when…

  13. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  14. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  15. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  16. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  17. Kerr-Newman-dS/AdS solution and anti-evaporation in higher-order torsion scalar gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2016-03-01

    We derive a null tetrad from axially-symmetric vierbein field. The f(T)f(T)-Maxwell field equations with cosmological constant, where T is the scalar torsion, are applied to the null tetrad. An exact non-vacuum solution having three constants of integration is derived which is a solution to the f (T) -Maxwell field equations provided that f(T)=T0f(T)=T0 and fT=df(T)dT=1fT=df(T)dT=1, where T0T0 is a constant. The scalar torsion related to this solution is constant, i.e., T=T0T=T0, and differs from the classical general relativity when f(T)≈T0f(T)≈T0. We study the singularities of this solution using curvature and torsion invariants. We consider a slow rotation and show that the derived solution behaves asymptotically as de Sitter spacetime and display the existence of Nariai spacetime as a background solution. We assume a perturbation of Nariai spacetime till the first order and investigate the behavior of the black hole horizon. Finally, we explain that the anti-evaporation occurs on the classical level in the f (T) gravitational theories.

  18. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the

  19. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  20. Born-Infeld gravity in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we explore different aspects of three dimensional Born-Infeld as well as Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the models have anti-de Sitter and anti-de Sitter wave vacuum solutions. Moreover, we observe that although Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity admits a logarithmic solution, Born-Infeld gravity does not, though it has a limiting logarithmic solution as we approach the critical point.

  1. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  2. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  3. Venus gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  4. New improved massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  5. Brane worlds in critical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Shao-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Recently, Lü and Pope proposed critical gravities in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. In this paper we construct analytic brane solutions in critical gravity with matter. The Gibbons-Hawking surface term and junction condition are investigated, and the thin and thick brane solutions are obtained. All these branes are embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Our solutions are stable against scalar perturbations, and the zero modes of scalar perturbations cannot be localized on the branes.

  6. AdS Chern-Simons gravity induces conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Díaz, Danilo E.

    2014-04-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional conformal gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as the dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauge-fixed, tractorlike) five-dimensional anti-de Sitter connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program readily admits a generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  7. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ħ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that as the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ħ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  8. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ℏ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that since the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ℏ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  9. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

  10. n-DBI gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Hirano, Shinji; Sato, Yuki

    2011-12-01

    n-DBI gravity is a gravitational theory introduced in [C. Herdeiro and S. Hirano, arXiv:1109.1468.], motivated by Dirac-Born-Infeld type conformal scalar theory and designed to yield noneternal inflation spontaneously. It contains a foliation structure provided by an everywhere timelike vector field n, which couples to the gravitational sector of the theory, but decouples in the small curvature limit. We show that any solution of Einstein gravity with a particular curvature property is a solution of n-DBI gravity. Among them is a class of geometries isometric to a Reissner-Nordström-(anti)-de Sitter black hole, which is obtained within the spherically symmetric solutions of n-DBI gravity minimally coupled to the Maxwell field. These solutions have, however, two distinct features from their Einstein gravity counterparts: (1) the cosmological constant appears as an integration constant and can be positive, negative, or vanishing, making it a variable quantity of the theory; and (2) there is a nonuniqueness of solutions with the same total mass, charge, and effective cosmological constant. Such inequivalent solutions cannot be mapped to each other by a foliation preserving diffeomorphism. Physically they are distinguished by the expansion and shear of the congruence tangent to n, which define scalar invariants on each leaf of the foliation.

  11. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  12. The Grip of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondhalekar, Prabhakar

    2001-09-01

    Gravity is one of the most inexplicable forces of nature, controlling everything, from the expansion of the Universe to the ebb and flow of ocean tides. The search for the laws of motion and gravitation began more than two thousand years ago, a quest that Prabhakar Gondhalekar recounts in The Grip of Gravity. Beginning with Aristotle and concluding with Planck, Gondhalekar outlines a 'genealogy' of gravity and lucidly explains how previous explanations have shaped the most recent development in the field, string theory. In this work, physicist and astronomer Gondhalekar describes experiments, both planned and proposed, and clearly explains natural phenomena like ocean tides, seasons, ice ages, the formation of planets, stars, and exotic objects like black holes and neutron stars, which are all controlled by gravity. Including anecdotes and thumb-nail sketches of the personalities involved, The Grip of Gravity provides an introduction to the foundation of modern physics and shows how the current developments in string theory may lead to a new and radical interpretation of gravity. Prabhakar Gondhalekar is an Honorary Fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College, London. Until his retirement in 1998, he was the head of the Space Astronomy Group at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where he had been a researcher for 18 years. His research has included a number of topics in galactic and extragalactic astronomy, with his major work focusing on the interstellar medium and active galactic nuclei. Gondhalekar has been awarded Royal Society, Leverhulme Trust, and NATO Research Fellowships to do research in universities in the United States and Israel.

  13. Gravity investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, D.L.

    1983-12-31

    A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Computing Gravity's Strongest Grip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2008-04-01

    Gravitational physics is entering a new era, one driven by observation, that will begin once gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO make their first detections. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. In support of this theoretical modeling, recent breakthroughs in numerical relativity have lead to the development of computational tools that allow us to explore where and how gravitational wave observations can constrain or inform our understanding of gravity and astrophysical phenomena. I will review these latest developments, focusing on binary black hole simulations and the role these simulations play in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  15. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  16. Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John E.

    1997-03-01

    This book comprehensively describes all aspects of gravity flow, a physical process in the environment that is covered by many disciplines including meteorology, oceanography, the earth sciences and industrial processes. The first edition was very well received, and the author has brought the new edition completely up to date, with much new material. Simpson describes gravity currents with a variety of laboratory experiments, many from his own work. Gravity Currents is a valuable supplementary textbook for undergraduates and a reference work for research workers. The general reader will also find much of interest, since the author clearly describes the physics of flows involved without advanced mathematics, and with numerous photographs and illustrations.

  17. Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John E.

    1999-11-01

    This book comprehensively describes all aspects of gravity flow, a physical process in the environment that is covered by many disciplines including meteorology, oceanography, the earth sciences and industrial processes. The first edition was very well received, and the author has brought the new edition completely up to date, with much new material. Simpson describes gravity currents with a variety of laboratory experiments, many from his own work. Gravity Currents is a valuable supplementary textbook for undergraduates and a reference work for research workers. The general reader will also find much of interest, since the author clearly describes the physics of flows involved without advanced mathematics, and with numerous photographs and illustrations.

  18. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  19. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  20. Gravity and Quantum Theory Unified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Gary

    Historic arguments against Aether theories disappear if the Aether is a 4D compressible hyperfluid in which each particle is our observation of a hypervortex, formed in and comprised of hyperfluid. Such Aether resolves ``spooky action at a distance'' which allows unification of gravity and quantum theory. Light is transverse waves in free space (away from hypervortices) in the hyperfluid. Their detailed behavior is why we observe a curved 3D Lorentz universe - a slice through the 4D hyperverse. Meanwhile, detailed hypervortex behavior, including faster-than-light longitudinal waves in and along hypervortices, explain quantum phenomena. A particular Lagrangian for such a hyperfluid regenerates Maxwell's equations, plus an equation for gravity, and an equation for electric charge. Couplings among these equations generate a discrete spectrum of hypervortex solutions that we observe as a spectrum of particles. Gravity results from gradients in the fluid density near vortices. Observed clock rates depend on fluid density, and vortex motion thus intertwining gravity, clock rates and quantum phenomena. Implied experiments will be discussed.

  1. Gravity settling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Hyman R.; Long, R. H.; Simone, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Solids are separated from a liquid in a gravity settler provided with inclined solid intercepting surfaces to intercept the solid settling path to coalesce the solids and increase the settling rate. The intercepting surfaces are inverted V-shaped plates, each formed from first and second downwardly inclined upwardly curved intersecting conical sections having their apices at the vessel wall.

  2. Simulating Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  3. Tunneling without barriers with gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Sasaki, Misao; Soda, Jiro

    2012-04-01

    We consider the vacuum decay of the flat Minkowski space to an anti-de Sitter space. We find a one-parameter family of potentials that allow exact, analytical instanton solutions describing tunneling without barriers in the presence of gravity. In the absence of gravity, such instantons were found by Linde and rediscovered and discussed by Lee and Weinberg more than a quarter of a century ago. The bounce action is also analytically computed. We discuss possible implications of these new instantons to cosmology in the context of the string theory landscape.

  4. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  5. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  6. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  7. Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  8. The Equivalence of Precession Phenomena in Metric Theories of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    A simple argument is presented that demonstrates clearly, without the need for detailed calculation, how geodetic precession of a gyroscope and the effect of fram-draggin are fundamentally equivalent.

  9. Center for low-gravity fluid mechanics and transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassoy, D. R.; Sani, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Research projects in several areas are discussed. Mass transport in vapor phase systems, droplet collisions and coalescence in microgravity, and rapid solidification of undercooled melts are discussed.

  10. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  11. Expanding Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2005-04-01

    Newton's gravitational constant Gn and Laws of Gravity are based upon observations in our solar system. Mysteries appear when they are used far outside our solar system Apparently, Newton's gravitational constant can not be applied at large distances. Dark matter was needed to explain the observed flat rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies (Rubin), and of groups of remote galaxies (Zwicky). Our expansion of Newton's gravitational constant Gn as a power series in distance r, is sufficient to explain these observations without using dark matter. This is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom involving acceleration. Also, our Expanded Gravitational Constant (EGC) can show the correct use of the red shift. In addition to the Doppler contribution, there are three other contributions and these depend only upon gravity. Thus, velocity observations only based on the red shift can not be used to support the concept of the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, or dark energy. Our expanded gravity constant can predict and explain Olbers' paradox (dark sky), and the temperature of the CMB (cosmic microwave background). Thus, CMB may not support the big bang and inflation.

  12. Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-07-01

    In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.

  13. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  14. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  15. Gravity darkening in binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Lara, F.; Rieutord, M.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Interpretation of light curves of many types of binary stars requires the inclusion of the (cor)relation between surface brightness and local effective gravity. Until recently, this correlation has always been modeled by a power law relating the flux or the effective temperature and the effective gravity, namely Teff ∝ geffβ . Aims: We look for a simple model that can describe the variations of the flux at the surface of stars belonging to a binary system. Methods: This model assumes that the energy flux is a divergence-free vector anti-parallel to the effective gravity. The effective gravity is computed from the Roche model. Results: After explaining in a simple manner the old result of Lucy (1967, Z. Astrophys., 65, 89), which says that β ~ 0.08 for solar type stars, we first argue that one-dimensional models should no longer be used to evaluate gravity darkening laws. We compute the correlation between log Teff and log geff using a new approach that is valid for synchronous, weakly magnetized, weakly irradiated binaries. We show that this correlation is approximately linear, validating the use of a power law relation between effective temperature and effective gravity as a first approximation. We further show that the exponent β of this power law is a slowly varying function, which we tabulate, of the mass ratio of the binary star and the Roche lobe filling factor of the stars of the system. The exponent β remains mostly in the interval [0.20,0.25] if extreme mass ratios are eliminated. Conclusions: For binary stars that are synchronous, weakly magnetized and weakly irradiated, the gravity darkening exponent is well constrained and may be removed from the free parameters of the models.

  16. Conformal gravity holography in four dimensions.

    PubMed

    Grumiller, Daniel; Irakleidou, Maria; Lovrekovic, Iva; McNees, Robert

    2014-03-21

    We formulate four-dimensional conformal gravity with (anti-)de Sitter boundary conditions that are weaker than Starobinsky boundary conditions, allowing for an asymptotically subleading Rindler term concurrent with a recent model for gravity at large distances. We prove the consistency of the variational principle and derive the holographic response functions. One of them is the conformal gravity version of the Brown-York stress tensor, the other is a "partially massless response". The on shell action and response functions are finite and do not require holographic renormalization. Finally, we discuss phenomenologically interesting examples, including the most general spherically symmetric solutions and rotating black hole solutions with partially massless hair. PMID:24702345

  17. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  18. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  19. "Anti-Gravity" Treadmills Speed Rehabilitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A former Ames Research Center engineer, Dr. Robert Whalen, invented a treadmill that he licensed to a Menlo Park, California company, Alter-G Inc. The company s G-Trainer is an enclosed treadmill that uses air pressure to help patients feel up to 80 percent lighter, easing discomfort during rehabilitation. A patient desiring more weightlessness during a workout can simply press a button and the air pressure increases, lifting the body and reducing strain and impact. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared the G-Trainer for medical use in January 2008, and researchers are now assessing the G-Trainer s effectiveness in aiding patients with various neurological or musculoskeletal conditions.

  20. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  1. Phenomena Associated with EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with 'EIT Wave' transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to infer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  2. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  3. Tribology experiment in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates studies of the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Observations were made of phenomena associated with the liquid on one solid surface and also with the liquid between a pair of closely spaced surfaces. Typical photographic records obtained on Spacelab 1 are described.

  4. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  5. Anti-wear additive content in fully synthetic PAO and PAG base oils and its effect on electrostatic and tribological phenomena in a rotating shaft-oil-lip seal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B.; Głogowski, Marek J.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments on electrostatic and tribological aspects of different anti-wear additive's contents when an additive is blended with different fully synthetic (poly-α-olefin) and PAG (polyalkylene glycol) base oils in a rotating shaft-oil and oil-lip seal interfacial system. The experimental results are the relationships of electric potential induced in a lip seal's stiffening ring to angular velocity of a rotating metal shaft and to temperature of the oils tested. The braking torque of a shaft is measured with a torquemeter sensor connected directly with a microprocessor-based system for controlling the rotational speed and for measuring the shaft's braking torque and oil temperature. The beneficial and promising results are obtained for PAG when an external DC electric field is applied to the system and the braking torque is then reduced for a certain combination of the base oil and additive's contents. On the basis of the former and present research results an analysis is made to permit one to show how the type of the oils and additives tested can affect both interfaces: rotating shaft-oil and oil-lip of the lip seal and especially the braking torque.

  6. AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin

    2011-04-15

    We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.

  7. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  8. Modeling of convection phenomena in Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, F. M.; Eraslan, A. H.; Sheu, J. Z.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal convection phenomena in a vertically oriented Bridgman-Stockbarger apparatus were modeled by computer simulations for different gravity conditions, ranging from earth conditions to extremely low gravity, approximate space conditions. The modeling results were obtained by the application of a state-of-the art, transient, multi-dimensional, completely densimetrically coupled, discrete-element computational model which was specifically developed for the simulation of flow, temperature, and species concentration conditions in two-phase (solid-liquid) systems. The computational model was applied to the simulation of the flow and the thermal conditions associated with the convection phenomena in a modified Germanium-Silicon charge enclosed in a stationary fused-silica ampoule. The results clearly indicated that the gravitational field strength influences the characteristics of the coherent vortical flow patterns, interface shape and position, maximum melt velocity, and interfacial normal temperature gradient.

  9. Tank Pressure Control Experiment/thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Knoll, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)' is a reflight of the tank pressure control experiment (TPCE), flown on STS-43 in a standard Get-Away Special (GAS) container in August 1991. The TPCE obtained extensive video and digital data of the jet induced mixing process in a partially filled tank in low gravity environments. It also provided limited data on the thermal processes involved. The primary objective of the reflight of TPCE is to investigate experimentally the phenomena of liquid superheating and pool nucleate boiling at very low heat fluxes in a long duration low gravity environment. The findings of this experiment will be of direct relevance to space based subcritical cryogenic fluid system design and operation. Experiment hardware and results from the first TPCE are described in outline and graphic form.

  10. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  11. Wave propagation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenenboom, P. H. L.

    The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.

  12. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  13. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  14. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  15. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  16. Cold Atom Gravity Gradiometer for Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugarbaker, Alex; Black, Adam; Ledbetter, Micah; Hong, Tao; Kasevich, Mark; Saif, Babak; Luthcke, Scott; Seery, Bernard; Feinberg, Lee; Mather, John; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2015-05-01

    We are developing an atom interferometer gravity gradiometer for Earth science studies from a satellite in low Earth orbit. The target sensitivity of the gradiometer is 7 ×10-5 E/Hz1/2 when extrapolated to operation in microgravity. This is two orders of magnitude beyond ESA's Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), and would improve our ability to understand and monitor ocean currents, the thinning of ice sheets, magma flows, and other geophysical phenomena. Many of the techniques employed in this sensor were developed in the Stanford 10 m drop tower. Supported by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP).

  17. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  18. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  19. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  20. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  1. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  2. Short range gravity and T-Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saki

    2014-09-01

    A torsion balance experiment Newton-IVh at Rikkyo University, aiming to test gravitational inverse square law at millimeter scale, and the MTV-G experiment searching a strong gravity at around nuclei utilizing detector setup for a T-Violation (the MTV) experiment at TRIUMF will be introduced. In addition, comparison with the LHC results on search for the large extra dimension and the sensitivity of the short range gravity experiments will be discussed on the contexts of conventional Yukawa and power law parameterizations. The experimental constraints obtained from atomic spectroscopy including anti-protonic helium atom, together with our results at Rikkyo University on the test of universality of free fall in centimeter scale, will also be discussed as a test of inverse square law and composition depending gravity, which can be investigated at antimatter gravity experiments.

  3. Current program to investigate phenomena in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Current NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division Shuttle and terrestrial experiments to acquire basic data for space-based materials processing activities are summarized. The research is carried out to increase the understanding and to improve ground-based and space-based processing, to enhance the understanding of basic physical phenomena, and to characterize the forces which effect low-gravity processing. The main areas of research are crystal growth, metallic alloy solidification, bioseparation processes, blood rheology, containerless processing, and studies of combustion processes, chemical and transport phenomena, cloud microphysics and fluid behavior and surface phenomena in microgravity. Specific experiments, which exemplify the research goals and were performed on KC-135 flights along Keplerian trajectories and on Shuttle missions, are described.

  4. Reexamining Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.; Hurtak, James J.; Hurtak, Desire E.

    The authors propose that the structure of a micro-vacuum plenum acts as a driving mechanism of the universe, which determines what we observe as oscopic topological conditions on cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. The detailed structure of the vacuum plenum is based on a quantum gravity model. At the micro scale quantum is formulated in terms of non-abelian algebras. Through the pervasive vacuum structure, particle and atomic processes can be reconciled with the larger structures of cosmogenic evolution, that is, matter is continuously created throughout the universe. The constraints of a Schwarzschild-like criterion can also be applied at each point in the evolutionary process which appears not to be linear in all aspects. The source of new matter is considered to be the activity of and interaction through vacuum effects describable in terms of creation and destruction of operators in the Feynman graphical techniques. In the early stages of cosmogenic processes, an inflationary like or multi big bangs may have occurred and were driven by the vacuum plenum. In addition the vacuum effects occur where quantum gravitational processes were much more dominant. Our approach may lead to an understanding of the observed acceleration of distant High-z bright supernovas of over 6. The current Hubble expansion requires a modification in the model of the early universe conditions and may be more appropriate in current cosmological model considerations in local astrophysical phenomena.

  5. Gravity spreading in the dispersion of dense gas plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D.L.

    1991-03-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of a denser-than-air release is affected by several physical phenomena that either do not occur or are unimportant in a trace gas release. The main phenomena are directly related to the density structure of the dense gas cloud. They are damping of the turbulence level due to stable density stratification within the cloud and alteration of the ambient velocity field due to gravity flow resulting from horizontal gradients in the cloud density. In this paper we address the phenomena of gravity spreading of a denser-than-air cloud dispersing over flat terrain. Specifically, we attempt to interpret the gravity spreading results observed in wind-tunnel studies conducted by CPP Inc.

  6. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  7. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  8. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2015-06-01

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers

  9. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-03-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Zp spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordström metrics.

  10. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  11. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  12. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  13. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  14. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  15. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  16. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 – 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along

  17. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation Modulate Stratospheric Gravity Waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Andrew; Wright, Corwin; Mitchell, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The circulation of the stratosphere is strongly influenced by the fluxes of gravity waves propagating from tropospheric sources. In the tropics, these gravity waves are primarily generated by convection. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates the intra-seasonal variability of this convection. However, the connection between the MJO and the variability of stratospheric gravity waves is largely unknown. Here we examine gravity-wave potential energy at a height of 26 km and the upper tropospheric zonal-wind anomaly of the MJO at the 200 hPa level, sorted by the relative phase of the MJO using the RMM MJO indices. We show that a strong anti-correlation exists between gravity-wave potential energy and the MJO eastward wind anomaly. We propose that this correlation is a result of the filtering of ascending waves by the MJO winds. The study provides evidence that the MJO contributes significantly to the variability of stratospheric gravity waves in the tropics.

  18. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  19. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^-23 Hz^-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  20. Gravity is Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  1. Challenging Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveto, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    A recent proposal by Erik Verlinde claims that gravity should be viewed not as a fundamental force, but an emergent thermodynamic phenomenon due to some yet undetermined microscopic theory. We present a challenge to this reformulation of gravity. Our claim is that a detailed derivation using Verlinde's proposed theory fails to correctly give Newton's laws or Einstein gravity.

  2. Charged C -metric in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2016-04-01

    Using a C -metric-type ansatz, we obtain an exact solution to conformal gravity coupled to a Maxwell electromagnetic field. The solution resembles a C -metric spacetime carrying an electromagnetic charge. The metric is cast in a factorized form which allows us to study the domain structure of its static coordinate regions. This metric reduces to the well-known Mannheim-Kazanas metric under an appropriate limiting procedure, and also reduces to the (anti)de Sitter C -metric of Einstein gravity for a particular choice of parameters.

  3. Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine G.

    The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were

  4. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  5. Gravity related features of plant growth behavior studied with rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Research in plant physiology consists mostly of studies on plant growth because almost everything a plant does is done by growing. Most aspects of plant growth are strongly influenced by the earth's gravity vector. Research on those phenomena address scientific questions specifically about how plants use gravity to guide their growth processes.

  6. Gravity, black holes, and the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolson, I.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.

  7. Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.

  8. Critical velocity phenomena and the LTP. [Lunar Transient Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    When the relative velocity between magnetized plasma and neutral gas exceeds a critical value, the gas-plasma interaction is dominated by collective phenomena which rapidly excite and ionize the neutrals. The interaction of the solar wind with a large cloud (between 10 to the 24th and 10 to the 28th power neutrals) vented from the moon should be of this type. Line radiation from such an interaction can yield an apparent lunar surface brightness rivaling reflected sunlight levels over small areas, if the kinetic-energy flow density of the gas is sufficiently high. The aberrated solar-wind flow past the moon would enhance the visibility of such interactions near the lunar sunrise terminator, supporting the statistical studies which indicate that the 'Lunar Transient Phenomena' (anomalous optical phenomena on the moon) are significantly correlated with the position of the terminator on the lunar surface.

  9. Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.

  10. Microgravity Studies Offer Insights into Solidification Phenomena and Processing of Metals and Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews historical aspects of solidification processing and the detrimental attributes associated with gravity-driven flow phenomena. Benefits of and avenues toward conducting experiments in a microgravity environment are presented and illustrated with relevant examples. Finally, some comments regarding the role of microgravity experimentation are given.

  11. Microgravity Studies Offer Insights into Solidification Phenomena and Processing of Metals and Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews historical aspects of solidification processing and the detrimental attributes associated with gravity-driven flow phenomena. Benefits of and avenues toward conducting experiments in a microgravity environment are presented and illustrated with relevant examples. Finally, some comments regarding the role of microgravity experimentation are given

  12. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  13. Investigation of surface tension phenomena using the KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the KC-135 aircraft was utilized in three experiments designed to determine the following: (1) the feasibility of measuring critical wetting temperatures; (2) the effectiveness of surface tension as a means of keeping the cushioning heat transfer liquid in the furnace during ampoule translation; and (3) whether a non-wetting fluid would separate from the ampoule wall under low gravity conditions. This trio of investigations concerning surface phenomena demonstrates the effectiveness of the KC-135 as a microgravity research environment for small-scale, hand-held experiments.

  14. Concepts and methods for describing critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The predictions of theoretical models for a critical-point phase transistion in fluids, namely the classical equation with third-degree critical isotherm, that with fifth-degree critical isotherm, and the lattice gas, are reviewed. The renormalization group theory of critical phenomena and the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior supported by this theory are discussed as well as the nature of gravity effects and how they affect cricital-region experimentation in fluids. The behavior of the thermodynamic properties and the correlation function is formulated in terms of scaling laws. The predictions of these scaling laws and of the hypothesis of universality of critical behavior are compared with experimental data for one-component fluids and it is indicated how the methods can be extended to describe critical phenomena in fluid mixtures.

  15. Generalized phase transitions in Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camanho, Xián O.; Edelstein, José D.; Giribet, Gastón; Gomberoff, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    We investigate a novel mechanism for phase transitions that is a distinctive feature of higher-curvature gravity theories. For definiteness, we bound ourselves to the case of Lovelock gravities. These theories are known to have several branches of asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions. Here, extending our previous work, we show that phase transitions among some of these branches are driven by a thermalon configuration: a bubble separating two regions of different effective cosmological constants, generically hosting a black hole in the interior. Above some critical temperature, this thermalon configuration is preferred with respect to the finite-temperature anti-de Sitter space, triggering a sophisticated version of the Hawking-Page transition. After being created, the unstable bubble configuration can in general dynamically change the asymptotic cosmological constant. While this phenomenon already occurs in the case of a gravity action with square curvature terms, we point out that in the case of Lovelock theory with cubic (and higher) terms new effects appear. For instance, the theory may admit more than one type of bubble and branches that are in principle free of pathologies may also decay through the thermalon mechanism. We also find ranges of the gravitational couplings for which the theory becomes sick. These add up to previously found restrictions to impose tighter constraints on higher-curvature gravities. The results of this paper point to an intricate phase diagram which might accommodate similarly rich behavior in the dual conformal field theory side.

  16. Simulating Gravity: Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Jes; Stang, Jared; Anderson, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Dark matter makes up most of the matter in the universe but very little of a standard introductory physics curriculum. Here we present our construction and use of a spandex sheet-style gravity simulator to qualitatively demonstrate two aspects of modern physics related to dark matter. First, we describe an activity in which students explore the dependence of orbital velocities on the central mass of a system, in a demonstration of how scientists first discovered dark matter. Second, we discuss the use of the gravity simulator as a visualization of gravitational lensing, a current astronomical technique for mapping dark matter in the sky. After providing the necessary background for the phenomena of interest, we describe our construction of the gravity simulator and detail our facilitation of these two activities. Together, these activities provide a conceptual visualization of gravitational phenomena related to indirect detection techniques for studying dark matter.

  17. Aspects of Gauge-Gravity Duality and Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Joshua Fred

    We study three aspects of gauge-gravity duality. First, we explore holographic models of conformal field theories with boundary by way of holographic renormalization group flows. Second, we propose an extension and application of the covariant holographic entangelement entropy proposal to warped anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. Third, we exhibit the existence of higher-spin black holes with Lifshitz asymptotics in the Chern-Simons formulation of higher spin gravity.

  18. Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.

  19. Canonical gravity with fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam

    2008-09-15

    Canonical gravity in real Ashtekar-Barbero variables is generalized to allow for fermionic matter. The resulting torsion changes several expressions in Holst's original vacuum analysis, which are summarized here. This in turn requires adaptations to the known loop quantization of gravity coupled to fermions, which is discussed on the basis of the classical analysis. As a result, parity invariance is not manifestly realized in loop quantum gravity.

  20. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  1. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed. PMID:12031940

  2. Affine gravity, Palatini formalism and charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph; Livshits, Gideon I.

    2011-12-01

    Affine gravity and the Palatini formalism contribute both to produce a simple and unique formula for calculating charges at spatial and null infinity for Lovelock type Lagrangians whose variational derivatives do not depend on second-order derivatives of the field components. The method is based on the covariant generalization due to Julia and Silva of the Regge-Teitelboim procedure that was used to define properly the mass in the classical formulation of Einstein's theory of gravity. Numerous applications reproduce standard results obtained by other secure but mostly specialized method like in ADM energy for asymptotically flat spacetimes and in Abbot and Deser for asymptotically de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, both at spatial infinity. As a novel application we calculate the Bondi energy loss in five dimensional gravity, based on the asymptotic solution given by Tanabe et al. and obtain, as expected, the same result. We also give the for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and find the superpotential for Lovelock theories of gravity when the number of dimensions tends to infinity with maximally symmetrical boundaries. The paper is written in standard component formalism.

  3. Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process

  4. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  5. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    phenomena, J. Fluid Mech. 31, 209-248. Shin, J.O., Dalziel, S.B. and Linden, P.F. 2004 Gravity currents produced by lock exchange, J. Fluid Mech. 521, 1-34.

  6. Gauge/Gravity Duality (Gauge Gravity Duality)

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2010-02-24

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  7. Emergence of Lorentzian signature and scalar gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L.

    2009-02-15

    In recent years, a growing momentum has been gained by the emergent gravity framework. Within the latter, the very concepts of geometry and gravitational interaction are not seen as elementary aspects of nature but rather as collective phenomena associated to the dynamics of more fundamental objects. In this paper we want to further explore this possibility by proposing a model of emergent Lorentzian signature and scalar gravity. Assuming that the dynamics of the fundamental objects can give rise in first place to a Riemannian manifold and a set of scalar fields we show how time (in the sense of hyperbolic equations) can emerge as a property of perturbations dynamics around some specific class of solutions of the field equations. Moreover, we show that these perturbations can give rise to a spin-0 gravity via a suitable redefinition of the fields that identifies the relevant degrees of freedom. In particular, we find that our model gives rise to Nordstroem gravity. Since this theory is invariant under general coordinate transformations, this also shows how diffeomorphism invariance (albeit of a weaker form than the one of general relativity) can emerge from much simpler systems.

  8. Electricity from Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2007-03-01

    Einstein's cosmological constant as gravity, will unify quantum mechanics to general relativity and link gravity to electromagnetism. Then, an electromagnetic vacuum engine driven by the force that spins, moves, and sustains mass at the subatomic level, will do free, what generators cannot. Flowing outward-bound sinusoidally from its source, this gravity force assumes a three-dimensional spherical universe. Lines of force intersect, spinning into gyroscopic particles and passes as time-present, with a compression gravity of space-time curvature continuum unifying all mass. The spaces between approaching masses suffer a decrease of right-angled vacuum energy, increasing external pressures, pushing them together. Ubiquitous gravity now interacts electromagnetically with mass. Gravity's ``heat energy'' operates below absolute zero and squeezes mass into thermonuclear ignition of stars. Creation needs a gravity field for the propagation of light that will make sense of its wave/particle behavior. Creation from a white hole recycles down through a black one, into new beginnings of galaxies. ``Vacuum energy'' will light cities and factories; faster than light spacecraft will raise silently from the ground utilizing the very gravity it defies, propelling us to the stars.

  9. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

  10. Gravity asymptotics with topological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sandipan

    2013-07-01

    In four-dimensional gravity theory, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter has a topological origin, and can be identified as the coefficient multiplying the Nieh-Yan topological density in the gravity Lagrangian, as proposed by Date et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044008 (2009)]. Based on this fact, a first order action formulation for spacetimes with boundaries is introduced. The bulk Lagrangian, containing the Nieh-Yan density, needs to be supplemented with suitable boundary terms so that it leads to a well-defined variational principle. Within this general framework, we analyze spacetimes with and without a cosmological constant. For locally anti-de Sitter (or de Sitter) asymptotia, the action principle has nontrivial implications. It admits an extremum for all such solutions provided the SO(3,1) Pontryagin and Euler topological densities are added to it with fixed coefficients. The resulting Lagrangian, while containing all three topological densities, has only one independent topological coupling constant, namely, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter. In the final analysis, it emerges as a coefficient of the SO(3,2) [or SO(4,1)] Pontryagin density, and is present in the action only for manifolds for which the corresponding topological index is nonzero.

  11. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  12. Investigation of microgravity effects on solidification phenomena of selected materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Hansen, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    A Get Away Special (GAS) experiment payload to investigate microgravity effects on solidification phenomena of selected experimental samples has been designed for flight. It is intended that the first flight of the assembly will (1) study the p-n junction characteristics for advancing semiconductor device applications, (2) study the effects of gravity-driven convection on the growth of HgCd crystals, (3) compare the textures of the sample which crystallizes in microgravity with those found in chondrite meteorites, and (4) modify glass optical characteristics through divalent oxygen exchange. The space flight experiment consists of many small furnaces. While the experiment payload is in the low gravity environment of orbital flight, the payload controller will sequentially activate the furnaces to heat samples to their melt state and then allow cooling to resolidification in a controlled fashion. The materials processed in the microgravity environment of space will be compared to the same materials processed on earth in a one-gravity environment. This paper discusses the design of all subassemblies (furnance, electronics, and power systems) in the experiment. A complete description of the experimental materials is also presented.

  13. Chern-Simons action for inhomogeneous Virasoro group as extension of three dimensional flat gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnich, Glenn; Giribet, Gastón; Leston, Mauricio

    2015-07-15

    We initiate the study of a Chern-Simons action associated to the semi-direct sum of the Virasoro algebra with its coadjoint representation. This model extends the standard Chern-Simons formulation of three dimensional flat gravity and is similar to the higher-spin extension of three dimensional anti-de Sitter or flat gravity. The extension can also be constructed for the exotic but not for the cosmological constant deformation of flat gravity.

  14. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  16. Visualization of solidification front phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental platform which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Because of the wide-spread use of this experimental technique in space-based research, it has become apparent that a better understanding of all the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible.

  17. Cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouteillon, J.; Poignet, J. C.; Rameau, J. J.

    1993-02-01

    Although aluminum is one of the world's highest production-volume primary metals, it is particularly costly to produce for a variety of factors, not the least of which are the expenses associated with electrolytic reduction. Based on the scale of global aluminum processing, even minor improvements in the electrowinning technology can result in significant savings of resources. Thus, from this perspective, the following reviews recent studies of cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning.

  18. Probing hybrid modified gravity by stellar motion around Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borka, D.; Capozziello, S.; Jovanović, P.; Borka Jovanović, V.

    2016-06-01

    We consider possible signatures for the so called hybrid gravity within the Galactic Central Parsec. This modified theory of gravity consists of a superposition of the metric Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian with an f(R) term constructed à la Palatiniand can be easily reduced to an equivalent scalar-tensor theory. Such an approach is introduced in order to cure the shortcomings related to f(R) gravity, in general formulated either in metric or in metric-affine frameworks. Hybrid gravity allows to disentangle the further gravitational degrees of freedom with respect to those of standard General Relativity. The present analysis is based on the S2 star orbital precession around the massive compact dark object at the Galactic Center where the simulated orbits in hybrid modified gravity are compared with astronomical observations. These simulations result with constraints on the range of hybrid gravity interaction parameter ϕ0, showing that in the case of S2 star it is between -0.0009 and -0.0002. At the same time, we are also able to obtain the constraints on the effective mass parameter mϕ, and found that it is between -0.0034 and -0.0025 AU-1 for S2 star. Furthermore, the hybrid gravity potential induces precession of S2 star orbit in the same direction as General Relativity. In previous papers, we considered other types of extended gravities, like metric power law f(R)∝Rn gravity, inducing Yukawa and Sanders-like gravitational potentials, but it seems that hybrid gravity is the best among these models to explain different gravitational phenomena at different astronomical scales.

  19. Fusion welding experiments under low-gravity conditions using aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masubuchi, Koichi; Nayama, Michisuke

    A series of gas tungsten arc welding experiments under low-gravity conditions created using parabolic flight of aircraft were performed. The materials used were aluminum and 2219 aluminum alloy. Welding was conducted in a small chamber filled with 100 percent argon gas, and the power source was a set of storage batteries. While welding was conducted, CCD image of welding phenomena, welding current, voltage, and the gravity level of the welding table were recorded continuously. It was found that sound welds can be obtained under low-gravity conditions. The bead appearance of the weld bead made under low-gravity conditions was very smooth and flat with no ripple lines which normally exist in welds made on the earth. The observed shape of the arc plasma under low-gravity conditions was larger than that made under normal gravity condition, but the difference was not so significant. Welds made under low-gravity conditions tend to contain more porosity compared with welds made under the earth conditions.

  20. Pressure Profiles in a Loop Heat Pipe Under Gravity Influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of a loop heat pipe (LHP), the viscous flow induces pressure drops in various elements of the loop. The total pressure drop is equal to the sum of pressure drops in vapor grooves, vapor line, condenser, liquid line and primary wick, and is sustained by menisci at liquid and vapor interfaces on the outer surface of the primary wick in the evaporator. The menisci will curve naturally so that the resulting capillary pressure matches the total pressure drop. In ground testing, an additional gravitational pressure head may be present and must be included in the total pressure drop when LHP components are placed in a non-planar configuration. Under gravity-neutral and anti-gravity conditions, the fluid circulation in the LHP is driven solely by the capillary force. With gravity assist, however, the flow circulation can be driven by the combination of capillary and gravitational forces, or by the gravitational force alone. For a gravity-assist LHP at a given elevation between the horizontal condenser and evaporator, there exists a threshold heat load below which the LHP operation is gravity driven and above which the LHP operation is capillary force and gravity co-driven. The gravitational pressure head can have profound effects on the LHP operation, and such effects depend on the elevation, evaporator heat load, and condenser sink temperature. This paper presents a theoretical study on LHP operations under gravity neutral, anti-gravity, and gravity-assist modes using pressure diagrams to help understand the underlying physical processes. Effects of the condenser configuration on the gravitational pressure head and LHP operation are also discussed.

  1. Pressure Profiles in a Loop Heat Pipe under Gravity Influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of a loop heat pipe (LHP), the viscous flow induces pressure drops in various elements of the loop. The total pressure drop is equal to the sum of pressure drops in vapor grooves, vapor line, condenser, liquid line and primary wick, and is sustained by menisci at liquid and vapor interfaces on the outer surface of the primary wick in the evaporator. The menisci will curve naturally so that the resulting capillary pressure matches the total pressure drop. In ground testing, an additional gravitational pressure head may be present and must be included in the total pressure drop when LHP components are placed in a non-planar configuration. Under gravity-neutral and anti-gravity conditions, the fluid circulation in the LHP is driven solely by the capillary force. With gravity assist, however, the flow circulation can be driven by the combination of capillary and gravitational forces, or by the gravitational force alone. For a gravity-assist LHP at a given elevation between the horizontal condenser and evaporator, there exists a threshold heat load below which the LHP operation is gravity driven and above which the LHP operation is capillary force and gravity co-driven. The gravitational pressure head can have profound effects on the LHP operation, and such effects depend on the elevation, evaporator heat load, and condenser sink temperature. This paper presents a theoretical study on LHP operations under gravity-neutral, anti-gravity, and gravity-assist modes using pressure diagrams to help understand the underlying physical processes. Effects of the condenser configuration on the gravitational pressure head and LHP operation are also discussed.

  2. World gravity standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  3. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  4. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  5. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  6. Complex (dusty) plasmas-kinetic studies of strong coupling phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2012-05-15

    'Dusty plasmas' can be found almost everywhere-in the interstellar medium, in star and planet formation, in the solar system in the Earth's atmosphere, and in the laboratory. In astrophysical plasmas, the dust component accounts for only about 1% of the mass, nevertheless this component has a profound influence on the thermodynamics, the chemistry, and the dynamics. Important physical processes are charging, sputtering, cooling, light absorption, and radiation pressure, connecting electromagnetic forces to gravity. Surface chemistry is another important aspect. In the laboratory, there is great interest in industrial processes (e.g., etching, vapor deposition) and-at the fundamental level-in the physics of strong coupling phenomena. Here, the dust (or microparticles) are the dominant component of the multi-species plasma. The particles can be observed in real time and space, individually resolved at all relevant length and time scales. This provides an unprecedented means for studying self-organisation processes in many-particle systems, including the onset of cooperative phenomena. Due to the comparatively large mass of the microparticles (10{sup -12}to10{sup -9}g), precision experiments are performed on the ISS. The following topics will be discussed: Phase transitions, phase separation, electrorheology, flow phenomena including the onset of turbulence at the kinetic level.

  7. Dusty Plasmas - Kinetic Studies of Strong Coupling Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, Gregor

    2011-10-01

    ``Dusty plasmas'' can be found almost everywhere - in the interstellar medium, in star and planet formation, in the solar system in the Earth's atmosphere and in the laboratory. In astrophysical plasmas the dust component accounts for only about 1% of the mass, nevertheless this component has a profound influence on the thermodynamics, the chemistry and the dynamics. Important physical processes are charging, sputtering, cooling, light absorption and radiation pressure, connecting electromagnetic forces to gravity. Surface chemistry is another important aspect. In the laboratory there is great interest in industrial processes (e.g. etching, vapor deposition) and at the fundamental physics level - the main topic here - the study of strong coupling phenomena. Here the dust (or microparticles) are the dominant component of the multi-species plasma. The particles can be observed in real time and pace, individually resolved at all relevant length and time scales. This provides an unprecedented means for studying self-organisation processes in many particle systems including the onset of cooperative phenomena. Due to the comparatively large mass of the microparticles (10-12 to 10-9 g) precision experiments are performed on the ISS. The following topics will be discussed: Phase transitions, phase separation, electrorheology, flow phenomena including the onset of turbulence at the kinetic level.

  8. Superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The employment of superconductivity and other material properties at cryogenic temperatures to fabricate sensitive, low-drift, gravity gradiometer is described. The device yields a reduction of noise of four orders of magnitude over room temperature gradiometers, and direct summation and subtraction of signals from accelerometers in varying orientations are possible with superconducting circuitry. Additional circuits permit determination of the linear and angular acceleration vectors independent of the measurement of the gravity gradient tensor. A dewar flask capable of maintaining helium in a liquid state for a year's duration is under development by NASA, and a superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer for the NASA Geodynamics Program is intended for a LEO polar trajectory to measure the harmonic expansion coefficients of the earth's gravity field up to order 300.

  9. Introduction to Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia

    We review recent progress on massive gravity. We first show how extra dimensions prove to be a useful tool in building theories of modified gravity, including Galileon theories and their DBI extensions. DGP arises from an infinite size extra dimension, and we show how massive gravity arises from `deconstructing' the extra dimension in the vielbein formalism. We then explain how the ghost issue is resolved in that special theory of massive gravity. The viability of such models relies on the Vainshtein mechanism which is best described in terms of Galileons. While its implementation is successful in most of these models it also comes hand in hand with superluminalities and strong coupling which are reviewed and their real consequences are discussed.

  10. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  11. Rotating Gravity Gradiometer Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a Rotating Gravity Gradiometer (RGG) system on board a Lunar Polar Orbiter (LPO) for the measurement of the Lunar gravity field was investigated. A data collection simulation study shows that a gradiometer will give significantly better gravity data than a doppler tracking system for the altitudes under consideration for the LOP, that the present demonstrated sensitivity of the RGG is adequate for measurement of the Lunar gravity gradient field, and that a single RGG instrument will provide almost as much data for geophysical interpretation as an orthogonal three axis RGG system. An engineering study of the RGG sensor/LPO spacecraft interface characteristics shows that the RGG systems under consideration are compatible with the present models of the LPO spacecraft.

  12. Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

    1989-01-01

    Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

  13. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  14. Marine gravity image available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The image below shows the gravity field from 30-72°S computed from Geosat geodetic mission (GM) and exact repeat mission (ERM) data. A color shaded-relief image of these gravity anomalies is available from NOAA in poster form (report MGG-8, [Marks et al., 1993] and also as a digital gridded data set on CD-ROM. To order, contact the National Geophysical Data Center, E/GC3, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.

  15. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2016-04-01

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.

  16. What Is Gravity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, George

    2004-01-01

    Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

  17. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  18. Partial gravity habitat study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  19. Distance between Quantum States and Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-12-31

    We study a quantum information metric (or fidelity susceptibility) in conformal field theories with respect to a small perturbation by a primary operator. We argue that its gravity dual is approximately given by a volume of maximal time slice in an anti-de Sitter spacetime when the perturbation is exactly marginal. We confirm our claim in several examples. PMID:26764986

  20. Distance between Quantum States and Gauge-Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-12-01

    We study a quantum information metric (or fidelity susceptibility) in conformal field theories with respect to a small perturbation by a primary operator. We argue that its gravity dual is approximately given by a volume of maximal time slice in an anti-de Sitter spacetime when the perturbation is exactly marginal. We confirm our claim in several examples.

  1. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  2. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  3. Nonstationary Phenomena in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Richardson, J. D.; Suess, S. T.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    As Voyagers (V1 and V2) are approaching the heliopause (HP), they keep delivering important information about the solar wind (SW) behavior which sometimes appears to be substantially different at V1 and V2 locations. We argue that the observed differences may be attributed to SW variations. In particular, negative values of the radial velocity component derived from V1 observations may be due to the presence of time-dependent magnetic barriers formed due to the slow/fast wind interactions in the vicinity of solar cycle minima. The inner heliosheath is the venue of wave interaction, MHD instabilities, and turbulence. We further investigate these phenomena in the HP vicinity using a new, based on the Ulysses observations, solar cycle model. We show that some puzzling observational data, such as the difference in the heliocentric distances at which V1 and V2 crossed the termination shock, may be attributed to time-dependent effects. We also use other time-dependent sets of observational boundary conditions, e.g., interplanetary scintillation and OMNI data. Phenomena affecting the stability and shape of the HP are also discussed in the context of our time-dependent simulations. The satisfaction of the 2-3 kHz radio emission criteria beyond the HP is analyzed. Numerical results are validated by their comparison with observational data.

  4. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-07-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  5. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  6. A note on Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes in mimetic F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the conditions under which a Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole spacetime is a solution of the mimetic F(R) gravity with Lagrange multiplier and potential. As we demonstrate, the resulting mimetic F(R) gravity is a slight modification of the ordinary F(R) gravity case, however the resulting perturbation equations are not in all cases identical to the ordinary F(R) gravity case. In the latter case, the perturbation equations are identical to the ones corresponding to the Reissner-Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole.

  7. Short Duration Reduced Gravity Drop Tower Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, B.; Welch, C.

    The industrial and commercial development of space-related activities is intimately linked to the ability to conduct reduced gravity research. Reduced gravity experimentation is important to many diverse fields of research in the understanding of fundamental and applied aspects of physical phenomena. Both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial experimental facilities are currently available to allow researchers access to reduced gravity environments. This paper discusses two drop tower designs, a 2.0 second facility built in Australia and a proposed 2.2 second facility in the United Kingdom. Both drop towers utilise a drag shield for isolating the falling experiment from the drag forces of the air during the test. The design and development of The University of Queensland's (Australia) 2.0 second drop tower, including its specifications and operational procedures is discussed first. Sensitive aspects of the design process are examined. Future plans are then presented for a new short duration (2.2 sec) ground-based reduced gravity drop tower. The new drop tower has been designed for Kingston University (United Kingdom) to support teaching and research in the field of reduced gravity physics. The design has been informed by the previous UQ drop tower design process and utilises a catapult mechanism to increase test time and also incorporates features to allow participants for a variety of backgrounds (from high school students through to university researchers) to learn and experiment in reduced gravity. Operational performance expectations for this new facility are also discussed.

  8. Interpolating function and Stokes phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masazumi; Jatkar, Dileep P.

    2015-11-01

    When we have two expansions of physical quantity around two different points in parameter space, we can usually construct a family of functions, which interpolates the both expansions. In this paper we study analytic structures of such interpolating functions and discuss their physical implications. We propose that the analytic structures of the interpolating functions provide information on analytic property and Stokes phenomena of the physical quantity, which we approximate by the interpolating functions. We explicitly check our proposal for partition functions of zero-dimensional φ4 theory and Sine-Gordon model. In the zero dimensional Sine-Gordon model, we compare our result with a recent result from resurgence analysis. We also comment on construction of interpolating function in Borel plane.

  9. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin

  10. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  11. Entanglement and boundary critical phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Huanqiang; Barthel, Thomas; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Fjaerestad, John Ove

    2006-11-15

    We investigate boundary critical phenomena from a quantum-information perspective. Bipartite entanglement in the ground state of one-dimensional quantum systems is quantified using the Renyi entropy S{sub {alpha}}, which includes the von Neumann entropy ({alpha}{yields}1) and the single-copy entanglement ({alpha}{yields}{infinity}) as special cases. We identify the contribution of the boundaries to the Renyi entropy, and show that there is an entanglement loss along boundary renormalization group (RG) flows. This property, which is intimately related to the Affleck-Ludwig g theorem, is a consequence of majorization relations between the spectra of the reduced density matrix along the boundary RG flows. We also point out that the bulk contribution to the single-copy entanglement is half of that to the von Neumann entropy, whereas the boundary contribution is the same.

  12. Unidentified phenomena - Unusual plasma behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, S. V.; Kovalenok, V. V.

    1992-06-01

    The paper describes observations of a phenomenon belonging to the UFO category and the possible causes of these events. Special attention is given to an event which occurred during the night of September 19-20, 1974, when a huge 'star' was observed over Pertrozavodsk (Russia), consisting of a bright-white luminous center, emitting beams of light, and a less bright light-blue shell. The star gradually formed a cometlike object with a tail consisting of beams of light and started to descend. It is suggested that this event was related to cosmic disturbances caused by an occurrence of unusually strong solar flares. Other examples are presented that relate unusual phenomena observed in space to the occurrence of strong magnetic turbulence events.

  13. Wetting phenomena on rough substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Kardar, Mehran

    1990-10-01

    We consider wetting phenomena in the vicinity of rough substrates. The quenched random geometry of the substrate is assumed to be a self-affine fractal with a roughness exponent of ζS. Asymptotic critical properties on approaching complete and critical wetting transitions are studied by combining the replica method with scaling and renormalization-group arguments. We find new critical behavior, controlled by a zero-temperature fixed point, when ζS exceeds the thermal roughness exponent of the emerging wetting layer. The possibility of an effective dimensional reduction due to randomness is considered. In two dimensions a number of exact results are obtained by using a many-body transfer-matrix technique.

  14. Critical phenomena in magnetic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, M Venkata; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we report the first experimental study of critical phenomena in case of magnetic nanowires of nickel near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition from the electrical transport properties. Nickel nanowire arrays, prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition of nickel inside pores of nanoporous anodic alumina template were well characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and Energy dispersive Spectroscopy. Precise electrical resistance measurement of the nanowire arrays of wire diameter 20 nm have been done in the temperature range between 300 K to 700 K. We see a drop in the Curie temperature as observed from the resistivity anomaly. We analyzed the resistance data near the critical region and extracted the critical exponent alpha directly from the resistance. We observed a decrease in the critical part of the resistivity including a decrease in the magnitude of the critical exponent alpha and severe modification in the correction to scaling. PMID:19928208

  15. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    PubMed

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    anti-angiogenesis with an immediately following cryoaponecrosis and cryoapoptosis in the treatment of malignant tumor. Both the "lunar eclipse" in vivo as well as the similar phenomena, namely the total moon and total solar lunar eclipses, are is part of living nature. PMID:21485756

  16. Gravity and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.

  17. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  18. Venus Gravity Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Venus gravity methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the gravity field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus gravity field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The gravity field shows unprecedented high correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the gravity field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.

  19. In-vessel phenomena -- CORA

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.; van Rij, W.I.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level whole-core'' codes.

  20. Artificial gravity - A countermeasure for zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Mccormack, P. D.

    1987-01-01

    Current knowledge on artificial gravity is presented with emphasis placed on the unique characteristics of such an environment and their effects on crew performance and vehicle habitability. A parametric optimization of the vehicle size and operation is performed. The following set of 'optimum' parameter values is obtained: a cost of 15.8 billion dollars, a radius of 80 feet, a rotation rate of 4.8 rpm, and a g-value of 0.62. Consideration is also given to the problems of adaptation, retention of adaptation, and simultaneous adaptation to both nonrotating and rotating environments.

  1. Gravity dual of spatially modulated phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shin; Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon

    2010-02-15

    We show that the five-dimensional Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is tachyonic in the presence of a constant electric field. When coupled to gravity, a sufficiently large Chern-Simons coupling causes instability of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes in anti-de Sitter space. The instability happens only at nonvanishing momenta, suggesting a spatially modulated phase in the holographically dual quantum field theory in (3+1) dimensions, with spontaneous current generation in a helical configuration. The three-charge extremal black hole in the type IIB superstring theory on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} barely satisfies the stability condition.

  2. Linearized 3D gravity with dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Viqar; Rahmati, Shohreh; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional gravity coupled to pressureless dust is a field theory with 1 local degree of freedom. In the canonical framework, the dust-time gauge encodes this field in the metric. We find that its dynamics, up to diffeomorphism flow, is independent of spatial derivatives and is therefore ultralocal. We study this feature further by analyzing the linearized equations of motion about flat and (anti-)de Sitter backgrounds, and show that this field may be viewed as either a traceless or a transverse mode.

  3. A new approach to modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate f ( R)-gravity models performing the ADM-slicing of standard General Relativity. We extract the static, spherically-symmetric vacuum solutions in the general case, which correspond to either Schwarzschild de-Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de-Sitter ones. Additionally, we study the cosmological evolution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe, which is governed by an algebraic and not a differential equation. We show that the universe admits solutions corresponding to acceleration at late cosmological epochs, without the need of fine-tuning the model-parameters or the initial conditions.

  4. Gravity and embryonic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the developing embryo (both plant and animal) and a gravitational field has long been contemplated. The difficulty in designing critical experiments on the surface of the earth because of its background of 1 g, has been an obstacle to a resolution of the problem. Biological responses to gravity (particularly in plants) are obvious in many cases; however, the influence of gravity as an environmental input to the developing embryo is not as obvious and has proven to be extremely difficult to define. In spite of this, over the years numerous attempts have been made using a variety of embryonic materials to come to grips with the role of gravity in development. Three research tools are available: the centrifuge, the clinostat, and the orbiting spacecraft. Experimental results are now available from all three sources. Some tenuous conclusions are drawn, and an attempt at a unifying theory of gravitational influence on embryonic development is made.

  5. Inflation without quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Pyry

    2015-04-01

    It is sometimes argued that observation of tensor modes from inflation would provide the first evidence for quantum gravity. However, in the usual inflationary formalism, also the scalar modes involve quantized metric perturbations. We consider the issue in a semiclassical setup in which only matter is quantized, and spacetime is classical. We assume that the state collapses on a spacelike hypersurface and find that the spectrum of scalar perturbations depends on the hypersurface. For reasonable choices, we can recover the usual inflationary predictions for scalar perturbations in minimally coupled single-field models. In models where nonminimal coupling to gravity is important and the field value is sub-Planckian, we do not get a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations. As gravitational waves are only produced at second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio is negligible. We conclude that detection of inflationary gravitational waves would indeed be needed to have observational evidence of quantization of gravity.

  6. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  7. Newberry Combined Gravity 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kelly Rose

    2016-01-22

    Newberry combined gravity from Zonge Int'l, processed for the EGS stimulation project at well 55-29. Includes data from both Davenport 2006 collection and for OSU/4D EGS monitoring 2012 collection. Locations are NAD83, UTM Zone 10 North, meters. Elevation is NAVD88. Gravity in milligals. Free air and observed gravity are included, along with simple Bouguer anomaly and terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly. SBA230 means simple Bouguer anomaly computed at 2.30 g/cc. CBA230 means terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly at 2.30 g/cc. This suite of densities are included (g/cc): 2.00, 2.10, 2.20, 2.30, 2.40, 2.50, 2.67.

  8. Brane-World Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya

    2010-09-01

    The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (˜TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  9. Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blencowe, Miles

    The emergence of the macroscopic classical world from the microscopic quantum world is commonly understood to be a consequence of the fact that any given quantum system is open, unavoidably interacting with unobserved environmental degrees of freedom that will cause initial quantum superposition states of the system to decohere, resulting in classical mixtures of either-or alternatives. A fundamental question concerns how large a macroscopic object can be placed in a manifest quantum state, such as a center of mass quantum superposition state, under conditions where the effects of the interacting environmental degrees of freedom are reduced (i.e. in ultrahigh vacuum and at ultralow temperatures). Recent experiments have in fact demonstrated manifest quantum behavior in nano-to-micron-scale mechanical systems. Gravity has been invoked in various ways as playing a possible fundamental role in enforcing classicality of matter systems beyond a certain scale. Adopting the viewpoint that the standard perturbative quantization of general relativity provides an effective description of quantum gravity that is valid at ordinary energies, we show that it is possible to describe quantitatively how gravity as an environment can induce the decoherence of matter superposition states. The justification for such an approach follows from the fact that we are considering laboratory scale systems, where the matter is localized to regions of small curvature. As with other low energy effects, such as the quantum gravity correction to the Newtonian potential between two ordinary masses, it should be possible to quantitatively evaluate gravitationally induced decoherence rates by employing standard perturbative quantum gravity as an effective field theory; whatever the final form the eventual correct quantum theory of gravity takes, it must converge in its predictions with the effective field theory description at low energies. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF

  10. Seeking the Light: Gravity Without the Influence of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred; Kern, Volker; Reed, Dave; Etheridge, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    All living things sense gravity like humans might sense light or sound. The Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC-14) experiment, explores how moss cells sense and respond to gravity and light. This experiment studies how gravity influences the internal structure of moss cells and seeks to understand the influences of the spaceflight environment on cell growth. This knowledge will help researchers understand the role of gravity in the evolution of cells and life on earth.

  11. Mushy-layer dynamics in micro and hyper gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, J. G.; Riggs, A. J. E.; Guertler, C. A.; Miller, P. W.; Padhi, C. M.; Popelka, M. M.; Wells, A. J.; West, A. C.; Zhong, J.-Q.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    We describe the results of experiments on mushy layers grown from aqueous ammonium chloride solution in normal, micro, and hyper gravity environments. In the fully developed chimney state, the chimney plume dynamics differ strikingly when conditions change from micro to hyper gravity. In microgravity, we find fully arrested plume motion and suppressed convection. As gravity exceeds Earth conditions, we observe a host of phenomena, ranging from arched plumes that undergo forced Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities to in-phase multiple plume oscillatory behavior. For the same initial solute concentrations and fixed boundary cooling temperatures, we find that, in runs of over two hours, the averaged effects of microgravity and hypergravity result in suppressed growth of the mushy layers, a phenomenon caused by a net enhancement of convective heat and solute transport from the liquid to the mushy layers. These behaviors are placed in the context of the theory of convecting mushy layers as studied under normal laboratory conditions.

  12. Modulation of subtropical stratospheric gravity waves by equatorial rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Naftali Y.; Boos, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Internal gravity waves influence a variety of phenomena in Earth's stratosphere and upper troposphere, including aviation weather turbulence and circulations that set high-altitude distributions of ozone and greenhouse gases. Here coupling between the dominant mode of subseasonal variability of the equatorial atmosphere—the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO)—and subtropical stratospheric gravity waves created by flow over topography is documented for the first time. We use three different meteorological data sets to show that during boreal winter, the MJO modifies the vertical distribution of internal gravity wave drag induced by the Tibetan Plateau and the deposition of momentum into the stratosphere. This interaction, however, has no significant impact on the vertically integrated wave drag. Our findings raise new questions about how future changes in tropical rainfall might affect stratospheric variability and highlight the importance of local processes over Tibet for the circulations that set distributions of climatically important high-altitude trace gases.

  13. Application of electrohydrodynamic phenomena to space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) unit separation, liquid handling/control, and mixing are introduced to industrial chemists and metallurgists, working on specific zero-gravity processes. Previously proposed zero-gravity applications of EHD are presented along with the prominent electrohydrodynamical force effects.

  14. Gauge/Gravity Duality

    ScienceCinema

    Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics

    2010-09-01

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  15. Continuous gravity gradient logging

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.; Lyle, W.D. Jr.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described for conducting a gravimetry survey of an earth formation, comprising the steps of: (a) continuously traversing the earth formation with a gravity logging tool having a column of fluid within the tool, (b) measuring a first pressure difference along a first interval within the column of fluid, (c) measuring a second pressure difference along a second interval within the column of fluid, (d) differencing the first and second pressure differences to determine the gravity gradient along the earth formation between the first and second intervals.

  16. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  17. Gauge/Gravity Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2010-02-24

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  18. Artificial gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, Larry C.; Lindner, John F.

    Using computer algebra to run Einstein's equations "backward", from field to source rather than from source to field, we design an artificial gravity field for a space station or spaceship. Everywhere inside astronauts experience normal Earth gravity, while outside they float freely. The stress-energy that generates the field contains exotic matter of negative energy density but also relies importantly on pressures and shears, which we describe. The same techniques can be readily used to design other interesting spacetimes and thereby elucidate the connection between the source and field in general relativity.

  19. Resummation of Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2011-06-10

    We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.

  20. Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Willatzen, M.

    2011-02-01

    Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field in an AlN/GaN nanostructure can reach 1-10 MV/cm. In fact, the basic functioning of an (0001) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is due to the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the material interface by the polarization fields. The goal of this review is to inform the reader of some of the recent developments in the field for nanostructures and to point out still open questions. Examples of recent work that involves the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects in semiconductors include: the study of the optoelectronic properties of III-nitrides quantum wells and dots, the current controversy regarding the importance of the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, energy harvesting using ZnO nanowires as a piezoelectric nanogenerator, the use of piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave devices, and the appropriateness of various models for analyzing electromechanical effects. Piezoelectric materials such as GaN and ZnO are gaining more and more importance for energy-related applications; examples include high-brightness light-emitting diodes for white lighting, high-electron mobility transistors, and nanogenerators. Indeed, it remains to be demonstrated whether these materials could be the ideal multifunctional materials. The solutions to these and other related problems will not only lead to a better understanding of the basic physics of these materials, but will validate new characterization tools, and advance the development of new and better devices. We will restrict ourselves to nanostructures in the current article even though the

  1. Does Paramecium sense gravity?

    PubMed

    Mogami, Y; Ishii, J; Baba, S A

    1995-03-01

    In order to get an insight into the cellular mechanisms for the integration of the effects of gravity, we investigated the gravitactic behaviour in Paramecium. There are two main categories for the model of the mechanism of gravitaxis; one is derived on the basis of the mechanistic properties of the cell (physical model) and the other of the physiological properties including cellular gravireception (physiological model). In this review article, we criticized the physical models and introduced a new physiological model. Physical models postulated so far can be divided into two; one explaining the negative gravitactic orientation of the cell in terms of the static torque generated by the structural properties of the cell (gravity-buoyancy model by Verworn, 1889 and drag-gravity model by Roberts, 1970), and the other explaining it in terms of the dynamic torque generated by the helical swimming of the cell (propulsion-gravity model by Winet and Jahn, 1974 and lifting-force model by Nowakowska and Grebecki, 1977). Among those we excluded the possibility of dynamic-torque models because of their incorrect theoretical assumptions. According to the passive orientation of Ni(2+)-immobilized cells, the physical effect of the static torque should be inevitable for the gravitactic orientation. Downward orientation of the immobilized cells in the course of floating up in the hyper-density medium demonstrated the gravitactic orientation is not resulted by the nonuniform distribution of cellular mass (gravity-buoyancy model) but by the fore-aft asymmetry of the cell (drag-gravity model). A new model explaining the gravitactic behaviour is derived on the basis of the cellular gravity sensation through mechanoreceptor channels of the cell membrane. Paramecium is known to have depolarizing receptor channels in the anterior and hyperpolarizing receptors in the posterior of the cell. The uneven distribution of the receptor may lead to the bidirectional changes of the membrane

  2. Our World: Gravity in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    What is gravity? Find out about the balance between gravity and inertia that keeps the International Space Station in orbit. Learn why astronauts "float" in space and how the space shuttle has to s...

  3. Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for the development of artificial gravity environments on spacecraft are outlined. The physiological effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular skeletal, and vestibular systems are enumerated. Design options for creating artificial gravity environments are shown.

  4. Thin Film Mediated Phase Change Phenomena: Crystallization, Evaporation and Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    1998-01-01

    We focus on two distinct materials science problems that arise in two distinct microgravity environments: In space and within the space of a polymeric network. In the former environment, we consider a near eutectic alloy film in contact with its vapor which, when evaporating on earth, will experience compositionally induced buoyancy driven convection. The latter will significantly influence the morphology of the crystallized end member. In the absence of gravity, the morphology will be dominated by molecular diffusion and Marangoni driven viscous flow, and we study these phenomena theoretically and experimentally. The second microgravity environment exists in liquids, gels, and other soft materials where the small mass of individual molecules makes the effect of gravity negligible next to the relatively strong forces of intermolecular collisions. In such materials, an essential question concerns how to relate the molecular dynamics to the bulk rheological behavior. Here, we observe experimentally the diffusive motion of a single molecule in a single polymer filament, embedded within a polymer network and find anomalous diffusive behavior.

  5. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  6. Monitoring of Transient Lunar Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Timothy; Farber, Ryan; Ahrendts, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP’s) are described as short-lived changes in the brightness of areas on the face of the Moon. TLP research is characterized by the inability to substantiate, reproduce, and verify findings. Our current research includes the analysis of lunar images taken with two Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) ST8-E CCD cameras mounted on two 0.36m Celestron telescopes. On one telescope, we are using a sodium filter, and on the other an H-alpha filter, imaging approximately one-third of the lunar surface. We are focusing on two regions: Hyginus and Ina. Ina is of particular interest because it shows evidence of recent activity (Schultz, P., Staid, M., Pieters, C. Nature, Volume 444, Issue 7116, pp. 184-186, 2006). A total of over 50,000 images have been obtained over approximately 35 nights and visually analyzed to search for changes. As of March, 2014, no evidence of TLPs has been found. We are currently developing a Matlab program to do image analysis to detect TLPs that might not be apparent by visual inspection alone.

  7. Modeling Defect-Induced Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.

    Elucidation of dissociation mechanisms, energy localization, and transfer phenomena in the course of explosive decomposition of energetic materials (EMs) are central for understanding, controlling, and enhancing the performance of these materials as fuels, propellants, and explosives. Quality of energetic materials is often judged using two main parameters: sensitivity to detonation and its performance. Low sensitivity is desired to make the material relatively stable to external stimuli, i.e., controllable and able of triggering rapid dissociation only when needed and not accidentally. Performance, on the other hand, is to be high to provide larger heat of the explosive reaction. These parameters do not necessarily correlate with each other and depend on many variables such as molecular and crystalline structures, history of samples, the particle size, crystal hardness and orientation, external stimuli, aging, storage conditions, and others. Mechanisms governing performance are fairly well understood whereas mechanisms of sensitivity are poorly known and need to be much more extensively studied. It is widely accepted though that the thermal decomposition reactions of the materials play a significant role in their sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and their explosive properties [1].

  8. Precursor films in wetting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M N; Oshanin, G; Dietrich, S; Cazabat, A-M

    2012-06-20

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed. PMID:22627067

  9. Bleed Hole Flow Phenomena Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Boundary-layer bleed is an invaluable tool for controlling the airflow in supersonic aircraft engine inlets. Incoming air is decelerated to subsonic speeds prior to entering the compressor via a series of oblique shocks. The low momentum flow in the boundary layer interacts with these shocks, growing in thickness and, under some conditions, leading to flow separation. To remedy this, bleed holes are strategically located to remove mass from the boundary layer, reducing its thickness and helping to maintain uniform flow to the compressor. The bleed requirements for any inlet design are unique and must be validated by extensive wind tunnel testing to optimize performance and efficiency. To accelerate this process and reduce cost, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an experimental program to study the flow phenomena associated with bleed holes. Knowledge of these flow properties will be incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that will aid engine inlet designers in optimizing bleed configurations before any hardware is fabricated. This ongoing investigation is currently examining two hole geometries, 90 and 20 (both with 5-mm diameters), and various flow features.

  10. Review - Axial compressor stall phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Stall in compressors can be associated with the initiation of several types of fluid dynamic instabilities. These instabilities and the different phenomena, surge and rotating stall, which result from them, are discussed in this paper. Assessment is made of the various methods of predicting the onset of compressor and/or compression system instability, such as empirical correlations, linearized stability analyses, and numerical unsteady flow calculation procedures. Factors which affect the compressor stall point, in particular inlet flow distortion, are reviewed, and the techniques which are used to predict the loss in stall margin due to these factors are described. The influence of rotor casing treatment (grooves) on increasing compressor flow range is examined. Compressor and compression system behavior subsequent to the onset of stall is surveyed, with particular reference to the problem of engine recovery from a stalled condition. The distinction between surge and rotating stall is emphasized because of the very different consequences on recoverability. The structure of the compressor flow field during rotating stall is examined, and the prediction of compressor performance in rotating stall, including stall/unstall hysteresis, is described.

  11. WESF natural phenomena hazards survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    A team of engineers conducted a systematic natural hazards phenomena (NPH) survey for the 225-B Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The survey is an assessment of the existing design documentation to serve as the structural design basis for WESF, and the Interim Safety Basis (ISB). The lateral force resisting systems for the 225-B building structures, and the anchorages for the WESF safety related systems were evaluated. The original seismic and other design analyses were technically reviewed. Engineering judgment assessments were made of the probability of NPH survival, including seismic, for the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems. The method for the survey is based on the experience of the investigating engineers,and documented earthquake experience (expected response) data.The survey uses knowledge on NPH performance and engineering experience to determine the WESF strengths for NPH resistance, and uncover possible weak links. The survey, in general, concludes that the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems are designed and constructed commensurate with the current Hanford Site design criteria.

  12. Electronic phenomena at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research is undertaken either to investigate intrinsically high pressure phenomena or in order to get a better understanding of the effect of the chemical environment on properties or processes at one atmosphere. Studies of electronic properties which fall in each area are presented. Many molecules and complexes can assume in the excited state different molecular arrangements and intermolecular forces depending on the medium. Their luminescence emission is then very different in a rigid or a fluid medium. With pressure one can vary the viscosity of the medium by a factor of 10/sup 7/ and thus control the distribution and rate of crossing between the excited state conformations. In rare earth chelates the efficiency of 4f-4f emission of the rare earth is controlled by the feeding from the singlet and triplet levels of the organic ligand. These ligand levels can be strongly shifted by pressure. A study of the effect of pressure on the emission efficiency permits one to understand the effect of ligand chemistry at one atmosphere. At high pressure electronic states can be sufficiently perturbed to provide new ground states. In EDA complexes these new ground states exhibit unusual chemical reactivity and new products.

  13. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  14. Low gravity phase separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Pope, W. L.; Smith, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for phase separating a gas-liquid mixture as might exist in a subcritical cryogenic helium vessel for cooling a superconducting magnet at low gravity such as in planetary orbit, permitting conservation of the liquid and extended service life of the superconducting magnet.

  15. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  16. Cosmological tests of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin

    2010-07-15

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the universe. We review recent developments in modified gravity theories, focusing on higher-dimensional approaches and chameleon/f(R) theories. We classify these models in terms of the screening mechanisms that enable such theories to approach general relativity on small scales (and thus satisfy solar system constraints). We describe general features of the modified Friedman equation in such theories. The second half of this review describes experimental tests of gravity in light of the new theoretical approaches. We summarize the high precision tests of gravity on laboratory and solar system scales. We describe in some detail tests on astrophysical scales ranging from {approx} kpc (galaxy scales) to {approx} Gpc (large-scale structure). These tests rely on the growth and inter-relationship of perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields which can be measured using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining effective parameters, such as the ratio of the two metric potentials. Currently tests of gravity on astrophysical scales are in the early stages - we summarize these tests and discuss the interesting prospects for new tests in the coming decade.

  17. Hawaii Gravity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-12-15

    Gravity model for the state of Hawaii. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.

  18. Time in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic time concept of quantum gravity allows one to derive thermodynamical and quantum mechanical time arrows correlated with cosmic expansion only. Tube-like standing waves subject to a ``final'' condition may resemble unparametrised orbits of the universe, with ``quantum Poincaré cycles'' coinciding with its durations. A recent criticism by Qadir is answered.

  19. Gravity and crustal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar gravitational properties were analyzed along with the development of flat moon and curved moon computer models. Gravity anomalies and mascons were given particular attention. Geophysical and geological considerations were included, and comparisons were made between the gravitional fields of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon.

  20. Revamped braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Ruoyu; Park, Minjoon; Carena, Marcela; Santiago, Jose; Lykken, Joseph

    2006-03-15

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit straight gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e., the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP)-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

  1. Revamped braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ruoyu; Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit ''straight'' gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e. the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of DGP-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

  2. Spaceborne Gravity Gradiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The current status of gravity gradiometers and technology that could be available in the 1990's for the GRAVSAT-B mission are assessed. Problems associated with sensors, testing, spacecraft, and data processing are explored as well as critical steps, schedule, and cost factors in the development plan.

  3. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  4. A Trick of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.

  5. Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness produces significant physiological changes. Whether these changes will stabilize or achieve medical significance is not clear. Artificial gravity is the physiological countermeasure, and the tether system represents an attractive approach to artificial gravity. The need for artificial gravity is examined.

  6. Gravity and antigravity in a brane world with metastable gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, R.; Rubakov, V. A.; Sibiryakov, S. M.

    2000-09-01

    In the framework of a five-dimensional three-brane model with quasi-localized gravitons we evaluate metric perturbations induced on the positive tension brane by matter residing thereon. We find that at intermediate distances, the effective four-dimensional theory coincides, up to small corrections, with General Relativity. This is in accord with Csaki, Erlich and Hollowood and in contrast to Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati. We show, however, that at ultra-large distances this effective four-dimensional theory becomes dramatically different: conventional tensor gravity changes into scalar anti-gravity.

  7. Quasilocal conserved charges in a covariant theory of gravity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wontae; Kulkarni, Shailesh; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2013-08-23

    In any generally covariant theory of gravity, we show the relationship between the linearized asymptotically conserved current and its nonlinear completion through the identically conserved current. Our formulation for conserved charges is based on the Lagrangian description, and so completely covariant. By using this result, we give a prescription to define quasilocal conserved charges in any higher derivative gravity. As applications of our approach, we demonstrate the angular momentum invariance along the radial direction of black holes and reproduce more efficiently the linearized potential on the asymptotic anti-de Sitter space. PMID:24010423

  8. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, C. A. F.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Ismail-Beigi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  9. Electromagnetic phenomena and hysteresis losses in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, T.

    Hysteresis losses in superconductors are caused by irreversible motion of fluxoids. This motion is, in most cases, described by the critical state model. In this article, various electromagnetic phenomena due to flux pinning effects are reviewed and explanations of these phenomena are given using the critical state model. The phenomena which cannot be well described by the present model, such as reversible fluxoid motion and the longitudinal field effect, are also introduced.

  10. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  11. GRAVITY detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrgan, Leander H.; Finger, Gert; Accardo, Matteo; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Stegmeier, Joerg; Eisenhauer, Frank

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a second generation instrument for the VLT Interferometer, designed to enhance the near-infrared astrometric and spectro-imaging capabilities of VLTI. It will combine the AO corrected beams of the four VLT telescopes. The GRAVITY instrument uses a total of five eAPD detectors, four of which are for wavefront sensing and one for the Fringe tracker. In addition two Hawaii2RG are used, one for the acquisition camera and one for the spectrometer. A compact bath cryostat is used for each WFS unit, one for each of the VLT Unit Telescopes. Both Hawaii2RG detectors have a cutoff wavelength of 2.5 microns. A new and unique element of GRAVITY is the use of infrared wavefront sensors. For this reason SELEX-Galileo has developed a new high speed avalanche photo diode detector for ESO. The SAPHIRA detector, which stands for Selex Avalanche Photodiodes for Highspeed Infra Red Applications, has been already evaluated by ESO. At a frame rate of 1 KHz, a read noise of less than one electron can be demonstrated. A more detailed presentation about the performance of the SPAHIRA detector will be given at this conference 1. Each SAPHIRA detector is installed in an LN2 bath cryostat. The detector stage, filter wheel and optics are mounted on the cold plate of the LN2 vessel and enclosed by a radiation shield. All seven detector systems are controlled and read out by the standard ESO NGC controller. The NGC is a controller platform which can be adapted and customized for all infrared and optical detectors. This paper will discuss specific controller modifications implemented to meet the special requirements of the GRAVITY detector systems and give an overview of the GRAVITY detector systems and their performance.

  12. Nonepileptic motor phenomena in the neonate

    PubMed Central

    Huntsman, Richard James; Lowry, Noel John; Sankaran, Koravangattu

    2008-01-01

    The newborn infant is prone to clinical motor phenomena that are not epileptic in nature. These include tremors, jitteriness, various forms of myoclonus and brainstem release phenomena. They are frequently misdiagnosed as seizures, resulting in unnecessary investigations and treatment with anticonvulsants, which have potentially harmful side effects. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature about many of these phenomena in the newborn, and some of the major textbooks refer to these events as nonepileptic seizures, leading to further confusion for the practitioner. The present paper aims to review these phenomena with special emphasis on differentiating them from epileptic seizures, and offers information on treatment and prognosis wherever possible. PMID:19436521

  13. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  14. Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci–Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. -- Highlights: •The perturbative quantum gravity is treated as gauge theory. •BRST and anti-BRST transformations are developed in linear and non-linear gauges. •BRST transformation is generalized by making it finite and field dependent. •Connection between linear and non-linear gauges is established. •Using BV formulation the results are established at quantum level also.

  15. Phenomena resulting from hypergolic contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forness, Jordan M.

    Understanding hypergolic ignition is critical for the safe and successful operation of hypergolic engines. The complex coupling of physical and chemical processes during hypergolic ignition complicates analysis of the event. Presently, hypergolic ignition models cannot simulate liquid contact and mixing or liquid-phase chemical reactions, and rely on experimental results for validation. In some cases, chemical kinetics of hypergolic propellants and fluid dynamics of droplet collisions couple to produce unexpected phenomena. This research investigates contact between droplets and pools of liquid hypergolic propellants under various conditions in order to investigate these liquid-phase reactions and categorize the resulting interaction. During this experiment, 142 drop tests were performed to investigate phenomena associated with hypergolic contact of various propellants. A drop of fuel impacted a semi-ellipsoidal pool of oxidizer at varying impact velocities and impact geometries. The temperature, pressure, ambient atmosphere, and propellant quality were all controlled during the experiment, as these factors have been shown to influence hypergolic ignition delay. Three distinct types of impacts were identified: explosions, bounces, and splashes. The impact type was found to depend on the impact Weber number and impact angle. Splashes occurred above a critical Weber number of 250, regardless of impact angle. Explosions occurred for Weber numbers less than 250, and for impact angles less than seven degrees. If the impact angle was greater than seven degrees then the test resulted in a bounce. Literature related to explosions induced by hypergolic contact was reviewed. Explosions were observed to occur inconsistently, a feature that has never been addressed. Literature related to non-reactive splashing, bouncing, and coalescence was reviewed for insight into the explosion phenomenon. I propose that the dependence of impact angle on the transition between explosion and

  16. National Geodetic Survey Gravity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moose, R. E.

    1986-12-01

    In 1966, the U.S. National Gravity Base Network was established through the cooperative efforts of several government agencies and academic institutions involved in nationwide gravity observations. The network was reobserved between 1975 and 1979 by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) using field procedures designed to give high-quality gravity differences. The report discusses the adjustment and the areas where apparent gravity change was observed. NGS plans to densify and maintain this network and to improve the accuracy of the station values by additional high-quality relative ties and by making observations with a new, absolute gravity meter in each of the states.

  17. Plants and gravity. Special issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of Plant Growth Regulation explores the effects of gravity on plant growth and development from several perspectives. Most of the review papers consider plants and gravity from the viewpoint of ground-based laboratory research, and several papers consider gravitropism, the directed growth in response to gravity, in some detail. However, another approach to study the effects of gravity on plant is to effectively remove the force due to gravity. A very dramatic way to accomplish this goal is through the free-fall conditions achieved by spacecraft in low Earth orbit, so some of the authors have reviewed recent advances in spaceflight research with plant systems.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of drops and bubbles and chaotic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Leal, L. G.; Feng, Z. C.; Holt, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena associated with the dynamics of free drops and bubbles are investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Although newly developed levitation and measurement techniques have been implemented, the full experimental validation of theoretical predictions has been hindered by interfering artifacts associated with levitation in the Earth gravitational field. The low gravity environment of orbital space flight has been shown to provide a more quiescent environment which can be utilized to better match the idealized theoretical conditions. The research effort described in this paper is a closely coupled collaboration between predictive and guiding theoretical activities and a unique experimental program involving the ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation of single droplets and bubbles. The goal is to develop and to validate methods based on nonlinear dynamics for the understanding of the large amplitude oscillatory response of single drops and bubbles to both isotropic and asymmetric pressure stimuli. The first specific area on interest has been the resonant coupling between volume and shape oscillatory modes isolated gas or vapor bubbles in a liquid host. The result of multiple time-scale asymptotic treatment, combined with domain perturbation and bifurcation methods, has been the prediction of resonant and near-resonant coupling between volume and shape modes leading to stable as well as chaotic oscillations. Experimental investigations of the large amplitude shape oscillation modes of centimeter-size single bubbles trapped in water at 1 G and under reduced hydrostatic pressure, have suggested the possibility of a low gravity experiment to study the direct coupling between these low frequency shape modes and the volume pulsation, sound-radiating mode. The second subject of interest has involved numerical modeling, using the boundary integral method, of the large amplitude shape oscillations of charged and uncharged drops in the presence

  19. Recent Advances in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James; Chaykov, Spasen

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in alternative gravitational theories. Although MOND remains the leading candidate among the alternative models, Conformal Gravity has been studied by Mannheim and O'Brien to solve the rotation curve problem without the need for dark matter. Recently, Mannheim, O'Brien and Chaykov have begun solving other gravitational questions in Conformal Gravity. In this presentation, we highlight the new work of Conformal Gravity's application to random motions of clusters (the original Zwicky problem), gravitational bending of light, gravitational lensing and a very recent survey of dwarf galaxy rotation curves. We will show in each case that Conformal Gravity can provide an accurate explanation and prediction of the data without the need for dark matter. Coupled with the fact that Conformal Gravity is a fully re-normalizable metric theory of gravity, these results help to push Conformal Gravity onto a competitive stage against other alternative models.

  20. Fluctuation theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    It is assumed that critical phenomena are generated by density wave fluctuations carrying a certain kinetic energy. It is noted that all coupling equations for critical indices are obtained within the context of this hypothesis. Critical indices are evaluated for 15 liquids more accurately than when using the current theory of critical phenomena.

  1. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.

  2. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  3. Gravity wave initiated convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

  4. Antimatter gravity experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

  5. Local quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.

  6. Plant gravity sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1991-01-01

    This review of plant gravity sensing examines sensing in organ gravitropism, sensing in single-cell gravitropism, and nongravitropic sensing. Topics related to sensing in organ gravitropism are (1) identification of the gravitropic susceptors, including intracellular asymmetry in equilibrium position and after reorientation, susceptor signal-to-noise ratio, signal integration over threshold stimulation periods, intracellular asymmetry and gravitropic competence, and starch deficiency and gravitropic competence; (2) possible root statocytes and receptors, including identification of presumptive statocytes, cytology, and possible receptors and models of sensing; and (3) negatively gravitropic organs, including identification and distribution of presumptive statocytes and cytology and possible receptors. Topics related to nongravitropic sensing include gravitaxis, reaction wood, gravimorphogenesis, other gravity-influenced organ movements, and cytoplasmic streaming.

  7. Hamiltonian spinfoam gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Wolfgang M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Hamiltonian formulation of spinfoam gravity, which leads to a straightforward canonical quantization. To begin with, we derive a continuum action adapted to a simplicial decomposition of space-time. The equations of motion admit a Hamiltonian formulation, allowing us to perform the constraint analysis. We do not find any secondary constraints, but only get restrictions on the Lagrange multipliers enforcing the reality conditions. This comes as a surprise—in the continuum theory, the reality conditions are preserved in time, only if the torsionless condition (a secondary constraint) holds true. Studying an additional conservation law for each spinfoam vertex, we discuss the issue of torsion and argue that spinfoam gravity may still miss an additional constraint. Finally, we canonically quantize and recover the EPRL (Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine) face amplitudes. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

  8. More about scalar gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, E.; Moschella, U.; Novello, M.; Toniato, J. D.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordström which predated and, in some ways, inspired general relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in terms of its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterization of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first post-Newtonian approximation.

  9. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  10. Gravity gradient study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the noise and drift test, and the comparison of the experimental simulation tests with the theoretical predictions, confirm that the rotating gravity gradiometer is capable of extracting information about mascon distributions from lunar orbit, and that the sensitivity of the sensor is adequate for lunar orbital selenodesy. The experimental work also verified analytical and computer models for the directional and time response of the sensor.

  11. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  12. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  13. Branes in Gravity's Rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Amani; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Hammad, Fayçal

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of black p-branes (BB) in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. We investigate this using rainbow functions that have been motivated from loop quantum gravity and κ -Minkowski non-commutative spacetime. Then for the sake of comparison, we examine a couple of other rainbow functions that have also appeared in the literature. We show that, for consistency, Gravity's Rainbow imposes a constraint on the minimum mass of the BB, a constraint that we interpret here as implying the existence of a black p-brane remnant. This interpretation is supported by the computation of the black p-brane's heat capacity that shows that the latter vanishes when the Schwarzschild radius takes on a value that is bigger than its extremal limit. We found that the same conclusion is reached for the third version of rainbow functions treated here but not with the second one for which only standard black p-brane thermodynamics is recovered.

  14. New Massive Gravity and AdS{sub 4} Counterterms

    SciTech Connect

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 4}). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS{sub 4} Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS{sub 3} gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  15. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  16. Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.

  17. Continuous measurement of nontidal variations of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodkind, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Records from seven superconducting gravimeters operated at five different locations in California and one in Boulder, CO, are examined after removal of tides and the gravitational attraction of the atmosphere. Fluctuations over periods between a few days and several months were observed at all sites with peak amplitudes of order 10 microgal. By contrast, a 640-day record obtained with one of the instruments in Germany showed peak fluctuations of only 2 microgal. In most of the records the causes of these aperiodic variations were not determined so that they serve to set limits on the vertical motion or displacement of mass at the respective locations. However, at The Geysers geothermal field, much of the gravity variation is correlated with seismic activity, reinjection rate, and rainfall. Measurements of this type were not possible prior to the development of the superconducting device. Consequently, these results provide the first evidence for the existence of gravity variations on the time scale and of the magnitude described here. Vertical crustal motion, motion related to seismic events, and hydrological phenomena can lead to variations on this scale. Unambiguous identification of causal relationships will require either special circumstances such as found at The Geysers or operation of the instruments in pairs.

  18. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  19. Geometric scalar theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br

    2013-06-01

    We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.

  20. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  1. Black holes in Born-Infeld extended new massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, Ahmad; Yekta, Davood Mahdavian

    2011-05-15

    In this paper we find different types of black holes for the Born-Infeld extended new massive gravity. Our solutions include (un)charged warped (anti-)de Sitter black holes for four and six derivative expanded action. We also look at the black holes in unexpanded Born-Infeld action. In each case we calculate the entropy, angular momentum and mass of the black holes. We also find the central charges for the conformal field theory duals.

  2. Validating variational principle for higher order theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Soumendranath; Sarkar, Kaushik; Sk, Nayem; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Metric variation of higher order theory of gravity requires fixing of the Ricci scalar in addition to the metric tensor at the boundary. Fixing Ricci scalar at the boundary implies that the classical solutions are fixed once and forever to the de Sitter or anti-de Sitter (dS/AdS) solutions. Here, we justify such requirement from the standpoint of Noether symmetry.

  3. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  4. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years. PMID:27007681

  5. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  6. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  7. New Views of Earth's Gravity Field from GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Map 1Map 2

    Gravity and the Earth's Shape Gravity is the force that is responsible for the weight of an object and is determined by how the material that makes up the Earth is distributed throughout the Earth. Because gravity changes over the surface of the Earth, the weight of an object changes along with it. One can define standard gravity as the value of gravity for an perfectly smooth 'idealized' Earth, and the gravity 'anomaly' is a measure of how actual gravity deviates from this standard. Gravity reflects the Earth's surface topography to a high degree and is associated with features that most people are familiar with such as large mountains and deep ocean trenches.

    Progress in Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field Through GRACE Prior to GRACE, the Earth's gravity field was determined using measurements of varying quality from different satellites and of incomplete coverage. Consequently the accuracy and resolution of the gravity field were limited. As is shown in Figure 1, the long wavelength components of the gravity field determined from satellite tracking were limited to a resolution of approximately 700 km. At shorter wavelengths, the errors were too large to be useful. Only broad geophysical features of the Earth's structure could be detected (see map 1).

    In contrast, GRACE, by itself, has provided accurate gravity information with a resolution of 200 km. Now, much more detail is clearly evident in the Earth's geophysical features (see map 2). High resolution features detected by GRACE that are representative of geophysical phenomena include the Tonga/Kermadec region (a zone where one tectonic plate slides under another), the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau region (an area of uplift due to colliding plates), and the mid-Atlantic ridge (an active spreading center in the middle of the Atlantic ocean where new crust is being created). Future GRACE gravity

  8. Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…

  9. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  10. [Biology of size and gravity].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Baba, Shoji A

    2004-03-01

    Gravity is a force that acts on mass. Biological effects of gravity and their magnitude depend on scale of mass and difference in density. One significant contribution of space biology is confirmation of direct action of gravity even at the cellular level. Since cell is the elementary unit of life, existence of primary effects of gravity on cells leads to establish the firm basis of gravitational biology. However, gravity is not limited to produce its biological effects on molecules and their reaction networks that compose living cells. Biological system has hierarchical structure with layers of organism, group, and ecological system, which emerge from the system one layer down. Influence of gravity is higher at larger mass. In addition to this, actions of gravity in each layer are caused by process and mechanism that is subjected and different in each layer of the hierarchy. Because of this feature, summing up gravitational action on cells does not explain gravity for biological system at upper layers. Gravity at ecological system or organismal level can not reduced to cellular mechanism. Size of cells and organisms is one of fundamental characters of them and a determinant in their design of form and function. Size closely relates to other physical quantities, such as mass, volume, and surface area. Gravity produces weight of mass. Organisms are required to equip components to support weight and to resist against force that arise at movement of body or a part of it. Volume and surface area associate with mass and heat transport process at body. Gravity dominates those processes by inducing natural convection around organisms. This review covers various elements and process, with which gravity make influence on living systems, chosen on the basis of biology of size. Cells and biochemical networks are under the control of organism to integrate a consolidated form. How cells adjust metabolic rate to meet to the size of the composed organism, whether is gravity

  11. A Challenge to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveto, Jonathan; Munoz, Gerardo

    2012-03-01

    In a recent publication, Erik Verlinde attempts to show that gravity should be viewed not as a fundamental force, but rather as an emergent thermodynamic phenomenon arising from an unspecified microscopic theory via equipartition and holography. We present a challenge to his reformulation of gravity. A detailed examination of Verlinde's derivation leads to a number of questions that severely weaken the claim that such a theory correctly reproduces Newton's laws or Einstein gravity. In particular, we find that neither Newtonian gravity nor the Einstein equations are uniquely determined using Verlinde's postulates.

  12. Capabilities and constraints of NASA's ground-based reduced gravity facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekan, Jack; Neumann, Eric S.; Sotos, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    The ground-based reduced gravity facilities of NASA have been utilized to support numerous investigations addressing various processes and phenomina in several disciplines for the past 30 years. These facilities, which include drop towers, drop tubes, aircraft, and sounding rockets are able to provide a low gravity environment (gravitational levels that range from 10(exp -2)g to 10(exp -6)g) by creating a free fall or semi-free fall condition where the force of gravity on an experiment is offset by its linear acceleration during the 'fall' (drop or parabola). The low gravity condition obtained on the ground is the same as that of an orbiting spacecraft which is in a state of perpetual free fall. The gravitational levels and associated duration times associated with the full spectrum of reduced gravity facilities including spaced-based facilities are summarized. Even though ground-based facilities offer a relatively short experiment time, this available test time has been found to be sufficient to advance the scientific understanding of many phenomena and to provide meaningful hardware tests during the flight experiment development process. Also, since experiments can be quickly repeated in these facilities, multistep phenomena that have longer characteristic times associated with them can sometimes be examined in a step-by-step process. There is a large body of literature which has reported the study results achieved through using reduced-gravity data obtained from the facilities.

  13. Bringing Gravity to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  14. Peculiar transient phenomena observed by HF Doppler sounding on infrasound time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chum, J.; Lastovicka, J.; Sindelárová, T.; Buresová, D.; Hruska, F.

    2008-04-01

    Compared to investigations of the influence of gravity and planetary waves on the ionosphere, the effects of infrasound (periods from about 0.01 s to several minutes) variations have not been studied very much in the last 20 years. Here we present some recent results on peculiar transient phenomena occurring at infrasound timescales, as observed by HF Doppler sounding in the Czech Republic. After a brief description of the measuring equipment for continuous HF Doppler sounding of the ionosphere, we deal with the observations of short-time transient changes that are observed in the Doppler spectrograms in time intervals of a minute or less, and therefore cannot be observed by ionosondes. First, we present examples of S-shaped traces and examine the diurnal and seasonal variation of their occurrence. We show that S-shape phenomena appear to be concentrated near sunset and sunrise. We also discuss the possible source of these disturbances and their relationship to gravity and infrasound waves. Then we show rare patterns with Doppler shifts corresponding to quasi-linear shape (QLS) phenomena in the time-frequency space. Their slope may be positive or negative. We present some of their properties and discuss the possible origin of such a phenomenon. Several potential sources of QLSs were excluded, such as aircrafts, satellites, bolides, meteors, meteorites, thunderstorms or geomagnetic storms. We speculate that QLSs may correspond to the radio waves in the Z-mode reflected at the upper hybrid resonance frequency.

  15. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  16. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

  17. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  18. Fast gravity, gravity partials, normalized gravity, gravity gradient torque and magnetic field: Derivation, code and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.

  19. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  20. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  1. Free-surface phenomena under low- and zero-gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, D.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus to measure contact angle was constructed to exploit the proposed internal-corner criterion. If 2 alfa is the internal angle between two intersecting vertical planes and gamma is the contact angle, a meniscus at the corner rises to a finite height if alfa + gamma pi/2 and to an infinite height if alfa + gamma pi/2. The apparatus operates by decreasing the angle alfa from pi/2 until the meniscus height changes abruptly. A number of liquids are tested on glass and plexiglas.

  2. Low-gravity fluid physics: A program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the microgravity fluid physics program at Lewis Research Center. One of the main reasons for conducting low gravity research in fluid physics is to study phenomena such as surface tension, interfacial contact angles, and diffusion independent of such gravitationally induced effects as buoyant convection. Fluid physics is at the heart of many space-based technologies including power systems, thermal control systems, and life support systems. Fundamental understanding of fluid physics is a key ingredient to successful space systems design. In addition to describing ground-based and space-based low-gravity facilities, selected experiments are presented which highlight Lewis work in fluid physics. These experiments can be categorized into five theme areas which summarize the work being conducted at Lewis for OSSA: (1) isothermal/iso-solutal capillary phenomena; (2) capillary phenomena with thermal/solutal gradients; (3) thermal-solutal convection; (4) first- and second-order phase transitions in a static fluid; and (5) multiphase flow.

  3. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  4. Fluid physics and transport phenomena studies aboard the international space station: Planned experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Space Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there are a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with an unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  5. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  6. Modifications of gravity.

    PubMed

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

  7. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  8. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori

  9. Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

    On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

  10. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  11. Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.

    2002-01-01

    Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.

  12. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P.; Kiss, John Z.; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms). The plant response to gravity (gravitropism) and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism) have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight research done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e., the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, also are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle. PMID:25389428

  13. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms). The plant response to gravity (gravitropism) and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism) have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight research done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e., the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, also are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle. PMID:25389428

  14. Is There Gravity in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas about gravity beyond the earth's surface. Presents a lesson plan designed to help students understand that gravity can act beyond Earth's atmosphere. Also helps students gain a more adequate intuitive understanding of how natural and artificial satellites stay in orbit. Reports that this strategy changed some students'…

  15. Gravity...It's So Attractive!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes six simple experiments that can enable students to better understand gravity and the role it plays in the universe. Includes discussions of Newton's experiments, weight and mass, center of gravity, center of mass, and the velocity of falling objects. (JJK)

  16. Space truss zero gravity dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Branch of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory in cooperation with the Reduced Gravity Office of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) plans to perform zero-gravity dynamic tests of a 12-meter truss structure. This presentation describes the program and presents all results obtained to date.

  17. Born-Infeld-Horava gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram

    2010-05-15

    We define various Born-Infeld gravity theories in 3+1 dimensions which reduce to Horava's model at the quadratic level in small curvature expansion. In their exact forms, our actions provide z{yields}{infinity} extensions of Horava's gravity, but when small curvature expansion is used, they reproduce finite z models, including some half-integer ones.

  18. Vascular biology in altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradamante, Silvia; Maier, Janette A. M.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2005-10-01

    The physical environment of Endothelial Cells profoundly affects their gene expression, structure, function, growth differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which the genetic and local growth determinants driving morphogenesis are established and maintained remain unknown. Understanding how gravity affects vascular cells will offer new insights for novel therapeutical approaches for cardiovascular disease in general. In terms of tissue engineering and stem-cell therapy, significant future developments will depend on a profound understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of angiogenesis and of the biology of circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells. this MAP project has demonstrated how modelled microgravity influences endothelial proliferation and differentiation with the involvement of anti-angiogenic factors that may be responsible for the non-spontaneous formation of blood vessels.

  19. (Super-)Gravities of a different sort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, José D.; Zanelli, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    We review the often forgotten fact that gravitation theories invariant under local de Sitter, anti-de Sitter or Poincaré transformations can be constructed in all odd dimensions. These theories belong to the Chern-Simons family and are particular cases of the so-called Lovelock gravities, constructed as the dimensional continuations of the lower dimensional Euler classes. The supersymmetric extensions of these theories exist for the AdS and Poincaré groups, and the fields are components of a single connection for the corresponding Lie algebras. In 11 dimensions these supersymmetric theories are gauge theories for the osp(1|32) and the M algebra, respectively. The relation between these new supergravities and the standard theories, as well as some of their dynamical features are also discussed.

  20. Gravity wave vertical coupling on Earth and Mars: similarities and peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves play a major role in the dynamical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere both on Earth and Mars. A significant progress with understanding gravity wave phenomena in the Martian atmosphere has been achieved over the last decade. We present some of these findings focusing on comparison with the terrestrial atmosphere. Gravity waves are stronger on Mars, thanks to more violent meteorology and rougher topography. They transport energy and momentum upon propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and affect the circulation there. Gravity waves facilitate a formation of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, and cause a strong thermospheric response to dust storms in the troposphere. This talk promotes a view of coupling processes not only as an Earth phenomenon, but as a universal mechanism in planetary atmospheres.

  1. Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive gravity which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure levels calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central gravity field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree gravity and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.

  2. Unimodular F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    We extend the formalism of the Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity in the context of modified F(R) gravity. After appropriately modifying the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in a way that it becomes compatible to the unimodular condition of having a constant metric determinant, we derive the equations of motion of the unimodular F(R) gravity by using the metric formalism of modified gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint. The resulting equations are studied in frames of reconstruction method, which enables us to realize various cosmological scenarios, which was impossible to realize in the standard Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity. Several unimodular F(R) inflationary scenarios are presented, and in some cases, concordance with Planck and BICEP2 observational data can be achieved.

  3. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  4. Foam formation in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Matthews, John; Patel, Darayas

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus that produced the first polyurethane foam in low gravity has been described. The chemicals were mixed together in an apparatus designed for operation in low gravity. Mixing was by means of stirring the chemicals with an electric motor and propeller in a mixing chamber. The apparatus was flown on Consort 1, the first low-gravity materials payload launched by a commercial rocket launch team. The sounding rocket flight produced over 7 min of low gravity during which a polyurethane spheroidal foam of approximately 2300 cu cm was formed. Photographs of the formation of the foam during the flight show the development of the spheroidal form. This begins as a small sphere and grows to approximately a 17-cm-diam spheroid. The apparatus will be flown again on subsequent low-gravity flights.

  5. Bigravity and Lorentz-violating massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, D.; Garriga, J.; Deffayet, C.

    2007-11-15

    Bigravity is a natural arena where a nonlinear theory of massive gravity can be formulated. If the interaction between the metrics f and g is nonderivative, spherically symmetric exact solutions can be found. At large distances from the origin, these are generically Lorentz-breaking bi-flat solutions (provided that the corresponding vacuum energies are adjusted appropriately). The spectrum of linearized perturbations around such backgrounds contains a massless as well as a massive graviton, with two physical polarizations each. There are no propagating vectors or scalars, and the theory is ghost free (as happens with certain massive gravities with explicit breaking of Lorentz invariance). At the linearized level, corrections to general relativity are proportional to the square of the graviton mass, and so there is no van Dam-Veltam-Zakharov discontinuity. Surprisingly, the solution of linear theory for a static spherically symmetric source does not agree with the linearization of any of the known exact solutions. The latter coincide with the standard Schwarzschild-(anti)-de Sitter solutions of general relativity, with no corrections at all. Another interesting class of solutions is obtained where f and g are proportional to each other. The case of bi-de Sitter solutions is analyzed in some detail.

  6. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-06-15

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.

  7. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  8. Investigating the students' understanding of surface phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Kastro Mohamad

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of surface phenomena. The main purpose for conducting this research endeavor was to understand how students think about a complex topic about which they have little direct or formal instruction. The motivation for focusing on surface phenomena stemmed from an interest in integrating research and education. Despite the importance of surfaces and interfaces in research laboratories, in technological applications, and in everyday experiences, no previous systematic effort was done on pedagogy related to surface phenomena. The design of this research project was qualitative, exploratory, based on a Piagetian semi-structured clinical piloted interview, focused on obtaining a longitudinal view of the intended sample. The sampling was purposeful and the sample consisted of forty-four undergraduate students at Kansas State University. The student participants were enrolled in physics classes that spanned a wide academic spectrum. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were: (a) students used analogies when confronted with novel situations, (b) students mixed descriptions and explanations, (c) students used the same explanation for several phenomena, (d) students manifested difficulties transferring the meaning of vocabulary across discipline boundaries, (e) in addition to the introductory chemistry classes, students used everyday experiences and job-related experiences as sources of knowledge, and (f) students' inquisitiveness and eagerness to investigate and discuss novel phenomena seemed to peak about the time students were enrolled in second year physics classes.

  9. Transverse gravity versus observations

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Enrique; Faedo, Antón F.; López-Villarejo, J.J. E-mail: anton.fernandez@uam.es

    2009-07-01

    Theories of gravity invariant under those diffeomorphisms generated by transverse vectors, ∂{sub μ}ξ{sup μ} = 0 are considered. Such theories are dubbed transverse, and differ from General Relativity in that the determinant of the metric, g, is a transverse scalar. We comment on diverse ways in which these models can be constrained using a variety of observations. Generically, an additional scalar degree of freedom mediates the interaction, so the usual constraints on scalar-tensor theories have to be imposed. If the purely gravitational part is Einstein-Hilbert but the matter action is transverse, the models predict that the three a priori different concepts of mass (gravitational active and gravitational passive as well as inertial) are not equivalent anymore. These transverse deviations from General Relativity are therefore tightly constrained, actually correlated with existing bounds on violations of the equivalence principle, local violations of Newton's third law and/or violation of Local Position Invariance.

  10. Problems of massive gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Izumi, K.; Ong, Y. C.; Waldron, A.

    2015-01-01

    The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity (mGR) theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed time-like curves (CTCs)/closed causal curves (CCCs)). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of mGR theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.

  11. Rotating gravity gradiometer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1982-04-01

    Two rotating gravity gradiometer (RGG) sensors, along with all the external electronics needed to operate them, and the fixtures and special test equipment needed to fill and align the bearings, were assembled in a laboratory, and inspected. The thermal noise threshold of the RGG can be lowered by replacing a damping resistor in the first stage electronics by an active artificial resistor that generates less random voltage noise per unit bandwidth than the Johnson noise from the resistor it replaces. The artificial resistor circuit consists of an operational amplifier, three resistors, and a small DC to DC floating power supply. These are small enough to be retrofitted to the present circuit boards inside the RGG rotor in place of the 3 Megohm resistor. Using the artificial resistor, the thermal noise of the RGG-2 sensor can be lowered from 0.3 Eotvos to 0.15 Eotvos for a 10 sec integration time.

  12. Various aspects of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  13. Vorticity in analog gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  14. Feeble forces and gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Visser, Matt

    1987-03-01

    We develop a scenario in which feeble intermediate range forces emerge as an effect resulting from the compactification (à la Kaluza-Klein) of multidimensional theories. These feeble forces compete with gravity and in general permit different bodies to fall to earth with different accelerations. We show that these feeble forces are mediated by vectors (V) and/or scalars (S), whose dimensionless coupling constants are typically of order gv ≈ gs ≈ 10-10 Under certain plausible assumptions the ranges of these feeble forces are expected to be of order 1 m to 1 km. It is conjectured that the general strategy will prove applicable to realistic multidimensional theories such as the 10-dimensional superstring theories. We speculate that deviations from the standard gravitational force-similar to the ones reported recently as a “fifth force”-may be interpreted as evidence for higher dimensions.

  15. Zero gravity liquid mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

  16. Supersymmetrizing massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-07-01

    When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ψA spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.

  17. Semiclassical Supersymmetric Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus; Lück, Tobias; Vargas Moniz, Paulo

    2008-09-01

    We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schrödinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schrödinger equation. In particular, our work has the following implications: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many fingered) local time parameter has to be present on Super Riem Σ (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields), (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early universe.

  18. Transverse gravity versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Enrique; Faedo, Antón F.; López-Villarejo, J. J.

    2009-07-01

    Theories of gravity invariant under those diffeomorphisms generated by transverse vectors, ∂μξμ = 0 are considered. Such theories are dubbed transverse, and differ from General Relativity in that the determinant of the metric, g, is a transverse scalar. We comment on diverse ways in which these models can be constrained using a variety of observations. Generically, an additional scalar degree of freedom mediates the interaction, so the usual constraints on scalar-tensor theories have to be imposed. If the purely gravitational part is Einstein-Hilbert but the matter action is transverse, the models predict that the three a priori different concepts of mass (gravitational active and gravitational passive as well as inertial) are not equivalent anymore. These transverse deviations from General Relativity are therefore tightly constrained, actually correlated with existing bounds on violations of the equivalence principle, local violations of Newton's third law and/or violation of Local Position Invariance.

  19. Rotating gravity gradiometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two rotating gravity gradiometer (RGG) sensors, along with all the external electronics needed to operate them, and the fixtures and special test equipment needed to fill and align the bearings, were assembled in a laboratory, and inspected. The thermal noise threshold of the RGG can be lowered by replacing a damping resistor in the first stage electronics by an active artificial resistor that generates less random voltage noise per unit bandwidth than the Johnson noise from the resistor it replaces. The artificial resistor circuit consists of an operational amplifier, three resistors, and a small DC to DC floating power supply. These are small enough to be retrofitted to the present circuit boards inside the RGG rotor in place of the 3 Megohm resistor. Using the artificial resistor, the thermal noise of the RGG-2 sensor can be lowered from 0.3 Eotvos to 0.15 Eotvos for a 10 sec integration time.

  20. Ghost Condensation and Modification of Gravity at Long distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, Markus

    2004-05-01

    This talk will describe the physics of a "ghost condensate", a new kind of cosmological fluid that can fill the universe and give rise to novel gravitational effects. The fluid has a preferred rest frame, but is nonetheless compatible with maximally symmetric spacetimes such as flat space or de Sitter. In the presence of a ghost condensate, gravity is modified in a nontrivial way at large distances and late times. New phenomena include new contributions to dark energy and dark matter, antigravity, new spin-dependent forces, and oscillatory potentials. All of this new physics can be described by a completely explicit and consistent effective field theory.

  1. Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-04-25

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation. PMID:24815632

  2. Autotropism, automorphogenesis, and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Volkmann, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    Segments of organs that have undergone gravitropic curvature later straighten during the course of gravitropism or after the g-vector becomes randomized on a clinostat. Little is known about the mechanism underlying these and perhaps related phenomena which have been described with various overlapping terms such as autotropism, autotropic straightening, automorphosis, automorphogenesis, automorphic curvature, and gravitropic straightening. The types of phenomena that historically have been named by the above terms are reviewed critically with respect to an interaction with gravitropism. We suggest that the term "autotropism" should not be applied to the phenomenon of organ straightening that occurs during the course of gravitropism, since this straightening is part of a complex series of local growth adjustments overall through time, and since this phenomenon is not itself a tropistic response to a directional exogenous stimulus. It is suggested that the term autotropism should be used only for the phenomenon of organ straightening that occurs after the g-vector is randomized on a clinostat or withdrawn in the microgravity conditions of spaceflight. Usage of the term automorphogenesis is most appropriate for describing curvatures or orientations that result from morphological relationships such as in nastic curvatures.

  3. Noncontact temperature measurements in the microgravity fluids and transport phenomena discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, Jack

    1988-01-01

    The program of activities within the Microgravity Fluids and Transport Phenomena Discipline has been structured to enable the systematic pursuit of an increased understanding of low gravity fluid behavior/phenomena in a way which ensures that the results are appropriate to the widest range of applications. This structure is discussed and an overview of some of the activities which are underway is given. Of significance is the fact that in the majority of the current and planned activities, the measurement and, or control of the fluid temperature is a key experiment requirement. In addition, many of the experiments require that the temperature measurement be nonintrusive. A description of these requirements together with the current techniques which are being employed or under study to make these measurements is also discussed.

  4. Research study on materials processing in space experiment number M512. [adhesion-cohesion phenomena under weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Conclusions of the team of specialists can be generalized as: (1) Brazing and welding of metal structures in an orbital near zero gravity condition are quite feasible. (2) Design of joints for fabrication in zero gravity will place less emphasis on the tolerances and proximity of the adjacent structures than on the quantity of liquid metal available. (3) Brazing of metallic joints has many advantages over electron beam welding for practical reasons: simplicity, launch weight, development costs, joint design tolerances, remotization, etc. (4) No evidence of different physical or mechanical properties of liquid metals in zero gravity was observed. However, many differences in liquid behavior were observed. Many of these effects have been called adhesion-cohesion phenomena.

  5. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  6. Gravity-matter entanglement in Regge quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko

    2016-03-01

    We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about “matter in a point of space” is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional “effective interaction”, which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle.

  7. Artificial gravity - The evolution of variable gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Keefe, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    The development of a space life science research program based on the use of rotational facilities is described. In-flight and ground centrifuges can be used as artificial gravity environments to study the following: nongravitational biological factors; the effects of 0, 1, and hyper G on man; counter measures for deconditioning astronauts in weightlessness; and the development of suitable artificial gravity for long-term residence in space. The use of inertial fields as a substitute for gravity, and the relations between the radius of the centrifuge and rotation rate and specimen height and rotation radius are examined. An example of a centrifuge study involving squirrel monkeys is presented.

  8. New Bi-Gravity from New Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, A.; Alishahiha, M.; Naseh, A.; Nemati, A.; Shirzad, A.

    2016-05-01

    Using the action of three dimensional New Massive Gravity (NMG) we construct a new bi-gravity in three dimensions. This can be done by promoting the rank two auxiliary field appearing in the expression of NMG's action into a dynamical field. We show that small fluctuations around the AdS vacuum of the model are non-tachyonic and ghost free within certain range of the parameters of the model. We study central charges of the dual field theory and observe that in this range they are positive too. This suggests that the proposed model might be a consistent three dimensional bi-gravity.

  9. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

  10. The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. PMID:25363382

  11. Theories of dynamical phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts that have been made to understand and explain observed dynamical phenomena in sunspots within the framework of magnetohydrodynamic theory are surveyed. The qualitative aspects of the theory and physical arguments are emphasized, with mathematical details generally avoided. The dynamical phenomena in sunspots are divided into two categories: aperiodic (quasi-steady) and oscillatory. For each phenomenon discussed, the salient observational features that any theory should explain are summarized. The two contending theoretical models that can account for the fine structure of the Evershed motion, namely the convective roll model and the siphon flow model, are described. With regard to oscillatory phenomena, attention is given to overstability and oscillatory convection, umbral oscillations and flashes. penumbral waves, five-minute oscillations in sunspots, and the wave cooling of sunspots.

  12. Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.

  13. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  14. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  15. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296

  16. Lovelock gravity from entropic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Riazi, N.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of entropic gravity to (n+1)-dimensional spacetime and derive Newton's law of gravity and Friedmann equation in arbitrary dimensions. Then, we extend the discussion to higher order gravity theories and propose an entropic origin for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity in arbitrary dimensions. As a result, we are able to derive Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corresponding Friedmann equations in these gravity theories. This procedure naturally leads to a derivation of the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant of Friedmann/Einstein equation which is in complete agreement with the results obtained by comparing the weak field limit of Einstein equation with Poisson equation in higher dimensions. Our strategy is to start from first principles and assuming the entropy associated with the apparent horizon given by the expression previously known via black hole thermodynamics, but replacing the horizon radius r_+ with the apparent horizon radius R. Our study shows that the approach presented here is powerful enough to derive the gravitational field equations in any gravity theory and further supports the viability of Verlinde's proposal.

  17. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A. ); Durham, M.D. ); Sowa, W.A. . Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. ); Mahaffey, W.A. )

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  18. Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M.; Goldak, J.A.; DebRoy, T.A.; Rappaz, M.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.

  19. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  20. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we will study the spontaneous breakdown of the Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity. Our analysis will be done in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. We will also analyse the modification of the BRST and anti-BRST transformations by the formation of this ghost condensate. It will be shown that even though the modified BRST and anti-BRST transformations are not nilpotent, their nilpotency is restored on-shell.

  1. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  2. Ocean gravity and geoid determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Siry, J. W.; Brown, R. D.; Wells, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Gravity anomalies have been recovered in the North Atlantic and the Indian Ocean regions. Comparisons of 63 2 deg x 2 deg mean free air gravity anomalies recovered in the North Atlantic area and 24 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air gravity anomalies in the Indian Ocean area with surface gravimetric measurements have shown agreement to + or - 8 mgals for both solutions. Geoids derived from the altimeter solutions are consistent with altimetric sea surface height data to within the precision of the data, about + or - 2 meters.

  3. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305

  4. Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. D.

    Two new findings, that crystals located in the inner ear gravity receptors of mammals have the internal organization requisite for the piezoelectric property, and that sensory hair cells of these same receptors possess contractile-appearing striated organelles, have prompted the author to model mammalian gravity receptors in the ear on the principles of piezoelectricity and bioenergetics. This model is presented and a brief discussion of its implications for the possible effects of weightlessness follows.

  5. Cosmological models of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith

    The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a

  6. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.

  7. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  8. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  9. The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

  10. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Jain, Sanjay; Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    1993-06-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of 2d quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent γstring.

  11. Spin Circuit Representation for Spin Pumping Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-03-01

    There has been enormous progress in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics in recent years with the discovery of many new materials and phenomena and it remains a formidable challenge to integrate these phenomena into functional devices and evaluate their potential. To facilitate this process a modular approach has been proposed whereby different phenomena are represented by spin circuit components. Unlike ordinary circuit components, these spin circuit components are characterized by 4-component voltages and currents (one for charge and three for spin). In this talk we will (1) present a spin circuit representation for spin pumping phenomena, (2) combine it with a spin circuit representation for the spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces established results obtained earlier by other means, and finally (3) use it to propose a possible method for enhancing the spin pumping efficiency by an order of magnitude through the addition of a spin sink layer. This work was supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  12. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  13. Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

  14. MIXING PHENOMENA IN INDUSTRIAL FUME AFTERBURNER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the physical-mixing phenomena involved in the reactions that occur in afterburners or fume incinerators. It considers mixing in after-burners from three points of view. It first covers typical designs of afterburner components that are involved in the mixing ph...

  15. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  16. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.P.; Bruckner, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN`s) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN`s were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  17. Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.

  18. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  19. Atmospheric phenomena before and during sunset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menat, M.

    The atmospheric transmittance and the astronomical refraction for low-elevation trajectories are discussed and quantitatively developed. The results are used to describe and calculate some of the fascinating atmospheric phenomena occurring shortly before and during sunset, such as the diminishing apparent luminance of the sun, its shape during sunset, and the green flash.

  20. A 'Phenomena Laboratory' for Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlden, M. A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory designed to give students practical experiences with experimental phenomena discussed in lectures, focusing on laboratory organization and typical experiment. In addition to a list of experiments, three exercises are discussed: fluorescence/laser, ferromagnetic domains, and thermal population (which uses PET computer…

  1. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  2. Intervention in Biological Phenomena via Feedback Linearization.

    PubMed

    Fnaiech, Mohamed Amine; Nounou, Hazem; Nounou, Mohamed; Datta, Aniruddha

    2012-01-01

    The problems of modeling and intervention of biological phenomena have captured the interest of many researchers in the past few decades. The aim of the therapeutic intervention strategies is to move an undesirable state of a diseased network towards a more desirable one. Such an objective can be achieved by the application of drugs to act on some genes/metabolites that experience the undesirable behavior. For the purpose of design and analysis of intervention strategies, mathematical models that can capture the complex dynamics of the biological systems are needed. S-systems, which offer a good compromise between accuracy and mathematical flexibility, are a promising framework for modeling the dynamical behavior of biological phenomena. Due to the complex nonlinear dynamics of the biological phenomena represented by S-systems, nonlinear intervention schemes are needed to cope with the complexity of the nonlinear S-system models. Here, we present an intervention technique based on feedback linearization for biological phenomena modeled by S-systems. This technique is based on perfect knowledge of the S-system model. The proposed intervention technique is applied to the glycolytic-glycogenolytic pathway, and simulation results presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:23209459

  3. Accuracy of mapping the Earth's gravity field fine structure with a spaceborne gravity gradiometer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The spaceborne gravity gradiometer is a potential sensor for mapping the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field. Error analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of the determination of the Earth's gravity field from a gravity field satellite mission. The orbital height of the spacecraft is the dominating parameter as far as gravity field resolution and accuracies are concerned.

  4. Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Caixia; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yifu; Chen, Pisin E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived.

  5. Combined magnetic and gravity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Chandler, V. W.; Mazella, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Efforts are made to identify methods of decreasing magnetic interpretation ambiguity by combined gravity and magnetic analysis, to evaluate these techniques in a preliminary manner, to consider the geologic and geophysical implications of correlation, and to recommend a course of action to evaluate methods of correlating gravity and magnetic anomalies. The major thrust of the study was a search and review of the literature. The literature of geophysics, geology, geography, and statistics was searched for articles dealing with spatial correlation of independent variables. An annotated bibliography referencing the Germane articles and books is presented. The methods of combined gravity and magnetic analysis techniques are identified and reviewed. A more comprehensive evaluation of two types of techniques is presented. Internal correspondence of anomaly amplitudes is examined and a combined analysis is done utilizing Poisson's theorem. The geologic and geophysical implications of gravity and magnetic correlation based on both theoretical and empirical relationships are discussed.

  6. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA'€™s Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...

  7. ISS Update: Reduced Gravity Education

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Veronica Seyl, Acting Manager for Reduced Gravity Education. NASA works with students and educators to design experiments for flight testing aboard t...

  8. Mars mission gravity profile simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to determine the need for artificial gravity for Mars mission architectures at earlier stages of the design process is proposed. The Soviet Mir space station, the NASA Space Shuttle, and the resources of NASA Ames Research Center would be used to duplicate in the terrestrial environment the complete Mars-mission gravity profile in order to assess the need for artificial gravity. All mission phases of 1 G would be on earth; all mission phases of zero or micro G would be in space aboard Mir; and all launch, ascent, orbit, deorbit, approach, departure, and descent G loads would be provided by actual spacecraft in operations that could be designed to simulate the actual G loads, while the Mars stay time would be simulated on earth or in a variable-gravity research facility in space. Methods of simulating activities on the Martian surface are outlined along with data monitoring, countermeasures, and launch site and vehicle selection criteria.

  9. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  10. Testing Gravity using Cosmic Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Though general relativity is well-tested on small (Solar System) scales, the late-time acceleration of the Universe provides strong motivation to test GR on cosmological scales. The difference between the small and large scale behavior of gravity is determined by the screening mechanism in modified gravity theories. Dark matter halos are often screened in these models, especially in models with Vainshtein screening, motivating a search for signatures of modified gravity in cosmic voids. We explore density, force, and velocity profiles of voids found in N-body simulations, using both dark matter particles and dark matter halos to identify the voids. The prospect of testing gravity using cosmic voids may be limited by the sparsity of halos as tracers of the density field.

  11. Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi

    2011-02-15

    We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g{sub {mu}{nu}=}C(R)g{sub {mu}{nu}} with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.

  12. Neutron stars in Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Andrea; Silva, Hector O.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-06-01

    Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the Λ CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John"), and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and were not able to find realistic compact stars in theories involving the Paul class.

  13. Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2011-05-06

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.

  14. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  15. Zero-gravity movement studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  16. Techniques in Doppler gravity inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The types of Doppler gravity data available for local as opposed to planetwide geophysical modeling are reviewed. Those gravity fields that are determined dynamically in orbit determination programs yield a smoothed representation of the local gravity field that may be used for quantitative modeling. An estimate of the difference between smoothed and true fields can be considered as a noise limitation in generating local gravity models. A nonlinear inversion for the geometry, depth, and density of the Mare Serenitatis mascon using an ellipsoidal model yielded a global least squares minimum in horizontal dimensions, depth, and thickness-density contrast product. It was subsequently found, by using a linear model, that there were an infinite number of solutions corresponding to various combinations of depth and lateral inhomogeneity. Linear modeling was performed by means of generalized inverse theory.

  17. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  18. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  19. A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. I - Multiscale statistical analysis of wave characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Golus, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of the characteristics of the wavelike activity that occurred over the north-central United States on July 11-12, 1981, using data from the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in Montana. In particular, two distinct wave episodes of about 8-h duration within a longer (33 h) period of wave activity were studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the observed phenomena display features consistent with those of mesoscale gravity waves. The principles of statistical methods used to detect and track mesoscale gravity waves are discussed together with their limitations.

  20. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-09-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog⁡4th.

  1. Gravity in six elegant steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2015-09-01

    The kinematical description of gravity, based on the principle of equivalence, is extraordinarily beautiful. In striking contrast, the field equation Gab = (1/2)Tab is conceptually ugly, lacking in simple physical interpretation or even in common ground to describe the left- and right-hand sides. This paper shows how one can develop all of gravity in an elegant manner by recognizing that the gravitational dynamics describes the heating and cooling of spacetime.

  2. Quantum gravity and charge renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, David J.

    2007-08-15

    We study the question of the gauge dependence of the quantum gravity contribution to the running gauge coupling constant for electromagnetism. The calculations are performed using dimensional regularization in a manifestly gauge-invariant and gauge-condition-independent formulation of the effective action. It is shown that there is no quantum gravity contribution to the running charge, and hence there is no alteration to asymptotic freedom at high energies as predicted by Robinson and Wilczek.

  3. Cylindrical solutions in mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate cylindrical solutions in mimetic gravity. The explicit forms of the metric of this theory, namely mimetic-Kasner (say) have been obtained. In this study we have noticed that the Kasner's family of exact solutions needs to be reconsidered under this type of modified gravity. A no-go theorem is proposed for the exact solutions in the presence of a cosmological constant.

  4. Global flows in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Rodigast, A.

    2016-02-01

    We study four-dimensional quantum gravity using nonperturbative renormalization group methods. We solve the corresponding equations for the fully momentum-dependent propagator, Newtons coupling and the cosmological constant. For the first time, we obtain a global phase diagram where the non-Gaussian ultraviolet fixed point of asymptotic safety is connected via smooth trajectories to a classical infrared fixed point. The theory is therefore ultraviolet complete and deforms smoothly into classical gravity as the infrared limit is approached.

  5. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  6. Galileons and strong gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chagoya, Javier; Koyama, Kazuya; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    In the context of a cubic Galileon model in which the Vainshtein mechanism suppresses the scalar field interactions with matter, we study low-density stars with slow rotation and static relativistic stars. We develop an expansion scheme to find approximated solutions inside the Vainshtein radius, and show that deviations from General Relativity (GR), while considering rotation, are also suppressed by the Vainshtein mechanism. In a quadratic coupling model, in which the scalarisation effect can significantly enhance deviations from GR in normal scalar tensor gravity, the Galileon term successfully suppresses the large deviations away from GR. Moreover, using a realistic equation of state, we construct solutions for a relativistic star, and show that deviations from GR are more suppressed for higher density objects. However, we found that the scalar field solution ceases to exist above a critical density, which roughly corresponds to the maximum mass of a neutron star. This indicates that, for a compact object described by a polytropic equation of state, the configuration that would collapse into a black hole cannot support a non-trivial scalar field.

  7. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  8. Gravity-Capillary Lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akylas, Triantaphyllos R.; Kim, Boguk

    2004-11-01

    In dispersive wave systems, it is known that 1-D plane solitary waves can bifurcate from linear sinusoidal wavetrains at particular wave numbers k = k0 where the phase speed c(k) happens to be an extremum (dc/dk| _0=0) and equals the group speed c_g(k_0). Two distinct possibilities thus arise: either the extremum occurs in the long-wave limit (k_0=0) and, as in shallow water, the bifurcating solitary waves are of the KdV type; or k0 ne 0 and the solitary waves are in the form of packets, described by the NLS equation to leading order, as for gravity-capillary waves in deep water. Here it is pointed out that an entirely analogous scenario is valid for the genesis of 2-D solitary waves or `lumps'. Lumps also may bifurcate at extrema of the phase speed and do so when 1-D solitary waves happen to be unstable to transverse perturbations; moreover, they have algebraically decaying tails and are either of the KPI type (e.g. in shallow water in the presence of strong surface tension) or of the wave packet type (e.g. in deep water) and are described by an elliptic-elliptic Davey-Stewartson equation system to leading order. Examples of steady lump profiles are presented and their dynamics is discussed.

  9. Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.

  10. Satellite borne gravity gradiometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, E.; Jircitano, A.; Affleck, C.

    1976-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry is recognized to be a very difficult instrumentation problem because extremely small differential acceleration levels have to be measured, 0.1 EU corresponds to an acceleration of 10 to the minus 11th power g at two points 1 meter apart. A feasibility model of a gravity gradiometer is being developed for airborne applications using four modified versions of the proven Model VII accelerometers mounted on a slowly rotating fixture. Gravity gradients are being measured to 1.07 EU in a vertical rotation axis orientation. Equally significant are the outstanding operational characteristics such as fast reaction time, low temperature coefficients and high degree of bias stability over long periods of time. The rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer approach and its present status is discussed and it is the foundation for the orbital gravity gradiometer analyzed. The performance levels achieved in a 1 g environment of the earth and under relatively high seismic disturbances, lend the orbital gravity gradiometer a high confidence level of success.

  11. Velocity shear induced phenomena in solar and astrophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevzadze, A. G.

    2006-04-01

    with weak or moderate magnetic fields. The magneto-mechanical mode may generate more waves in strongly magnetized plasma for stronger velocity shear. In Chapter 5 we have studied compressible convection in shear flows. In particular we have focused on linear small-scale perturbations in unstably stratified flows with constant shear of velocity. We have found that the mode conversion originates from the velocity shear of the flow. Exponentially growing perturbations of convection are able to excite acoustic waves. At particular wave-numbers g-mode perturbations (perturbations of buoyancy) feed the acoustic radiation of the turbulent convection. The generated oscillations are spatially correlated with the source flow. This process may be important for convection in astrophysical objects. We discussed the solar convective envelope as an example. Generating waves in high shear regions of a stratified turbulent flow, this non-resonant phenomenon can contribute to the production of sound in the solar convection zone. In Chapter 6 we have investigated non-axisymmetric perturbations in differentially rotating hydrodynamic flows in a gravitational field. The aim here was twofold: Firstly, shear flows commonly occur in many astrophysical situations and they are thought to be the key to the explanation of accretion disk phenomena. Secondly, it gives us an opportunity to study vortex-wave mode conversion in a medium, where two intrinsically different wave modes are present: sound waves as well as internal gravity-spiral waves. We found that vortices are able to generate gravity-spiral waves in flows with Keplerian shear. Higher shear rates are necessary to trigger the double excitation of density spiral and acoustic waves. We have analyzed the dynamics of accretion disks and based on our results promote the hydrodynamic model of the turbulence. Firstly, we describe the general balances in the rotating disk flows in 2D and show that the stabilizing effect of the Coriolis force can

  12. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  13. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  14. Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Sharmanthie

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first-order phase transition between small (SBH) and large black hole (LBH) for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the SBH and LBH branches are also discussed in detail.

  15. Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudelius, Tom

    2015-09-01

    We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and `anti-alignment' of C4 axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the `generalized' weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C4 axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.

  16. No hair theorem in quasi-dilaton massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the quasi-dilaton model and its generalizations, which are scalar extended dRGT massive gravity with a shift symmetry. We show that, unlike generic scalar extended massive gravity models, these theories do not admit static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions until the theory parameters in the dRGT potential are fine-tuned. When fine-tuned, the geometry of the static, spherically symmetric black hole is necessarily that of general relativity and the quasi-dilaton field is constant across the spacetime. The fine-tuning and the no hair theorem apply to black holes with flat, anti-de Sitter or de Sitter asymptotics.

  17. Constraints on axion inflation from the weak gravity conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rudelius, Tom

    2015-09-08

    We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and ‘anti-alignment’ of C{sub 4} axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the ‘generalized’ weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C{sub 4} axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.

  18. Auroral Phenomena: Associated with auroras in complex ways are an extraordinary number of other physical phenomena.

    PubMed

    O'brien, B J

    1965-04-23

    The array of auroral phenomena involves all the basic types of physical phenomena: heat, light, sound, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics, and plasma physics. The uncontrollability, the unreproducibility, and the sheer enormity of the phenomena will keep experimentalists and theorists busy but unsatisfied for many years to come. The greatest challenge in this field of research is an adequate experimentally verifiable theory of the local energization of auroral particle fluxes. Once that is achieved, there is every likelihood that the multitude of correlations between auroral phenomena can be understood and appreciated. Until that time, however, such correlations are to be regarded like icebergs-the parts that can be seen are only a small fraction of the whole phenomenon, and it is the large unseen parts that can be dangerous to theorists and experimentalists alike. PMID:17842831

  19. Gravity and animal embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lynn M.

    1989-01-01

    Out of more than 4,500 rat hours in space there was only one experimental attempt (Cosmos 1129) at mating with an apparent absence of fertilization, implantation and subsequent development to term and partuition. Portions of this process were successfully flown, however, including the major portion of organogenesis in the rat (Cosmos 1524). These observations show that the cellular and molecular events underlying morphogenesis and differentiation in a small mammal can proceed normally in-utero under microgravity and other conditions encountered during short-duration flight. However, it is not known whether this situation will hold for larger mammals over several generations during extended missions that venture outside of near Earth. Furthermore, it is not understood why the previous attempt at obtaining copulation, fertilization and implantation in orbit failed but may be related to limitations of the rat habitat for meeting the preconditions for reproductive behavior. With respect to mammalian development it is important to appreciate that fertilization and development occur internally within the female and take a long time to complete and their success will, therefore, be contingent upon the maternal response to the space environment. One process central to development (the establishment of cell lines) is initiated prior to implantation by environmental asymmetries preceived by progenitor cells. These asymmetries appear to result from the formation of asymmetric cell-cell contacts and the concommitant development of an electrical axis across the progenitor cells. Other asymmetries were also documented. It is not known whether any of the known asymmetries perceived by progenitor cells are influenced by gravity vectors and/or by the maternal response to microgravity and other conditions encountered in space.

  20. Cosmological probes of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassat, Anais Marie Melanie

    This Thesis is concerned with two cosmological probes of linear gravity. The first relates to Large Scale Structure (LSS) in the Universe, probed by galaxy surveys. The second to temperature anisotropics of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), probed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Map (WMAP). Both probe the matter and dark energy distributions in the Universe and can be used to test general relativity. The first part of this Thesis (Chapters 2 to 4) is concerned with the analysis of galaxy clustering in redshift space. The second part (Chapters 5 to 7) is concerned with the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect using LSS-CMB cross-correlations. Chapter 1 introduces the cosmological theory and overviews the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 gives a review of recent results from the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and its Redshift Survey (2MRS). It includes work published in Erdogdu (a) et al. (2006) and Erdogdu (b) et al. (2006). Chapter 3 quantifies the clustering of 2MRS galaxies in redshift space. Chapter 4 uses results from Chapter 3 to constrain cosmological parameters. A selection of work from Chapters 3 and 4 will shortly become available in Rassat et al. (2008), entitled 'Redshift Space Analysis of 2MRS'. Chapter 5 overviews the late-time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) and cross- correlations between the LSS and the CMB. Chapter 6 is also published in Rassat et al. (2007), entitled "Cross-correlation of 2MASS and WMAP3: Implications for the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect". It investigates a detection of the ISW effect and correlations which may affect statistical isotropy in the CMB ('Axis of Evil'). Chapter 7 uses the ISW effect to forecast constraints on dark energy parameters and general modifications of general relativity for the next generation of galaxy surveys, particularly the Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) and the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Chapter 8 presents the overall conclusions of this Thesis. Chapter 9 discusses possible extensions to

  1. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  2. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  3. Study of the time-frequency characteristics of continuous gravity data sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, X.; Shi, C.; Lei, S.; Hongyan, L.

    2013-12-01

    The continuous gravity measurements contained much valuable signal which was maybe caused by internal and external change of the Earth, which offered abundant information to study activities of the Earth. In the past decades, researchers mostly focused on discussing the relationship between the gravity variation and geodynamical processes. Here we studied the temporal variation of the gravity field through the continuous gravity records. Our goal was to detect certain geophysical signal on the order of a few tens of micro-Gal from the gravity data sequence. The gravity data sequences were recorded by the Scintrex g-Phone relative gravimeters those were located at the numerous observation stations of mainland China which had well-controlled observation systems. We presented a two-step procedure to study the signal of gravity variation. Firstly, we developed a Linear Similarity filtering technique which could reduce the drift of gravity instrument effectively by using two relative gravimeters at the same station by the reason of the short-term liner drift feature of gravimeters. Based on the method above, we gained non-tidal gravity variation more accurate that contained much geophysical signal which was associated with geodynamical phenomena. Secondly, we employed the time-frequency analysis techniques to analyze the feature of different temporal variation signal and tried to find some periodic and non-periodic characteristics of the continuous gravity data sequence. Moreover, we compared the results to the mobile repeated gravity measurements on ground and acquired the spatial and temporal gravity variation at last. We also expected to find some anomaly signal related to the activities of tectogenesis and fault movement prior to the destructive earthquakes from the continuous gravity data sequence. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the Basic Scientific Research Foundation of Institute of Geophysics CEA (DQJB12B20, DQJB12C03 and DQJB12B14), the

  4. Transport Phenomena During Equiaxed Solidification of Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, C.; deGroh, H. C., III

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in modeling of transport phenomena during dendritic alloy solidification is reviewed. Starting from the basic theorems of volume averaging, a general multiphase modeling framework is outlined. This framework allows for the incorporation of a variety of microscale phenomena in the macroscopic transport equations. For the case of diffusion dominated solidification, a simplified set of model equations is examined in detail and validated through comparisons with numerous experimental data for both columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth. This provides a critical assessment of the various model assumptions. Models that include melt flow and solid phase transport are also discussed, although their validation is still at an early stage. Several numerical results are presented that illustrate some of the profound effects of convective transport on the final compositional and structural characteristics of a solidified part. Important issues that deserve continuing attention are identified.

  5. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  6. Study of non-equilibrium transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.

    1987-01-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena due to real gas effects are very important features of low density hypersonic flows. The shock shape and emitted nonequilibrium radiation are identified as the bulk flow behavior parameters which are very sensitive to the nonequilibrium phenomena. These parameters can be measured in shock tubes, shock tunnels, and ballistic ranges and used to test the accuracy of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. Since the CDF codes, by necessity, are based on multi-temperature models, it is also desirable to measure various temperatures, most importantly, the vibrational temperature. The CFD codes would require high temperature rate constants, which are not available at present. Experiments conducted at the NASA Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) facility reveal that radiation from steel contaminants overwhelm the radiation from the test gas. For the measurement of radiation and the chemical parameters, further investigation and then appropriate modifications of the EAST facility are required.

  7. Optimizing Laboratory Experiments for Dynamic Astrophysical Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2005-09-13

    To make a laboratory experiment an efficient tool for the studying the dynamical astrophysical phenomena, it is desirable to perform them in such a way as to observe the scaling invariance with respect to the astrophysical system under study. Several examples are presented of such scalings in the area of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, where a number of scaled experiments have been performed. A difficult issue of the effect of fine-scale dissipative structures on the global scale dissipation-free flow is discussed. The second part of the paper is concerned with much less developed area of the scalings relevant to the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a pre-formed plasma. The use of the symmetry arguments in such experiments is also considered.

  8. A review of impulsive phase phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejager, C.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of impulsive phase phenomena in support of the models used to compute the energies of the different components of the flares under study. The observational characteristics of the impulsive phase are discussed as well as the evidence for multi-thermal or non-thermal phenomena. The significance of time delays between hard X-rays and microwaves is discussed in terms of electron beams and Alfven waves, two-step acceleration, and secondary bursts at large distances from the primary source. Observations indicating the occurrence of chromospheric evaporation, coronal explosions, and thermal conduction fronts are reviewed briefly, followed by the gamma ray and neutron results. Finally, a preferred flare scenario and energy source are presented involving the interactions in a complex of magnetic loops with the consequent reconnection and electron acceleration.

  9. Kinetically controlled phenomena in dynamic combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Lirag, Rio Carlo; Miljanić, Ognjen Š

    2014-03-21

    Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) are collections of structurally related compounds that can interconvert through reversible chemical reaction(s). Such reversibility endows DCLs with adaptability to external stimuli, as rapid interconversion allows quick expression of those DCL components which best respond to the disturbing stimulus. This Tutorial Review focuses on the kinetically controlled phenomena that occur within DCLs. Specifically, it will describe dynamic chiral resolution of DCLs, their self-sorting under the influence of irreversible chemical and physical stimuli, and the autocatalytic behaviours within DCLs which can result in self-replicating systems. A brief discussion of precipitation-induced phenomena will follow and the review will conclude with the presentation of covalent organic frameworks (COFs)-porous materials whose synthesis critically depends on the fine tuning of the crystal growth and error correction rates within large DCLs. PMID:24445841

  10. Environmental applications of gravity surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.J. ); Nesbit, L.C. ); Khan, W.A. )

    1994-04-01

    The Allis Park Sanitary Landfill Company developed a new landfill near Onway, Michigan in an area which has glacial alluvium and glacial till overlying limestone. There are several solution karst features in the region and some critics had maintained that a new karst collapse could rupture the liner system and allow escape of leachate into the groundwater. The gravity survey was conducted to determine the extent of any karst development at the site. The first portion of the survey was two profiles over some karst features located about five miles southeast of the proposed landfill. These showed negative gravity anomalies. The survey of the proposed landfill site resulted in a 50 microGal contour map of the area and also showed a negative anomaly. This could be due to either elevation variations on the till to limestone bedrock surface or to karst development within the limestone. Because there was no evidence of historic development of new karst features in the region, the gravity anomaly was not further investigated. In another gravity survey, a large retail department store had been remodeled and extended over an area previously occupied by an auto service center. The removal of a waste oil storage tank (UST) had not been documented and the environmental consultant (KEMRON, Inc.) proposed that a gravity survey be used to find the tank location. This proposal was based on calculations of the gravity effects of a UST. The survey resulted in a four-microGal contour map which showed a couple of anomalies which could be due to a tank or a backfilled tank excavation. During the survey, a store employee identified the previous location of the tank and explained that she had personally witnessed its removal. Based on the employee's eye-witness account of the tank removal and the coincidence of her indicated tank location with one of the gravity anomalies the authors recommended the site be granted clean closure.

  11. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  12. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Associated Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    The Sun is the most powerful radio waves emitting object in the sky. The first documented recognition of the reception of radio waves from the Sun was made in 1942 by Hey.15 Since then solar radio observations, from ground-based and space-based instruments, have played a major role in understanding the physics of the Sun and fundamental physical processes of the solar radio emitting phenomena...

  13. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Bohr, H; Brunak, S; Bohr, J

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long-range excitations, 'wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force. PMID:9218961

  14. Particle Modelling of Fluid Phenomena in Three -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohsen

    A new, numerical approach is developed to simulate fluid phenomena by means of molecular type behavior. First, consider the large number of molecules to be approximated by a smaller number of aggregates called particles. Then, let the particles interact with each other according to a classical molecular type force vec F whose magnitude F is given (Hirchfelder, Curtiss and Bird (1954)) by: F = rm -{Gover r^{p}} + {Hover r^{q}}, in which G, H, p, q, are positive constants and r is the distance between two particles. The acceleration of each particle is related to the force by the Newtonian dynamical equations vec F = m vec a. Displacement, velocity, and acceleration of each particle are then approximated by the "Leap Frog" formulas. The CRAY X-MP/24 is used to solve numerically the resulting large system of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. We then study fluid phenomena in the following order. Part 1. Generation of particle fluids in a cylindrical region. Part 2. Verification of basic fluid properties. Part 3. Simulation of surface motion. In this part, we simulate three phenomena, which can be observed physically, by dropping a small object into a container filled with liquid. First, there is a backdrop. Then, a wave will be generated and going outward from the point of entry of the object into the container. Last, a reaction which can be recorded only with a high speed camera (Trefethen (1972)) is that very small drops of the container fluid may actually pinch off from the backdrop. Part 4. Simulation of surface tension. This phenomena can be observed by performing the following experiment. A small needle placed gently upon a water surface will not be sunk but will be supported by the molecular forces in the liquid surface. The molecules in the surface are depressed slightly in the process.

  15. Nonlinear phenomena in plasma physics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, R. Z.

    Advances in the theory of nonlinear phenomena are discussed in individual chapters contributed by Soviet physicists. Topics examined include vortices in plasma and hydrodynamics, oscillations and bifurcations in reversible systems, regular and chaotic dynamics of particles in a magnetic field, and renormalization-group theory and Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory. Consideration is given to nonlinear problems of the turbulent dynamo, strong turbulence and topological solitons, self-oscillations in chemical systems, and autowaves in biologically active media.

  16. Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields.

    PubMed

    Tavabi, Amir Hossein; Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Pozzi, Giulio

    2015-10-01

    Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. PMID:26069930

  17. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  18. Physical mechanism of membrane osmotic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Guell, D.C.; Brenner, H.

    1996-09-01

    The microscale, physicomechanical cause of osmosis and osmotic pressure in systems involving permeable and semipermeable membranes is not well understood, and no fully satisfactory mechanism has been offered to explain these phenomena. A general theory, albeit limited to dilute systems of inert, noninteracting solute particles, is presented which demonstrates that short-range forces exerted by the membrane on the dispersed solute particles constitute the origin of osmotic phenomena. At equilibrium, the greater total force exerted by the membrane on those solute particles present in the reservoir containing the more concentrated of the two solutions bathing the membrane is balanced by a macroscopically observable pressure difference between the two reservoirs. The latter constitutes the so-called osmotic pressure difference. Under nonequilibrium conditions, the membrane-solute force is transmitted to the solvent, thus driving the convective flow of solvent observed macroscopically as osmosis. While elements of these ideas have been proposed previously in various forms, the general demonstration offered here of the physicomechanical source of osmotic phenomena is novel. Beyond the purely academic interest that exists in establishing a mechanical understanding of osmotic pressure, the analysis lays the foundation underlying a quantitative theory of osmosis in dilute, nonequilibrium systems outlined in a companion paper.

  19. Stability and restoration phenomena in competitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uechi, Lisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    A conservation law along with stability, recovering phenomena, and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to physical, biological, and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, competitive systems described by a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the standard rhythm of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and the balance of a system. The standard rhythm of population density is a manifestation of the survival of the fittest to the balance of a nonlinear dynamical system.

  20. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Chang-Sun,

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  1. Further investigations of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a continuing investigation of the phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles onto multi-sheet aluminum structures are described. A series of equations that quantitatively describes these phenomena is obtained through a regression of experimental data. These equations characterize observed ricoshet and penetration damage phenomena in a multi-sheet structure as functions of the geometric parameters of the structure and the diameter, obliquity, and velocity of the impacting projectile. Crater damage observed on the ricochet witness plates is used to determine the sizes and speeds of the ricochet debris particles that caused the damage. It is shown that, in general, the most damaging ricochet debris particle is approximately 0.25 cm (0.10 in) in diameter and travels at the speed of approximately 2.1 km/sec (6,890 ft/sec). The equations necessary for the design of shielding panels that will protect external systems from such ricochet debris damage are also developed. The dimensions of these shielding panels are shown to be strongly dependent on their inclination and on their circumferential distribution around the spacecraft. It is concluded that obliquity effects of high-speed impacts must be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  2. Search for collective phenomena in hadron interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kokoulina, E. S. Nikitin, V. A. Petukhov, Y. P.; Karpov, A. V. Kutov, A. Ya.

    2010-12-15

    New results of the search for collective phenomena have been obtained and analyzed in the present report. The experimental studies are carried out on U-70 accelerator of IHEP in Protvino. It is suggested that these phenomena can be discovered at the energy range of 50-70 GeV in the extreme multiplicity region since the high-density matter can form in this very region. The collective behavior of secondary particles is considered to manifest itself in the Bose-Einstein condensation of pions, Vavilov-Cherenkov gluon radiation, excess of soft-photon yield, and other unique phenomena. The perceptible peak in the angular distribution has been revealed. It was interpreted as the gluon radiation and so the parton matter refraction index was determined. The new software was designed for the track reconstruction based on Kalman Filter technique. This algorithm allows one to estimate more precisely the track parameters (especially momentum). The search for Bose-Einstein condensation can be continued by using the selected events with the multiplicity of more than eight charged particles. The gluon dominance model predictions have shown good agreement with the multiplicity distribution at high multiplicity and confirmed the guark-gluon medium formation under these conditions.

  3. Quantum Mechanics, Spacetime Locality, and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Quantum mechanics introduces the concept of probability at the fundamental level, yielding the measurement problem. On the other hand, recent progress in cosmology has led to the "multiverse" picture, in which our observed universe is only one of the many, bringing an apparent arbitrariness in defining probabilities, called the measure problem. In this paper, we discuss how these two problems are related with each other, developing a picture for quantum measurement and cosmological histories in the quantum mechanical universe. In order to describe the cosmological dynamics correctly within the full quantum mechanical context, we need to identify the structure of the Hilbert space for a system with gravity. We argue that in order to keep spacetime locality, the Hilbert space for dynamical spacetime must be defined only in restricted spacetime regions: in and on the (stretched) apparent horizon as viewed from a fixed reference frame. This requirement arises from eliminating all the redundancies and overcountings in a general relativistic, global spacetime description of nature. It is responsible for horizon complementarity as well as the "observer dependence" of horizons/spacetime—these phenomena arise to represent changes of the reference frame in the relevant Hilbert space. This can be viewed as an extension of the Poincaré transformation in the quantum gravitational context. Given an initial condition, the evolution of the multiverse state obeys the laws of quantum mechanics—it evolves deterministically and unitarily. The beginning of the multiverse, however, is still an open issue.

  4. OBSERVING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING EFFECTS BY Sgr A* WITH GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, V.; Mancini, L. E-mail: mancini@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    The massive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic center is surrounded by a cluster of stars orbiting around it. Light from these stars is bent by the gravitational field of the black hole, giving rise to several phenomena: astrometric displacement of the primary image, the creation of a secondary image that may shift the centroid of Sgr A*, and magnification effects on both images. The soon-to-be second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY will perform observations in the near-infrared of the Galactic center at unprecedented resolution, opening the possibility of observing such effects. Here we investigate the observability limits for GRAVITY of gravitational lensing effects on the S-stars in the parameter space 1[D{sub LS}, {gamma}, K], where D{sub LS} is the distance between the lens and the source, {gamma} is the alignment angle of the source, and K is the source's apparent magnitude in the K band. The easiest effect to observe in future years is the astrometric displacement of primary images. In particular, the shift of the star S17 from its Keplerian orbit will be detected as soon as GRAVITY becomes operative. For exceptional configurations, it will be possible to detect effects related to the spin of the black hole or post-Newtonian orders in the deflection.

  5. ADCP measurements of gravity currents in the Chicago River, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.; Garcia, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    A unique set of observations of stratified flow phenomena in the Chicago River was made using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the period November 20, 2003 to February 1, 2004. Water density differences between the Chicago River and its North Branch (NB) seem to be responsible for the development of gravity currents. With the objective of characterizing the occurrence, frequency, and evolution of such currents, the ADCP was configured to continuously collect high-resolution water velocity and echo intensity profiles in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive. During the observation period, 28 gravity current events were identified, lasting a total of 77% of the time. Sixteen of these events were generated by underflows from the NB and 12 of these events were generated by overflows from the NB. On average, the duration of the underflow and overflow events was 52.3 and 42.1 h, respectively. A detailed analysis of one underflow event, which started on January 7, 2004, and lasted about 65h, was performed. This is the first time that ADCP technology has been used to continuously monitor gravity currents in a river. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  6. Observing Gravitational Lensing Effects by Sgr A* with GRAVITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Mancini, L.

    2012-07-01

    The massive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic center is surrounded by a cluster of stars orbiting around it. Light from these stars is bent by the gravitational field of the black hole, giving rise to several phenomena: astrometric displacement of the primary image, the creation of a secondary image that may shift the centroid of Sgr A*, and magnification effects on both images. The soon-to-be second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY will perform observations in the near-infrared of the Galactic center at unprecedented resolution, opening the possibility of observing such effects. Here we investigate the observability limits for GRAVITY of gravitational lensing effects on the S-stars in the parameter space 1[D LS, γ, K], where D LS is the distance between the lens and the source, γ is the alignment angle of the source, and K is the source's apparent magnitude in the K band. The easiest effect to observe in future years is the astrometric displacement of primary images. In particular, the shift of the star S17 from its Keplerian orbit will be detected as soon as GRAVITY becomes operative. For exceptional configurations, it will be possible to detect effects related to the spin of the black hole or post-Newtonian orders in the deflection.

  7. Quantum geometry of 2D gravity coupled to unitary matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.

    1997-02-01

    We show that there exists a divergent correlation length in 2D quantum gravity for the matter fields close to the critical point provided one uses the invariant geodesic distance as the measure of distance. The corresponding reparameterization invariant two-point functions satisfy all scaling relations known from the ordinary theory of critical phenomena and the KPZ exponents are determined by the power-like fall-off of these two-point functions. The only difference compared to flat space is the appearance of a dynamically generated fractal dimension d h in the scaling relations. We analyze numerically the fractal properties of space-time for the Ising and three-states Potts model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity using finite size scaling as well as small distance scaling of invariant correlation functions. Our data are consistent with dh = 4, but we cannot rule out completely the conjecture dH = -2 α1/ α-1, where α- n is the gravitational dressing exponent of a spinless primary field of conformal weight ( n + 1, n + 1). We compute the moments < L> and the loop-length distribution function and show that the fractal properties associated with these observables are identical, with good accuracy, to the pure gravity case.

  8. Biomineralisation under zero gravity: A survey of past experience and theoretical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, M.; Slenzka, K.

    Biomineralisation denotes the utilisation of inorganic minerals by biological systems for different purposes like mechanical protection (shells), tools (teeth and spicules), internal stabilisation (bones), and gravity sensors (otoliths, statoliths). The main principles are now understood, i.e. the biological control over crystal nucleation, crystal growth, crystallisation in confined compartments, and incorporation of biomolecules (mostly proteins) into inorganic structures. It is a question of fundamental interest whether these processes that have been developed over millions of years under 1 g-gravity on earth are still working properly under zero gravitation. Biominerals like calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, silica, and iron oxide have a high specific weight, and therefore the absence of gravity may well influence the biomineralisation process in a purely physico-chemical and mechanical way. Of course, biological signalling pathways should also depend on the gravitational force. Of immediate medical interest is the influence of gravity on bone formation that is commonly associated with osteoporosis. Further points are teeth development and pathological biomineralisation phenomena like atherosclerosis. The contributions will highlight past experiments from the literature about biomineralisation under zero-gravity and try to formulate principles for the influence of gravity on biomineralisation.

  9. Serendipitous discoveries in nonlocal gravity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2012-05-01

    We present a class of generally covariant nonlocal gravity models which have a flat-space general relativistic limit and also possess a stable de Sitter or anti-de Sitter (AdS) background with an arbitrary value of its cosmological constant. The nonlocal action of the theory is formulated in the Euclidean signature spacetime and is understood as an approximation to the quantum effective action (generating functional of one-particle irreducible diagrams) originating from fundamental quantum gravity theory. Using the known relation between the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values and the Euclidean quantum field theory we derive from this action the causal effective equations of motion for mean value of the metric field in the physical Lorentzian-signature spacetime. Thus we show that the (A)dS background of the theory carries as free propagating modes massless gravitons having two polarizations identical to those of the Einstein theory with a cosmological term. The on-shell action of the theory is vanishing both for the flat-space and (A)dS backgrounds which play the role of stable vacua underlying, respectively, the ultraviolet and infrared phases of the theory. We also obtain linearized gravitational potentials of compact matter sources and show that in the infrared (A)dS phase their effective gravitational coupling Geff can be essentially different from the Newton gravitational constant GN of the short-distance general relativistic phase. When Geff≫GN the (A)dS phase can be regarded as a strongly coupled infrared modification of Einstein theory not only describing the dark energy mechanism of cosmic acceleration but also simulating the dark matter phenomenon by enhanced gravitational attraction at long distances.

  10. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  11. Gravitational backreaction of anti-D branes in the warped compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kayoko; Koyama, Kazuya

    2005-09-01

    We derive a low-energy effective theory for gravity with anti-D branes, which are essential to get de Sitter solutions in the type IIB string-warped compactification, by taking account of gravitational backreactions of anti-D branes. In order to see the effects of the self-gravity of anti-D branes, a simplified model is studied where a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is realized by the bulk cosmological constant and the 5-form flux, and anti-D branes are coupled to the 5-form field by Chern Simon terms. The AdS spacetime is truncated by introducing UV and IR cut-off branes like the Randall Sundrum model. We derive an effective theory for gravity on the UV brane and reproduce the familiar result that the tensions of the anti-D branes give potentials suppressed by the fourth power of the warp factor at the location of the anti-D branes. However, in this simplified model, the potential energy never inflates the UV brane, although the anti-D branes are inflating. The UV brane is dominated by dark radiation coming from the projection of the five-dimensional Weyl tensor, unless the moduli fields for the anti-D branes are stabilized. We comment on the possibility of avoiding this problem in a realistic string theory compactification.

  12. Short Range Tests of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Crystal; Harter, Andrew; Hoyle, C. D.; Leopardi, Holly; Smith, David

    2014-03-01

    Gravity was the first force to be described mathematically, yet it is the only fundamental force not well understood. The Standard Model of quantum mechanics describes interactions between the fundamental strong, weak and electromagnetic forces while Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) describes the fundamental force of gravity. There is yet to be a theory that unifies inconsistencies between GR and quantum mechanics. Scenarios of String Theory predicting more than three spatial dimensions also predict physical effects of gravity at sub-millimeter levels that would alter the gravitational inverse-square law. The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), a central feature of GR, states that all objects are accelerated at the same rate in a gravitational field independent of their composition. A violation of the WEP at any length would be evidence that current models of gravity are incorrect. At the Humboldt State University Gravitational Research Laboratory, an experiment is being developed to observe gravitational interactions below the 50-micron distance scale. The experiment measures the twist of a parallel-plate torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated within 50 microns of the pendulum, providing time varying gravitational torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque amplitude provide means to determine deviations from accepted models of gravity on untested distance scales. undergraduate.

  13. Gravity, light and plant form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hangarter, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.

  14. Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing

  15. The fate of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes in f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addazi, Andrea; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The semiclassical effects of anti-evaporating black holes can be discussed in the framework of f(R) gravity. In particular, the Bousso-Hawking-Nojiri-Odinstov anti-evaporation instability of degenerate Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes (the so-called Nariai spacetime) leads to a dynamical increasing of black hole horizon in f(R) gravity. This phenomenon causes the following transition: emitting marginally trapped surfaces (TS) become space-like surfaces before the effective Bekenstein-Hawking emission time. As a consequence, Bousso-Hawking thermal radiation cannot be emitted in an anti-evaporating Nariai black hole. Possible implications in cosmology and black hole physics are also discussed.

  16. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  17. Spinning Particles in Scalar-Tensor Gravity with Torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.

    2008-10-10

    A new model of neutral spinning particles in scalar-tensor gravity with torsion is developed by using a Fermi coordinates associated with orthonormal frames attached to a timelike curve and Noether identities. We further analyze its equations of motion both in background Brans-Dicke torsion field and the constant pseudo-Riemannian curvature with a constant scalar field. It turns that the particle's spin vector is parallel transport along its wordline in the Brans-Dicke torsion field and de Sitter spacetime. However, the dynamics of the spinning particle cannot completely determined in anti-de Sitter spacetime and it requires a further investigation.

  18. Noncommutative scalar field minimally coupled to nonsymmetric gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kouadik, S.; Sefai, D.

    2012-06-27

    We construct a non-commutative non symmetric gravity minimally coupled model (the star product only couples matter). We introduce the action for the system considered namely a non-commutative scalar field propagating in a nontrivial gravitational background. We expand the action in powers of the anti-symmetric field and the graviton to second order adopting the assumption that the scalar is weekly coupled to the graviton. We compute the one loop radiative corrections to the self-energy of a scalar particle.

  19. The study of single crystals for space processing and the effect of zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze different growth techniques affected by a space environment. Literature on crystal growth from melt, vapor phase and float zone was reviewed and the physical phenomena important for crystal growth in zero-gravity environment was analyzed. Recommendations for potential areas of crystal growth feasible for space missions are presented and a bibliography of articles in the area of crystal growth in general is listed.

  20. Leidenfrost drops: Effect of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Brandenbourger, M.; Sobac, B.; Biance, A.-L.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    A specific experimental set-up has been installed in a large centrifuge facility in order to study different aspects of Leidenfrost drops under high-gravity conditions (5, 10, 15 and 20 times the Earth gravity). In particular, the drop lifetime and more precisely the variations of drop diameter vs. time have shown to be in good agreement with previous experiments and scaling analysis (Biance A.-L. et al., Phys. Fluids, 15 (2003) 1632). Moreover, so-called chimneys are expectedly observed in the large puddles, the distance between two chimneys depending linearly on the capillary length. Finally, the Leidenfrost point, i.e. the temperature above which the Leidenfrost effect takes place, was unexpectedly found to increase slightly with gravity. A qualitative explanation based on a refined model (Sobac B. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014) 053011) recognizing the non-trivial shape of the vapor film under the drop is proposed to explain this observation.

  1. Lorentzian wormholes in Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M. H.; Dayyani, Z.

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we introduce the n-dimensional Lorentzian wormhole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. In contrast to Einstein gravity and as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we find that the wormhole throat radius r{sub 0} has a lower limit that depends on the Lovelock coefficients, the dimensionality of the spacetime, and the shape function. We study the conditions of having normal matter near the throat, and find that the matter near the throat can be normal for the region r{sub 0}{<=}r{<=}r{sub max}, where r{sub max} depends on the Lovelock coefficients and the shape function. We also find that the third order Lovelock term with negative coupling constant enlarges the radius of the region of normal matter, and conclude that the higher order Lovelock terms with negative coupling constants enlarge the region of normal matter near the throat.

  2. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  3. Chiral description of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Krasnov, Kirill; Speziale, Simone

    2013-06-01

    We propose and study a new first order version of the ghost-free massive gravity. Instead of metrics or tetrads, it uses a connection together with Plebanski's chiral 2-forms as fundamental variables, rendering the phase space structure similar to that of SU(2) gauge theories. The chiral description simplifies computations of the constraint algebra, and allows us to perform the complete canonical analysis of the system. In particular, we explicitly compute the secondary constraint and carry out the stabilization procedure, thus proving that in general the theory propagates 7 degrees of freedom, consistently with previous claims. Finally, we point out that the description in terms of 2-forms opens the door to an infinite class of ghost-free massive bi-gravity actions. Our results apply directly to Euclidean signature. The reality conditions to be imposed in the Lorentzian signature appear to be more complicated than in the usual gravity case and are left as an open issue.

  4. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  5. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  6. Observational tests of modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-09-15

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions)

  7. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  8. Short-duration low-gravity experiments - Time scales, challenges and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    Short-duration low-gravity experiments can be conducted either in drop tubes and drop towers, or on sounding rockets and aircraft on ballistic trajectories. While these facilities offer more frequent flight opportunities and higher cost effectiveness than orbiting spacecraft, their relatively short low-gravity times are often perceived as limiting their utility to only a narrow range of applications and research areas. In this review it is shown, based on scaling laws for diffusive transport of momentum, species and heat, radiative heat transfer and capillarity-driven motion, that with proper consideration of the characteristic length scales, a host of phenomena can be meaningfully investigated during a few seconds. This usefulness of short-duration low-gravity facilities is illustrated with numerous results of recent studies of solidification, combustion, transport in multiphase systems, statics and dynamics of liquid surfaces, magnetic Benard convection, fluid management, transport properties and the graviperception in cells.

  9. Study of two-phase flow and heat transfer in reduced gravities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdollahian, Davood; Barez, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Design of the two-phase systems which are anticipated to be utilized in future spacecraft thermal management systems requires a knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer parameters in reduced gravities. A program has been initiated by NASA to design a two-phase test loop and perform a series of experiments to generate the data for the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and onset of instability under reduced gravities. In addition to low gravity airplane trajectory testing, the experimental program consists of a set of laboratory tests with vertical upflow and downflow configurations. Modularity is considered in the design of this experiment and the test loop in instrumented to provide data for two-phase pressure drop and flow regime behavior. Since the program is in the final stages of the design and construction task, this article is intended to discuss the phenomena, design approach, and the description of the test loop.

  10. Study of Critical Heat Flux and Two-Phase Pressure Drop Under Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdollahian, Davood; Quintal, Joseph; Barez, Fred; Zahm, Jennifer; Lohr, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The design of the two-phase flow systems which are anticipated to be utilized in future spacecraft thermal management systems requires a knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in reduced gravities. This program was funded by NASA headquarters in response to NRA-91-OSSA-17 and was managed by Lewis Research Center. The main objective of this program was to design and construct a two-phase test loop, and perform a series of normal gravity and aircraft trajectory experiments to study the effect of gravity on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and onset of instability. The test loop was packaged on two aircraft racks and was also instrumented to generate data for two-phase pressure drop. The normal gravity tests were performed with vertical up and downflow configurations to bound the effect of gravity on the test parameters. One set of aircraft trajectory tests was performed aboard the NASA DC-9 aircraft. These tests were mainly intended to evaluate the test loop and its operational performance under actual reduced gravity conditions, and to produce preliminary data for the test parameters. The test results were used to demonstrate the applicability of the normal gravity models for prediction of the two-phase friction pressure drop. It was shown that the two-phase friction multipliers for vertical upflow and reduced gravity conditions can be successfully predicted by the appropriate normal gravity models. Limited critical heat flux data showed that the measured CHF under reduced gravities are of the same order of magnitude as the test results with vertical upflow configuration. A simplified correlation was only successful in predicting the measured CHF for low flow rates. Instability tests with vertical upflow showed that flow becomes unstable and critical heat flux occurs at smaller powers when a parallel flow path exists. However, downflow tests and a single reduced gravity instability experiment indicated that the system actually became more stable with a

  11. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  12. Gravity research at Cottrell observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuman, V. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The Cottrell gravity research observatory and work in progress are described. Equipment in place and equipment to be installed, the cryogenic gravity meter (CGM), concrete pads to support the vertical seismometer, CGM, and guest experiments, techniques of data analysis, and improvements needed in the CGM are discussed. Harmonic earth eigenvibrations with multipole moments are examined and their compatibility with a fictitious black hole binary system (of which the primary central mass is assigned a value one million solar masses) located 400 light-years away is shown by calculations.

  13. Starobinsky model in rainbow gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Yingcharoenrat, Vicharit; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we study the Starobinsky model of inflation in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be written in the power-law form of the Hubble parameter. We present a detailed derivation of the spectral index of curvature perturbation and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and compare the predictions of our models with Planck 2015 data. We discover that in order to be consistent with Planck data up to 2 σ C.L., the viable values of Nk e -folds would satisfy 42 ≲Nk≲87 and the rainbow parameter λ is nicely constrained to be λ ≲6.0 .

  14. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated

  15. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30(∗)α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90-1.10(∗)α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40-0.55(∗)α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00(∗)α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30-2.30(∗)α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex. PMID:27588002

  16. Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the so-called sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental

  17. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component.

  18. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component.

  19. Fast Particle Methods for Multiscale Phenomena Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koumoutsakos, P.; Wray, A.; Shariff, K.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We are developing particle methods oriented at improving computational modeling capabilities of multiscale physical phenomena in : (i) high Reynolds number unsteady vortical flows, (ii) particle laden and interfacial flows, (iii)molecular dynamics studies of nanoscale droplets and studies of the structure, functions, and evolution of the earliest living cell. The unifying computational approach involves particle methods implemented in parallel computer architectures. The inherent adaptivity, robustness and efficiency of particle methods makes them a multidisciplinary computational tool capable of bridging the gap of micro-scale and continuum flow simulations. Using efficient tree data structures, multipole expansion algorithms, and improved particle-grid interpolation, particle methods allow for simulations using millions of computational elements, making possible the resolution of a wide range of length and time scales of these important physical phenomena.The current challenges in these simulations are in : [i] the proper formulation of particle methods in the molecular and continuous level for the discretization of the governing equations [ii] the resolution of the wide range of time and length scales governing the phenomena under investigation. [iii] the minimization of numerical artifacts that may interfere with the physics of the systems under consideration. [iv] the parallelization of processes such as tree traversal and grid-particle interpolations We are conducting simulations using vortex methods, molecular dynamics and smooth particle hydrodynamics, exploiting their unifying concepts such as : the solution of the N-body problem in parallel computers, highly accurate particle-particle and grid-particle interpolations, parallel FFT's and the formulation of processes such as diffusion in the context of particle methods. This approach enables us to transcend among seemingly unrelated areas of research.

  20. Displacement phenomena in lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026