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Sample records for anti-apoptotic protein constitutively

  1. Gambogic acid is an antagonist of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Dayong; Jin, Chaofang; Shiau, Chung-wai; Kitada, Shinichi; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Reed, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The natural product Gambogic acid (GA) has been reported to have cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in culture, and was identified as an active compound in a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for activators of caspases, proteases involved in apoptosis. Using the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein, Bfl-1, as a target for screening of a library of natural products, we identified GA as a competitive inhibitor that displaced BH3 peptides from Bfl-1 in a fluorescent polarization assay (FPA). Analysis of competition for BH3 peptide binding revealed that GA inhibits all 6 human Bcl-2-family proteins to various extents, with Mcl-1 and Bcl-B the most potently inhibited (concentrations required for 50% inhibition [IC50] <1 μM). Competition for BH3 peptide binding was also confirmed using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. GA functionally inhibited the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria in which recombinant purified Bcl-2-family proteins suppress SMAC release in vitro, showing that GA neutralizes their suppressive effects on mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. GA killed tumor cell lines via an apoptotic mechanism, whereas analogs of GA with greatly reduced potency at BH3 peptide displacement showed little or no cytotoxic activity. However, GA retained cytotoxic activity against bax−/− bak−/− cells in which anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins lack a cytoprotective phenotype, implying that GA also has additional targets that contribute to its cytotoxic mechanism. Altogether, the findings suggest that suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins may be among the cytotoxic mechanisms by which GA kills tumor cells. PMID:18566235

  2. Golgi Anti-apoptotic Proteins Are Highly Conserved Ion Channels That Affect Apoptosis and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Parsons, Maddy; Byrne, Bernadette; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca2+ content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently. PMID:25713081

  3. [Anti-apoptotic protein enhances resilience to psychoemotional effects of stress].

    PubMed

    Dygalo, N N; Shishkina, G T

    2013-01-01

    Stress predisposes to depression by enhancing apoptosis and reducing neurogenesis in the brain. There are significant individual differences in resilience to the effects of stress on mood. These differences, at least in part, may be related to the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the brain. Increased expression of this protein in the hippocampus may be an important factor of resilience to stress-induced depression. Expression of the Bcl-xL in the brainstem acquires the ability to respond to stress induction during the course of treatment with prozac concomitantly with the emergence of the therapeutic effect of this antidepressant on behavior. Processes linking stress and behavior in which the protein Bcl-xL is involved, are considered in this review. PMID:23789349

  4. Ectromelia virus encodes an anti-apoptotic protein that regulates cell death.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ninad; Taylor, John; Quilty, Douglas; Barry, Michele

    2015-01-15

    Apoptosis serves as a powerful defense against damaged or pathogen-infected cells. Since apoptosis is an effective defense against viral infection, many viruses including poxviruses, encode proteins to prevent or delay apoptosis. Here we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox encodes an anti-apoptotic protein EVM025. Here we demonstrate that expression of functional EVM025 is crucial to prevent apoptosis triggered by virus infection and staurosporine. We demonstrate that the expression of EVM025 prevents the conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, allowing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity upon infection with ECTV. Additionally, EVM025 interacted with intracellular Bak. We were able to demonstrate that EVM025 ability to inhibit Bax activation is a function of its ability to inhibit the activity of an upstream BH3 only protein Bim. Collectively, our data indicates that EVM025 inhibits apoptosis by sequestering Bak and inhibiting the activity of Bak and Bax. PMID:25462348

  5. Host cell Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Eveliina; Hulkkonen, Jaakko; Penttilä, Tuula; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae protein CPn0809 is a type three secretion system substrate, the exact function of which in infection pathogenesis has remained unknown. In this study, we identified by yeast two-hybrid screening a potential host cell interaction partner of CPn0809, Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP), a conserved protein found in eukaryotic cells. GAAP gene is expressed at relatively constant levels and its expression remained stable also after C. pneumoniae infection. The interaction between GAAP and C. pneumoniae was suggested by transfection studies. GAAP knock-down by siRNA in infected A549 cells resulted in an increased number of C. pneumoniae genomes and growth of the bacteria as judged by quantitative PCR and inclusion counts, respectively. Silencing of GAAP did not make the A549 cells more susceptible to apoptosis per se, and infection with C. pneumoniae prevented staurosporin-induced apoptosis also in transfected cultures. Taken together, the proposed interaction between C. pneumoniae and GAAP modulates bacterial growth in A549 cells. PMID:23000903

  6. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein AVEN contributes to increased malignancy in hematopoietic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Eißmann, M; Melzer, I M; Fernández, S B M; Michel, G; Hrabě de Angelis, M; Hoefler, G; Finkenwirth, P; Jauch, A; Schoell, B; Grez, M; Schmidt, M; Bartholomae, C C; Newrzela, S; Haetscher, N; Rieger, M A; Zachskorn, C; Mittelbronn, M; Zörnig, M

    2013-05-16

    AVEN has been identified as an inhibitor of apoptosis, which binds to the adaptor protein, APAF-1, and thereby prevents apoptosome formation and mitochondrial apoptosis. Recent data have demonstrated high expression levels of AVEN messenger RNA in acute leukemias as well as a positive correlation between AVEN mRNA overexpression and poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. On the basis of these data, we investigated the potential involvement of AVEN in tumorigenesis. First, we confirmed the overexpression of AVEN in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) patient samples. We then established a transgenic mouse model with T-cell-specific overexpression of AVEN, with which we demonstrated the oncogenic cooperation of AVEN with heterozygous loss of p53. Finally, we used a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model to show that AVEN knockdown in the T-ALL cell lines, MOLT-4 and CCRF-CEM, and in the acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line, Kasumi-1, leads to a halt in tumor growth owing to the increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation of tumor cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the anti-apoptotic molecule, AVEN, functions as an oncoprotein in hematopoietic neoplasms. PMID:22751129

  7. Exploiting endogenous anti-apoptotic proteins for novel therapeutic strategies in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Rami, Abdelhaq; Bechmann, Ingo; Stehle, Jörg H

    2008-07-01

    The acute neuronal degeneration in the ischemic core upon stroke is followed by a second wave of cell demise in the ischemic penumbra and neuroanatomically connected sites. This temporally delayed deleterious event of programmed cell death ('secondary degeneration') often exceeds the initial damage of stroke and, thus, contributes pivotally to significant losses in neurological functions. In fact, it is the injured neurons in these regions around the ischemic core zone that neuropharmacological prevention is targeting to preserve. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have focussed on neuroprotective interventions with caspase inhibitors, but it remains ambiguous whether diminishing or even silencing these aspartate-specific cysteine proteases are in sum beneficial for the clinical outcome. It is often ignored that caspase inhibitors are able to antagonize calpain and cathepsins, thereby protecting the cytoskeleton from damage. Moreover, there is a point of no return, beyond which interfering with caspases cannot rescue the cell, but spoil the obligate and necessary suicide program such that the cellular environment suffers from by-products of necrosis and secondary inflammation. Here we discuss novel alternative strategies to abrogate the death cascade at the level of the genomic response (transcription factors, NF-kappaB, CREB, ICER, HIF), of mitochondrial effectors (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, HtrA2), and of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). IAPs are the only known endogenous proteins that inhibit specifically and with high affinity the activity of both initiator and effector caspases. Based on compelling biochemical evidence, we argue that patronizing the neuronal endogenous anti-apoptotic machinery could be superior to the pharmacological inhibition of caspases at various levels, with regard to specificity, side effects, and the 'therapeutic window of opportunity'. PMID:18511172

  8. Activated Protein C Protects Myocardium Via Activation of Anti-apoptotic Pathways of Survival in Ischemia-reperfused Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jia-Wang; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jian; Li, Song; Li, Li

    2010-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is known to be beneficial on ischemia reperfusion injury in myocardium. However, the protection mechanism of APC is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of APC on myocardial ischemic damage. Artificially ventilated anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 30 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham, I/R, APC preconditioning and postconditioning group. Myocardial infarct size, apoptosis index, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c genes and proteins were assessed. In APC-administrated rat hearts, regardless of the timing of administration, infarct size was consistently reduced compared to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats. APC improved the expression of ERK1/2 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 which were significantly reduced in the I/R rats. APC reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, Bax and cytochrome c. These findings suggest that APC produces cardioprotective effect by preserving the expression of proteins and genes involved in anti-apoptotic pathways, regardless of the timing of administration. PMID:21060750

  9. Neuroglobin in Breast Cancer Cells: Effect of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress on Protein Level, Localization, and Anti-Apoptotic Function.

    PubMed

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Cipolletti, Manuela; Leone, Stefano; Naldini, Antonella; Carraro, Fabio; Giordano, Daniela; Verde, Cinzia; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The over-expression of human neuroglobin (NGB), a heme-protein preferentially expressed in the brain, displays anti-apoptotic effects against hypoxic/ischemic and oxidative stresses enhancing neuron survival. As hypoxic and oxidative stress injury frequently occurs in fast proliferating neoplastic tissues, here, the effect of these stressors on the level, localization, and anti-apoptotic function of NGB in wild type and NGB-stable-silenced MCF-7 breast cancer cells has been assessed. The well-known endogenous NGB inducer 17β-estradiol (E2) has been used as positive control. The median pO2 present in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients (i.e., 2% O2) does not affect the NGB level in breast cancer cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide and lead(IV) acetate, which increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhance the NGB levels outside the mitochondria and still activate apoptosis. However, E2-induced NGB up-regulation in mitochondria completely reverse lead(IV) acetate-induced PARP cleavage. These results indicate that the NGB level could represent a marker of oxidative-stress in MCF-7 breast cancer cells; however, the NGB ability to respond to injuring stimuli by preventing apoptosis requires its re-allocation into the mitochondria. As a whole, present data might lead to a new direction in understanding NGB function in cancer opening new avenues for the therapeutic intervention. PMID:27149623

  10. Neuroglobin in Breast Cancer Cells: Effect of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress on Protein Level, Localization, and Anti-Apoptotic Function

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Cipolletti, Manuela; Leone, Stefano; Naldini, Antonella; Carraro, Fabio; Giordano, Daniela; Verde, Cinzia; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The over-expression of human neuroglobin (NGB), a heme-protein preferentially expressed in the brain, displays anti-apoptotic effects against hypoxic/ischemic and oxidative stresses enhancing neuron survival. As hypoxic and oxidative stress injury frequently occurs in fast proliferating neoplastic tissues, here, the effect of these stressors on the level, localization, and anti-apoptotic function of NGB in wild type and NGB-stable-silenced MCF-7 breast cancer cells has been assessed. The well-known endogenous NGB inducer 17β-estradiol (E2) has been used as positive control. The median pO2 present in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients (i.e., 2% O2) does not affect the NGB level in breast cancer cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide and lead(IV) acetate, which increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhance the NGB levels outside the mitochondria and still activate apoptosis. However, E2-induced NGB up-regulation in mitochondria completely reverse lead(IV) acetate-induced PARP cleavage. These results indicate that the NGB level could represent a marker of oxidative-stress in MCF-7 breast cancer cells; however, the NGB ability to respond to injuring stimuli by preventing apoptosis requires its re-allocation into the mitochondria. As a whole, present data might lead to a new direction in understanding NGB function in cancer opening new avenues for the therapeutic intervention. PMID:27149623

  11. Anti-Apoptotic Protein Bcl-xL Expression in the Midbrain Raphe Region Is Sensitive to Stress and Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Tatyana S.; Bulygina, Veta V.; Lanshakov, Dmitry A.; Babluk, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic proteins are suggested to be important for the normal health of neurons and synapses as well as for resilience to stress. In order to determine whether stressful events may influence the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the midbrain and specifically in the midbrain serotonergic (5-HT) neurons involved in neurobehavioral responses to adverse stimuli, adult male rats were subjected to short-term or chronic forced swim stress. A short-term stress rapidly increased the midbrain bcl-xl mRNA levels and significantly elevated Bcl-xL immunoreactivity in the midbrain 5-HT cells. Stress-induced increase in glucocorticoid secretion was implicated in the observed effect. The levels of bcl-xl mRNA were decreased after stress when glucocorticoid elevation was inhibited by metyrapone (MET, 150 mg/kg), and this decrease was attenuated by glucocorticoid replacement with dexamethasone (DEX; 0.2 mg/kg). Both short-term stress and acute DEX administration, in parallel with Bcl-xL, caused a significant increase in tph2 mRNA levels and slightly enhanced tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the midbrain. The increasing effect on the bcl-xl expression was specific to the short-term stress. Forced swim repeated daily for 2 weeks led to a decrease in bcl-xl mRNA in the midbrain without any effects on the Bcl-xL protein expression in the 5-HT neurons. In chronically stressed animals, an increase in tph2 gene expression was not associated with any changes in tryptophan hydroxylase protein levels. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that both short-term stress and acute glucocorticoid exposures induce Bcl-xL protein expression in the midbrain 5-HT neurons concomitantly with the activation of the 5-HT synthesis pathway in these neurons. PMID:26624017

  12. Cytotoxicity of calotropin is through caspase activation and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Chung; Lu, Mei-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Tseng, Hsing-I; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Wu, Yang-Chang; Yang, Pei-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Calotropin is one of cardenolides isolated from milkweed used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries. Whereas calotropin possesses cytotoxicity against several cancer cells, the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We set out to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of calotropin on human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. Calotropin inhibited the growth of K562 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by G(2)/M phase arrest. It upregulated the expression of p27 leading to this arrest by downregulating the G2/M regulatory proteins, cyclins A and B, and by upregulating the cdk inhibitor, p27. Furthermore, it downregulated anti-apoptotic signaling (XIAP and survivin) and survival pathways (p-Akt and NFkappaB), leading to caspase-3 activation which resulted in the induction of apoptosis. In all, calotropin exerted its anticancer activity on K562 cells by modulating the pro-survival signaling that leads to induction of apoptosis. PMID:19732845

  13. Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 Binds a Novel Protein Interaction Site on Anti-apoptotic B Cell Lymphoma Gene 2 Family Proteins.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Paulo H C; Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Hishiki, Asami; Sano, Renata; Matsuzawa, Yasuko; Yanagi, Hiroko; Munte, Claudia E; Chen, Ya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M; Kalbitzer, Hans R; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C

    2016-07-01

    B cell lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death and important targets for drug discovery. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reciprocally modulate their activities in large part through protein interactions involving a motif known as BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3). Nur77 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family that lacks a BH3 domain but nevertheless binds certain anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bfl-1, and Bcl-B), modulating their effects on apoptosis and autophagy. We used a combination of NMR spectroscopy-based methods, mutagenesis, and functional studies to define the interaction site of a Nur77 peptide on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and reveal a novel interaction surface. Nur77 binds adjacent to the BH3 peptide-binding crevice, suggesting the possibility of cross-talk between these discrete binding sites. Mutagenesis of residues lining the identified interaction site on Bcl-B negated the interaction with Nur77 protein in cells and prevented Nur77-mediated modulation of apoptosis and autophagy. The findings establish a new protein interaction site with the potential to modulate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms governed by Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:27129202

  14. Piezometric biosensors for anti-apoptotic protein survivin based on buried positive-potential barrier and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Chalupa, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata

    2016-10-15

    The anti-apoptotic protein survivin (Sur) plays an important role in the regulation of cell division and inducing the chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The Sur protein and its mRNA have recently been studied as cancer biomarkers and potential targets for cancer therapy. In this work, we have focused on the design of immunosensors for the detection of Sur based on buried positive-potential barrier layer structure and anti-survivin antibody. The modification of solid AuQC piezoelectrodes was monitored by recording the resonance frequency shift and electrochemical measurements during each step of the sensor preparation. Our results indicate that the immunosensor with covalently bound monoclonal anti-survivin antibody can detect Sur with the limit of detection, LOD=1.7nM (S/N=3σ). The immunosensor applicability for the analysis of real samples was assessed by testing samples of cell lysate solutions obtained from human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) U-87MG cell line, with the experiments performed using the standard addition method. The good linearity of the calibration curves for PBS and lysate solutions at low Sur concentrations confirm the high specificity of the proposed biosensor and good discrimination against nonspecific interactions with lysate components. The calculations indicate that there is still room to increase the Sur capture capacity for Sur while miniaturizing the sensor. The important advantage of the sensor is that it can be reused by a simple regeneration procedure. PMID:26507667

  15. Metformin combined with sodium dichloroacetate promotes B leukemic cell death by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Voltan, Rebecca; Rimondi, Erika; Melloni, Elisabetta; Gilli, Paola; Bertolasi, Valerio; Casciano, Fabio; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Metformin and the mitochondrial targeting dichloroacetate (DCA) have recently received attention due to their ability to inhibit anaerobic glycolysis, which renders most cancer cells resistant to apoptosis induction. We observed that Metformin alone exhibited a dose-dependent anti-leukemic activity in both B leukemic cell lines and primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients' cells and its anti-leukemic activity was enhanced when used in combination with DCA. In order to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability and cellular uptake, which limit DCA efficacy, we have designed and synthetized cocrystals consisting of Metformin and DCA (Met-DCA) at different stoichiometric ratios. Of note, the MetH(2)(++)•2DCA(-) cocrystal exhibited enhanced in vitro anti-leukemic activity, with respect to the treatment with the mix consisting of Metformin plus DCA. In particular, the treatment with the cocrystal MetH(2)(++)•2DCA(-) induced a synergistic apoptotic cell death coupled to a marked down-modulation of the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein. Taken together, our data emphasize that innovative compounds based on Metformin-DCA combination merit to be further evaluated as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of B-CLL. PMID:26959881

  16. Metformin combined with sodium dichloroacetate promotes B leukemic cell death by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Elisabetta; Gilli, Paola; Bertolasi, Valerio; Casciano, Fabio; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Metformin and the mitochondrial targeting dichloroacetate (DCA) have recently received attention due to their ability to inhibit anaerobic glycolysis, which renders most cancer cells resistant to apoptosis induction. We observed that Metformin alone exhibited a dose-dependent anti-leukemic activity in both B leukemic cell lines and primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients' cells and its anti-leukemic activity was enhanced when used in combination with DCA. In order to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability and cellular uptake, which limit DCA efficacy, we have designed and synthetized cocrystals consisting of Metformin and DCA (Met-DCA) at different stoichiometric ratios. Of note, the MetH2++•2DCA− cocrystal exhibited enhanced in vitro anti-leukemic activity, with respect to the treatment with the mix consisting of Metformin plus DCA. In particular, the treatment with the cocrystal MetH2++•2DCA− induced a synergistic apoptotic cell death coupled to a marked down-modulation of the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein. Taken together, our data emphasize that innovative compounds based on Metformin-DCA combination merit to be further evaluated as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of B-CLL. PMID:26959881

  17. Fragment-based discovery of potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic MCL-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Petros, Andrew M; Swann, Steven L; Song, Danying; Swinger, Kerren; Park, Chang; Zhang, Haichao; Wendt, Michael D; Kunzer, Aaron R; Souers, Andrew J; Sun, Chaohong

    2014-03-15

    Apoptosis is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins, which is comprised of both pro-death and pro-survival members. Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant cells. One way in which cancer cells achieve this evasion is thru overexpression of the pro-survival members of the BCL-2 family. Overexpression of MCL-1, a pro-survival protein, has been shown to be a resistance factor for Navitoclax, a potent inhibitor of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. Here we describe the use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to drive the discovery of novel MCL-1 inhibitors from two distinct structural classes. Specifically, cores derived from a biphenyl sulfonamide and salicylic acid were uncovered in an NMR-based fragment screen and elaborated using high throughput analog synthesis. This culminated in the discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of MCL-1 that may serve as promising leads for medicinal chemistry optimization efforts. PMID:24582986

  18. Human Mutation in the Anti-apoptotic Heat Shock Protein 20 Abrogates Its Cardioprotective Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Persoulla; Knöll, Ralph; Haghighi, Kobra; Fan, Guo-Chang; Dorn, Gerald W.; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2008-01-01

    The small heat shock protein Hsp20 protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis, and phosphorylation at its Ser16 site enhances its cardioprotection. To determine whether genetic variants exist in human Hsp20, which may modify these beneficial effects, we sequenced the coding region of the Hsp20 gene in 1347 patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy and 744 subjects with no heart disease. We identified a C59T substitution in the human Hsp20 gene in one patient and three individuals without heart disease. All subjects were heterozygous for this mutation, which changes a fully conserved proline residue into leucine at position 20 (P20L), resulting in secondary structural alterations. To examine the potential functional significance of the P20L-Hsp20 human variant, adult rat cardiomyocytes were infected with Ad.GFP (where Ad is adenovirus and GFP is green fluorescent protein), Ad.WT-Hsp20 (where WT is wild-type), and Ad.P20L-Hsp20 and subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. Expression of WT-Hsp20 resulted in significant attenuation of apoptosis compared with the GFP control. However, the P20L-Hsp20 mutant showed no protection against apoptosis, assessed by Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation. The loss of cardioprotection by the mutant Hsp20 was associated with its diminished phosphorylation at Ser16 compared with WT-Hsp20. Furthermore, maximal stimulation of cardiomyocytes with isoproterenol or protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation in vitro confirmed the impaired ability of the mutant Hsp20 to become phosphorylated at Ser16. In conclusion, we have identified a P20L substitution in human Hsp20, which is associated with diminished phosphorylation at Ser16 and complete abrogation of the Hsp20 cardioprotective effects which may adversely affect the ability of human carriers to cope with cellular stress. PMID:18790732

  19. Anti-apoptotic role of Sonic hedgehog protein at the early stages of nervous system organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Charrier, J B; Lapointe, F; Le Douarin, N M; Teillet, M A

    2001-10-01

    In vertebrates the neural tube, like most of the embryonic organs, shows discreet areas of programmed cell death at several stages during development. In the chick embryo, cell death is dramatically increased in the developing nervous system and other tissues when the midline cells, notochord and floor plate, are prevented from forming by excision of the axial-paraxial hinge (APH), i.e. caudal Hensen's node and rostral primitive streak, at the 6-somite stage ( Charrier, J. B., Teillet, M.-A., Lapointe, F. and Le Douarin, N. M. (1999). Development 126, 4771-4783). In this paper we demonstrate that one day after APH excision, when dramatic apoptosis is already present in the neural tube, the latter can be rescued from death by grafting a notochord or a floor plate fragment in its vicinity. The neural tube can also be recovered by transplanting it into a stage-matched chick embryo having one of these structures. In addition, cells engineered to produce Sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) can mimic the effect of the notochord and floor plate cells in in situ grafts and transplantation experiments. SHH can thus counteract a built-in cell death program and thereby contribute to organ morphogenesis, in particular in the central nervous system. PMID:11641224

  20. Identification of novel potent inhibitors against Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein using docking studies.

    PubMed

    Shipra, Gupta; Gauri, Misra; Chandra, Pant Mohan; Kishore, Seth Prahlad

    2012-12-01

    Bcl-xL protein belongs to BCL-2 family which has either pro- or anti-apoptotic activities owing to their importance in the regulation of apoptosis, tumor genesis and cellular responses to anti-cancer therapy. Bcl-xL permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane of cells and inhibit these processes. Protein-inhibitor interactions play an important role in regulating the expression of Bcl-xL protein. Here, we report the docking studies that resulted in the identification of new inhibitors distinct from the previously reported inhibitor against this protein. The results have been validated using Sybyl surflux docking. New potent inhibitors from docking analysis are pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative (2S,4aR,6aR, 6bS,8aS,10R,12R,12aS,12bR,14bR,E)-10,12-dihydroxy-2,4a,14b-trimethyl-9-((((R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran- 2-yl)oxy)methylene)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14b-octadecahydropicene-2-car-boxylic acid and 4- alkyl-4-methoxypiperidine derivative 8h (where R= 4-Cl-Ph) that promotes the release of pro-apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria which is a key event in cell death signaling. The compounds form stable complex with protein exhibiting highest binding affinity and Gibbs free energy. Pentacyclic triterpenoid derivatives compound-201 and piperidine derivative compound-39 are potent inhibitors with Ki value of 172.62nM and 175.24 nM high affinity and inhibitory potency. Salt bridge, pi-pi and hydrogen bonding interactions predominantly contribute towards the stability of the complexes. These compounds can further be exploited for their potential to enhance apoptosis. We have established the correlation between the experimental Ki value with our computational inhibition constant. The quantitative predictions in this study provide a scope for further experimental testing giving structural insights into the design and development of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:22670675

  1. Reduced association of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 with E3 ligase Mule increases the stability of Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, S; Tran, A; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms that increase resistance to apoptosis help promote cellular transformation. Cancer cells have deregulated apoptotic pathways, where increased expression and stability of anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 increases resistance to apoptosis. Pathways that increase the stability of proteins in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Methods: Using human mammary epithelial and established breast cancer cell lines, we assessed the mechanisms that increase the stability of anti-apoptotic proteins in breast cancer cells by caspase assay, western blot, small-inhibitory RNA treatment and immunoprecipitation. Results: While breast cancer cells were resistant to de novo inhibition of protein synthesis, a rapid proteosome-mediated degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 induced apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. Although Mule, an E3 ligase that targets Mcl-1 for degradation was expressed in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines, rapid increase of polyubiquitinated Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was detected only in mammary epithelial cells. Only transient formation of the Mule–Mcl-1 complex was detected in breast cancer cells. Downregulation of pERK1/2 in breast cancer cells reduced Mcl-1 levels and increased Mcl-1/Mule complex. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that reduced Mule/Mcl-1 complex has a significant role in increasing the stability of Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. PMID:21730980

  2. Evidence for crucial electrostatic interactions between Bcl-2 homology domains BH3 and BH4 in the anti-apoptotic Nr-13 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lalle, Philippe; Aouacheria, Abdel; Dumont-Miscopein, Agnès; Jambon, Martin; Venet, Séverine; Bobichon, Hélène; Colas, Pierre; Deléage, Gilbert; Geourjon, Christophe; Gillet, Germain

    2002-01-01

    Nr-13 is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family previously shown to interact with Bax. The biological significance of this interaction was explored both in yeast and vertebrate cells and revealed that Nr-13 is able to counteract the pro-apoptotic activity of Bax. The Bax-interacting domain has been identified and corresponds to alpha-helices 5 and 6 in Nr-13. Site-directed mutagenesis has revealed that the N-terminal region of Nr-13 is essential for activity and corresponds to a genuine Bcl-2 homology domain (BH4). The modelling of Nr-13, based on its similarity with other Bcl-2 family proteins and energy minimization, suggests the possibility of electrostatic interactions between the two N-terminal-conserved domains BH4 and BH3. Disruption of these interactions severely affects Nr-13 anti-apoptotic activity. Together our results suggest that electrostatic interactions between BH4 and BH3 domains play a role in the control of activity of Nr-13 and a subset of Bcl-2 family members. PMID:12133006

  3. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  4. Histone demethylase Jmjd3 regulates osteoblast apoptosis through targeting anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bim.

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Okamura, Hirohiko; Teramachi, Jumpei; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2016-04-01

    Posttranslational modifications including histone methylation regulate gene transcription through directly affecting the structure of chromatin. Trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3) contributes to gene silencing and the histone demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (Jmjd3) specifically removes the methylation of H3K27me3, followed by the activation of gene expression. In the present study, we explored the roles of Jmjd3 in regulating osteoblast apoptosis. Knockdown of Jmjd3 promoted osteoblast apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic protein, was down-regulated by knockdown of Jmjd3 through retaining H3K27me3 on its promoter region. Knockdown of Jmjd3 increased the pro-apoptotic activity of Bim through inhibiting ERK-dependent phosphorylation of Bim. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), which stimulates ERK phosphorylation, decreased in the Jmjd3-knockdown cells and introduction of PKD1 relieved osteoblast apoptosis in the Jmjd3-knockdown cells through increasing ERK-regulated Bim phosphorylation. These results suggest that Jmjd3 regulates osteoblast apoptosis through targeting Bcl-2 expression and Bim phosphorylation. PMID:26795455

  5. In non-transformed cells Bak activates upon loss of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 but in the absence of active BH3-only proteins.

    PubMed

    Senft, D; Weber, A; Saathoff, F; Berking, C; Heppt, M V; Kammerbauer, C; Rothenfusser, S; Kellner, S; Kurgyis, Z; Besch, R; Häcker, G

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis is controlled by proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Pro-apoptotic members of this family, known as BH3-only proteins, initiate activation of the effectors Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), which is counteracted by anti-apoptotic family members. How the interactions of Bcl-2 proteins regulate cell death is still not entirely clear. Here, we show that in the absence of extrinsic apoptotic stimuli Bak activates without detectable contribution from BH3-only proteins, and cell survival depends on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 molecules. All anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were targeted via RNA interference alone or in combinations of two in primary human fibroblasts. Simultaneous targeting of B-cell lymphoma-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 led to apoptosis in several cell types. Apoptosis depended on Bak whereas Bax was dispensable. Activator BH3-only proteins were not required for apoptosis induction as apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of all BH3-only proteins known to activate Bax or Bak directly, Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death, BH3-interacting domain death agonist and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. These findings argue for auto-activation of Bak in the absence of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and provide evidence of profound differences in the activation of Bax and Bak. PMID:26610208

  6. In non-transformed cells Bak activates upon loss of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 but in the absence of active BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Senft, D; Weber, A; Saathoff, F; Berking, C; Heppt, M V; Kammerbauer, C; Rothenfusser, S; Kellner, S; Kurgyis, Z; Besch, R; Häcker, G

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis is controlled by proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Pro-apoptotic members of this family, known as BH3-only proteins, initiate activation of the effectors Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), which is counteracted by anti-apoptotic family members. How the interactions of Bcl-2 proteins regulate cell death is still not entirely clear. Here, we show that in the absence of extrinsic apoptotic stimuli Bak activates without detectable contribution from BH3-only proteins, and cell survival depends on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 molecules. All anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were targeted via RNA interference alone or in combinations of two in primary human fibroblasts. Simultaneous targeting of B-cell lymphoma-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 led to apoptosis in several cell types. Apoptosis depended on Bak whereas Bax was dispensable. Activator BH3-only proteins were not required for apoptosis induction as apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of all BH3-only proteins known to activate Bax or Bak directly, Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death, BH3-interacting domain death agonist and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. These findings argue for auto-activation of Bak in the absence of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and provide evidence of profound differences in the activation of Bax and Bak. PMID:26610208

  7. Modulatory role of the anti-apoptotic protein kinase CK2 in the sub-cellular localization of Fas associated death domain protein (FADD).

    PubMed

    Vilmont, Valérie; Filhol, Odile; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Couté, Yohann; Hue, Christophe; Rémy-Tourneur, Léa; Mistou, Sylvie; Cochet, Claude; Chiocchia, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    The Fas associated death domain protein (FADD) is the key adaptor molecule of the apoptotic signal triggered by death receptors of the TNF-R1 superfamily. Besides its crucial role in the apoptotic machinery, FADD has proved to be important in many biological processes like tumorigenesis, embryonic development or cell cycle progression. In a process to decipher the regulatory mechanisms underlying FADD regulation, we identified the anti-apoptotic kinase, CK2, as a new partner and regulator of FADD sub-cellular localization. The blockade of CK2 activity induced FADD re-localization within the cell. Moreover, cytoplasmic FADD was increased when CK2β was knocked down. In vitro kinase and pull down assays confirmed that FADD could be phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. We found that phosphorylation is weak with CK2α alone and optimal in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of CK2α catalytic and CK2β regulatory subunit, showing that FADD phosphorylation is undertaken by the CK2 holoenzyme in a CK2β-driven fashion. We found that CK2 can phosphorylate FADD on the serine 200 and that this phosphorylation is important for nuclear localization of FADD. Altogether, our results show for the first time that multifaceted kinase, CK2, phosphorylates FADD and is involved in its sub-cellular localization. This work uncovered an important role of CK2 in stable FADD nuclear localization. PMID:26253696

  8. Induction of cell cycle changes and modulation of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory protein expression by water extracts of I'm-Yunity™ (PSP)

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tze-chen; Wu, Peili; Park, Spencer; Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    Background I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) is a mushroom extract derived from deep-layer cultivated mycelia of the patented Cov-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor (CV), which contains as its main bioactive ingredient a family of polysaccharo-peptide with heterogeneous charge properties and molecular sizes. I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients and by individuals diagnosed with various chronic diseases. Laboratory studies have shown that I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) enhances immune functions and also modulates cellular responses to external challenges. Recently, I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) was also reported to exert potent anti-tumorigenic effects, evident by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) elicits these effects. Methods Human leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells were incubated with increasing doses of aqueous extracts of I'm-Yunity™ (PSP). Control and treated cells were harvested at various times and analyzed for changes in: (1) cell proliferation and viability, (2) cell cycle phase transition, (3) induction of apoptosis, (4) expression of cell cycle, apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic, and extracellular regulatory proteins. Results Aqueous extracts of I'm-Yunity™ (PSP) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HL-60 and U-937 cells, accompanied by a cell type-dependent disruption of the G1/S and G2/M phases of cell cycle progression. A more pronounced growth suppression was observed in treated HL-60 cells, which was correlated with time- and dose-dependent down regulation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb, diminution in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and survivin, increase in apoptogenic proteins bax and cytochrome c, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the 89-kDa truncated product. Moreover, I'm-Yunity™ (PSP)-treated HL-60 cells also showed a substantial decrease in p65 and to a lesser

  9. Integrin α5β1 and p53 convergent pathways in the control of anti-apoptotic proteins PEA-15 and survivin in high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Renner, G; Janouskova, H; Noulet, F; Koenig, V; Guerin, E; Bär, S; Nuesch, J; Rechenmacher, F; Neubauer, S; Kessler, H; Blandin, A-F; Choulier, L; Etienne-Selloum, N; Lehmann, M; Lelong-Rebel, I; Martin, S; Dontenwill, M

    2016-04-01

    Integrin α5β1 expression is correlated with a worse prognosis in high-grade glioma. We previously unraveled a negative crosstalk between integrin α5β1 and p53 pathway, which was proposed to be part of the resistance of glioblastoma to chemotherapies. The restoration of p53 tumor-suppressor function is under intensive investigations for cancer therapy. However, p53-dependent apoptosis is not always achieved by p53-reactivating compounds such as Nutlin-3a, although full transcriptional activity of p53 could be obtained. Here we investigated whether integrin α5β1 functional inhibition or repression could sensitize glioma cells to Nutlin-3a-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. We discovered that α5β1 integrin-specific blocking antibodies or small RGD-like antagonists in association with Nutlin-3a triggered a caspase (Casp) 8/Casp 3-dependent strong apoptosis in glioma cells expressing a functional p53. We deciphered the molecular mechanisms involved and we showed the crucial role of two anti-apoptotic proteins, phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) and survivin in glioma cell apoptotic outcome. PEA-15 is under α5β1 integrin/AKT (protein kinase B) control and survivin is a p53-repressed target. Moreover, interconnections between integrin and p53 pathways were revealed. Indeed PEA-15 repression by specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-activated p53 pathway to repress survivin and conversely survivin repression by specific siRNA decreased α5β1 integrin expression. This pro-apoptotic loop could be generalized to several glioma cell lines, whatever their p53 status, inasmuch PEA-15 and survivin protein levels were decreased. Our findings identify a novel mechanism whereby inhibition of α5β1 integrin and activation of p53 modulates two anti-apoptotic proteins crucially involved in the apoptotic answer of glioma cells. Importantly, our results suggest that high-grade glioma expressing high level of α5β1 integrin may benefit from associated therapies

  10. Interaction of a putative BH3 domain of clusterin with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hwa; Ha, Ji-Hyang; Kim, Yul; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jae-Yong; Choi, Wan Sung; Yoon, Ho Sup; Park, Sung Goo; Park, Byoung Chul; Yi, Gwan-Su; Chi, Seung-Wook

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Identification of a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil region of nCLU. {yields} The nCLU BH3 domain binds to BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. {yields} A conserved binding mechanism of nCLU BH3 and the other pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides with Bcl-X{sub L}. {yields} The absolutely conserved Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L.} {yields} Molecular understanding of the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU as a novel BH3-only protein. -- Abstract: Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate and breast cancers. Although CLU is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell survival, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the pro-apoptotic function of nuclear CLU (nCLU) remains unclear. In this study, we identified a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil (CC2) region of nCLU by sequence analysis and characterized the molecular interaction of the putative nCLU BH3 domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical shift perturbation data demonstrated that the nCLU BH3 domain binds to pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. A structural model of the Bcl-X{sub L}/nCLU BH3 peptide complex reveals that the binding mode is remarkably similar to those of other Bcl-X{sub L}/BH3 peptide complexes. In addition, mutational analysis confirmed that Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain, absolutely conserved in the BH3 motifs of BH3-only protein family, are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L}. Taken altogether, our results suggest a molecular basis for the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU by elucidating the residue specific interactions of the BH3 motif in nCLU with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

  11. cAMP-responsive element binding protein mediates a cGMP/protein kinase G-dependent anti-apoptotic signal induced by nitric oxide in retinal neuro-glial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagai-Kusuhara, Azusa; Nakamura, Makoto; Mukuno, Hirokazu; Kanamori, Akiyasu; Negi, Akira; Seigel, Gail M

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is cytoprotective to certain types of neuronal cells. The neuroprotective ability of NO in the retina was reportedly mediated by the cyclic GMP (cGMP) to protein kinase G (PKG) pathway. Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) plays an essential role in the NO/cGMP/PKG-mediated survival of rat cerebellar granule cells. We tested whether CREB transduces the NO/cGMP/PKG anti-apoptotic cascade in R28 neuro-glial progenitor cells. Apoptosis was induced in R28 cells by serum deprivation for 24 h. Varying concentrations of two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nipradilol, were added to medium with or without an NO scavenger, a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, or a PKG inhibitor. The cells were immunostained against activated caspase-3 and counterstained with Hoechst 33258. Apoptosis was quantified by counting activated caspase-3 positive or pyknotic cells. SNP and nipradilol rescued R28 cells from apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, at an optimal concentration of 1.0 microM and 10 microM, respectively. Higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The NO scavenger and the inhibitors decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of the NO donors. Intracellular cGMP levels were increased after exposure to SNP and nipradilol. Western blotting showed that both NO donors increased CREB phosphorylation, which was blocked when pre-exposed to the inhibitors. Transfection with a dominant negative CREB construct defective of phosphorylation at Ser-133 interfered with the anti-apoptotic activity of SNP. These results indicate that CREB at least in part mediates the cGMP/PKG-dependent anti-apoptotic signal induced by NO in R28 cells. PMID:17081519

  12. Cafestol, a coffee-specific diterpene, induces apoptosis in renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Oh, Jung Hwa; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Eun Sun; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-04-25

    Cafestol, one of the major compounds in coffee beans, has been reported for its tumor cell growth inhibitory activity and anti-carcinogenic activity, although the mechanism of action is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cafestol on the apoptotic pathway in human renal Caki cells and other cancer cell lines. Cafestol treatment inhibited Caki cells viability a dose-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and the accumulation of sub-G1 phase. Cafestol-induced apoptosis is associated with the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), activation of caspase 3, cytochrome c release, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and cFLIP). Cafestol-induced apoptosis was blocked by pretreatment with broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, showing its dependence on caspases. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or Mcl-1 in Caki cells attenuates cafestol-induced apoptosis. In addition, we have also shown that cafestol inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway, and PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increases cafestol-induced apoptosis in Caki cells. Taken together, our results show the activity of cafestol to modulate multiple components in apoptotic response of human renal Caki cells and a potential as a therapeutic agent for preventing cancers such as renal carcinoma. PMID:21334318

  13. Induction of apoptosis in sea bream fibroblasts by Vibrio harveyi haemolysin and evidence for an anti-apoptotic role of heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Deane, E E; Jia, A; Qu, Z; Chen, J-X; Zhang, X-H; Woo, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we exposed black sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus (Basilewsky), fibroblast (BSF) and silver sea bream, Sparus sarba Forsskål, fibroblast (SSF) cell lines to a recombinant Vibrio harveyi haemolysin (VHH) and investigated mechanisms involved in apoptosis. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by an increase in caspase 3 activity, occurred within 2-8 h of VHH exposure, in both cell lines; however, VHH did not alter cellular levels of reactive oxygen species. As heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is known to prevent the onset of apoptosis in certain mammalian cells, we aimed to test whether such a protective effect is operative in VHH-exposed fibroblasts. The amounts of HSP70 were elevated in SSF and BSF via an acute heat shock or an acute heat shock followed by a 6 h recovery. It was found that the VHH-mediated reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was suppressed in cells that had a 6 h post-heat shock recovery, and the protective effect of heat shock-induced HSP70 was attenuated following treatment of cells with the HSP70 inhibitor, quercetin. This study demonstrates how haemolysin causes cell death via induction of apoptosis and provides evidence as to the role of HSP70 as an anti-apoptotic factor. PMID:27081923

  14. RING protein Trim32 associated with skin carcinogenesis has anti-apoptotic and E3-ubiquitin ligase properties.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth J; Albor, Amador; Liu, Yuangang; El-Hizawi, Sally; Vanderbeek, Gretchen E; Babcock, Melissa; Bowden, G Tim; Hennings, Henry; Lozano, Guillermina; Weinberg, Wendy C; Kulesz-Martin, Molly

    2004-02-01

    Tripartite motif protein 32, Trim32, mRNA and protein expression was elevated in independently transformed and tumorigenic keratinocytes of a mouse epidermal carcinogenesis model, in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and in approximately 20-25% of chemically induced mouse papillomas and human head and neck SCCs. This suggests that elevated Trim32 expression occurs frequently in experimental epidermal carcinogenesis and is relevant to human cancer. Transduced Trim32 increased colony number in an epidermal in vitro transformation assay and epidermal thickening in vivo when skin-grafted to athymic nu/nu mice. These effects were not associated with proliferation and were not sufficient for tumorigenesis, even with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment or defects in the tumor suppressor p53. However, transduced Trim32 inhibited the synergistic effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes in vitro and the apoptotic response of keratinocyte grafts exposed to UVB-light in vivo. Consistent with its RING domain, Trim32 exhibited characteristics of E3-ubiquitin ligases, including being ubiquitylated itself and interacting with ubiquitylated proteins, with increases in these properties following treatment of cultured keratinocytes with TNFalpha/UVB. Interestingly, missense point mutation of human TRIM32 has been reported in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2H, an autosomal recessive disease. We propose a model in which Trim32 activities as an E3-ubiquitin ligase favor initiated cell survival in carcinogenesis by blocking UVB-induced TNFalpha apoptotic signaling. PMID:14578165

  15. Nα-Tosyl-l-phenylalanine Chloromethyl Ketone Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Transformed Human B Cell Lines with Transcriptional Down-regulation of Anti-apoptotic HS1-associated Protein X-1*

    PubMed Central

    Jitkaew, Siriporn; Trebinska, Alicja; Grzybowska, Ewa; Carlsson, Göran; Nordström, Anders; Lehtiö, Janne; Fröjmark, Anne-Sophie; Dahl, Niklas; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Nα-Tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) has been widely used to investigate signal transduction pathways that are involved in gene expression and cell survival/cell death. However, contradictory effects of TPCK on apoptosis have been reported, and the underlying signaling events leading to TPCK-induced promotion or prevention of apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we show that TPCK induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B cell lines with release of pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria. TPCK treatment also results in down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, cIAP1, cIAP2, and HAX-1, and caspase-dependent cleavage of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and XIAP. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that the TPCK-induced down-regulation of HAX-1 occurred at the transcriptional level, and experiments using the specific pharmacological inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, suggested that HAX-1 expression is subject to regulation by the transcription factor, NF-κB. B cell lines derived from patients with homozygous HAX1 mutations were more sensitive to TPCK-induced apoptosis when compared with normal donor cell lines. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine effectively blocked TPCK-induced apoptosis in EBV-transformed B cell lines and prevented the down-regulation or cleavage of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that TPCK induces apoptosis in human B cell lines and exerts multiple effects on pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. PMID:19679660

  16. B-lymphopoiesis is stopped by mobilizing doses of G-CSF and is rescued by overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Ingrid G.; Bendall, Linda J.; Forristal, Catherine E.; Helwani, Falak; Nowlan, Bianca; Barbier, Valerie; Shen, Yi; Cisterne, Adam; Sedger, Lisa M.; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are necessary to B lymphopoiesis and mobilizing doses of G-CSF or cyclophosphamide inhibit osteoblasts, whereas AMD3100/Plerixafor does not. However, the effect of these mobilizing agents on B lymphopoiesis has not been reported. Mice (wild-type, knocked-out for TNF-α and TRAIL, or over-expressing Bcl-2) were mobilized with G-CSF, cyclophosphamide, or AMD3100. Bone marrow, blood, spleen and lymph node content in B cells was measured. G-CSF stopped medullar B lymphopoiesis with concomitant loss of B-cell colony-forming units, pre-pro-B, pro-B, pre-B and mature B cells and increased B-cell apoptosis by an indirect mechanism. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 in transgenic mice rescued B-cell colony forming units and pre-pro-B cells in the marrow, and prevented loss of all B cells in marrow, blood and spleen. Blockade of endogenous soluble TNF-α with Etanercept, or combined deletion of the TNF-α and TRAIL genes did not prevent B lymphopoiesis arrest in response to G-CSF. Unlike G-CSF, treatments with cyclophosphamide or AMD3100 did not suppress B lymphopoiesis but caused instead robust B-cell mobilization. G-CSF, cyclophosphamide and AMD3100 have distinct effects on B lymphopoiesis and B-cell mobilization with: 1) G-CSF inhibiting medullar B lymphopoiesis without mobilizing B cells in a mechanism distinct from the TNF-α-mediated loss of B lymphopoiesis observed during inflammation or viral infections; 2) CYP mobilizing B cells but blocking their maturation; and 3) AMD3100 mobilizing B cells without affecting B lymphopoiesis. These results suggest that blood mobilized with these three agents may have distinct immune properties. PMID:22929978

  17. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, acting through an anti-apoptotic mechanism, protects native and amyloid-precursor-protein-transfected neuroblastoma cells against oxidative stress-induced death.

    PubMed

    Wendt, G; Kemmel, V; Patte-Mensah, C; Uring-Lambert, B; Eckert, A; Schmitt, M J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2014-03-28

    Clinical observations suggested that gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) protects nerve cells against death but the direct proofs are missing. Here, we combined several approaches to investigate GHB capacity to protect human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death. To increase the patho-physiological relevancy of our study, we used native SH-SY5Y cells and SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type amyloid-precursor-protein (APPwt) or control-vector-pCEP4. Trypan Blue exclusion and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide) assays combined with pharmacological analyses showed that H2O2 reduced native and genetically modified cell viability and APPwt-transfected cells were the most vulnerable. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activated caspase-3 staining assessed by flow cytometry revealed a basally elevated apoptotic signal in APPwt-transfected cells. Reverse-transcription, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting showed that mRNA and protein basal ratios of apoptotic modulators Bax/Bcl-2 were also high in APPwt-transfected cells. GHB efficiently and dose-dependently rescued native and genetically modified cells from H2O2-induced death. Interestingly, GHB, which strongly decreased elevated basal levels of TUNEL-staining, activated caspase 3-labeling and Bax/Bcl-2 in APPwt-transfected cells, also counteracted H2O2-evoked increased apoptotic markers in native and genetically modified SH-SY5Y cells. Since GHB did not promote cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic action through the down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios and/or caspase 3 activity appears as a critical mechanism involved in GHB-induced protection of SH-SY5Y cells against APPwt-overexpression- or H2O2-evoked death. Altogether, these results, providing multi-parametric evidence for the existence of neuroprotective action of GHB, also open interesting perspectives for

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma up-regulates the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein in neurons and induces mitochondrial stabilization and protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Karen; Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Ramos, Patricio; Piderit, Daniela; Fuentealba, Rodrigo A; Martinez, Gabriela; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bronfman, Miguel

    2007-12-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases because of its anti-inflammatory action in glial cells. However, PPARgamma agonists preventbeta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced neurodegeneration in hippocampal neurons, and PPARgamma is activated by the nerve growth factor (NGF) survival pathway, suggesting a neuroprotective anti-inflammatory independent action. Here we show that the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ) protects hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons against Abeta-induced mitochondrial damage and NGF deprivation-induced apoptosis, respectively, and promotes PC12 cell survival. In neurons and in PC12 cells RGZ protective effects are associated with increased expression of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. NGF-differentiated PC12 neuronal cells constitutively overexpressing PPARgamma are resistant to Abeta-induced apoptosis and morphological changes and show functionally intact mitochondria and no increase in reactive oxygen species when challenged with up to 50 microM H2O2. Conversely, cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of PPARgamma show increased Abeta-induced apoptosis and disruption of neuronal-like morphology and are highly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced impairment of mitochondrial function. Cells overexpressing PPARgamma present a 4- to 5-fold increase in Bcl-2 protein content, whereas in dominant negative PPARgamma-expressing cells, Bcl-2 is barely detected. Bcl-2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in cells overexpressing PPARgamma results in increased sensitivity to Abeta and oxidative stress, further suggesting that Bcl-2 up-regulation mediates PPARgamma protective effects. PPARgamma prosurvival action is independent of the signal-regulated MAPK or the Akt prosurvival pathways. Altogether, these data suggest that PPARgamma supports survival in neurons in part through a mechanism involving increased expression of Bcl-2. PMID:17965419

  19. The anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 on tissue resident stem cells is mediated via PI3-kinase dependent secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) release

    SciTech Connect

    Gehmert, Sebastian; Sadat, Sanga; Song Yaohua; Yan Yasheng; Alt, Eckhard

    2008-07-11

    Previous studies suggest that IGF-1 may be used as an adjuvant to stem cell transfer in order to improve cell engraftment in ischemic tissue. In the current study, we investigated the effect of IGF-1 on serum deprivation and hypoxia induced stem cell apoptosis and the possible mechanisms involved. Exposure of adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) to serum deprivation and hypoxia resulted in significant apoptosis in ASC which is partially prevented by IGF-1. IGF-1's anti-apoptotic effect was abolished in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA but not by the control siRNA. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that serum deprivation and hypoxia reduced the expression of nuclear {beta}-catenin, which is reversed by IGF-1. IGF-1's effect on {beta}-catenin expression was abolished by the presence of PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA. These results suggest that IGF-1, through the release of the Sfrp2, contributes to cell survival by stabilizing {beta}-catenin.

  20. p21{sup WAF1} modulates NF-{kappa}B signaling and induces anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in Tax-expressing rat fibroblast

    SciTech Connect

    Akita, Kazumasa; Kawata, Sanae; Shimotohno, Kunitada . E-mail: kshimoto@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-02-05

    Of the cell cycle-associated genes regulated by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21{sup WAF1} is upregulated in HTLV-1-infected cells. Previously, we reported that p21{sup WAF1} stimulated Tax-dependent NF-{kappa}B activation which influences a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In HTLV-1-infected cells, Tax is primarily involved in the constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling. Here, we demonstrate that p21{sup WAF1} affects Tax-dependent NF-{kappa}B signaling by inducing p100/52, an NF-{kappa}B-related protein. W4, a Tax-transformed rat fibroblast cell line, exhibits the constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling, potentially mediated by overexpression of RelB. Ectopic expression of p21{sup WAF1} in W4 cells, which lack endogenous expression due to methylation of the p21{sup WAF1} promoter, induces the expression of p100/52. Bcl-2 expression was also upregulated by ectopic p21{sup WAF1} in this cell line, suggesting that p21{sup WAF1} plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis by modulating NF-{kappa}B signaling in Tax-expressing rat fibroblasts. We also address the expression of NF-{kappa}B-related proteins in HTLV-1-infected cells.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation and automated docking of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and its complex with a peptide designed from the Bax-binding domain of anti-apoptotic Ku70.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Fabrizio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Bismuto, Ettore

    2006-09-01

    Bax, a multi-domain protein belonging to the large family of Bcl-2 proteins, has a pivotal role for the initiation of the cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis, a vital physiologic process to eliminate damaged or unwanted cells. In response to specific stimuli Bax translocates from cytosol to mitochondria outer membrane where a process of oligomerization occurs with pore formation through which cytochrome c and other death molecules escape. The pro-death action of Bax is regulated by the interaction with other pro-survival proteins. However, the conformational changes and the structural details necessary for homo and hetero interaction with other regulating proteins are largely unknown. This article reports a combined investigation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and automated docking that evidence the molecular regions of Bax involved in the binding with anti-apoptotic exapeptide (Bip) designed from Ku70, a subunit of the protein complex essential for non-homologous DNA repair but that inhibits also the Bax translocation to mitochondria. Since Bip suppresses apoptosis induced by several anti-cancer drugs, it appears relevant to achieve a better understanding of the structural and dynamical aspects that characterize the Bip-Bax complex in view of potential therapeutic implications. The present results show that the Bax region with the highest affinity for Bip is located in proximity of BH3 homology domain of Bax and also involves the alpha-helices 1 and 8. Moreover, the comparison of essential motions of Bax at 300 and 400 K before and after the formation of the complex with Bip evidences how the binding with the exa-peptide affects the collective motions of specific molecular districts of Bax considered to have functional relevance. PMID:16619258

  2. Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) enhances the anti-apoptotic effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lok, Ker Zhing; Manzanero, Silvia; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2016-08-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional and multi-ligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed in neurons. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a purified preparation of plasma-derived human immunoglobulin used for the treatment of several neurological inflammatory disorders, and proposed for the treatment of stroke for its potent neuroprotective effects. LRP1 has been shown to be involved in the transcytosis of IVIg, and IVIg-LRP1 interaction leads to LRP1 tyrosine phosphorylation, which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg. However, the question remains whether IVIg could induce its neuroprotective effects via LRP1 in neurons under ischemic stroke conditions. In cultured neurons and in a transient ischemic mouse model, ischemia decrease LRP1 levels and phosphorylation, and IVIg blocks these effects. In ischemic neurons, LRP1 antagonism by receptor associated protein (RAP) enhances the activation of pro-death signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and caspase-3, and IVIg reduces these effects. When applied to ischemic neuronal cultures, RAP induces a dramatic drop in Akt activation, and IVIg reverses this effect, as it does with the decrease in Bcl-2 levels caused by ischemic injury in the presence of RAP. Altogether, these results show evidence of LRP1 expression and activity modulation by IVIg, and support the role of LRP1 as a partner of IVIg in the execution of its neuroprotective effects. PMID:27181517

  3. Dodecyl gallate induces apoptosis by upregulating the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, CHUN-HSIANG; CHENG, YEN-PO; CHANG, ING-LIN; CHEN, HSIN-YAO; WU, CHIA-CHIEH; HSIEH, CHEN-PU

    2016-01-01

    Dodecyl gallate (DG) is a gallic acid ester that has been shown to inhibit tumor growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which DG induces antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of DG were determined using an MTT assay. The results showed that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DG in MG-63 cells was 31.15 µM at 24 h, 10.66 µM at 48 h, and 9.06 µM at 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that exposure to 20 and 40 µM DG resulted in an increase in the sub-G1 phase population and in S-phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, western blot analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression revealed an increase in the activation of caspases 8 and 3, cleavage of poly (ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability was measured by flow cytometry. An increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease in the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members, namely X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin, were also observed following DG treatment. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms governing the ability of DG to induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. PMID:26707422

  4. Anti-apoptotic ARC protein confers chemoresistance by controlling leukemia-microenvironment interactions through a NFκB/IL1β signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Bing Z.; Mak, Po Yee; Chen, Ye; Mak, Duncan H.; Mu, Hong; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Ruvolo, Vivian; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E.; Burks, Jared K.; Kornblau, Steven; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how the apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) protein confers drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we investigated the role of ARC in regulating leukemia-mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) interactions. In addition to the previously reported effect on AML apoptosis, we have demonstrated that ARC enhances migration and adhesion of leukemia cells to MSCs both in vitro and in a novel human extramedullary bone/bone marrow mouse model. Mechanistic studies revealed that ARC induces IL1β expression in AML cells and increases CCL2, CCL4, and CXCL12 expression in MSCs, both through ARC-mediated activation of NFκB. Expression of these chemokines in MSCs increased by AML cells in an ARC/IL1β-dependent manner; likewise, IL1β expression was elevated when leukemia cells were co-cultured with MSCs. Further, cells from AML patients expressed the receptors for and migrated toward CCL2, CCL4, and CXCL12. Inhibition of IL1β suppressed AML cell migration and sensitized the cells co-cultured with MSCs to chemotherapy. Our results suggest the existence of a complex ARC-regulated circuit that maintains intimate connection of AML with the tumor microenvironment through NFκB/IL1β-regulated chemokine receptor/ligand axes and reciprocal crosstalk resulting in cytoprotection. The data implicate ARC as a promising drug target to potentially sensitize AML cells to chemotherapy. PMID:26956049

  5. DNA damage response and anti-apoptotic proteins predict radiosensitization efficacy of HDAC inhibitors SAHA and LBH589 in patient-derived glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pont, Lotte M E Berghauser; Naipal, Kishan; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; Venkatesan, Subramanian; van den Bent, Martin; van Gent, Dik C; Dirven, Clemens M F; Kanaar, Roland; Lamfers, Martine L M; Leenstra, Sieger

    2015-01-28

    HDAC inhibitors have radiosensitizing effects in established cancer cell lines. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of SAHA, LBH589, Valproic Acid (VPA), MS275 and Scriptaid in the patient-derived glioblastoma model. In more detail, SAHA and LBH589 were evaluated to determine predictors of response. Acetylated-histone-H3, γH2AX/53BP1, (p)Chek2/ATM, Bcl-2/Bcl-XL, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and caspase-3/7 were studied in relation to response. SAHA sensitized 50% of cultures, LBH589 45%, VPA and Scriptaid 40% and MS275 60%. Differences after treatment with SAHA/RTx or LBH589/RTx in a sensitive and resistant culture were increased acetylated-H3, caspase-3/7 and prolonged DNA damage repair γH2AX/53BP1 foci. pChek2 was found to be associated with both SAHA/RTx and LBH589/RTx response with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90%. Bcl-XL had a PPV of 100% for LBH589/RTx response. Incubation with HDACi 24 and 48 hours pre-RTx resulted in the best efficacy of combination treatment. In conclusion a subset of patient-derived glioblastoma cultures were sensitive to HDACi/RTx. For SAHA and LBH589 responses were strongly associated with pChek2 and Bcl-XL, which warrant further clinical exploration. Additional information on responsiveness was obtained by DNA damage response markers and apoptosis related proteins. PMID:25305451

  6. Pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid, induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through the inhibition of pro-survival Akt/NF-κB/mTOR signaling proteins and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    DEEB, DORRAH; GAO, XIAOHUA; LIU, YONG BO; PINDOLIA, KIRIT; GAUTAM, SUBHASH C.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of effective therapeutics for pancreatic cancer at the present time underscores the dire need for safe and effective agents for the treatment of this malignancy. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer activity and the mechanism of action of pristimerin (PM), a quinonemethide triterpenoid, against MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cell lines. Treatment with PM inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines as characterized by the increased Annexin V-binding and cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases -3, -8 and -9. PM also induced mitochondrial depolarization and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. The induction of apoptosis by PM was associated with the inhibition of the pro-survival Akt, NF-κB and mTOR signaling proteins and their downstream intermediaries such as Foxo-3α and cyclin D1 (Akt); Cox-2 and VEGF (NF-κB); p-S6K1 and p-4E-BP1 (mTOR) as well as PKCɛ. Treatment with PM also inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and survivin but not Bcl-xL. The downregulation of Bcl-2 by PM was not due to proteasomal or lysosomal proteolytic degradation of Bcl-2, since treatment with PM in the presence of proteasomal inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin (LAC) or calpain inhibitor MG101 failed to block the downregulation of Bcl-2 by PM. On the other hand, RT-PCR analysis showed the inhibition of Bcl-2 mRNA by PM in a dose-related manner, indicating that inhibition of Bcl-2 by PM is mediated through the suppression of Bcl-2 gene expression. Thus, the mechanistic understanding of the antitumor activity of pristimerin could facilitate in vivo efficacy studies of pristimerin for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24603988

  7. Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Mamady, Hapsatou; Tessier, Shannon N.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor. PMID:23638364

  8. Identification of components of grape powder with anti-apoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Jing Yu; Yumin Xu; Khaoustov, Vladimir; Yoffe, Boris

    2011-02-01

    This study is to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of freeze-dried grape powder (FDGP) and identify the polyphenolic compounds involved. We examined apoptotic signaling pathways affected by FDGP and by its active components, including epicatechin, cyanidin, quercetin, and resveratrol, in human Huh7 hepatoma cells by assaying cell viability assays, the activities of caspase 3 and caspase 7, and the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins. FDGP dramatically decreased taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Assessment of individual active components revealed that at concentrations corresponding to 300 μg/mL FDGP, only quercetin demonstrated cytoprotective effects against mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, increased concentrations of other individual polyphenolic compounds were required to produce measurable cytoprotective effect. Only combinations of all four polyphenolic compounds (epicatechin, cyanidin, quercetin, and resveratrol) restored a degree of the anti-apoptotic effects seen with FDGP. The pretreatment of FDGP at 30 μg/mL concentration could reverse the thapsigargin-induced effects on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins. In conclusion, FDGP reduced oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis. The mechanisms involved in the anti-apoptotic effects of FDGP included reduced generation of ROS, and reduced processing of certain caspases. We demonstrated that quercetin, epicatechin, and cyanidin are active compounds within FDGP that attenuate apoptosis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape and are expected to assist in developing clinical protocols to treat a variety of stress-mediated conditions. PMID:20699283

  9. Relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on human trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SV neo cells.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Romana S Z; Nakabayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Kaho; Yamada, Ai Y; Hazama, Rhoichi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human relaxin on apoptosis in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SV neo cell line, which is a possible model of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). HTR-8/SV neo cells, cultured in phenol red free RPMI1640 medium, were treated with different doses of human recombinant (rH2) relaxin in serum-deprived conditions. RT-PCR was used for evaluating relaxin receptor: RXFP1 and RXFP2 expression in HTR-8/SV neo cells. The cell death was examined by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, we investigated caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bcl-2 expressions by Western blot analysis to recognize the translational effects of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins. RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA expression was observed in HTR-8/SV neo cells. Compared with untreated control cultures, treatment with rH2 relaxin, decreased TUNEL-positive rate in HTR-8/SV neo cells was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with rH2 relaxin decreased the expression of caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, but in contrast increased Bcl-2 expression in those cells. These results suggest that rH2 relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on HTR8/SV neo cells by decreasing pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression and up-regulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. PMID:24070111

  10. Bcl-xL promotes metastasis independent of its anti-apoptotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soyoung; Chen, Zhengming; Tang, Laura H.; Fang, Yuanzhang; Shin, Sandra J.; Panarelli, Nicole C.; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Li, Yi; Jiang, Xuejun; Du, Yi-Chieh Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-xL suppresses mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and is frequently overexpressed in cancer to promote cancer cell survival. Bcl-xL also promotes metastasis. However, it is unclear whether this metastatic function is dependent on its anti-apoptotic activity in the mitochondria. Here we demonstrate that Bcl-xL promotes metastasis independent of its anti-apoptotic activity. We show that apoptosis-defective Bcl-xL mutants and an engineered Bcl-xL targeted to the nucleus promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion and stemness in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (panNET) and breast cancer cell lines. However, Bcl-xL proteins targeted to the mitochondria or outside of the nucleus do not have these functions. We confirm our findings in spontaneous and xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, Bcl-xL exerts metastatic function through epigenetic modification of the TGFβ promoter to increase TGFβ signalling. Consistent with these findings, we detect nuclear Bcl-xL in human metastatic panNETs. Taken together, the metastatic function of Bcl-xL is independent of its anti-apoptotic activity and its residence in the mitochondria. PMID:26785948

  11. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Meira de Faria, Felipe; Souza Brito, Alba Regina; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg) or menthol (50 mg/kg) and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:24466200

  12. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Yub; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-kyu

    2011-10-15

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.

  13. Anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Min, Bon Hong; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-12-01

    Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is known to protect various retinal cells. It was also reported to be overexpressed in several types of malignant tumors, whose chemoresistance correlates with the expression of clusterin. Herein, we investigated the effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells. Firstly, evaluation of clusterin expression demonstrated that it was highly expressed in human retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines (SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79) particularly in the area between viable cells around vessels and necrotic zones in the relatively avascular area in human retinoblastoma tissues. Furthermore, the effects of cisplatin on retinoblastoma cells were evaluated. Cisplatin (1 µg/ml) significantly affected cell viability of SNUOT-Rb1 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Notably, the cell death due to cisplatin was prevented by 5 µg/ml of clusterin administered 4 h prior to cisplatin treatment by inhibiting cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of clusterin exerted its anti-apoptotic effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and effectively prevented cisplatin-induced cell death. These data suggest that clusterin, found to be expressed in human retinoblastoma, may exert anti-apoptotic effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and prevent cell death. Therefore, clusterin can contribute to cisplatin resistance of retinoblastoma. PMID:24085287

  14. ANTI-APOPTOTIC ACTIONS OF VASOPRESSIN IN H32 NEURONS INVOLVE MAP KINASE TRANSACTIVATION AND BAD PHOSPHORYLATION

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Volpi, Simona; Aguilera, Greti

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) secreted within the brain modulates neuronal function acting as a neurotransmitter. Based on the observation that VP prevented serum deprivation-induced cell death in the neuronal cell line, H32, which expresses endogenous V1 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that VP has anti-apoptotic properties. Flow cytometry experiments showed that 10nM VP prevented serum deprivation-induced cell death and annexin V binding. Serum deprivation increased caspase-3 activity in a time and serum concentration dependent manner, and VP prevented these effects through interaction with receptors of V1 subtype. The signaling pathways mediating the anti-apoptotic effect of VP involve mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMK) and protein kinase C (PKC). Western blot analyses revealed time-dependent decreases of Bad phosphorylation and increases in cytosolic levels of cytochrome c following serum deprivation, effects which were prevented by 10nM VP. These data demonstrate that activation of endogenous V1 VP receptors prevents serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, through phosphorylation-inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bad, and consequent decreases in cytosolic cytochome c and caspase-3 activation. The data suggest that VP has anti-apoptotic activity in neurons and that VP may act as a neuroprotective agent in the brain. PMID:18402937

  15. Functional antagonism between pro-apoptotic BIM and anti-apoptotic BCL-XL in MYC-induced lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Delbridge, A R D; Grabow, S; Bouillet, P; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2015-04-01

    Genomic analyses revealed that many cancers have acquired abnormalities in their expression of pro- or anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. It is, however, unknown whether changes in pro- or anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have similar impact on tumorigenesis or whether changes in one subgroup have disproportionate impact. We compared the consequences of concomitant loss of anti-apoptotic Bclx and pro-apoptotic Bim on MYC-induced lymphomagenesis. Whereas only loss of both Bclx alleles markedly forestalled tumorigenesis, loss of a single Bim allele overcame this blockade. Conversely, loss of even a single Bim allele sufficed to substantially accelerate lymphomagenesis, and only loss of both but not loss of a single allele of Bclx could attenuate this acceleration. The evidence that modest (two-fold) monoallelic changes in the expression of at least some BH3-only proteins can profoundly impact tumorigenesis suggests that such aberrations, imposed by epigenetic or genetic changes, may expedite tumorigenesis more effectively than elevated expression of pro-survival BCL-2 family members. These findings further our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis and possibly also cancer therapy. PMID:24858047

  16. BH3 profiling and a toolkit of BH3-mimetic drugs predict anti-apoptotic dependence of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, Michael; Pettitt, Andrew; Varadarajan, Shankar; Cohen, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members antagonise apoptosis by sequestering their pro-apoptotic counterparts. The balance between the different BCL-2 family members forms the basis of BH3 profiling, a peptide-based technique used to predict chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Recent identification of cell-permeable, selective inhibitors of BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1, further facilitates the determination of the BCL-2 family dependency of cancer cells. Methods: We use BH3 profiling in combination with cell death analyses using a chemical inhibitor toolkit to assess chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Results: Both BH3 profiling and the inhibitor toolkit effectively predict chemosensitivity of cells addicted to a single anti-apoptotic protein but a combination of both techniques is more instructive when cell survival depends on more than one anti-apoptotic protein. Conclusions: The inhibitor toolkit provides a rapid, inexpensive and simple means to assess the chemosensitivity of tumour cells and in conjunction with BH3 profiling offers much potential in personalising cancer therapy. PMID:26954718

  17. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R. . E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  18. Methane attenuates retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Sun, Qinglei; Wang, Ruobing; Chen, Zeli; Wu, Jiangchun; Xia, Fangzhou; Fan, Xian-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may cause incurable visual impairment due to neural regeneration limits. Methane was shown to exert a protective effect against IRI in many organs. This study aims to explore the possible protective effects of methane-rich saline against retinal IRI in rat. Retinal IRI was performed on the right eyes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were immediately injected intraperitoneally with methane-saturated saline (25ml/kg). At one week after surgery, the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), total retinal thickness, visual function were measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining, FluoroGold anterograde labeling and flash visual evoked potentials. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), caspase-3, caspase-9, B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in retinas were assessed by immunofluorescence staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As expected, methane treatment significantly improved the retinal IRI-induced RGC loss, total retinal layer thinning and visual dysfunction. Moreover, methane treatment significantly reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (8-OHdG, 4-HNE, MDA) and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in the retinas with IRI. Meanwhile, methane treatment significantly increased the anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl-2) expression and decreased the pro-apoptotic gene (Bax) expression, accompanied by the suppression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Thus, these data demonstrated that methane can exert a neuroprotective role against retinal IRI through anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways. PMID:27208496

  19. Identification of peptides in human Hsp20 and Hsp27 that possess molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; DiMauro, Michael A.; Wang, Benlian; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified peptides in the ‘crystallin-domain’ of the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) α-crystallin with chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. We found that peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to α-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Both peptides inhibited hyperthermic and chemically induced aggregation of client proteins. The scrambled peptides of Hsp20 and Hsp27 showed no such effects. The chaperone activities of the peptides were better than those from αA- and αB-crystallin. HeLa cells took up the FITC-conjugated Hsp20 peptide and, when the cells were thermally stressed, the peptide was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The two peptides inhibited apoptosis in HeLa cells by blocking cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. We found that scrambling the last four amino acids in the two peptides (KAIV in Hsp20 and KTLV in Hsp27) made them unable to enter cells and ineffective against stress-induced apoptosis. Intraperitoneal injection of the peptides prevented sodium-selenite-induced cataract formation in rats by inhibiting protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Our study has identified peptides from Hsp20 and Hsp27 that may have therapeutic benefit in diseases where protein aggregation and apoptosis are contributing factors. PMID:25332102

  20. Nitric oxide as a pro-apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic modulator.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Min; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Jang, Seon Il; Kim, Young-Myeong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2002-01-31

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthases, is a small, lipophilic, diffusible, highly reactive molecule with dichotomous regulatory roles in many biological events under physiological and pathological conditions. NO can promote apoptosis (pro-apoptosis) in some cells, whereas it inhibits apoptosis (anti-apoptosis) in other cells. This complexity is a consequence of the rate of NO production and the interaction with biological molecules such as metal ion, thiol, protein tyrosine, and reactive oxygen species. Long-lasting overproduction of NO acts as a pro-apoptotic modulator, activating caspase family proteases through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol, up-regulation of the p53 expression, and alterations in the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, including the Bcl-2 family. However, low or physiological concentrations of NO prevent cells from apoptosis that is induced by the trophic factor withdrawal, Fas, TNFalpha/ActD, and LPS. The anti-apoptotic mechanism is understood on the basis of gene transcription of protective proteins. These include: heat shock protein, hemeoxygenase, or cyclooxygenase-2 and direct inhibition of the apoptotic executive effectors caspase family protease by S-nitrosylation of the cysteine thiol group in their catalytic site in a cell specific way. Our current understanding of the mechanisms by which NO exerts both pro- and anti-apototic action is discussed in this review article. PMID:16248976

  1. Anti-apoptotic role of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    KANDA, SHIORI; MITSUYASU, TAKESHI; NAKAO, YU; KAWANO, SHINTARO; GOTO, YUICHI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; NAKAMURA, SEIJI

    2013-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is crucial to growth and patterning during organogenesis. Aberrant activation of the SHH signaling pathway can result in tumor formation. We examined the expression of SHH signaling molecules and investigated the involvement of the SHH pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma, the most common benign tumor of the jaws. We used immunohistochemistry on ameloblastoma specimens and immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR on the ameloblastoma cell line AM-1. We also used the inhibitors of SHH signaling, SHH neutralizing antibody and cyclopamine, to assess the effects of SHH on the proliferation of AM-1 cells. We detected expression of SHH, patched, GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 in the ameloblastoma specimens and AM-1 cells. The proliferation of these cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody or cyclopamine; this was confirmed by BrdU incorporation assays. Furthermore, in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody, nuclear translocation of GLI1 and GLI2 was abolished, apoptosis was induced, BCL-2 expression decreased and BAX expression increased. Our results suggest that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively active in ameloblastoma and plays an anti-apoptotic role in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through autocrine loop stimulation. PMID:23835807

  2. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  3. Structure-based redesign of the binding specificity of anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L).

    PubMed

    Chen, T Scott; Palacios, Hector; Keating, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    Many native proteins are multi-specific and interact with numerous partners, which can confound analysis of their functions. Protein design provides a potential route to generating synthetic variants of native proteins with more selective binding profiles. Redesigned proteins could be used as research tools, diagnostics or therapeutics. In this work, we used a library screening approach to reengineer the multi-specific anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) to remove its interactions with many of its binding partners, making it a high-affinity and selective binder of the BH3 region of pro-apoptotic protein Bad. To overcome the enormity of the potential Bcl-x(L) sequence space, we developed and applied a computational/experimental framework that used protein structure information to generate focused combinatorial libraries. Sequence features were identified using structure-based modeling, and an optimization algorithm based on integer programming was used to select degenerate codons that maximally covered these features. A constraint on library size was used to ensure thorough sampling. Using yeast surface display to screen a designed library of Bcl-x(L) variants, we successfully identified a protein with ~1000-fold improvement in binding specificity for the BH3 region of Bad over the BH3 region of Bim. Although negative design was targeted only against the BH3 region of Bim, the best redesigned protein was globally specific against binding to 10 other peptides corresponding to native BH3 motifs. Our design framework demonstrates an efficient route to highly specific protein binders and may readily be adapted for application to other design problems. PMID:23154169

  4. Acetylation of Lysine92 Improves the Chaperone and Anti-apoptotic Activities of Human αB-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Huang, Rong; Nandi, Sandip K.; Wang, Benlian; Padmanabha, Smitha; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Filipek, Slawomir; Biswas, Ashis; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2013-01-01

    αB-Crystallin is a chaperone and an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in many tissues, including the lens, retina, heart and kidney. In the human lens, several lysine residues in αB-crystallin are acetylated. We have previously shown that such acetylation is predominant at lysine92 (K92) and K166. We have investigated the effect of lysine acetylation on the structure and functions of αB-crystallin by the specific introduction of an Nε-acetyllysine (AcK) mimic at K92. The introduction of AcK slightly altered the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. AcK introduction also resulted in an increase in the molar mass and hydrodynamic radius of the protein, and the protein became structurally more open and more stable than the native protein. The acetyl protein acquired higher surface hydrophobicity and exhibited 25-55% higher chaperone activity than the native protein. The acetyl protein had higher client protein binding per subunit of the protein and higher binding affinity relative to the native protein. The acetyl protein was at least 20% more effective in inhibiting chemically induced apoptosis than the native protein. Molecular modeling suggests that acetylation of K92 makes the ‘α-crystallin domain’ more hydrophobic. Together, our results reveal that the acetylation of a single lysine residue in αB-crystallin makes the protein structurally more stable and improves its chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Our findings suggest that lysine acetylation of αB-crystallin is an important chemical modification to enhance αB-crystallin’s protective functions in the eye. PMID:24128140

  5. Subcellular localization of CrmA: identification of a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal conserved in anti-apoptotic serpins.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Span, Simone W; Kruyt, Frank A E; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to investigate the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We show that CrmA can actively enter and exit the nucleus and we demonstrate the role of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in this shuttling process. CrmA contains a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is functionally conserved in the anti-apoptotic cellular serpin PI-9. Besides this leucine-rich export signal, additional sequences mapping to a 103-amino-acid region flanking the NES contribute to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of CrmA. Although YFP-tagged CrmA is primarily located in the cytoplasm, shifting its localization to be predominantly nuclear by fusion of a heterologous nuclear localization signal did not impair its ability to prevent Fas-induced apoptosis. We propose that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling would allow CrmA to efficiently target cellular pro-apoptotic proteins not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus, and thus to carry out its anti-apoptotic function in both compartments. PMID:12667137

  6. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX-1) mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of Akt1 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Manman; Pan, Defeng; Du, Yinping; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Tongda; Luo, Yuanyuan; Li, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic role of Akt1 gene in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the relationship with Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) during ischemia/reperfusion (IR). The cultured original rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (C group), hypoxia/reoxygenation group (HR group), the control vector pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG group (CV group), the gene pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG-Akt1 transfection group (A group), and Akt1 inhibitor LY294002 group (LY group). Cardiomyocyte vitality was determined using MTT, and the apoptosis was determined by TUNEL to verify the anti-apoptotic role of Akt1. The mRNA levels of Akt1 and NCX1 were determined by RT-PCR, the protein expression of Akt1, p-Akt1, NCX1 and the apoptotic proteins of mitochondrial pathway cytochrome C (Cyto C) and caspase-9 were measured by Western blot. As a result, transfected Akt1 (A group) showed increased myocardial cell viability and reduced apoptosis, with increase in Akt1 expression and decrease in NCX1 expression. The levels of apoptotic proteins Cyto C and caspase-9 also declined. This study demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated transfection of Akt1 played an anti-apoptotic role during IR of rat cardiomyocytes, via inhibition of NCX1 and other mitochondrial proteins. PMID:27186265

  7. Anti-apoptotic role of retinoic acid in the inner ear of noise-exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Kang, Hun Hee; Kim, Young-Jin; Chung, Jong Woo . E-mail: jwchung@amc.seoul.kr

    2005-09-23

    Exposure to loud noise can induce temporary or permanent hearing loss, and acoustic trauma is the major cause of hearing impairment in industrial nations. However, the mechanisms underlying the death of hair cells after acoustic trauma remain unclear. In addition to its involvement in cellular stress and apoptosis, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, is involved in cell survival, transformation, embryonic morphogenesis, and differentiation. JNK is primarily activated by various environmental stresses including noise, and the phenotypic result appears be to cell death. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. We evaluated the role of ATRA in preserving hearing in mice exposed to noise that can induce permanent hearing loss. Mice fed with ATRA before and during 3 consecutive days of noise exposure had a more preserved hearing threshold than mice fed sesame oil or saline. Histological and TUNEL staining of the cochlea showed significantly enhanced preservation of the organ of Corti, including outer hair cells and relatively low apoptotic nuclei, in mice-fed ATRA than in mice-fed sesame oil or saline. Phospho-JNK immunohistochemistry showed that ATRA inhibited the activation of JNK. These results suggest that ATRA has an anti-apoptotic effect on cochleae exposed to noise.

  8. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues. PMID:17307150

  9. A Functional Yeast Survival Screen of Tumor-Derived cDNA Libraries Designed to Identify Anti-Apoptotic Mammalian Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Inga Maria; Moser, Julia; Siele, Dagmar; Köhl, Ulrike; Rieker, Ralf Joachim; Wachter, David Lukas; Agaimy, Abbas; Herpel, Esther; Baumgarten, Peter; Mittelbronn, Michel; Rakel, Stefanie; Kögel, Donat; Böhm, Stefanie; Gutschner, Tony; Diederichs, Sven; Zörnig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Yeast cells can be killed upon expression of pro-apoptotic mammalian proteins. We have established a functional yeast survival screen that was used to isolate novel human anti-apoptotic genes overexpressed in treatment-resistant tumors. The screening of three different cDNA libraries prepared from metastatic melanoma, glioblastomas and leukemic blasts allowed for the identification of many yeast cell death-repressing cDNAs, including 28% of genes that are already known to inhibit apoptosis, 35% of genes upregulated in at least one tumor entity and 16% of genes described as both anti-apoptotic in function and upregulated in tumors. These results confirm the great potential of this screening tool to identify novel anti-apoptotic and tumor-relevant molecules. Three of the isolated candidate genes were further analyzed regarding their anti-apoptotic function in cell culture and their potential as a therapeutic target for molecular therapy. PAICS, an enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis, the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and the MAST2 kinase are overexpressed in certain tumor entities and capable of suppressing apoptosis in human cells. Using a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, we also demonstrated that glioblastoma tumor growth requires MAST2 expression. An additional advantage of the yeast survival screen is its universal applicability. By using various inducible pro-apoptotic killer proteins and screening the appropriate cDNA library prepared from normal or pathologic tissue of interest, the survival screen can be used to identify apoptosis inhibitors in many different systems. PMID:23717670

  10. Anti-apoptotic response during anoxia and recovery in a freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Victoria E.M.; Wijenayake, Sanoji

    2016-01-01

    The common wood frog, Rana sylvatica, utilizes freeze tolerance as a means of winter survival. Concealed beneath a layer of leaf litter and blanketed by snow, these frogs withstand subzero temperatures by allowing approximately 65–70% of total body water to freeze. Freezing is generally considered to be an ischemic event in which the blood oxygen supply is impeded and may lead to low levels of ATP production and exposure to oxidative stress. Therefore, it is as important to selectively upregulate cytoprotective mechanisms such as the heat shock protein (HSP) response and expression of antioxidants as it is to shut down majority of ATP consuming processes in the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate another probable cytoprotective mechanism, anti-apoptosis during oxygen deprivation and recovery in the anoxia tolerant wood frog. In particular, relative protein expression levels of two important apoptotic regulator proteins, Bax and p-p53 (S46), and five anti-apoptotic/pro-survival proteins, Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2 (S70), Bcl-xL, x-IAP, and c-IAP in response to normoxic, 24 Hr anoxic exposure, and 4 Hr recovery stages were assessed in the liver and skeletal muscle using western immunoblotting. The results suggest a tissue-specific regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway in the wood frog, where both liver and skeletal muscle shows an overall decrease in apoptosis and an increase in cell survival. This type of cytoprotective mechanism could be aimed at preserving the existing cellular components during long-term anoxia and oxygen recovery phases in the wood frog. PMID:27042393

  11. Infection of human urethral epithelium with Neisseria gonorrhoeae elicits an upregulation of host anti-apoptotic factors and protects cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, Matthew J; Williams, Richard D; Apicella, Michael A

    2003-08-01

    In order to better understand the host response to an infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, microarray technology was used to analyse the gene expression profile between uninfected and infected human urethral epithelium. The anti-apoptotic genes bfl-1, cox-2 and c-IAP-2 were identified to be upregulated approximately eight-, four- or twofold, respectively, following infection. Subsequent assays including RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and RNase protection confirmed the increased expression of these apoptotic regulators, and identified that a fourth anti-apoptotic factor, mcl-1, is also upregulated. RT-PCR and RNase protection also showed that key pro-apoptotic factors including bax, bad and bak do not change in expression. Furthermore, our studies demonstrated that infection with the gonococcus partially protects urethral epithelium from apoptosis induced by the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (STS). This work shows that following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, several host anti-apoptotic factors are upregulated. In addition, a gonococcal infection protects host cells from subsequent STS-induced death. The regulation of host cell death by the gonococcus may represent a mechanism employed by this pathogen to survive and proliferate in host epithelium. PMID:12864814

  12. The Anti-Apoptotic Role of Berberine in Preimplantation Embryo In Vitro Development through Regulation of miRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Ran; Cao, Yong-Chun; Zhen, Di; Jia, Zi-Ye; Jiang, Jin-Qi; Tian, Jian-Hui; Gao, Jian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs containing berberine have been historically used to prevent miscarriage. Here, we investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effects of berberine on pre-implantation embryonic development are regulated by miRNA-21. Mouse pronuclear embryos were cultured in medium with or without berberine, and some were then microinjected with a miRNA-21 inhibitor. The in vitro developmental rates of 2- and 4-cell embryos and blastocysts, blastocyst cell numbers, apoptotic rates, and apoptotic cell numbers were measured in each group. Furthermore, we examined the transcription levels of miRNA-21 and its target genes (caspase-3, PTEN, and Bcl-2) and their translation levels. Comparisons were made with in vivo-developed and untreated embryos. We found that berberine significantly increased the developmental rates and cell numbers of mouse blastocysts and decreased apoptotic cell rates in vitro. Berberine also significantly increased miRNA-21 and Bcl-2 transcription levels and significantly decreased caspase-3 and PTEN transcription levels. In embryos treated with a miRNA-21 inhibitor, the results followed the opposite trend; PTEN and caspase-3 transcription levels increased significantly, while the transcription level of Bcl-2 decreased significantly. Additionally, berberine treatment significantly increased the Bcl-2 protein level and significantly decreased the caspase-3 and PTEN protein levels in blastocysts, but there were no significant differences observed in the levels of these proteins in 2- and 4-cell embryos. This study revealed that miRNA-21 is important for pre-implantation embryonic development, especially blastocyst development in vitro. Berberine elevates miRNA-21 expression, decreases PTEN and caspase-3 levels, increases Bcl-2 levels, and exerts anti-apoptotic and pro-growth effects. PMID:26042820

  13. Argon Mediates Anti-Apoptotic Signaling and Neuroprotection via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai; Roesslein, Martin; Wellner, Franziska; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen; Loop, Torsten; Buerkle, Hartmut; Goebel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently, the noble gas argon attracted significant attention due to its neuroprotective properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. There is growing evidence that the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is involved in Argon´s protective effect. We hypothesized that argon mediates its protective effects via the upstream located toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. Methods Apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was induced using rotenone. Argon treatment was performed after induction of apoptosis with different concentrations (25, 50 and 75 Vol% in oxygen 21 Vol%, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) for 2 or 4 hours respectively. Apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry (annexin-V (AV)/propidiumiodide (PI)) staining, caspase-3 activity and caspase cleavage. TLR density on the cells’ surface was analyzed using FACS and immunohistochemistry. Inhibition of TLR signaling and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were assessed by western blot, activity assays and FACS analysis. Results Argon 75 Vol% treatment abolished rotenone-induced apoptosis. This effect was attenuated dose- and time-dependently. Argon treatment was accompanied with a significant reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 receptor density and protein expression. Moreover, argon mediated increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated after inhibition of TLR signaling. ERK1/2 and TLR signaling inhibitors abolished the anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of argon. Immunohistochemistry results strengthened these findings. Conclusion These findings suggest that argon-mediated anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects are mediated via inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26624894

  14. Evidence for anti-apoptotic roles of proteasome activator 28γ via inhibiting caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Moncsek, Anja; Gruner, Melanie; Meyer, Hannes; Lehmann, Andrea; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Stohwasser, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Proteasome activator PA28γ (REGγ, Ki antigen) has recently been demonstrated to display anti-apoptotic properties via enhancing Mdm2-p53 interaction, thereby facilitating ubiquitination and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor p53. In this study we demonstrate a correlation between cellular PA28γ levels and the sensitivity of cells towards apoptosis in different cellular contexts thereby confirming a role of proteasome activator PA28γ as an anti-apoptotic regulator. We investigated the anti-apoptotic role of PA28γ upon UV-C stimulation in B8 mouse fibroblasts stably overexpressing the PA28γ-encoding PSME3 gene and upon butyrate-induced apoptosis in human HT29 adenocarcinoma cells with silenced PSME3 gene. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that PA28γ has a strong influence on different apoptotic hallmarks, especially p53 phosphorylation and caspase activation. In detail, PA28γ and effector caspases mutually restrict each other. PA28γ is a caspase substrate, if PA28γ levels are low. In contrast, PA28γ overexpression reduces caspase activities, including the caspase-dependent processing of PA28γ. Furthermore, overexpression of PA28γ resulted in a nuclear accumulation of transcriptional active p53. In summary, our findings indicate that even in a p53-dominated cellular context, pro-apoptotic signaling might be overcome by PA28γ-mediated caspase inhibition. PMID:26201457

  15. Thyroid Cancer Imaging In Vivo by Targeting the Anti-Apoptotic Molecule Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Bartolazzi, Armando; Del Prete, Fabrizio; Lavra, Luca; Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Massari, Roberto; Trotta, Carlo; Soluri, Alessandro; Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Scopinaro, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age, average 4–7% for the U.S.A. adult population, but it is much higher (19–67%) when sub-clinical nodules are considered. About 90% of these lesions are benign and a reliable approach to their preoperative characterization is necessary. Unfortunately conventional thyroid scintigraphy does not allow the distinction among benign and malignant thyroid proliferations but it provides only functional information (cold or hot nodules). The expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule galectin-3 is restricted to cancer cells and this feature has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. We show here the possibility to obtain thyroid cancer imaging in vivo by targeting galectin-3. Methods The galectin-3 based thyroid immuno-scintigraphy uses as radiotracer a specific 99mTc-radiolabeled mAb. A position-sensitive high-resolution mini-gamma camera was used as imaging capture device. Human galectin-3 positive thyroid cancer xenografts (ARO) and galectin-3 knockout tumors were used as targets in different experiments in vivo. 38 mice with tumor mass of about 1 gm were injected in the tail vein with 100 µCi of 99mTc-labeled mAb to galectin-3 (30 µg protein/in 100 µl saline solution). Tumor images were acquired at 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs, 9 hrs and 24 hrs post injection by using the mini-gamma camera. Findings Results from different consecutive experiments show an optimal visualization of thyroid cancer xenografts between 6 and 9 hours from injection of the radiotracer. Galectin-3 negative tumors were not detected at all. At 6 hrs post-injection galectin-3 expressing tumors were correctly visualized, while the whole-body activity had essentially cleared. Conclusions These results demonstrate the possibility to distinguish preoperatively benign from malignant thyroid nodules by using a specific galectin-3 radio-immunotargeting. In vivo imaging of thyroid cancer may allow a better selection of patients referred to

  16. Rasagiline and selegiline suppress calcium efflux from mitochondria by PK11195-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a novel anti-apoptotic function for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqiu; Kazumura, Kimiko; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Rasagiline and selegiline, inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), protect neurons from cell death in cellular and animal models. Suppression of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and subsequent activation of apoptosis cascade, and induction of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival genes are proposed to contribute the anti-apoptotic function. Rasagiline suppresses neurotoxin- and oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, but the mechanism has been not fully clarified. In this paper, regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by rasagiline and selegiline was examined in apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pore opening was quantitatively measured using a simultaneous monitoring system for calcium (Ca(2+)) and superoxide (O2(-)) (Ishibashi et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:571-580, 2006). The association of the pore opening with Ca(2+) efflux and ROS increase was proved by the inhibition of Bcl-2 overexpression and cyclosporine A treatment. Potency to release Ca(2+) was correlated with the cytotoxicity of TSPO antagonists, PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and protoporphyrin IX, whereas a TSPO agonist, 4-chloro-diazepamine, did not significantly increase Ca(2+) or cause cell death. Rasagiline and selegiline inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore dose dependently. Ca(2+) efflux was confirmed as the initial signal in mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, and the suppression of Ca(2+) efflux may account for the neuroprotective function of rasagiline and selegiline. The quantitative measurement of Ca(2+) efflux can be applied to determine anti-apoptotic activity of neuroprotective compounds. The role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in neuronal death and also in neuroprotection by MAO-B inhibitors is discussed. PMID:25863936

  17. Estrogen Regulation of Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Mcl-1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Jennifer L.; Henson, Elizabeth S.; Gibson, Spencer B.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is implicated as an important factor in stimulating breast cancer cell proliferation, and presence of estrogen receptor (ER) is an indication of a good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that is often over expressed in breast tumors, correlating with poor survival. In breast cancer, it was been previously shown that epidermal growth factor receptors up-regulate Mcl-1 but the role of estrogen in increasing Mcl-1 expression was unknown. In ERα positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75, estrogen treatment increased Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. In two ERα negative cell lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231, estrogen failed to increase in Mcl-1 protein expression. We found that ERα antagonists decreased estrogen mediated Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Upon knockdown of ERα, Mcl-1 mRNA expression after estrogen treatment was also decreased. We also found that ERα binds to the Mcl-1 promoter at a region upstream of the translation start site containing a half ERE site. Streptavidin-pull down assay showed that both ERα and transcription factor Sp1 bind to this region. These results suggest that estrogen is involved in regulating Mcl-1 expression specifically through a mechanism involving ERα. PMID:24971890

  18. The expression patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in human fetal and adult ovary.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Vukojevic, Katarina; Caric, Ana; Vilovic, Katarina; Tomic, Snjezana; Soljic, Violeta; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2013-07-01

    The influence of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the cell death (caspase-3, TUNEL) of different ovarian cell lineages was immunohistochemically analyzed in six fetal and five adult human ovaries in order to disclose possible mechanisms of cell number control. Mild to moderate expression of Bcl-2 characterized ovarian surface epithelium, follicular cells and oocytes of 15 and 22 week human ovaries, while expression of Bax and caspase-3 gradually increased in all ovarian cell populations, except caspase-3 in the ovarian surface epithelium. Different levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells, while TUNEL and caspase-3 co-expression was found only in some of them. In adult ovaries, Bcl-2 was moderately and Bax strongly expressed in the surface ovarian epithelium and stroma. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in granulosa and theca interna cells varied depending on the stage of follicular atresia. Caspase-3 apoptotic cells characterized granulosa cells of adult atretic follicles. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of Bcl-2 and Bax protein might regulate the final destiny of developing germ cells. Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis seems to be the most important, but not the only cell death pathway in ovaries. In adult ovaries, caspase-dependent cell death characterized granulosa cells, but not the germ cells. PMID:23295106

  19. PACS-2 mediates the ATM and NF-κB-dependent induction of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Barroso-González, J; Auclair, S; Luan, S; Thomas, L; Atkins, K M; Aslan, J E; Thomas, L L; Zhao, J; Zhao, Y; Thomas, G

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) promotes cell survival in response to genotoxic stress by inducing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-xL, which protects mitochondria from stress-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Here we show that the multifunctional sorting protein Pacs-2 (phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2) is required for Bcl-xL induction following DNA damage in primary mouse thymocytes. Consequently, in response to DNA damage, Pacs-2(-/-) thymocytes exhibit a blunted induction of Bcl-xL, increased MOMP and accelerated apoptosis. Biochemical studies show that cytoplasmic PACS-2 promotes this DNA damage-induced anti-apoptotic pathway by interacting with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to drive NF-κB activation and induction of Bcl-xL. However, Pacs-2 was not required for tumor necrosis factor-α-induced NF-κB activation, suggesting a role for PACS-2 selectively in NF-κB activation in response to DNA damage. These findings identify PACS-2 as an in vivo mediator of the ATM and NF-κB-dependent induction of Bcl-xL that promotes cell survival in response to DNA damage. PMID:26943323

  20. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa S; Al-Yhya, Nouf A; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alajmi, Reem A; Hassan, Zeinab K; Hassan, Salwa B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds. PMID:27547187

  1. Acidosis Sensing Receptor GPR65 Correlates with Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Expression in CLL Cells: Potential Implications for the CLL Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rosko, Ashley E; McColl, Karen S; Zhong, Fei; Ryder, Christopher B; Chang, Ming-Jin; Sattar, Abdus; Caimi, Paolo F; Hill, Brian T; Al-Harbi, Sayer; Almasan, Alexandru; Distelhorst, Clark W

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is generally an acidic environment, yet the effect of extracellular acidosis on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not well established. Here we are the first to report that the extracellular acid sensing G-protein coupled receptor, GPR65, is expressed in primary CLL cells where its level correlate strongly with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member levels. GPR65 expression is found normally within the lymphoid lineage and has not been previously reported in CLL. We demonstrate a wide range of GPR65 mRNA expression among CLL 87 patient samples. The correlation between GPR65 mRNA levels and Bcl-2 mRNA levels is particularly strong (r=0.8063, p= <0.001). The correlation extends to other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Mcl-1 (r=0.4847, p=0.0010) and Bcl-xl (r=0.3411, p=0.0252), although at lower levels of significance. No correlation is detected between GPR65 and levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins BIM, PUMA or NOXA. GPR65 expression also correlates with the favorable prognostic marker of 13q deletion. The present findings suggest the acid sensing receptor GPR65 may be of significance to allow CLL tolerance of extracellular acidosis. The correlation of GPR65 with Bcl-2 suggests a novel cytoprotective mechanism that enables CLL cell adaptation to acidic extracellular conditions. These findings suggest the potential value of targeting GPR65 therapeutically. PMID:25984552

  2. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Sherifa S.; AL-Yhya, Nouf A.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M.; Alajmi, Reem A.; Hassan, Zeinab K.; Hassan, Salwa B.; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds. PMID:27547187

  3. Tuberin and PRAS40 are anti-apoptotic gatekeepers during early human amniotic fluid stem-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christiane; Rosner, Margit; Dolznig, Helmut; Mikula, Mario; Kramer, Nina; Hengstschläger, Markus

    2012-03-01

    Embryoid bodies (EBs) are three-dimensional multicellular aggregates allowing the in vitro investigation of stem-cell differentiation processes mimicking early embryogenesis. Human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells harbor high proliferation potential, do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells, have a lower risk for tumor development, do not need exogenic induction of pluripotency and are chromosomal stable. Starting from a single human AFS cell, EBs can be formed accompanied by the differentiation into cells of all three embryonic germ layers. Here, we report that siRNA-mediated knockdown of the endogenous tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) gene product tuberin or of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), the two major negative regulators of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leads to massive apoptotic cell death during EB development of human AFS cells without affecting the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal cell differentiation spectrum. Co-knockdown of endogenous mTOR demonstrated these effects to be mTOR-dependent. Our findings prove this enzyme cascade to be an essential anti-apoptotic gatekeeper of stem-cell differentiation during EB formation. These data allow new insights into the regulation of early stem-cell maintenance and differentiation and identify a new role of the tumor suppressor tuberin and the oncogenic protein PRAS40 with the relevance for a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases associated with altered activities of these gene products. PMID:22090422

  4. Anti-apoptotic Effects of PCP4/PEP19 in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines: A Novel Oncotarget

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Taiji; Souda, Masakazu; Yoshimura, Takuya; Sasaguri, Shoko; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tasaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Takako; Ohi, Yasuyo; Yamada, Sohsuke; Tsutsui, Masato; Umekita, Yoshihisa; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2014-01-01

    The PCP4/PEP19 is a calmodulin-binding anti-apoptotic peptide in neural cells but its potential role in human cancer has largely been unknown. We investigated the expression of PCP4/PEP19 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231 cells, and found that estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative SK-BR-3 cells expressed PCP4/PEP19. In the MCF-7 cells, cell proliferation was estrogen-dependent, and PCP4/PEP19 expression was induced by estrogen. In both cell lines, PCP4/PEP19 knockdown induced apoptosis and slightly decreased Akt phosphorylation. Knockdown of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1 (CaMKK1), resulting in decreased phospho-AktThr308, enhanced apoptosis in SK-BR-3 but not in MCF-7 cells. CaMKK2 knockdown moderately decreased phospho-AktThr308 and increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells but not in SK-BR-3 cells. These data indicated that PCP4/PEP19 regulates apoptosis but exact mechanism is still unknown. PCP4/PEP19 can therefore potentially serve as independent oncotarget for therapy of PCP4/PEP19-positive breast cancers irrespective of ER expression. PMID:25153723

  5. Biomechanical insult switches PEA-15 activity to uncouple its anti-apoptotic function and promote erk mediated tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Exler, Rachel E; Guo, Xiaoxin; Chan, Darren; Livne-Bar, Izhar; Vicic, Nevena; Flanagan, John G; Sivak, Jeremy M

    2016-01-15

    Biomechanical insult contributes to many chronic pathological processes, yet the resulting influences on signal transduction mechanisms are poorly understood. The retina presents an excellent mechanotransduction model, as mechanical strain on sensitive astrocytes of the optic nerve head (ONH) is intimately linked to chronic tissue remodeling and excavation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and apoptotic cell death. However, the mechanism by which these effects are induced by biomechanical strain is unclear. We previously identified the small adapter protein, PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes), through proteomic analyses of human ONH astrocytes subjected to pathologically relevant biomechanical insult. Under resting conditions PEA-15 is regulated through phosphorylation of two key serine residues to inhibit extrinsic apoptosis and ERK1/2 signaling. However, we surprisingly observed that biomechanical insult dramatically switches PEA-15 phosphorylation and function to uncouple its anti-apoptotic activity, and promote ERK1/2-dependent MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. These results reveal a novel cell autonomous mechanism by which biomechanical strain rapidly modifies this signaling pathway to generate altered tissue injury responses. PMID:26615958

  6. Chronic morphine induces up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Boronat, M Assumpció; García-Fuster, M Julia; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of activation and blockade of the endogenous opioid system in the brain on two key proteins involved in the regulation of programmed cell death: the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. The acute treatment of rats with the μ-opioid receptor agonist morphine (3 – 30 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not modify the immunodensity of Fas or Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. Similarly, the acute treatment with low and high doses of the antagonist naloxone (1 and 100 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not alter Fas or Bcl-2 protein expression in brain cortex. These results discounted a tonic regulation through opioid receptors on Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in rat brain. Chronic morphine (10 – 100 mg kg−1, 5 days, and 10 mg kg−1, 13 days) induced marked increases (47 – 123%) in the immunodensity of Fas receptor in the cerebral cortex. In contrast, chronic morphine (5 and 13 days) decreased the immunodensity of Bcl-2 protein (15 – 30%) in brain cortex. Chronic naloxone (10 mg kg−1, 13 days) did not alter the immunodensities of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. The concurrent chronic treatment (13 days) of naloxone (10 mg kg−1) and morphine (10 mg kg−1) completely prevented the morphine-induced increase in Fas receptor and decrease in Bcl-2 protein immunoreactivities in the cerebral cortex. The results indicate that morphine, through the sustained activation of opioid receptors, can promote abnormal programmed cell death by enhancing the expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor protein and damping the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. PMID:11704646

  7. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL but not Mcl-1 contributes to protection against virus-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmer, Michaela; Weber, Arnim; Sutter, Gerd; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Zimmermann, Albert; Häcker, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Infection of mammalian cells with viruses often induces apoptosis. How the recognition of viruses leads to apoptosis of the infected cell and which host cell factors regulate this cell death is incompletely understood. In this study, we focussed on two major anti-apoptotic proteins of the host cell, whose abundance and activity are important for cell survival, the Bcl-2-like proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. During infection of epithelial cells and fibroblasts with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), Mcl-1 protein levels dropped but the MVA Bcl-2-like protein F1L could replace Mcl-1 functionally; a similar activity was found in vaccinia virus (VACV)-infected cells. During infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), Mcl-1-levels were not reduced but a viral Mcl-1-like activity was also generated. Infection of mouse macrophages with any of these viruses, on the other hand, induced apoptosis. Virus-induced macrophage apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of Mcl-1. However, apoptosis was substantially increased in infected Bcl-XL-deficient macrophages or macrophages treated with the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-inhibitor ABT-737. Genetic loss of Bcl-XL or treatment of macrophages with ABT-737 reduced the generation of infectious VACV. These data show that Mcl-1 is dispensable for the regulation of apoptosis during infection with different large DNA viruses, either because the viruses replace its function (in fibroblasts and epithelial cells) or because the pro-apoptotic activity generated by the infection appears not to be blocked by it (in macrophages). Bcl-XL, on the other hand, can be important to maintain survival of virus-infected cells, and its activity can determine outcome of the infection. PMID:27537523

  8. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Joshua E.; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the “arms race” of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  9. Fish oil targets PTEN to regulate NFκB for downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in breast tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Mandal, Chandi C.; Woodruff, Kathleen; Clair, Patricia St; Fernandes, Gabriel; Choudhury, Goutam G.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanism for the beneficial effect of fish oil on breast tumor growth is largely undefined. Using the xenograft model in nude mice, we for the first time report that the fish oil diet significantly increased the level of PTEN protein in the breast tumors. In addition, the fish oil diet attenuated the PI 3 kinase and Akt kinase activity in the tumors leading to significant inhibition of NFκB activation. Fish oil diet also prevented the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in the breast tumors with concomitant increase in caspase 3 activity. To extend these findings we tested the functional effects of DHA and EPA, the two active ω-3 fatty acids of fish oil, on cultured MDA MB-231 cells. In agreement with our in vivo data, DHA and EPA treatment increased PTEN mRNA and protein expression and inhibited the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB in MDA MB-231 cells. Furthermore, DHA and EPA reduced expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. NFκB DNA binding activity and NFκB-dependent transcription of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes were also prevented by DHA and EPA treatment. Finally, we showed that PTEN expression significantly inhibited NFκB-dependent transcription of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes. Taken together, our data reveals a novel signaling pathway linking the fish oil diet to increased PTEN expression that attenuates the growth promoting signals and augments the apoptotic signals, resulting in breast tumor regression. PMID:18953692

  10. TRAIL is involved in CpG ODN-mediated anti-apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Jung; Park, Dae-Weon; Jeong, Tae-Whal; Chin, Byung-Rho; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Baek, Suk-Hwan

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with the CpG-motifs are recognized by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which elicits an immune response. Serum starvation of Raw264.7 cells increased tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression. However, treatment with CpG ODN reduced TRAIL expression as well as apoptosis by serum starvation. In serum starved cells, TLR9 inhibitors recovered the decreasing TRAIL expression and sub-G1 accumulation by CpG ODN. CpG ODN-regulated anti-apoptotic signals which were dependent on the Akt-FoxO3a signaling pathway. CpG ODNs activated Akt and inactivated FoxO3a in serum starved cells. Knockdown of FoxO3a by siRNA decreased TRAIL expression and apoptosis in serum-starved cells. In contrast, FoxO3a overexpression increased apoptosis by serum starvation, and CpG ODNs blocked these effects through TRAIL expression. LY294002, a PI3K-Akt inhibitor, blocked the CpG ODN effect of TRAIL expression and the sub-G1 population in serum starved cells. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type Akt reduced additional sub-G1 cells both in non-CpG ODN- and CpG ODN-treated cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of Akt-FoxO3a signaling in TLR9-mediated downregulation of TRAIL and anti-apoptotic signals. PMID:22159760

  11. Anti-apoptotic effects of curcumin on cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat testes.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Cevat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ozturk, Samil

    2012-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants affecting various tissues and organs including testis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic effects of curcumin (Cur) on Cd-induced apoptosis in rat testes. The rats were randomly allotted into one of three experimental groups: control, Cd treated and Cd treated with Cur; each group contained 10 animals. The control group received 2 ml/day of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). To induce toxicity, Cd (1 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and subcutaneously injected into rats for 4 weeks. The rats in Cur-treated group was given a daily dose of 100 mg/kg of Cur for 4 weeks. To date, no examinations of the anti-apoptotic properties of Cur on Cd-induced apoptosis in rat testes have been reported. The mean seminiferous tubule diameter, mean testicular biopsy score values and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in Cd-treated groups were compared to the control group. Furthermore, the Cur-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance and serum testosterone levels in Cd-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in testis tissues of the Cd-treated group with Cur therapy. The present study showed that Cur treatment protected testes against toxic effects of Cd. We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of Cur may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on the spermatogenesis after testicular injury caused by Cd-treated rats. PMID:21632575

  12. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events. PMID:26231325

  13. MDM4/HIPK2/p53 cytoplasmic assembly uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with anti-apoptotic activity during early DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Pieroni, L; Monteleone, V; Lucà, R; Fici, L; Luca, E; Urbani, A; Xiong, S; Soddu, S; Masetti, R; Lozano, G; Pontecorvi, A; Moretti, F

    2016-01-14

    The p53 inhibitor, MDM4 (MDMX) is a cytoplasmic protein with p53-activating function under DNA damage conditions. Particularly, MDM4 promotes phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46, a modification that precedes different p53 activities. We investigated the mechanism by which MDM4 promotes this p53 modification and its consequences in untransformed mammary epithelial cells and tissues. In response to severe DNA damage, MDM4 stimulates p53Ser46(P) by binding and stabilizing serine-threonine kinase HIPK2. Under these conditions, the p53-inhibitory complex, MDM4/MDM2, dissociates and this allows MDM4 to promote p53/HIPK2 functional interaction. Comparative proteomic analysis of DNA damage-treated cells versus -untreated cells evidenced a diffuse downregulation of proteins with anti-apoptotic activity, some of which were targets of p53Ser46(P)/HIPK2 repressive activity. Importantly, MDM4 depletion abolishes the downregulation of these proteins indicating the requirement of MDM4 to promote p53-mediated transcriptional repression. Consistently, MDM4-mediated HIPK2/p53 activation precedes HIPK2/p53 nuclear translocation and activity. Noteworthy, repression of these proteins was evident also in mammary glands of mice subjected to γ-irradiation and was significantly enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing MDM4. This study evidences the flexibility of MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer, which allows the development of a positive activity of cytoplasmic MDM4 towards p53-mediated transcriptional function. Noteworthy, this activity uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with shared anti-apoptotic function which precedes active cell apoptosis and that are frequently overexpressed and/or markers of tumour phenotype in human cancer. PMID:25961923

  14. MDM4/HIPK2/p53 cytoplasmic assembly uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with anti-apoptotic activity during early DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, F; Pieroni, L; Monteleone, V; Lucà, R; Fici, L; Luca, E; Urbani, A; Xiong, S; Soddu, S; Masetti, R; Lozano, G; Pontecorvi, A; Moretti, F

    2016-01-01

    The p53 inhibitor, MDM4 (MDMX) is a cytoplasmic protein with p53-activating function under DNA damage conditions. Particularly, MDM4 promotes phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46, a modification that precedes different p53 activities. We investigated the mechanism by which MDM4 promotes this p53 modification and its consequences in untransformed mammary epithelial cells and tissues. In response to severe DNA damage, MDM4 stimulates p53Ser46P by binding and stabilizing serine–threonine kinase HIPK2. Under these conditions, the p53-inhibitory complex, MDM4/MDM2, dissociates and this allows MDM4 to promote p53/HIPK2 functional interaction. Comparative proteomic analysis of DNA damage-treated cells versus -untreated cells evidenced a diffuse downregulation of proteins with anti-apoptotic activity, some of which were targets of p53Ser46P/HIPK2 repressive activity. Importantly, MDM4 depletion abolishes the downregulation of these proteins indicating the requirement of MDM4 to promote p53-mediated transcriptional repression. Consistently, MDM4-mediated HIPK2/p53 activation precedes HIPK2/p53 nuclear translocation and activity. Noteworthy, repression of these proteins was evident also in mammary glands of mice subjected to γ-irradiation and was significantly enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing MDM4. This study evidences the flexibility of MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer, which allows the development of a positive activity of cytoplasmic MDM4 towards p53-mediated transcriptional function. Noteworthy, this activity uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with shared anti-apoptotic function which precedes active cell apoptosis and that are frequently overexpressed and/or markers of tumour phenotype in human cancer. PMID:25961923

  15. Examination of a Viral Infection Mimetic Model in Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells and the Anti-Apoptotic Effect of GLP-1 Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Megu Yamaguchi; Fukui, Kenji; Hosokawa, Yoshiya; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims Viral infection is associated with pancreatic beta cell destruction in fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceleration and protective mechanisms of beta cell destruction by establishing a model of viral infection in pancreatic beta cells. Methods Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was transfected into MIN6 cells and insulin-producing cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells via small molecule applications. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining. The anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4 was also evaluated. Results Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection led to elevated expression of the genes encoding IFNα, IFNβ, CXCL10, Fas, viral receptors, and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors in MIN6 cells. Exendin-4 treatment suppressed the elevated gene expression levels and reduced polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced apoptosis both in MIN6 cells and in insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, protein kinase A, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4. Conclusions Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection can mimic viral infection, and Exendin-4 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect both in MIN6 and insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26659307

  16. Manual acupuncture at the SJ5 (Waiguan) acupoint shows neuroprotective effects by regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Lin, Li-Li; Sutherland, Kyle; Cao, Chuan-Hai

    2016-02-01

    Acupuncture at the SJ5 (Waiguan) acupoint has neuroprotective effects in cerebral infarction, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed gene expression in healthy rat cerebellum using a pathway-focused DNA microarray to screen 113 genes associated with 18 signal transduction pathways. After 20 minutes of acupuncture at SJ5, the expression of Bcl-2 and Birc1b mRNA was markedly increased. This was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that Bcl-2 protein expression remained high in the cerebellum until at least 2 hours after cessation of acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture at SJ5 exerts neuroprotective effects by regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. PMID:27073385

  17. Manual acupuncture at the SJ5 (Waiguan) acupoint shows neuroprotective effects by regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dong; Lin, Li-li; Sutherland, Kyle; Cao, Chuan-hai

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture at the SJ5 (Waiguan) acupoint has neuroprotective effects in cerebral infarction, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed gene expression in healthy rat cerebellum using a pathway-focused DNA microarray to screen 113 genes associated with 18 signal transduction pathways. After 20 minutes of acupuncture at SJ5, the expression of Bcl-2 and Birc1b mRNA was markedly increased. This was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that Bcl-2 protein expression remained high in the cerebellum until at least 2 hours after cessation of acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture at SJ5 exerts neuroprotective effects by regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. PMID:27073385

  18. Heparin exerts anti-apoptotic effects on uterine explants by targeting the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana Inés; Vercelli, Claudia; Schiariti, Victoria; Davio, Carlos; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Miscarriage caused by Gram-negative bacteria infecting the female genital tract is one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. Intraperitoneal administration of LPS to 7-days pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24 h. Here, we show that LPS induced apoptosis on uterine explants from 7-days pregnant mice and that CB1 receptor was involved in this effect. On the other hand, heparin has been widely used for the prevention of pregnancy loss in women with frequent miscarriage with or without thrombophilia. Besides its anticoagulant properties, heparin exerts anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Here, we sought to investigate whether the administration of heparin prevented LPS-induced apoptosis in uterine explants from 7-days pregnant mice. We found that heparin enhanced cell survival in LPS-treated uterine explants and that this effect was mediated by increasing uterine FAAH activity. Taken together, our results point towards a novel mechanism involved in the protective effects of heparin. PMID:27364950

  19. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 {mu}M) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  20. Anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 is required for stapes development and hearing.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, M R; Wise, A K; Arhatari, B D; Bouillet, P; Manji, S S M; Manning, M G; Cooray, A A; Burt, R A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe novel and specific roles for the apoptotic regulators Bcl2 and Bim in hearing and stapes development. Bcl2 is anti-apoptotic while Bim is pro-apoptotic. Characterization of the auditory systems of mice deficient for these molecules revealed that Bcl2⁻/⁻ mice suffered severe hearing loss. This was conductive in nature and did not affect sensory cells of the inner ear, with cochlear hair cells and neurons present and functional. Bcl2⁻/⁻ mice were found to have a malformed, often monocrural, porous stapes (the small stirrup-shaped bone of the middle ear), but a normally shaped malleus and incus. The deformed stapes was discontinuous with the incus and sometimes fused to the temporal bones. The defect was completely rescued in Bcl2⁻/⁻Bim⁻/⁻ mice and partially rescued in Bcl2⁻/⁻Bim⁺/⁻ mice, which displayed high-frequency hearing loss and thickening of the stapes anterior crus. The Bcl2⁻/⁻ defect arose in utero before or during the cartilage stage of stapes development. These results implicate Bcl2 and Bim in regulating survival of second pharyngeal arch or neural crest cells that give rise to the stapes during embryonic development. PMID:22874999

  1. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5–10 μM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation. PMID:19303399

  2. Leptin exerts proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on goose granulosa cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui; Hu, Shenqiang; Xiao, Qihai; Han, Chunchun; Gan, Chao; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hengyong; He, Hua; Wang, Jiwen

    2015-05-01

    Leptin was known as a pivotal regulator for the control of food intake and energy expenditure. However, leptin has also been found to be involved in the regulation of female reproductive system through interactions with pathways in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis and direct action at the ovarian level. In the present study, granulosa cells from goose ovarian preovulatory (F1-F3) follicles were cultured with leptin (0, 1, 10 or 100ng/ml). The proliferative and anti-apoptotic actions of leptin in granulosa cells were revealed by CCK-8, BrdU and TUNEL assays. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses further indicated that leptin treatment led to increased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 and bcl-2, and decreased expression of p21 and caspase-3. The effects were involved in the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, as leptin treatment enhanced the expression of PI3K, Akt1, Akt2, Raptor, mTOR, S6K and p-S6K. Moreover, blockade of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway attenuated the influences of leptin on proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells, considering that activated factors by leptin were inhibited in the presence of either 20μM LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) or 10μM rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor). In addition, leptin had a modulatory effect on the expression of its receptor at the transcriptional and translational levels, and blockade of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibited both basal and leptin-induced Lepr gene and protein expression. These findings suggest that leptin exerts its proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on goose granulosa cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25576904

  3. Opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via promotion of pro-apoptotic and inhibition of anti-apoptotic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to determine the important molecules involved in apoptosis induction by opium in Jurkat cell line. Materials and Methods: Jurkat cells were incubated 48 hrs with 2.86×10-5 g/ml concentration of opium and apoptosis as well as expression levels of related molecules were measured. Results: Our results demonstrated that 50.3±0.2 percent of opium treated Jurkat cells were revealed apoptotic features. The levels of mRNA of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules were increased and decreased, respectively, in the opium treated cells. The results also demonstrated that expression levels of BCL2, DFFA and NOL3 as anti-apoptotic molecules were increased in the opium treated cells. Conclusion: It seems that opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Although opium induces apoptosis in the cells but increased expression of some anti-apoptotic molecules may be a normal resistance of the cell for death. PMID:27081468

  4. The anti-apoptotic effect of leukotriene D4 involves the prevention of caspase 8 activation and Bid cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Katarina; Juhas, Maria; Sjölander, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We have shown in a previous study that leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) signalling increases cell survival and proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells [Ohd, Wikström and Sjölander (2000) Gastroenterology 119, 1007-1018]. This is highly interesting since inflammatory conditions of the bowel are associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer. The enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) is important in this context since it is up-regulated in colon cancer tissues and in tumour cell lines. Treatment with the COX-2-specific inhibitor N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide has been shown previously to cause apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and we can now show that a mitochondrial pathway is employed. Inhibition of COX-2 causes release of cytochrome c, as shown by both Western-blot and microscopy studies, and as with apoptosis, this is significantly decreased by LTD(4). Since previous studies showed increased Bcl-2 levels on LTD(4) stimulation, we further studied apoptotic regulation at the mitochondrial level. From this we could exclude the involvement of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) as well as its pro-apoptotic counterpart Bax, since they are not expressed. Furthermore, the activity of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) was completely unaffected. However, inhibition of COX-2 caused cleavage of caspase 8 into a 41 kDa fragment associated with activation and caused the appearance of an activated 15 kDa fragment of Bid. This indicates that N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspase 8, via generation of truncated Bid, and thereafter release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, LTD(4) not only reverses the effects induced by inhibition of COX-2 but also reduces the apoptotic potential by lowering the basal level of caspase 8 activation and truncated Bid

  5. ANTI-APOPTOTIC TREATMENTS PREVENT CARTILAGE DEGRADATION AFTER ACUTE TRAUMA TO HUMAN ANKLE CARTILAGE

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Cecilia Pascual; Hakimiyan, Arnavaz A.; Rappoport, Lev; Oegema, Theodore R.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Chubinskaya, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of anti-apoptotic agents on cartilage degradation after a single impact to ankle cartilage. Design Ten human normal tali were impacted with the impulse of 1 Ns generating peak forces in the range of 600 N using a 4mm diameter indenter. Eight mm cartilage plugs contained the 4mm diameter impacted core and a 4mm adjacent ring were removed and cultured with or without P188 surfactant (8mg/ml), caspase-3 (10uM), or caspase-9 (2uM) inhibitors for 48hrs. Results were assessed in the superficial and middle-deep layers immediately after injury at day 0 and at 2, 7 and 14 days after injury by live/dead cell and Tunel assays and by histology with Safranin-O/fast green staining. Results A single impact to human articular cartilage ex vivo resulted in cell death, cartilage degeneration, and radial progression of apoptosis to the areas immediately adjacent to the impact. The P188 was more effective in preventing cell death than the inhibitors of caspases. It reduced cell death by more than 2-fold (P<0.05) in the core and by about 30% in the ring in comparison with the impacted untreated control at all time points. P188 also prevented radial expansion of apoptosis in the ring region especially in the first 7 days post impaction (7.5% Tunel-positive cells vs. 46% in the untreated control; p<0.01). Inhibitors of caspase-3 or 9 were effective in reducing cell death in the impacted core only at early time points, but were ineffective in doing so in the ring. Mankin score was significantly improved in the P188 and caspase-3 treated groups. Conclusions Early intervention with the P188 and caspase-3 inhibitor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cartilage defects immediately after injury. PMID:19332178

  6. EGF-like ligands mediate progesterone's anti-apoptotic action on macaque granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Brogan, Rebecca S; Vandevoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    A local autocrine/paracrine role for progesterone is an absolute requirement for corpus luteum formation in primates. Despite this, the mechanism(s) remain obscure, although existing data suggest an anti-apoptotic action to be central. There are a limited number of progestin-regulated gene targets identified in the luteinizing primate follicle, suggesting that a small number of important genes may mediate progesterone action. Possible gene targets could be the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG). Using macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation cycles, we show that the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR), ERK 1/2, and AKT increases 6 h after an ovulatory human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulus and remains activate through 24 h. Immunoreactive EREG and AREG ligands in the follicular fluid both increased in a time frame commensurate with EGFR phosphorylation. The mRNA expression of AREG and EREG in nonluteinized granulosa cells (NLGC) was induced in culture with hCG, an effect blocked by progesterone receptor (PGR) antagonists. Overexpression of PGR B in NLGC and treatment with a nonmetabolizable progestin did not increase either gene, indicating both progesterone and luteinizing hormone/CG are necessary. Addition of EGF and EGF-like ligands did not promote steroidogenesis in vitro by granulosa cells in the presence of gonadotropin, but were able to partially reverse RU486-induced cell death. These data suggest that progesterone promotes the expression of AREG and EREG, which in turn maintain viability of luteinizing granulosa cells, representing one possible mechanism whereby progesterone promotes corpus luteum formation in the primate. PMID:23136296

  7. Matrigel and Activin A promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoling; Zhu, Deliang; Lian, Ruiling; Han, Yuting; Guo, Yonglong; Li, Zhijie; Tang, Shibo; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting. hRPE cells cultured in vitro could maintain their epithelioid morphology after MA treatment over at least 4 passages. The contact of N-cadherin to the lateral cell border was promoted in hRPE cells at P2 by MA. MA treatment also enhanced the expression of tight junction-associated genes and proteins, such as Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin and ZO-1, as well as polarized ZO-1 protein distribution and barrier function, in cultured hRPE cells. Moreover, MA treatment decreased apoptotic cells, ROS and Bax and increased △Ψ m and Bcl2 in hRPE cells under serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, MA treatment elevated the protein expression levels of β-catenin and its target proteins, including Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Survivin, as well as the gene expression levels of ZO-1, β-catenin, Survivin and TCF-4, all of which could be down-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939. Taken together, MA treatment could effectively promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in hRPE cells, partly involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study

  8. Comparative Effect of Recombinant Shiga Toxin in Induction of Pro- and Anti-Apoptotic Markers and Inflammatory Cytokines in Epithelial and Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abedi Jafari, Fatemeh; Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shiga toxins (Stxs, also referred to as verotoxins) are a family of bacterial protein toxins generated by Stx producing-Escherichia coli (STEC), such as E. coli serotype O157:H7. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant and native Shiga toxin (Stx) in induction of pro- and anti-apoptosis factors and stimulation of immune response to HeLa and THP-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The HeLa and THP-1 cells were used to study the effect of native and recombinant Shiga toxin. For this purpose, 106 cells were cultured overnight in six-well plates and different concentrations of Stx were added to each well. The cells were then collected after 24 hours of incubation. Total RNA and protein was extracted. Firstly, the total RNA was used in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-xl transcript. Protein expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors was also confirmed by western blot analysis. Results: The IL-1α and IL-8 were increased by recombinant and native Stx. Interleukin-1β was detected in THP-1, while TNF-α was detected HeLa cells. Furthermore, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression was observed in HeLa cells. However, expression of Bak was reduced by recombinant Stx and native toxin at the protein level, while Bcl-xl expression was increased. Conclusions: These results suggest that toxins induce inflammatory responses, particularly through expression of chemokine. Recombinant Stx and native toxin induced apoptosis by balancing between different pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family-factors in epithelial cells. In this study, for the first time, recombinant and native Stx induction of apoptotic factors and stimulation of immune response to HeLa and THP-1 cells were compared. PMID:27127585

  9. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nex-1/Math-2 promotes neuronal survival of PC12 cells by modulating the dynamic expression of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulators

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nex1/Math-2 belongs to the NeuroD subfamily, which plays a critical role during neuronal differentiation and maintenance of the differentiated state. Previously, we demonstrated that Nex1 is a key regulatory component of the nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway. Further supporting this hypothesis, this study shows that Nex1 has survival-inducing properties similar to NGF, as Nex1-overexpressing PC12 cells survive in the absence of trophic factors. We dissected the molecular mechanism by which Nex1 confers neuroprotection upon serum removal and found that constitutive expression of Nex1 maintained the expression of specific G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and concomitantly induced a dynamic expression profile of key anti-apoptotic regulators. This study provides the first evidence of the underlying mechanism by which a member of the NeuroD-subfamily promotes an active anti-apoptotic program essential to the survival of neurons. Our results suggest that the survival program may be viewed as an integral component of the intrinsic programming of the differ entiated state. PMID:15659228

  10. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Yao, Lan; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Lin; Zhu, Daling

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxia in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.

  11. Anti-apoptotic Activity of Ginsenoside Rb1 in Hydrogen Peroxide-treated Chondrocytes: Stabilization of Mitochondria and the Inhibition of Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji-Young; Kim, Sokho; Song, Kibbeum; Lim, Kyu-Hee; Shin, Gee-Wook; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Young-Bae; Kwon, Jungkee

    2012-07-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which produces reactive oxygen species, reportedly induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. The ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is the principal component in ginseng and has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-arthritis, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of G-Rb1 on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and caspase-3 activity of chondrocyte apoptosis induced by H2O2. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were exposed to H2O2 with or without G-Rb1 and assessed for viability, MPT, Bcl-xL/Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. The co-treatment with G-Rb1 showed an inhibition of MPT, caspase-3 activity, and cell death. Additionally, the levels of the apoptotic protein Bax were significantly lower and the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were higher compared with H2O2 treatment alone. The results of this study demonstrate that G-Rb1 protects chondrocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis, at least in part via the inhibition of MPT and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that G-Rb1 is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA patients. PMID:23717124

  12. Protein Prenylation Constitutes an Endogenous Brake on Axonal Growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Oakley, Derek; Nikulina, Elena; Hou, Jianwei; Yang, Wan Seok; Lowry, Emily Rhodes; Lamas, Nuno Jorge; Amoroso, Mackenzie Weygandt; Croft, Gist F; Hosur, Raghavendra; Wichterle, Hynek; Sebti, Said; Filbin, Marie T; Stockwell, Brent; Henderson, Christopher E

    2016-07-12

    Suboptimal axonal regeneration contributes to the consequences of nervous system trauma and neurodegenerative disease, but the intrinsic mechanisms that regulate axon growth remain unclear. We screened 50,400 small molecules for their ability to promote axon outgrowth on inhibitory substrata. The most potent hits were the statins, which stimulated growth of all mouse- and human-patient-derived neurons tested, both in vitro and in vivo, as did combined inhibition of the protein prenylation enzymes farnesyltransferase (PFT) and geranylgeranyl transferase I (PGGT-1). Compensatory sprouting of motor axons may delay clinical onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accordingly, elevated levels of PGGT1B, which would be predicted to reduce sprouting, were found in motor neurons of early- versus late-onset ALS patients postmortem. The mevalonate-prenylation pathway therefore constitutes an endogenous brake on axonal growth, and its inhibition provides a potential therapeutic approach to accelerate neuronal regeneration in humans. PMID:27373155

  13. Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic oncoprotein suppresses angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer: implications in resistance to photodynamic treatment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourakis, M. I.; Giatromanolaki, A.; Skarlatos, J.; Kosma, L.; Apostolikas, N.; Beroukas, K.

    1998-07-01

    PDT cytotoxicity is likely to occur through photooxidative reactions. In that way mechanisms that define poor oxygenation should be involved in defining resistance to photo-dynamic treatment (PDT). On the other hand bcl-2 anti- apoptotic protein has been shown to delay cell death and protect cells from toxic oxidative products. We examined 134 specimens from T1,2-NO,1 staged patients treated with surgery alone. Specimens were immunohistochemically examined for vascular grade using the JC70 MoAb, and bcl-2 oncoprotein expression. Bcl-2 expression correlated with low vascular grade. Only 3/27 of bcl2+ case had high angiogenesis vs. 34/107 of cases without bcl-2 expression. In the present study we provide evidence that bcl-2 overexpression directly suppresses angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer, which obviously results in decreased blood supply and oxygenation. This finding implies that reduced intratumoral angiogenesis and immortalizing oncoprotein overexpression are linked to each other and may have a role in defining tumors resistant to PDT.

  14. Huperzine A ameliorates damage induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats through antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xizhong; Gao, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine and isolated from Huperzia serrata, has been shown to possess diverse biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of HupA in myocardial ischemic damage using a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. HupA significantly diminished the infarct size and inhibited the activities of myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). A significantly reduced activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), of the non-enzymatic scavenger enzyme, glutathione (GSH), as well as of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were found in the HupA-treated groups. Furthermore, decreased protein levels of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased levels of Bcl-2 were observed in the infarcted hearts of the rats treated with various concentrations of HupA. In addition, treatment with HupA markedly inhibited the expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). These findings suggest that the cardioprotective potential of HupA is associated with its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties in acute myocardial infarction in rats. PMID:24190328

  15. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response by Constitutive G-protein Signaling in Rod Photoreceptor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Phototransduction is a G-protein signal transduction cascade that converts photon absorption to a change in current at the plasma membrane. Certain genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the phototransduction cascade cause blinding disorders in humans. Some of these mutations serve as a genetic source of “equivalent light” that activates the cascade, whereas other mutations lead to amplification of the light response. How constitutive phototransduction causes photoreceptor cell death is poorly understood. We showed that persistent G-protein signaling, which occurs in rod arrestin and rhodopsin kinase knock-out mice, caused a rapid and specific induction of the PERK pathway of the unfolded protein response. These changes were not observed in the cGMP-gated channel knock-out rods, an equivalent light condition that mimics light-stimulated channel closure. Thus transducin signaling, but not channel closure, triggers rapid cell death in light damage caused by constitutive phototransduction. Additionally, we show that in the albino light damage model cell death was not associated with increase in global protein ubiquitination or unfolded protein response induction. Taken together, these observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cell death pathway caused by constitutive phototransduction and identify the unfolded protein response as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25183010

  16. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems. PMID:27043531

  17. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin–Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3′ kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems. PMID:27043531

  18. Signal Transduction of Fertilization in Frog Eggs and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Cancer Cells: Common and Specific Functions of Membrane Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2008-01-01

    Membrane microdomains or lipid/membrane rafts are distinct areas on the plasma membranes, where a specific subset of lipids (e.g. cholesterol, sphingolipids) and proteins (e.g. glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, growth factor receptor/kinases) are getting together and functioning for several aspects of cellular functions. Our recent investigation has revealed that fertilization of African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, requires cholesterol-dependent nature of egg membrane microdomains. Moreover, fertilization of Xenopus eggs involves proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular part and subsequent phosphorylation of a cytoplasmic tyrosine residue of uroplakin III, an egg membrane microdomain-associated protein. Protease activity toward uroplakin III seems to be derived from fertilizing sperm, while phosphorylation of uroplakin III seems to be catalyzed by the egg tyrosine kinase Src, whose activation is required for cytoplasmic rearrangement of fertilized eggs; so-called ‘egg activation’. Therefore, it is assumed that uroplakin III serves an integral part of signal transduction in fertilization of Xenopus. Our more recent study on human cancer cells has revealed that a similar but distinct scheme of signal transduction operates in anti-apoptotic growth of cells. Namely, in human bladder carcinoma cells, cooperation of uroplakin III and Src, both of which localize to the membrane microdomains, allows cells to escape from apoptotic cell death and proliferate under culture conditions deprived of serum. In this review, I briefly introduce about biology of fertilization and cancer, and then present and discuss our experimental data on general importance and specific features of membrane microdomains in Xenopus fertilization and anti-apoptosis in human bladder carcinoma cells. PMID:18949075

  19. Surfactant Protein A Enhances Constitutive Immune Functions of Clathrin Heavy Chain and Clathrin Adaptor Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Moulakakis, Christina; Steinhäuser, Christine; Biedziak, Dominika; Freundt, Katja; Reiling, Norbert; Stamme, Cordula

    2016-07-01

    NF-κB transcription factors are key regulators of pulmonary inflammatory disorders and repair. Constitutive lung cell type- and microenvironment-specific NF-κB/inhibitor κBα (IκB-α) regulation, however, is poorly understood. Surfactant protein (SP)-A provides both a critical homeostatic and lung defense control, in part by immune instruction of alveolar macrophages (AMs) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The central endocytic proteins, clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and the clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complex AP2, have pivotal alternative roles in cellular homeostasis that are endocytosis independent. Here, we dissect endocytic from alternative functions of CHC, the α-subunit of AP2, and dynamin in basal and SP-A-modified LPS signaling of macrophages. As revealed by pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference in primary AMs and RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively, CHC and α-adaptin, but not dynamin, prevent IκB-α degradation and TNF-α release, independent of their canonical role in membrane trafficking. Kinetics studies employing confocal microscopy, Western analysis, and immunomagnetic sorting revealed that SP-A transiently enhances the basal protein expression of CHC and α-adaptin, depending on early activation of protein kinase CK2 (former casein kinase II) and Akt1 in primary AMs from rats, SP-A(+/+), and SP-A(-/-) mice, as well as in vivo when intratracheally administered to SP-A(+/+) mice. Constitutive immunomodulation by SP-A, but not SP-A-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activity and TNF-α release, requires CHC, α-adaptin, and dynamin. Our data demonstrate that endocytic proteins constitutively restrict NF-κB activity in macrophages and provide evidence that SP-A enhances the immune regulatory capacity of these proteins, revealing a previously unknown pathway of microenvironment-specific NF-κB regulation in the lung. PMID:26771574

  20. Ryanodine receptors are targeted by anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL involving its BH4 domain and Lys87 from its BH3 domain

    PubMed Central

    Vervliet, Tim; Lemmens, Irma; Vandermarliere, Elien; Decrock, Elke; Ivanova, Hristina; Monaco, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Missiaen, Ludwig; Martens, Lennart; De Smedt, Humbert; Leybaert, Luc; Parys, Jan B.; Tavernier, Jan; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members target several intracellular Ca2+-transport systems. Bcl-2, via its N-terminal Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while Bcl-XL, likely independently of its BH4 domain, sensitizes IP3Rs. It remains elusive whether Bcl-XL can also target and modulate RyRs. Here, Bcl-XL co-immunoprecipitated with RyR3 expressed in HEK293 cells. Mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that Bcl-XL bound to the central domain of RyR3 via its BH4 domain, although to a lesser extent compared to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2. Consistent with the ability of the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL to bind to RyRs, loading the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide into RyR3-overexpressing HEK293 cells or in rat hippocampal neurons suppressed RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. In silico superposition of the 3D-structures of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL indicated that Lys87 of the BH3 domain of Bcl-XL could be important for interacting with RyRs. In contrast to Bcl-XL, the Bcl-XLK87D mutant displayed lower binding affinity for RyR3 and a reduced inhibition of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. These data suggest that Bcl-XL binds to RyR channels via its BH4 domain, but also its BH3 domain, more specific Lys87, contributes to the interaction. PMID:25872771

  1. Enhanced transient recombinant protein production in CHO cells through the co-transfection of the product gene with Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Zustiak, Matthew P.; Jose, Lisa; Xie, Yueqing; Zhu, Jianwei; Betenbaugh, Micheal J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient gene expression is gaining popularity as a method to rapidly produce recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Although significant improvements have been made, in terms of expression, more improvements are needed to compete with the yields achievable in stable gene expression. Much progress has come from optimization of transfection media and parameters, as well as altering culturing conditions to enhance productivity. Recent studies have included using cell lines engineered for apoptosis resistance through the constitutive expression of an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL. In this study we examine an alternative method of using the benefits of anti-apoptotic gene expression to enhance the transient expression of biotherapeutics, namely, through the co-transfection of bcl-xL and the product-coding gene. CHO-S cells were co-transfected with the product-coding gene and a vector containing Bcl-xL using polyethylenimine. Cells co-transfected with Bcl-xL showed reduced levels of apoptosis, increased specific productivity, and an overall increase in product yield of approximately 100%. Similar results were produced by employing another anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 delta in CHO cells, or through the co-transfection with bcl-xL using HEK-293E cells. This work provides an alternative method for increasing yields of therapeutic proteins in TGE applications without generating a prior stable cell line and subsequent screening which are both time and resource consuming. PMID:24604826

  2. Expression of animal CED-9 anti-apoptotic gene in tobacco modifies plasma membrane ion fluxes in response to salinity and oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell death (PCD), plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression of animal anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic plants may be an efficient way of enhancing stress resistance in economically impo...

  3. Protective effects of phosphodiesterase 2 inhibitor on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors: involvement of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianxin; Sun, Jiao; Nadeem, Ahmed; Zhang, Han-Ting; O’ Donnell, James M.; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Stress occurs in everyday life, but the relationship between stress and the onset or development of depression/anxiety remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the impairment of antioxidant defense and the neuronal cell death are important in the process of emotional disorders. Chronic stress impairs the homeostasis of antioxidants/oxidation, which results in the aberrant stimulation of the cell cycle proteins where cGMP-PKG signaling is thought to have an inhibitory role. Phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) is linked to cGMP-PKG signaling and highly expressed in the limbic brain regions including hippocampus and amygdala, which may play important roles in the treatment of depression and anxiety. To address the possible effects of PDE2 inhibitors on depression-/anxiety-like behaviors and the underlying mechanisms, Bay 60-7550 (0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before chronic stress. The results suggested that Bay 60-7550 not only restored the behavioral changes but also regulated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels differentially in hippocampus and amygdala, which were increased in the hippocampus while decreased in the amygdala. It was also significant that Bay 60-7550 regulated the abnormalities of pro- and anti-apoptotic components, such as Bax, Caspase 3 and Bcl-2, and the indicator of PKG signaling characterized by pVASPser239, in these two brain regions. The results suggested that Bay 60-7550 is able to alleviate oxidative stress and mediate part of the apoptotic machinery in neuronal cells possibly through SOD-cGMP/PKG-anti-apoptosis signaling and that inhibition of PDE2 may represent a novel therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. PMID:24694839

  4. PB-1: The Relationship Between Anti Apoptotic Marker (BCL-2) and Biochemical Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Damitri, TD; Faridah, AR; Imran, Y; Hasnan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate the expression of anti apoptotic marker (bcl-2) and the level of biochemical markers in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS : A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2003 to November 2005. Forty one type 2 diabetes patients and 36 non diabetes (control) subjects aged between 20 to 70 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and analyzed in the Chemical Pathology laboratory, while glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) was analyzed in the Endocrine laboratory. The skin biopsy tissue samples were stained with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain for expression of bcl-2 in the Pathology laboratory. RESULTS : There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between both groups for mean FPG (diabetics=11.02±4.25, control=4.41±1.12 mmol/L), HDLC (diabetics=1.00±0.38, control=1.47±0.72 mmol/L) and A1C (diabetics=9.50±2.24%, control=5.00±0.67%). However, there was no significant difference for TG, TC, and LDLC between both groups. Interestingly, the difference of mean bcl-2 expression were very highly significant (p<0.001) when compared between both groups. Mean bcl-2 expression was dibetics= 1.88±0.33 and control= 1.47±0.51. Positive bcl-2 expression was found in only 5 (12.2%) diabetics while 36 (87.8%) diabetics showed negative expression. Positive bcl-2 expression was observed in 19 (52.8%) controls while 17 (47.2%) showed negative expression. CONCLUSION : The expression of anti apoptotic marker bcl-2 was increased in non diabetic subjects in order to prevent cell death. However, the reduced expression of bcl-2 in diabetic patients may be associated with programmed cell death. The detailed mechanism for the gene expression of bcl-2 may help us to understand how bcl-2 is involved in apoptosis in diabetic microvasculature complications.

  5. Anti-apoptotic Molecule Bcl-2 Regulates the Differentiation, Activation, and Survival of Both Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts*

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Yuichi; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Akiyama, Toru; Kadono, Yuho; Nakamura, Masaki; Oshima, Yasushi; Yasui, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Hirose, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Bouillet, Philippe; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae

    2009-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Although several studies have indicated the importance of Bcl-2 in maintaining skeletal integrity, the detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Bcl-2−/− mice are growth-retarded and exhibit increased bone volume of the primary spongiosa, mainly due to the decreased number and dysfunction of osteoclasts. Osteoblast function is also impaired in Bcl-2−/− mice. Ex vivo studies on osteoblasts and osteoclasts showed that Bcl-2 promoted the differentiation, activation, and survival of both cell types. Because Bcl-2−/− mice die before 6 weeks of age due to renal failure and cannot be compared with adult wild type mice, we generated Bcl-2−/−Bim+/− mice, in which a single Bim allele was inactivated, and compared them with their Bcl-2+/−Bim+/− littermates. Loss of a single Bim allele restored normal osteoclast function in Bcl-2−/− mice but did not restore the impaired function of osteoblasts, and the mice exhibited osteopenia. These data demonstrate that Bcl-2 promotes the differentiation, activity, and survival of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The balance between Bcl-2 and Bim regulates osteoclast apoptosis and function, whereas other pro-apoptotic members are important for osteoblasts. PMID:19846553

  6. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-01-01

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M−1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis. PMID:26193308

  7. Carnosine attenuates early brain injury through its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-yong; Sun, Bao-liang; Yang, Ming-feng; Li, Da-wei; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-03-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been demonstrated to provide antioxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in the animal of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether carnosine prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) in rats. We found that intraperitoneal administration of carnosine improved neurobehavioral deficits, attenuated brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, and decreased reactive oxygen species level at 48 h following SAH in rat models. Carnosine treatment increased tissue copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activities, and reduced post-SAH elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rats. Furthermore, carnosine treatment attenuated SAH-induced microglia activation and cortical neuron apoptosis. These results indicated that administration of carnosine may provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH in rat models. PMID:25179154

  8. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  9. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  10. Integrin-linked kinase: a hypoxia-induced anti-apoptotic factor exploited by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Elizabeth R; Coffelt, Seth B; Figueroa, Yanira G; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Nelson, Anne B; Sullivan, Deborah E; Morris, Cindy B; Tang, Yan; Beckman, Barbara S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2007-01-01

    Based on cDNA microarray results, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) emerged as an interesting candidate in hypoxia-mediated survival mechanisms employed by cancer cells. This notion was confirmed here by the following observations: the 5' promoter region of the ilk gene contains hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) that bind hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor complexes and drive HRE-luciferase gene expression in reporter assays; ILK protein and kinase activity are induced following hypoxia; downstream targets of ILK signaling are induced following hypoxia treatment; inhibition of ILK leads to increased apoptosis; and HIF and ILK are co-localized within human cancer tissues. The identification of ILK as a player in hypoxia survival signaling employed by cancer cells further validates ILK as a unique target for cancer therapy. PMID:17143519

  11. Huperzine A attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury may occur during liver transplantation and remains a serious concern in clinical practice. Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Huperzia serrata, has been demonstrated to possess anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic properties. In the present study, a rat model of HI/R was established by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. HupA was injected into the tail vein 5 min prior to the induction of HI/R at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg. The histopathological assessment of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in the serum samples. The tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax in hepatic tissues was detected via western blot analysis. Treatment of Wistar rats with HupA at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg markedly attenuated HI/R injury as observed histologically. In addition, the significant reductions of serum ALT and AST were observed in HupA‑treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, HupA treatment enhanced the activity of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT and GSH, but decreased the MDA tissue content. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of Bcl‑2 expression but decreased Bax and caspase‑3 tissue expression at the protein level in the HupA‑treated group. The present data suggest that HupA attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:24888717

  12. Enhancing activity of N-glycosylation for constitutive proteins secretions in non-polarized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Nobutake; Ohno, Yuji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Manome, Yosinobu; Saito, Saburo

    2009-04-17

    Several fusion proteins of mouse Interleukins (mILs) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were expressed in fibroblast and epithelial cells. Among these proteins, the mIL-31 derivative was the most efficiently secreted into the medium in a N-glycosylation-dependent manner. From the analysis of deletion mutants, the minimal structure for constitutive secretions consisted of a signal peptide and N-glycosylation. Introduction of the signal sequence from mIL-31 to human p53 protein failed to secrete the products, but further addition of the N-glycosylation site resulted in constitutive secretion of biologically active p53 protein into the medium in the N-glycosylated form. In this report, we showed the importance of N-glycosylation for constitutive protein secretions, especially using non-polarized cells.

  13. Preferential phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase tyrosine 861 is critical for mediating an anti-apoptotic response to hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Lunn, J Adrian; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2007-04-01

    The results presented here demonstrate that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) Tyr-861 is the predominant tyrosine phosphorylation site stimulated by hyperosmotic stress in a variety of cell types, including epithelial cell lines (ileum-derived IEC-18, colon-derived Caco2, and stomach-derived NCI-N87), FAK null fibroblasts re-expressing FAK, and Src family kinase triple null fibroblasts (SYF cells) in which c-Src has been restored (YF cells). We show that hyperosmotic stress-stimulated FAK phosphorylation in epithelial cells is inhibited by Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 and that it does not occur in SYF cells. Unexpectedly, hyperosmotic stress-induced phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397, Tyr-576, and most dramatically at Tyr-861 was completely insensitive to the F-actin-disrupting agents, latrunculin A and cytochalasin D. Finally, we show that in FAK null cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress or growth factor withdrawal, re-expression of wild type FAK restored cell survival, whereas re-expression of FAK mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine at position 861 (FAKY861F) did not. Our results indicate that FAK Tyr-861 phosphorylation is required for mammalian cell survival of hyperosmotic stress. Furthermore, the results suggest that FAK is an upstream regulator (rather than downstream effector) of F-actin reorganization in response to hyperosmotic stress. We propose that FAK/c-Src bipartite enzyme is a sensor of cytoplasmic shrinkage, and that the phosphorylation on FAK Tyr-861 by Src and subsequent reorganization of F-actin can initiate an anti-apoptotic signaling pathway that protects cells from hyperosmotic stress. PMID:17289681

  14. Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Lentiviral Vector Transduction Promote Increased Rituximab Tolerance in Cancerous B-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Benyamin; Krogh, Louise Bechmann; Laursen, Maria Bach; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Marques, Sara Correia; Dybkær, Karen; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by great genetic and clinical heterogeneity which complicates prognostic prediction and influences treatment efficacy. The most common regimen, R-CHOP, consists of a combination of anthracycline- and immuno-based drugs including Rituximab. It remains elusive how and to which extent genetic variability impacts the response and potential tolerance to R-CHOP. Hence, an improved understanding of mechanisms leading to drug tolerance in B-cells is crucial, and modelling by genetic intervention directly in B-cells is fundamental in such investigations. Lentivirus-based gene vectors are widely used gene vehicles, which in B-cells are an attractive alternative to potentially toxic transfection-based methodologies. Here, we investigate the use of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in B-cells for exploring the impact of microRNAs on tolerance to Rituximab. Notably, we find that robust lentiviral transduction of cancerous B-cell lines markedly and specifically enhances the resistance of transduced germinal center B-cells (GCBs) to Rituximab. Although Rituximab works partially through complement-mediated cell lysis, increased tolerance is not achieved through effects of lentiviral transduction on cell death mediated by complement. Rather, reduced levels of PARP1 and persistent high levels of CD43 in Rituximab-treated GCBs demonstrate anti-apoptotic effects of lentiviral transduction that may interfere with the outcome and interpretation of Rituximab tolerance studies. Our findings stress that caution should be exercised exploiting lentiviral vectors in studies of tolerance to therapeutics in DLBCL. Importantly, however, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the lentiviral gene delivery platform in studies addressing the impact of specific microRNAs on Rituximab responsiveness. PMID:27045839

  15. In X. laevis embryos high levels of the anti-apoptotic factor p27BBP/eIF6 are stage-dependently found in BrdU and TUNEL-reactive territories.

    PubMed

    De Marco, N; Campanella, C; Carotenuto, R

    2011-05-01

    p27BBP/eIF6 (β4 binding protein/eukaryotic initiation factor 6) is a highly conserved protein necessary for cell life. In adult eIF6 mice, a 50% decrease in the protein levels in all tissues is accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation only in the liver, fat cells and cultured fibroblasts. During X. laevis embryogenesis expression of p27BBP/eIF6 is abundant in high proliferative territories. However, in Xenopus cell proliferation appears unaffected following p27BBP/eIF6 over-expression or down-regulation. Indeed, p27BBP/eIF6 is an anti-apoptotic factor acting upstream of Bcl2 that reduces endogenous apoptosis. We studied p27BBP/eIF6 protein localization in wild type embryos and compared it to proliferation and apoptosis. At the beginning of embryogenesis, high levels of p27BBP/eIF6, proliferation and apoptosis overlap. In later development stages high proliferation levels are present in the same regions where higher p27BBP/eIF6 expression is observed, while apoptosis does not appear specifically concentrated in the same sites. The higher presence of p27BBP/eIF6 would appear related to an increased need of apoptosis control in the regions where cell death is essential for normal development. PMID:20663234

  16. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-feng; Kong, Liang; Yao, Ying-Jia; Jiao, Ya-Nan; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Lian, Guan; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-01-01

    neuroprotection of brain tissue through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in a mouse model of SWI. These results suggest a new strategy for promoting neuronal survival and function after CED to improve long-term patient outcome. PMID:27445818

  17. Repeated Recruitment of LTR Retrotransposons as Promoters by the Anti-Apoptotic Locus NAIP during Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Romanish, Mark T; Lock, Wynne M; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Dunn, Catherine A; Mager, Dixie L

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP, also known as BIRC1) is a member of the conserved inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Lineage-specific rearrangements and expansions of this locus have yielded different copy numbers among primates and rodents, with human retaining a single functional copy and mouse possessing several copies, depending on the strain. Roles for this gene in disease have been documented, but little is known about transcriptional regulation of NAIP. We show here that NAIP has multiple promoters sharing no similarity between human and rodents. Moreover, we demonstrate that multiple, domesticated long terminal repeats (LTRs) of endogenous retroviral elements provide NAIP promoter function in human, mouse, and rat. In human, an LTR serves as a tissue-specific promoter, active primarily in testis. However, in rodents, our evidence indicates that an ancestral LTR common to all rodent genes is the major, constitutive promoter for these genes, and that a second LTR found in two of the mouse genes is a minor promoter. Thus, independently acquired LTRs have assumed regulatory roles for orthologous genes, a remarkable evolutionary scenario. We also demonstrate that 5′ flanking regions of IAP family genes as a group, in both human and mouse are enriched for LTR insertions compared to average genes. We propose several potential explanations for these findings, including a hypothesis that recruitment of LTRs near NAIP or other IAP genes may represent a host-cell adaptation to modulate apoptotic responses. PMID:17222062

  18. Do plants mediate their anti-diabetic effects through anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions? an in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems. Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia are three such plants widely used in Ayurveda for their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Additionally their anti-oxidant properties have been scientifically validated in various experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Hence the present in vitro study was planned to assess whether the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Curcuma longa (Cl) and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) are mediated through their antioxidant and/or anti-apoptotic property in a streptozotocin induced stress model. Methods RINm5F cell line was used as a model of pancreatic β-cells against stress induced by streptozotocin (2 mM). Non-toxic concentrations of the plant extracts were identified using MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation through MDA release, modulation of apoptosis and insulin release were the variables measured to assess streptozotocin induced damage and protection afforded by the plant extracts. Results All 3 plants extracts significantly inhibited MDA release from RIN cells indicating protective effect against STZ induced oxidative damage. They also exhibited a dose dependent anti-apoptotic effect as seen by a decrease in the sub G0 population in response to STZ. None of the plant extracts affected insulin secretion from the cells to a great extent. Conclusion The present study thus demonstrated that the protective effect of the selected medicinal plants against oxidative stress induced by STZ in vitro

  19. Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Aktas, Emel; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental and occupational contaminant and may represent a serious health hazard to humans and other animals. Cd is reported to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, and induces testicular damage in many species of animals. The goal of our study was to examine the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on Cd-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and testicular injury in rats. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, CAPE alone, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with CAPE; each group consisted of 10 animals. To induce toxicity, Cd (1 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and subcutaneously injected into rats for 30 days. The rats in CAPE-treated group were given a daily dose of 10 μmol/kg body weight of CAPE by using intraperitoneal injection. This application was continued daily for a total of 30 days. To date, no examinations of the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties of CAPE on Cd-induced apoptosis, oxidative damage, and testicular injury in rat testes have been reported. CAPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance and serum testosterone levels in Cd-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in testis tissues of the Cd-treated group with CAPE treatment. Moreover, CAPE significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses in testes tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the protective potential of CAPE in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:26424218

  20. FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, E; Jah, N; Pirou, C; Bouleau, S; Le Floch, N; Vayssière, J-L; Mignotte, B; Renaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a prototypic member of the FGFs family overexpressed in various tumors. Contrarily to most FGFs, FGF1 lacks a secretion peptide signal and acts mainly in an intracellular and nuclear manner. Intracellular FGF1 induces cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We previously showed that intracellular FGF1 induces neuronal differentiation and inhibits both p53- and serum-free-medium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. FGF1 nuclear localization is required for these intracellular activities, suggesting that FGF1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal differentiation by new nuclear pathways. To better characterize intracellular FGF1 pathways, we studied the effect of three mutations localized in the C-terminal domain of FGF1 (i.e., FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D) on FGF1 neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities in PC12 cells. The change of the serine 130 to alanine precludes FGF1 phosphorylation, while its mutation to aspartic acid mimics phosphorylation. These FGF1 mutants kept both a nuclear and cytosolic localization in PC12 cells. Our study highlights for the first time the role of FGF1 phosphorylation and the implication of FGF1 C-terminal domain on its intracellular activities. Indeed, we show that the K132E mutation inhibits both the neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities of FGF1, suggesting a regulatory activity for FGF1 C terminus. Furthermore, we observed that both FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D mutant forms induced PC12 cells neuronal differentiation. Therefore, FGF1 phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Then, we showed that only FGF1S130A protects PC12 cells against p53-dependent apoptosis, thus phosphorylation appears to inhibit FGF1 anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells. Altogether, our results show that phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1 neurotrophic activity but inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity after p53-dependent apoptosis induction, giving new insight

  1. Kaiso represses the expression of glucocorticoid receptor via a methylation-dependent mechanism and attenuates the anti-apoptotic activity of glucocorticoids in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Yan; Yang, Fang-hui; Li, Zi-bo; Zhou, Jiang; Liu, Xie-hong; Li, Min; Hu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Kaiso is a Pox Virus and Zinc Finger (POZ-ZF) transcription factor with bi-modal DNA-binding specificity. Here, we demonstrated that Kaiso expression is inversely correlated with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in breast carcinomas. Knockdown of Kaiso increased GR expression, while overexpression of Kaiso inhibited GR expression in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Kaiso repressed GR proximal promoter-reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, ChIP experiments demonstrated that endogenous Kaiso was associated with the GR promoter sequence in a methylation-dependent manner. Since glucocorticoids inhibit chemotherapyinduced apoptosis and have been widely used as a co-treatment of patients with breast cancer, we assessed the role of Kasio in GR-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. We found that overexpression of Kaiso attenuated the anti-apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that GR is a putative target gene of Kaiso and suggest Kaiso to be a potential therapeutic target in GC-combination chemotherapy in breast cancer. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 167-172] PMID:26424557

  2. Correlation of Glucocorticoid-mediated E4BP4 upregulation with altered expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in CEM human lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jessica A.; Nary, Laura J.; Hovanessian, Rebeka; Medh, Rheem D.

    2014-01-01

    In C.elegans, motoneuron apoptosis is regulated via a ces-2 – ces-1 – egl-1 pathway. We tested whether human CEM lymphoblastic leukemia cells undergo apoptosis via an analogous pathway. We have previously shown that E4BP4, a ces-2 ortholog, mediates glucocorticoid (GC)-dependent upregulation of BIM, an egl-1 ortholog, in GC-sensitive CEM C7-14 cells and in CEM C1-15 mE#3 cells, which are sensitized to GCs by ectopic expression of E4BP4. In the present study, we demonstrate that the human ces-1 orthologs, SLUG and SNAIL, are not significantly repressed in correlation with E4BP4 expression. Expression of E4BP4 homologs, the PAR family genes, especially HLF, encoding a known anti-apoptotic factor, was inverse to that of E4BP4 and BIM. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in CEM cells was analyzed via an apoptosis PCR Array. We identified BIRC3 and BIM as genes whose expression paralleled that of E4BP4, while FASLG, TRAF4, BCL2A1, BCL2L1, BCL2L2 and CD40LG as genes whose expression was opposite to that of E4BP4. PMID:25101525

  3. Correlation of glucocorticoid-mediated E4BP4 upregulation with altered expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in CEM human lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beach, Jessica A; Nary, Laura J; Hovanessian, Rebeka; Medh, Rheem D

    2014-08-29

    In Caenorhabditiselegans, motorneuron apoptosis is regulated via a ces-2-ces-1-egl-1 pathway. We tested whether human CEM lymphoblastic leukemia cells undergo apoptosis via an analogous pathway. We have previously shown that E4BP4, a ces-2 ortholog, mediates glucocorticoid (GC)-dependent upregulation of BIM, an egl-1 ortholog, in GC-sensitive CEM C7-14 cells and in CEM C1-15mE#3 cells, which are sensitized to GCs by ectopic expression of E4BP4. In the present study, we demonstrate that the human ces-1 orthologs, SLUG and SNAIL, are not significantly repressed in correlation with E4BP4 expression. Expression of E4BP4 homologs, the PAR family genes, especially HLF, encoding a known anti-apoptotic factor, was inverse to that of E4BP4 and BIM. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in CEM cells was analyzed via an apoptosis PCR Array. We identified BIRC3 and BIM as genes whose expression paralleled that of E4BP4, while FASLG, TRAF4, BCL2A1, BCL2L1, BCL2L2 and CD40LG as genes whose expression was opposite to that of E4BP4. PMID:25101525

  4. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of the anti-apoptotic effect of hyperin, which is mediated by Mcl-1 and Bid, in H2O2-injured EA.hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Li; Ge, Rui; Li, Jian-Kuan; Kang, Ya; Zhu, Mei-Xia; Li, Qing-Shan; Hao, Xu-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial injury has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including thrombotic disorders. Hyperin (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), a flavonoid compound and major bioactive component of the medicinal herb Apocynum venetum L., is commonly used to prevent endothelium dysfunction. However, its mode of action remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, we have for the first time investigated the protective effect hyperin exerts against H2O2-induced injury in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)‑based quantitative proteomic analysis. The results showed that H2O2 exposure induced alterations in the expression of 250 proteins in the cells. We noted that the expression of 52 proteins associated with processes such as cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization, was restored by hyperin treatment. Of the proteins differentially regulated following H2O2 stress, the anti-apoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), and the pro-apoptotic protein, BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid), exhibited marked changes in expression. Hyperin increased Mcl-1 expression and decreased that of Bid in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis of the apoptosis-related proteins, truncated BID (tBid), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, Fas, FasL and caspase-8, demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis and the pro-apoptotic protein levels were decreased by hyperin pre‑treatment. In the present study we demonstrate that hyperin effectively prevents H2O2‑induced cell injury by regulating the Mcl‑1‑ and Bid-mediated anti‑apoptotic mechanism, suggesting that hyperin is a potential candidate for use in the treatment of thrombotic diseases. PMID:26935776

  5. Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2010-09-30

    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco. PMID:20123048

  6. Anti-apoptotic activity of caffeic acid, ellagic acid and ferulic acid in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a Bcl-2 independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Avti, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Surender; Mittal, Nidhi; Sohi, Kiranjit Kaur; Pathak, Chander Mohan

    2006-02-01

    Polyphenols have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells including leukemia both in vitro and in vivo. However, their action on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during oxidative stress remains to be explored. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely caffeic acid (CA), ellagic acid (EA) and ferulic acid (FA). H2O2-induced apoptosis in normal human PBMCs was assayed by phosphotidylserine externalization, nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation. Incubation of PBMCs with 5 mM H2O2 led to increased Annexin-V binding to externalized phosphatidyl serine (PS), an event of pre-apoptotic stage of the cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells pretreated with phenolics could resist H2O2-induced apoptotic damage. Caffeic acid (60 and 120 microM) and EA (100 and 200 microM) caused no change in externalization of PS, whereas FA (100 and 200 microM) increased externalization of PS in PBMCs treated with H2O2. The effects of phenolics were abolished to a large extent by culturing the PBMCs for 24 h after washing the phenolics from the medium. Inhibitory activities of these phenolics on lipid peroxidation were in the order of EAanti-apoptotic effect of EA, CA and FA in PBMCs seems to be through the Bcl-2 independent mechanism. PMID:16459021

  7. Thymoquinone Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity, Apoptosis, and Oxidative Stress in Rats is Based on its Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Sener, Umit; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an environmental and industrial pollutant, generates free radicals responsible for oxidative stress. Cd can also lead to various renal toxic damage such as the proximal tubules and glomerulus dysfunction. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from black seeds (Nigella sativa) and has various pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the nephroprotective, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic effect of the TQ against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with TQ; each group contain eight animals. The Cd-treated group was injected subcutaneously with CdCl2 dissolved in saline in the amount of 2 ml/kg/day for 30 days, resulting in a dosage of 1 mg/kg Cd. The rats in TQ-treated groups were given TQ (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally together with first Cd injection during the study period. The histopathological studies in the kidney of rats also showed that TQ markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histological architecture of the renal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ significantly decreased the Cd-induced over expression of nuclear factor-κB in renal tissue. Furthermore, TQ treatment resulted in decreased the number of apoptotic cells. TQ significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses (reduced superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in renal tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the nephroprotective potential of TQ in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26226832

  8. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam L.; Steurer, Michael A.; Aronstam, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 μM forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  9. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam L; Steurer, Michael A; Aronstam, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 μM forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  10. Constitutive Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C Regulates D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Michele L.; Sibley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The D1 dopamine receptor (D1DAR) is robustly phosphorylated by multiple protein kinases, yet the phosphorylation sites and functional consequences of these modifications are not fully understood. Here, we report that the D1DAR is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in the absence of agonist stimulation. Phosphorylation of the D1DAR by PKC is constitutive in nature, can be induced by phorbol ester treatment or through activation of Gq-mediated signal transduction pathways, and is abolished by PKC inhibitors. We demonstrate that most, but not all, isoforms of PKC are capable of phosphorylating the receptor. To directly assess the functional role of PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR, a site-directed mutagenesis approach was used to identify the PKC sites within the receptor. Five serine residues were found to mediate the PKC phosphorylation. Replacement of these residues had no effect on D1DAR expression or agonist-induced desensitization; however, G protein coupling and cAMP accumulation were significantly enhanced in PKC-null D1DAR. Thus, constitutive or heterologous PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR dampens dopamine activation of the receptor, most likely occurring in a context-specific manner, mediated by the repertoire of PKC isozymes within the cell. PMID:20969574

  11. Constitutive Negative Regulation of R Proteins in Arabidopsis also via Autophagy Related Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Pečenková, Tamara; Sabol, Peter; Kulich, Ivan; Ortmannová, Jitka; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Even though resistance (R) genes are among the most studied components of the plant immunity, there remain still a lot of aspects to be explained about the regulation of their function. Many gain-of-function mutants of R genes and loss-of-function of their regulators often demonstrate up-regulated defense responses in combination with dwarf stature and/or spontaneous leaf lesions formation. For most of these mutants, phenotypes are a consequence of an ectopic activation of R genes. Based on the compilation and comparison of published results in this field, we have concluded that the constitutively activated defense phenotypes recurrently arise by disruption of tight, constitutive and multilevel negative control of some of R proteins that might involve also their targeting to the autophagy pathway. This mode of R protein regulation is supported also by protein–protein interactions listed in available databases, as well as in silico search for autophagy machinery interacting motifs. The suggested model could resolve some explanatory discrepancies found in the studies of the immunity responses of autophagy mutants. PMID:26973696

  12. Enhanced salt tolerance in tomato plants constitutively expressing heat-shock protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Fu, C; Liu, X X; Yang, W W; Zhao, C M; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. The UPR signaling pathway is associated with plant responses to adverse environmental conditions. Thus, changes in the UPR signaling pathway might affect plant abiotic tolerance. Here, the role of ER small heat-shock protein (ER-sHSP) in improving plant resistance to salt stress was explored. Under salt stress conditions, ER-sHSP transgenic plants were found to have more vigorous roots, maintain a higher relative water content, absorb less Na(+), accumulate more osmolytes and Ca(2+), and sustain less damage to the photosystem, compared to wild-type non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the constitutive expression of ER-sHSP under salt stress depressed the expression of other ER molecular chaperones. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of ER-sHSP enhanced salinity tolerance of tomato plants significantly, and alleviated the ER stress caused by the salt stress in plant cells. PMID:27421016

  13. Constitutive phospholipid scramblase activity of a G protein-coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, Michael A.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Menon, Indu; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2014-10-01

    Opsin, the rhodopsin apoprotein, was recently shown to be an ATP-independent flippase (or scramblase) that equilibrates phospholipids across photoreceptor disc membranes in mammalian retina, a process required for disc homoeostasis. Here we show that scrambling is a constitutive activity of rhodopsin, distinct from its light-sensing function. Upon reconstitution into vesicles, discrete conformational states of the protein (rhodopsin, a metarhodopsin II-mimic, and two forms of opsin) facilitated rapid (>10,000 phospholipids per protein per second) scrambling of phospholipid probes. Our results indicate that the large conformational changes involved in converting rhodopsin to metarhodopsin II are not required for scrambling, and that the lipid translocation pathway either lies near the protein surface or involves membrane packing defects in the vicinity of the protein. In addition, we demonstrate that β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors scramble lipids, suggesting that rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors may play an unexpected moonlighting role in re-modelling cell membranes.

  14. Constitutive phospholipid scramblase activity of a G Protein-coupled receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Michael A.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Menon, Indu; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2014-01-01

    Opsin, the rhodopsin apoprotein, was recently shown to be an ATP-independent flippase (or scramblase) that equilibrates phospholipids across photoreceptor disc membranes in mammalian retina, a process required for disc homeostasis. Here we show that scrambling is a constitutive activity of rhodopsin, distinct from its light-sensing function. Upon reconstitution into vesicles, discrete conformational states of the protein (rhodopsin, a metarhodopsin II-mimic, and two forms of opsin) facilitated rapid (>10,000 phospholipids per protein per second) scrambling of phospholipid probes. Our results indicate that the large conformational changes involved in converting rhodopsin to metarhodopsin II are not required for scrambling, and that the lipid translocation pathway either lies near the protein surface or involves membrane packing defects in the vicinity of the protein. Additionally, we demonstrate that β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors scramble lipids, suggesting that rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors may play an unexpected moonlighting role in re-modeling cell membranes. PMID:25296113

  15. Identification of a new transmembrane adaptor protein that constitutively binds Grb2 in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins couple antigen receptor engagement to downstream signaling cascades in lymphocytes. One example of these proteins is the linker for activation of T cells (LAT), which plays an indispensable role in T cell activation and development. Here, we report identification of a new transmembrane adaptor molecule, namely growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2)-binding adaptor protein, transmembrane (GAPT), which is expressed in B cells and myeloid cells. Similar to LAT, GAPT has an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail with multiple Grb2-binding motifs. In contrast to other transmembrane adaptor proteins, GAPT is not phosphorylated upon BCR ligation but associates with Grb2 constitutively through its proline-rich region. Targeted disruption of the gapt gene in mice affects neither B cell development nor a nitrophenylacetyl-specific antibody response. However, in the absence of GAPT, B cell proliferation after BCR cross-linking is enhanced. In aged GAPT−/− mice, the number of marginal zone (MZ) B cells is increased, and other B cell subsets are normal. The serum concentrations of IgM, IgG2b, and IgG3 are also elevated in these mice. These data indicate that GAPT might play an important role in control of B cell activation and proper maintenance of MZ B cells. PMID:18559951

  16. Protein kinase Cζ exhibits constitutive phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-independent regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Irene S.; Kaulich, Manuel; Kim, Peter K.; Simon, Nitya; Jacinto, Estela; Dowdy, Steven F.; King, Charles C.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoenzymes are key modulators of insulin signalling, and their dysfunction correlates with insulin-resistant states in both mice and humans. Despite the engaged interest in the importance of aPKCs to type 2 diabetes, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern their cellular functions than for the conventional and novel PKC isoenzymes and the functionally-related protein kinase B (Akt) family of kinases. Here we show that aPKC is constitutively phosphorylated and, using a genetically-encoded reporter for PKC activity, basally active in cells. Specifically, we show that phosphorylation at two key regulatory sites, the activation loop and turn motif, of the aPKC PKCζ in multiple cultured cell types is constitutive and independently regulated by separate kinases: ribosome-associated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) mediates co-translational phosphorylation of the turn motif, followed by phosphorylation at the activation loop by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Live cell imaging reveals that global aPKC activity is constitutive and insulin unresponsive, in marked contrast to the insulin-dependent activation of Akt monitored by an Akt-specific reporter. Nor does forced recruitment to phosphoinositides by fusing the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt to the kinase domain of PKCζ alter either the phosphorylation or activity of PKCζ. Thus, insulin stimulation does not activate PKCζ through the canonical phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-mediated pathway that activates Akt, contrasting with previous literature on PKCζ activation. These studies support a model wherein an alternative mechanism regulates PKCζ-mediated insulin signalling that does not utilize conventional activation via agonist-evoked phosphorylation at the activation loop. Rather, we propose that scaffolding near substrates drives the function of PKCζ. PMID:26635352

  17. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana T; Goos, Yvonne J; Pereboom, Tamara C; Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  18. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  19. MEF2C as a Neurogenic and Anti-Apoptotic Transcription Factor in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; McKercher, Scott R.; Cui, Jiankun; Nie, Zhiguo; Soussou, Walid; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sallmen, Tina; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Lipton, Jeffrey H.; Talantova, Maria; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-based therapies require a reliable source of cells that can be easily grown, undergo directed differentiation, and remain viable after transplantation. Here we generated stably transformed murine embryonic stem (ES) cells that express a constitutively active form of myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2CA). MEF2C has been implicated as a calcium-dependent transcription factor that enhances survival and affects synapse formation of neurons as well as differentiation of cardiomyocytes. We now report that expression of MEF2CA, both in vitro and in vivo, under regulation of the nestin enhancer effectively produces ‘neuronal’ progenitor cells that differentiate into a virtually pure population of neurons. Histological, electrophysiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that MEF2C-directed neuronal progenitor cells transplanted into a mouse model of cerebral ischemia can successfully differentiate into functioning neurons and ameliorate stroke-induced behavioral deficits. PMID:18579729

  20. Carbon Monoxide Mediates the Anti-apoptotic Effects of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Medulloblastoma DAOY Cells via K+ Channel Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Al-Owais, Moza M. A.; Scragg, Jason L.; Dallas, Mark L.; Boycott, Hannah E.; Warburton, Philip; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Boyle, John P.; Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cell survival and proliferation is attributable in part to suppression of apoptotic pathways, yet the mechanisms by which cancer cells resist apoptosis are not fully understood. Many cancer cells constitutively express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes heme to generate biliverdin, Fe2+, and carbon monoxide (CO). These breakdown products may play a role in the ability of cancer cells to suppress apoptotic signals. K+ channels also play a crucial role in apoptosis, permitting K+ efflux which is required to initiate caspase activation. Here, we demonstrate that HO-1 is constitutively expressed in human medulloblastoma tissue, and can be induced in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY either chemically or by hypoxia. Induction of HO-1 markedly increases the resistance of DAOY cells to oxidant-induced apoptosis. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the heme degradation product CO. Furthermore we demonstrate the presence of the pro-apoptotic K+ channel, Kv2.1, in both human medulloblastoma tissue and DAOY cells. CO inhibited the voltage-gated K+ currents in DAOY cells, and largely reversed the oxidant-induced increase in K+ channel activity. p38 MAPK inhibition prevented the oxidant-induced increase of K+ channel activity in DAOY cells, and enhanced their resistance to apoptosis. Our findings suggest that CO-mediated inhibition of K+ channels represents an important mechanism by which HO-1 can increase the resistance to apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells, and support the idea that HO-1 inhibition may enhance the effectiveness of current chemo- and radiotherapies. PMID:22593583

  1. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters. PMID:22709462

  2. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  3. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-08-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacI(q) regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  4. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization.

  5. An Ancestral Role for CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 Proteins in Both Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Yuki; Pierik, Ronald; Kelly, Steven; Sakuta, Masaaki; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2015-09-01

    Land plants have evolved adaptive regulatory mechanisms enabling the survival of environmental stresses associated with terrestrial life. Here, we focus on the evolution of the regulatory CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) component of the ethylene signaling pathway that modulates stress-related changes in plant growth and development. First, we compare CTR1-like proteins from a bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens (representative of early divergent land plants), with those of more recently diverged lycophyte and angiosperm species (including Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) and identify a monophyletic CTR1 family. The fully sequenced P. patens genome encodes only a single member of this family (PpCTR1L). Next, we compare the functions of PpCTR1L with that of related angiosperm proteins. We show that, like angiosperm CTR1 proteins (e.g. AtCTR1 of Arabidopsis), PpCTR1L modulates downstream ethylene signaling via direct interaction with ethylene receptors. These functions, therefore, likely predate the divergence of the bryophytes from the land-plant lineage. However, we also show that PpCTR1L unexpectedly has dual functions and additionally modulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. In contrast, while AtCTR1 lacks detectable ABA signaling functions, Arabidopsis has during evolution acquired another homolog that is functionally distinct from AtCTR1. In conclusion, the roles of CTR1-related proteins appear to have functionally diversified during land-plant evolution, and angiosperm CTR1-related proteins appear to have lost an ancestral ABA signaling function. Our study provides new insights into how molecular events such as gene duplication and functional differentiation may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of regulatory mechanisms in plants. PMID:26243614

  6. Using constitutive activity to define appropriate high-throughput screening assays for orphan g protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tony; Coleman, James L J; Smith, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Orphan G protein-coupled receptors represent an underexploited resource for drug discovery but pose a considerable challenge for assay development because their cognate G protein signaling pathways are often unknown. In this methodological chapter, we describe the use of constitutive activity, that is, the inherent ability of receptors to couple to their cognate G proteins in the absence of ligand, to inform the development of high-throughput screening assays for a particular orphan receptor. We specifically focus on a two-step process, whereby constitutive G protein coupling is first determined using yeast Gpa1/human G protein chimeras linked to growth and β-galactosidase generation. Coupling selectivity is then confirmed in mammalian cells expressing endogenous G proteins and driving accumulation of transcription factor-fused luciferase reporters specific to each of the classes of G protein. Based on these findings, high-throughput screening campaigns can be performed on the already miniaturized mammalian reporter system. PMID:25563179

  7. Protein structural and surface water rearrangement constitute major events in the earliest aggregation stages of tau

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Anna; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kinnebrew, Maia; Lew, John; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the mechanism of its progression is poorly understood. Here, we examine the structural and dynamic characteristics of transiently evolving protein aggregates under ambient conditions by directly probing protein surface water diffusivity, local protein segment dynamics, and interprotein packing as a function of aggregation time, along the third repeat domain and C terminus of Δtau187 spanning residues 255–441 of the longest isoform of human tau. These measurements were achieved with a set of highly sensitive magnetic resonance tools that rely on site-specific electron spin labeling of Δtau187. Within minutes of initiated aggregation, the majority of Δtau187 that is initially homogeneously hydrated undergoes structural transformations to form partially structured aggregation intermediates. This is reflected in the dispersion of surface water dynamics that is distinct around the third repeat domain, found to be embedded in an intertau interface, from that of the solvent-exposed C terminus. Over the course of hours and in a rate-limiting process, a majority of these aggregation intermediates proceed to convert into stable β-sheet structured species and maintain their stacking order without exchanging their subunits. The population of β-sheet structured species is >5% within 5 min of aggregation and gradually grows to 50–70% within the early stages of fibril formation, while they mostly anneal block-wisely to form elongated fibrils. Our findings suggest that the formation of dynamic aggregation intermediates constitutes a major event occurring in the earliest stages of tau aggregation that precedes, and likely facilitates, fibril formation and growth. PMID:26712030

  8. Lactobacillus acidophilus Increases the Anti-apoptotic Micro RNA-21 and Decreases the Pro-inflammatory Micro RNA-155 in the LPS-Treated Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Mehdi; Hodjati, Hossein; Sajedi Khanian, Mahdi; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-06-01

    Given the anti-inflammatory and protective role of probiotics in atherosclerosis and the regulatory role of micro RNA (miRNA) in endothelial cell (dys) functions, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) on cellular death and the expression of miRNA-21, 92a, 155, and 663 in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Ec-LPS). LPS-treated and untreated HUVECs were cultured in the presence of different La conditions such as La-conditioned media (LaCM), La water extract (LaWE), La culture-filtered (LaFS) and unfiltered supernatants (LaUFS). After 24 h, apoptosis, necrosis and the levels of the mentioned miRNAs were measured using flow cytometry and real-time PCR methods, respectively. LaCM decreased apoptosis, necrosis and inflammatory miR-155 and conversely increased anti-apoptotic miR-21 in Ec-LPS-treated HUVECs. Association analysis revealed negative correlations between necrosis and the levels of miR-21, miR-92a, and miR-155. The beneficial effects of L. acidophilus on the ECs death and expression of atherosclerosis related miRNAs in these cells imply a new aspect of its regulation in cardiovascular diseases rather than previously described ones and suggest this probiotic bacterium as a candidate in the preventative therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:27107761

  9. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity restoration and anti-apoptotic effect underlie berberine improvement of learning and memory in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad; Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diabetes mellitus initiates apoptosis and negatively affects synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus with ensuing impairments of learning and memory. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, exhibits anti-diabetic, antioxidant and nootropic effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of berberine on hippocampal CA1 neuronal apoptosis, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses was recorded for assessment of synaptic plasticity and field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude. PS amplitude and fEPSP significantly decreased in diabetic group versus control, and chronic berberine treatment (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) restored PS amplitude and fEPSP and ameliorated learning and memory impairment and attenuated apoptosis of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area, as determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method. In summary, chronic berberine treatment of STZ-diabetic rats significantly ameliorates learning and memory impairment and part of its beneficial effect could be attributed to improvement of synaptic dysfunction and anti-apoptotic property. PMID:23099256

  10. Hyperosmotic stress activates the expression of members of the miR-15/107 family and induces downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, David; Castoldi, Mirco; Paluschinski, Martha; Sommerfeld, Annika; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. Importantly, microRNA activity has been linked to the control of cellular stress response. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of hepatic microRNAs is affected by changes in ambient osmolarity. It is shown that hyperosmotic exposure of perfused rat liver induces a rapid upregulation of miR-15a, miR-15b and miR-16, which are members of the miR-15/107 microRNAs superfamily. It was also identified that hyperosmolarity significantly reduces the expression of anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl2, Ccnd1, Mcl1, Faim, Aatf, Bfar and Ikbkb, which are either validated or predicted targets of these microRNAs. Moreover, through the application of NOX and JNK inhibitors as well as benzylamine it is shown that the observed response is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting that miR-15a, miR-15b and miR-16 are novel redoximiRs. It is concluded that the response of these three microRNAs to osmotic stress is ROS-mediated and that it might contribute to the development of a proapoptotic phenotype. PMID:26195352

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum up-regulates some anti-apoptotic genes in neutrophils and pro-inflammatory genes in mononuclear cells of sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2014-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils. PMID:24602324

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of oxysophoridine on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Junjing; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Jianxin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Xiyan; Yang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Oxysophoridine (OSR) is an alkaloid with multiple pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of OSR on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Here, we found that OSR treatment markedly mitigated LPS-induced body weight loss and significant lung injury characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, histologic scores, wet-to-dry ratio, exduate volume, and protein leakage. OSR dramatically attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation, as evidenced by the reduced levels of total cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and of their mRNA expression in lung tissues. OSR also inhibited LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, OSR administration markedly prevented LPS-induced pulmonary cell apoptosis in mice, as reflected by the decrease in expression of procaspase-8, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-3, and Bcl-2-associated X/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio. These results indicate that OSR is a potential therapeutic drug for treating LPS-induced ALI. PMID:26885265

  13. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. PMID:25721668

  14. Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Ma Olivia Medel; Villalba-Magdaleno, José D'Artagnan; Garcia, Consuelo Gómez; Ishiwara, David Guillermo Pérez

    2010-12-01

    We have demonstrated that programmed cell death (PCD) in Entamoeba histolytica is induced in vitro by G418 aminoglycoside antibiotic. To ascertain if biochemical and morphological changes previously observed are paired to molecular changes that reflect a genetic program, we looked here for early differential gene expression during the induction of PCD. Using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and in silico derived analysis we showed in E. histolytica a differential gene expression during PCD induced by G418. The genes identified encoded for proteins homologous to Glutaminyl-tRNA synthase, Ribosomal Subunit Proteins 40S and 18S, Saposin-like, Silent Information Regulator-2 (Sir-2), and Grainins 1 and 2. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT Q-PCR), we found that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2, grainins and saposin-like genes were strongly overexpressed after 30min of PCD induction, while its expression dramatically decreased up to 60min. On the other hand, overexpression of ribosomal genes increased only 7-fold of basal expression, showing a progressive down-regulation up to 90min. glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2 and grainins could act as negative regulators of PCD, trying to control the biochemical changes related to PCD activation. Overexpression of saposin-like gene could act as up-regulator of some cell death pathways. Our results give evidence of the first genes identified during the early stage of PCD in E. histolytica that could be implicated in regulation of apoptotic pathways. PMID:20515683

  15. Structural insights into mouse anti-apoptotic Bcl-xl reveal affinity for Beclin 1 and gossypol

    SciTech Connect

    Priyadarshi, Amit; Roy, Ankoor; Kim, Key-Sun; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2010-04-09

    This study reports the crystal structures of Bcl-xl wild type and three Bcl-xl mutants (Y101A, F105A, and R139A) with amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic groove of the Bcl-xl BH3 domain. An additional 12 ordered residues were observed in a highly flexible loop between the {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 helices, and were recognized as an important deamidation site for the regulation of apoptosis. The autophagy-effector protein, Beclin 1, contains a novel BH3 domain (residues 101-125), which binds to the surface cleft of Bcl-xl, as confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and analytical gel-filtration results. Gossypol, a potent inhibitor of Bcl-xl, had a K{sub d} value of 0.9 {mu}M. In addition, the structural and biochemical analysis of five Bcl-xl substitution mutants will provide structural insights into the design and development of anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Hypoxia enhances chondrogenesis and prevents terminal differentiation through PI3K/Akt/FoxO dependent anti-apoptotic effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsieh-Hsing; Chang, Chia-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Wang, Jung-Pan; Chen, Yi-Te; Young, Tai-Horng; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a common environmental condition, influences cell signals and functions. Here, we compared the effects of hypoxia (1% oxygen) and normoxia (air) on chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). For in vitro chondrogenic differentiation, MSCs were concentrated to form pellets and subjected to conditions appropriate for chondrogenic differentiation under normoxia and hypoxia, followed by the analysis for the expression of genes and proteins of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. MSCs induced for differentiation under hypoxia increased in chondrogenesis, but decreased in endochondral ossification compared to those under normoxia. MSCs induced for differentiation were more resistant to apoptosis under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia. The hypoxia-dependent protection of MSCs from chondrogenesis-induced apoptosis correlated with an increase in the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FoxO pathway. These results suggest that the PI3K/Akt/FoxO survival pathway activated by hypoxia in MSCs enhances chondrogenesis and plays an important role in preventing endochondral ossification. PMID:24042188

  17. eIF3f reduces tumor growth by directly interrupting clusterin with anti-apoptotic property in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Rho, Seung Bae; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Clusterin is a secretory heterodimeric glycoprotein and the overexpression of secretory clusterin (sCLU) promotes cancer cell proliferation and reduces chemosensitivity. Therefore, sCLU might be an effective target for anticancer therapy. In the current study, we identified eIF3f as a novel CLU-interacting protein and demonstrated its novel function as a CLU inhibitor. The overexpression of eIF3f retarded cancer cell growth significantly and induced apoptosis. In addition, eIF3f interacted with the α-chain (1–227) of sCLU. This interaction blocked modification of psCLU, thereby decreasing the expression and secretion of α/β CLU. Consequently, the overexpression of eIF3f suppressed Akt and ERK signaling and subsequently depleted CLU expression. In addition, eIF3F stabilized p53, which increased the expression of p21 and Bax. Interestingly, the expression of Bax was increased without the activation of p53. eIF3f injected into a xenograft model of human cervical cancer in nude mice markedly inhibited tumor growth. The identification of this novel function of eIF3f as a sCLU inhibitor might open novel avenues for developing improved strategies for CLU-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26988917

  18. Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV).

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniele Scandiucci; Coelho, Marly C Felipe; Souza, Manoel T; Marques, Abi; Ribeiro, E Bergmann Morais

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the presence of the p35 gene by PCR and/or dot blot hybridization. Transcriptional analysis of regenerated plants showed the presence of specific p35 transcripts in 9 of them. Regenerated plants containing the p35 gene were inoculated with the cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, and the herbicide, glufosinate, (Syngenta). None of the plants showed resistance to CABMV. Regenerated plants (p35+) showed less than half of local lesions showed by non-transgenic plants when inoculated with X. axonopodis and some p35+ plants showed increased tolerance to the glufosinate herbicide when compared to non-transgenic plants. PMID:17016672

  19. A Single Amino Acid Change (Asp 53→ Ala53) Converts Survivin from Anti-apoptotic to Pro-apoptotic

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiyin; Liu, Shixin; He, He; Hoti, Naser; Wang, Yi; Feng, Shanshan; Wu, Mian

    2004-01-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family that has been implicated in both apoptosis inhibition and cell cycle control. Recently, Survivin has attracted growing attention because of its tumor-specific expression and potential applications in tumor therapy. However, its inhibitory mechanism and subcellular localization remain controversial. Here, we report a novel Survivin mutant Surv-D53A, which displays a function opposite to Survivin and a distinctive subcellular distribution compared with its wild-type counterpart. Surv-D53A was shown to induce apoptosis in a p53-independent manner, indicating that tumor suppressor p53 is not involved in its apoptosis pathway. Surv-D53A was shown to markedly sensitize apoptosis induced by TRAIL, doxorubicin, and RIP3. We also demonstrated that similar to wild-type Survivin, Surv-D53A was localized in cytoplasm in interphase and to midbody at telophase. However, it fails to colocalize in chromosomes with Aurora-B in metaphase as wt-Survivin. Surv-D53A mutant is less stable than wt-Survivin and is degraded more rapidly by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Additionally, we found that Surv-D53A interacts with wt-Survivin to form heterodimer or with itself to form mutant homodimer, which may account for the loss of its antiapoptotic function. Finally, unlike Survivin*Survivin, neither Surv-D53A*Survivin nor Surv-D53A*Surv-D53A is able to bind to Smac/DIABLO, which may explain the underlying mechanism for its abolishment of antiapoptotic activity of Survivin. PMID:14699067

  20. Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Yassine; Aouey, Baktha; Aroui, Sonia; Kebieche, Mohammed; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. Naringin, a natural flavonoid, plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the involvement of ROS overproduction and inflammation in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in aged rats, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after treatment with naringin (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight). Cisplatin resulted in an increase of renal markers, lipid peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation, and ROS formation. Renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite levels were also elevated. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 and p53 were up-regulated in renal tissues of Cis-treated rats compared with the normal control group. Histopathological changes were also observed in cisplatin group. Adminstration of naringin at different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was able to protect against the deterioration in kidney function, abrogate the decline in antioxidant enzyme activities and suppressed the increase in TBARS, nitrite and TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, naringin inhibited NF-κB and iNOS pathways, caspase-3 and p53 activation and improved the histological changes induced by cisplatin. In conclusion, our studies suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and naringin might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. PMID:26612654

  1. Identification of a novel senolytic agent, navitoclax, targeting the Bcl-2 family of anti-apoptotic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Tchkonia, Tamara; Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Heike; Dai, Haiming M; Ling, Yuanyuan Y; Stout, Michael B; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Giorgadze, Nino; Johnson, Kurt O; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kirkland, James L

    2016-06-01

    Clearing senescent cells extends healthspan in mice. Using a hypothesis-driven bioinformatics-based approach, we recently identified pro-survival pathways in human senescent cells that contribute to their resistance to apoptosis. This led to identification of dasatinib (D) and quercetin (Q) as senolytics, agents that target some of these pathways and induce apoptosis preferentially in senescent cells. Among other pro-survival regulators identified was Bcl-xl. Here, we tested whether the Bcl-2 family inhibitors, navitoclax (N) and TW-37 (T), are senolytic. Like D and Q, N is senolytic in some, but not all types of senescent cells: N reduced viability of senescent human umbilical vein epithelial cells (HUVECs), IMR90 human lung fibroblasts, and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not human primary preadipocytes, consistent with our previous finding that Bcl-xl siRNA is senolytic in HUVECs, but not preadipocytes. In contrast, T had little senolytic activity. N targets Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-w, while T targets Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1. The combination of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-w siRNAs was senolytic in HUVECs and IMR90 cells, while combination of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1 siRNAs was not. Susceptibility to N correlated with patterns of Bcl-2 family member proteins in different types of human senescent cells, as has been found in predicting response of cancers to N. Thus, N is senolytic and acts in a potentially predictable cell type-restricted manner. The hypothesis-driven, bioinformatics-based approach we used to discover that dasatinib (D) and quercetin (Q) are senolytic can be extended to increase the repertoire of senolytic drugs, including additional cell type-specific senolytic agents. PMID:26711051

  2. The transcription factor C/EBP delta has anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory roles in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Moore, Fabrice; Santin, Izortze; Nogueira, Tatiane C; Gurzov, Esteban N; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L

    2012-01-01

    In the course of Type 1 diabetes pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α) produced by islet-infiltrating immune cells modify expression of key gene networks in β-cells, leading to local inflammation and β-cell apoptosis. Most known cytokine-induced transcription factors have pro-apoptotic effects, and little is known regarding "protective" transcription factors. To this end, we presently evaluated the role of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) on β-cell apoptosis and production of inflammatory mediators in the rat insulinoma INS-1E cells, in purified primary rat β-cells and in human islets. C/EBPδ is expressed and up-regulated in response to the cytokines IL-1β and IFN-γ in rat β-cells and human islets. Small interfering RNA-mediated C/EBPδ silencing exacerbated IL-1β+IFN-γ-induced caspase 9 and 3 cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. C/EBPδ deficiency increased the up-regulation of the transcription factor CHOP in response to cytokines, enhancing expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM. Interfering with C/EBPδ and CHOP or C/EBPδ and BIM in double knockdown approaches abrogated the exacerbating effects of C/EBPδ deficiency on cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis, while C/EBPδ overexpression inhibited BIM expression and partially protected β-cells against IL-1β+IFN-γ-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, C/EBPδ silencing boosted cytokine-induced production of the chemokines CXCL1, 9, 10 and CCL20 in β-cells by hampering IRF-1 up-regulation and increasing STAT1 activation in response to cytokines. These observations identify a novel function of C/EBPδ as a modulatory transcription factor that inhibits the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory gene networks activated by cytokines in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:22347430

  3. Thymosin Beta 4 Prevents Oxidative Stress by Targeting Antioxidant and Anti-Apoptotic Genes in Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with diverse functions relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory responses. The effecter molecules targeted by Tβ4 for cardiac protection remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the molecules targeted by Tβ4 that mediate cardio-protection under oxidative stress. Methods Rat neonatal fibroblasts cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in presence and absence of Tβ4 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic and pro-fibrotic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in cardiac fibroblasts and the effect of Tβ4 on H2O2-induced profibrotic events was evaluated. Results Pre-treatment with Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H2O2 in the cardiac fibroblasts. This was associated with an increased expression of antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and reduction of Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Tβ4 treatment reduced the expression of pro-fibrotic genes [connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen type-1 (Col-I) and collagen type-3 (Col-III)] in the cardiac fibroblasts. Silencing of Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase gene triggered apoptotic cell death in the cardiac fibroblasts, which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4. Conclusion This is the first report that exhibits the targeted molecules modulated by Tβ4 under oxidative stress utilizing the cardiac fibroblasts. Tβ4 treatment prevented the profibrotic gene expression in the in vitro settings. Our findings indicate that Tβ4 selectively targets and upregulates catalase, Cu/Zn-SOD and Bcl2, thereby, preventing H2O2-induced profibrotic changes in the myocardium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the

  4. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.

  5. Anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic effects of memantine in a SH-SY5Y cell model of Alzheimer's disease via mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    SONG, GUIJUN; LI, YU; LIN, LULU; CAO, YUNPENG

    2015-01-01

    Memantine non-competitively blocks the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in order to inhibit beta-amyloid (Aβ) secretion, and has been used to treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of memantine in the autophagy and apoptosis of neuronal cells in AD, as well as the association between neuronal autophagy and apoptosis have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to establish an AD cell model overexpressing the 695-amino-acid Swedish mutant of Aβ precursor protein (APP695swe) in order to observe the effects of memantine on the cell viability, autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells in the AD model, and to investigate the associated underlying mechanisms. A pcDNA3.1-APP695 plasmid was transfected into the SH-SY5Y cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that the AD cell model was successfully established. MTT assays demonstrated that memantine was able to upregulate neuronal cell survival, and acridine orange staining and flow cytometry demonstrated that memantine (5 µM) was able to inhibit neuronal autophagy and apoptosis. Following neuronal autophagy induction by rapamycin, cell apoptosis rates increased significantly. Further experiments revealed that memantine was able to upregulate the expression of signaling molecules phosphorylated (p)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and also inhibited the phosphorylation of the B-cell lymphoma 2/Beclin-1 complex via mitogen-activated protein kinase 8. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that in the AD cell model, autophagy was able to promote apoptosis. Memantine exerted anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic functions, and mTOR-dependent as well as-independent autophagic signaling pathways were involved in this process. Therefore, these results of the present study strongly supported the use of memantine as a potential therapeutic

  6. Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  7. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  8. Gastroprotective effect of nymphayol isolated from Nymphaea stellata (Willd.) flowers: contribution of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alshatwi, Ali A; Aravinthan, Adithan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is an illness that affects a great number of people worldwide. The goal of the present research was to assess the anti-ulcerogenic activity of nymphayol (NYM), isolated from Nymphaea stellata, against an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Administration of ethanol elevates the levels of the ulcer index (UI) along with causing tremendous increases in lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and significant decreases in gastric mucus, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the NYM- (45 mg/kg) pretreated animals showed considerable increases in antioxidants, gastric mucus, and PGE2 level and significant decreases in UI, lipid peroxidation, and MPO level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were increased and the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was decreased in ethanol-induced ulcerated animals, and these inequalities were amended by NYM pretreatment. Pro-apoptotic markers including caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were decreased and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic marker, was increased through NYM pretreatment, as compared with the ethanol-induced ulcer group. Pretreatment with indomethacin, SC560, rofecoxib, and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) considerably prevented the ulcer protective activity of NYM (45 mg/kg), indicating the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in NYM-mediated gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer. These outcomes suggest that the gastroprotective effect of NYM might be mediated by adjustment of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers and increasing antioxidants. PMID:25289771

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-02-15

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards. PMID:26690776

  10. Systems Modeling of Anti-apoptotic Pathways in Prostate Cancer: Psychological Stress Triggers a Synergism Pattern Switch in Drug Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Nelson, Kyle C.; Li, King Chuen; Kulik, George; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients often have increased levels of psychological stress or anxiety, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between psychological stress and prostate cancer as well as therapy resistance have been rarely studied and remain poorly understood. Recent reports show that stress inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via epinephrine/beta2 adrenergic receptor/PKA/BAD pathway. In this study, we used experimental data on the signaling pathways that control BAD phosphorylation to build a dynamic network model of apoptosis regulation in prostate cancer cells. We then compared the predictive power of two different models with or without the role of Mcl-1, which justified the role of Mcl-1 stabilization in anti-apoptotic effects of emotional stress. Based on the selected model, we examined and quantitatively evaluated the induction of apoptosis by drug combination therapies. We predicted that the combination of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and inhibition of BAD phosphorylation at S112 would produce the best synergistic effect among 8 interventions examined. Experimental validation confirmed the effectiveness of our predictive model. Moreover, we found that epinephrine signaling changes the synergism pattern and decreases efficacy of combination therapy. The molecular mechanisms responsible for therapeutic resistance and the switch in synergism were explored by analyzing a network model of signaling pathways affected by psychological stress. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of psychological stress signaling in therapy-resistant cancer, and indicate the potential benefit of reducing psychological stress in designing more effective therapies for prostate cancer patients. PMID:24339759

  11. Teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue: a novel protective agent with anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties in mice with lung injury.

    PubMed

    Arda-Pirincci, Pelin; Oztay, Fusun; Bayrak, Bertan Boran; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2012-12-01

    Teduglutide is a long-acting synthetic analogue of human glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). GLP-2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as normal physiology in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, possible cytoprotective and reparative effects of teduglutide were analyzed on a mouse model with lung injury induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and actinomycin D (Act D). BALB/c mice were divided into six groups: control mice (I), mice injected intraperitoneally with 15 μg/kg TNF-α (II), 800 μg/kg Act D (III), Act D 2 min prior to TNF-α administration with the same doses (IV), mice injected subcutaneously with 200 μg/kg teduglutide every 12h for 10 consecutive days (V), and mice given Act D 2 min prior to TNF-α administration on day 11 after receiving teduglutide for 10 days (VI). The TNF-α/Act D administration made the lung a sensitive organ to damage. Mice lung subjected to TNF-α/Act D were characterized by the disruption of alveolar wall, induced pulmonary endothelial/epithelial cell apoptosis and expression of active caspase-3. These mice exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and activities of myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and xanthine oxidase, as well as reduced tissue factor and sodium-potassium/ATPase activities. Teduglutide pretreatment regressed the structural damage, cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation in mice received TNF-α/Act D. GLP-2 receptors were present on the cell membrane of type II pneumocytes and interstitial cells. Thus, teduglutide can be suggested as a novel protective agent, which possesses anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties, against lung injury. PMID:23059393

  12. Overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 induced by constitutively activated NF-κB as a potential therapeutic target for activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Guo, Pengxiang; Ma, Dan; Lin, Xiaojing; Fang, Qin; Wang, Jishi

    2016-07-01

    There is an urgent requirement for a new therapeutic target for activated B-cell-like lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), which is known to have dismal outcome and constitutive activation of NF-κB. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation in many cancers. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed on the correlation between HO-1 and DLBCL. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis of 31 tumor tissues from DLBCL patients [20 of ABC subtype and 11 of germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) subtype] and 11 normal lymph nodes revealed that HO-1 overexpression was characteristic of ABC-DLBCL. In addition, HO-1 mRNA expression levels were consistent with the immunohistochemistry results. High levels of HO-1 expression were significantly correlated with the involvement of more than 1 extranodal site (p=0.025), with a high positivity rate of Ki-67 (p<0.01). Similar to its anti-apoptotic role in other malignancies, HO-1 upregulation suppressed apoptosis of the ABC-DLBCL cell line OCI-ly10, whereas its downregulation sensitized the tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Further study demonstrated that the HO-1 overexpression was mediated by constitutively activated NF-κB which together played an anti-apoptotic role in ABC-DLBCL. Combination of the NF-κB inhibitor Bay11‑7082 and the lentivirus vector Lenti-siHO-1 significantly decreased HO-1 protein expression and increased apoptosis in OCI-ly10 cells. However, in GCB-DLBCL cells with low levels of NF-κB expression, the TNF-α-mediated activation of NF-κB leading to HO-1 upregulation rescued the cells from apoptosis caused by HO-1 silencing. These results indicated that HO-1 can be a potential target for the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. PMID:27211510

  13. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  14. Group VIA Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) Modulates Bcl-x 5'-Splice Site Selection and Suppresses Anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L) in β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Suzanne E; Nguyen, Phuong T; Park, Margaret; Emani, Bhargavi; Lei, Xiaoyong; Kambalapalli, Mamatha; Shultz, Jacqueline C; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan; Chalfant, Charles E; Ramanadham, Sasanka

    2015-04-24

    Diabetes is a consequence of reduced β-cell function and mass, due to β-cell apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced during β-cell apoptosis due to various stimuli, and our work indicates that group VIA phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) participates in this process. Delineation of underlying mechanism(s) reveals that ER stress reduces the anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L) protein in INS-1 cells. The Bcl-x pre-mRNA undergoes alternative pre-mRNA splicing to generate Bcl-x(L) or Bcl-x(S) mature mRNA. We show that both thapsigargin-induced and spontaneous ER stress are associated with reductions in the ratio of Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) mRNA in INS-1 and islet β-cells. However, chemical inactivation or knockdown of iPLA2β augments the Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) ratio. Furthermore, the ratio is lower in islets from islet-specific RIP-iPLA2β transgenic mice, whereas islets from global iPLA2β(-/-) mice exhibit the opposite phenotype. In view of our earlier reports that iPLA2β induces ceramide accumulation through neutral sphingomyelinase 2 and that ceramides shift the Bcl-x 5'-splice site (5'SS) selection in favor of Bcl-x(S), we investigated the potential link between Bcl-x splicing and the iPLA2β/ceramide axis. Exogenous C6-ceramide did not alter Bcl-x 5'SS selection in INS-1 cells, and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 inactivation only partially prevented the ER stress-induced shift in Bcl-x splicing. In contrast, 5(S)-hydroxytetraenoic acid augmented the ratio of Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) by 15.5-fold. Taken together, these data indicate that β-cell apoptosis is, in part, attributable to the modulation of 5'SS selection in the Bcl-x pre-mRNA by bioactive lipids modulated by iPLA2β. PMID:25762722

  15. Constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1 (COP1) and COP9 signalosome, evolutionarily conserved photomorphogenic proteins as possible targets of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J; Mediavilla, Maria D; Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in the multiple actions of melatonin. COP1 (constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1), a RING finger-type ubiquitin E3 ligase formerly identified in Arabidopsis, is a central switch for the transition from plant growth underground in darkness (etiolation) to growth under light exposure (photomorphogenesis). In darkness, COP1 binds to photomorphogenic transcription factors driving its degradation via the 26S proteasome; blue light, detected by cryptochromes, and red and far-red light detected by phytochromes, negatively regulate COP1. Homologues of plant COP1 containing all the structural features present in Arabidopsis as well as E3 ubiquitin ligase activity have been identified in mice and humans. Substrates for mammalian (m) COP1 include p53, AP-1 and c-Jun, p27(Kip1) , ETV1, MVP, 14-3-3σ, C/EBPα, MTA1, PEA3, ACC, TORC2 and FOXO1. This mCOP1 target suggests functions related to tumorigenesis, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism. The role of mCOP1 in tumorigenesis (either as a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor), as well as in glucose metabolism (inhibition of gluconeogenesis) and lipid metabolism (inhibition of fatty acid synthesis), has been previously demonstrated. COP1, along with numerous other ubiquitin ligases, is regulated by the COP9 signalosome; this protein complex is associated with the oxidative stress sensor Keap1 and the deubiquitinase USP15. The objective of this review was to provide new information on the possible role of COP1 and COP9 as melatonin targets. The hypothesis is based on common functional aspects of melatonin and COP1 and COP9, including their dependence on light, regulation of the metabolism, and their control of tumor growth. PMID:27121162

  16. Constitutive shedding of the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain is up-regulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, B E; Ma, L K; Seah, C C

    2001-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease is a transmembrane protein that is cleaved within its extracellular domain, liberating a soluble N-terminal fragment (sAPP alpha). Putative mediators of this process include three members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE (tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), an inhibitor of ADAMs, reduced constitutive and muscarinic receptor-stimulated sAPP alpha release in HEK-293 cells stably expressing M3 muscarinic receptors. However, the former was less sensitive to TAPI-1 (IC(50)=8.09 microM) than the latter (IC(50)=3.61 microM), suggesting that these processes may be mediated by different metalloproteases. Constitutive sAPP alpha release was increased several-fold in cells transiently transfected with TACE, and this increase was proportional to TACE expression. In contrast, muscarinic-receptor-activated sAPP alpha release was not altered in TACE transfectants. TACE-dependent constitutive release of co-transfected APP(695) was inhibited by TAPI-1 with an IC(50) of 0.92 microm, a value significantly lower than the IC(50)s for inhibition of either constitutive or receptor-regulated sAPP alpha shedding mediated by endogenous secretases. The results indicate that TACE is capable of catalysing constitutive alpha-secretory cleavage of APP, but it is likely that additional members of the ADAM family mediate endogenous constitutive and receptor-coupled release of sAPP alpha in HEK-293 cells. PMID:11463349

  17. Constitutive Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Diseases: Insights into Mechanisms of Activation and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2008-01-01

    The existence of constitutive activity for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) was first described in 1980s. In 1991, the first naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in GPCRs that cause diseases were reported in rhodopsin. Since then, numerous constitutively active mutations that cause human diseases were reported in several additional receptors. More recently, loss of constitutive activity was postulated to also cause diseases. Animal models expressing some of these mutants confirmed the roles of these mutations in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Detailed functional studies of these naturally occurring mutations, combined with homology modeling using rhodopsin crystal structure as the template, lead to important insights into the mechanism of activation in the absence of crystal structure of GPCRs in active state. Search for inverse agonists on these receptors will be critical for correcting the diseases cause by activating mutations in GPCRs. Theoretically, these inverse agonists are better therapeutics than neutral antagonists in treating genetic diseases caused by constitutively activating mutations in GPCRs. PMID:18768149

  18. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 Protein BMI1 Is Required for Constitutive Heterochromatin Formation and Silencing in Mammalian Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdouh, Mohamed; Hanna, Roy; El Hajjar, Jida; Flamier, Anthony; Bernier, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    The polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), containing the core BMI1 and RING1A/B proteins, mono-ubiquitinylates histone H2A (H2A(ub)) and is associated with silenced developmental genes at facultative heterochromatin. It is, however, assumed that the PRC1 is excluded from constitutive heterochromatin in somatic cells based on work performed on mouse embryonic stem cells and oocytes. We show here that BMI1 is required for constitutive heterochromatin formation and silencing in human and mouse somatic cells. BMI1 was highly enriched at intergenic and pericentric heterochromatin, co-immunoprecipitated with the architectural heterochromatin proteins HP1, DEK1, and ATRx, and was required for their localization. In contrast, BRCA1 localization was BMI1-independent and partially redundant with that of BMI1 for H2A(ub) deposition, constitutive heterochromatin formation, and silencing. These observations suggest a dynamic and developmentally regulated model of PRC1 occupancy at constitutive heterochromatin, and where BMI1 function in somatic cells is to stabilize the repetitive genome. PMID:26468281

  19. Isolation and characterization of an oil palm constitutive promoter derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ti, Leslie Low Eng

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system. PMID:21549610

  20. Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons

    PubMed Central

    Best, Andrew; James, Katherine; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Hong, Elaine; Kheirolahi-Kouhestani, Mahsa; Curk, Tomaz; Xu, Yaobo; Danilenko, Marina; Hussain, Rafiq; Keavney, Bernard; Wipat, Anil; Klinck, Roscoe; Cowell, Ian G.; Cheong Lee, Ka; Austin, Caroline A.; Venables, Julian P.; Chabot, Benoit; Santibanez Koref, Mauro; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Elliott, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2α) and Tra2β have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2α and Tra2β induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2β target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2α–Tra2β control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. PMID:25208576

  1. The Chemokine Receptor CCR1 Is Constitutively Active, Which Leads to G Protein-independent, β-Arrestin-mediated Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Salanga, Catherina L.; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Trejo, JoAnn; Handel, Tracy M.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors by their associated ligands has been extensively studied, and increasing structural information about the molecular mechanisms underlying ligand-dependent receptor activation is beginning to emerge with the recent expansion in GPCR crystal structures. However, some GPCRs are also able to adopt active conformations in the absence of agonist binding that result in the initiation of signal transduction and receptor down-modulation. In this report, we show that the CC-type chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) exhibits significant constitutive activity leading to a variety of cellular responses. CCR1 expression is sufficient to induce inhibition of cAMP formation, increased F-actin content, and basal migration of human and murine leukocytes. The constitutive activity leads to basal phosphorylation of the receptor, recruitment of β-arrestin-2, and subsequent receptor internalization. CCR1 concurrently engages Gαi and β-arrestin-2 in a multiprotein complex, which may be accommodated by homo-oligomerization or receptor clustering. The data suggest the presence of two functional states for CCR1; whereas receptor coupled to Gαi functions as a canonical GPCR, albeit with high constitutive activity, the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex is required for G protein-independent constitutive receptor internalization. The pertussis toxin-insensitive uptake of chemokine by the receptor suggests that the CCR1·β-arrestin-2 complex may be related to a potential scavenging function of the receptor, which may be important for maintenance of chemokine gradients and receptor responsiveness in complex fields of chemokines during inflammation. PMID:24056371

  2. Constitutive patterns of gene expression regulated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular processes, including synthesis, folding, translocation, assembly and clearance of RNAs. Recent studies have reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are able to interact with RNA, but the partners of many RNA-binding proteins are still uncharacterized. Results We combined prediction of ribonucleoprotein interactions, based on catRAPID calculations, with analysis of protein and RNA expression profiles from human tissues. We found strong interaction propensities for both positively and negatively correlated expression patterns. Our integration of in silico and ex vivo data unraveled two major types of protein–RNA interactions, with positively correlated patterns related to cell cycle control and negatively correlated patterns related to survival, growth and differentiation. To facilitate the investigation of protein–RNA interactions and expression networks, we developed the catRAPID express web server. Conclusions Our analysis sheds light on the role of RNA-binding proteins in regulating proliferation and differentiation processes, and we provide a data exploration tool to aid future experimental studies. PMID:24401680

  3. Experimental evidence for proteins constituting virion components and particle morphogenesis of bacteriophage ZF40.

    PubMed

    Korol, Natalia; Van den Bossche, An; Romaniuk, Liudmyla; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Tovkach, Fedor

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophage ZF40 is the only currently available, temperate Myoviridae phage infecting the potato pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Despite its unusual tail morphology, its major tail sheath and tube proteins remained uncharacterized after the initial genome annotation. Using ESI tandem mass-spectrometry, 24 structural proteins of the ZF40 virion were identified, with a sequence coverage ranging between 15.8% and 87.8%. The putative function of 16 proteins could be elucidated based on secondary structure analysis and conservative domain searches. The experimental annotation of 35% of the encoded gene products within the structural region of the genome represents a complete view of the virion structure, which can serve as the basis for future structural analysis as a model phage. PMID:26887841

  4. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  5. A constitutive nucleolar protein identified as a member of the nucleoplasmin family.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Zachmann, M S; Hügle-Dörr, B; Franke, W W

    1987-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies we have localized a polypeptide, appearing on gel electrophoresis with a Mr of approximately 38,000 and a pI of approximately 5.6, to the granular component of the nucleoli of Xenopus laevis oocytes and a broad range of cells from various species. The protein (NO38) also occurs in certain distinct nucleoplasmic particles but is not detected in ribosomes and other cytoplasmic components. During mitosis NO38-containing material dissociates from the nucleolar organizer region and distributes over the chromosomal surfaces and the perichromosomal cytoplasm; in telophase it re-populates the forming nucleoli. With these antibodies we have isolated from a X. laevis ovary lambda gt11 expression library a cDNA clone encoding a polypeptide which, on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, co-migrates with authentic NO38. The amino acid sequence deduced from this clone defines a polypeptide of 299 amino acids of mol. wt 33,531 which is characterized by the presence of two domains exceptionally rich in aspartic and glutamic acid, one of them flanked by two putative karyophilic signal heptapeptides. Comparison with other protein sequences shows that NO38 is closely related to the histone-binding, karyophilic protein nucleoplasmin: the first 124 amino acids have 58 amino acid positions in common. Protein NO38 also shows striking homologies to the phosphopeptide region of rat nucleolar protein B23 and the carboxyterminal region of human B23. We propose that protein NO38, which forms distinct homo-oligomers of approximately 7S and Mr of approximately 230,000, is a member of a family of karyophilic proteins, the 'nucleoplasmin family'. It is characterized by its specific association with the nucleolus and might be involved in nuclear accumulation, nucleolar storage and pre-rRNA assembly of ribosomal proteins in a manner similar to that discussed for the role of nucleoplasmin in histone storage and chromatin assembly. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3

  6. A knockout mutation of a constitutive GPCR in Tetrahymena decreases both G-protein activity and chemoattraction.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas J; Coleman, Kevin D; Hennessey, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    Although G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a common element in many chemosensory transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells, no GPCR or regulated G-protein activity has yet been shown in any ciliate. To study the possible role for a GPCR in the chemoresponses of the ciliate Tetrahymena, we have generated a number of macronuclear gene knockouts of putative GPCRs found in the Tetrahymena Genome database. One of these knockout mutants, called G6, is a complete knockout of a gene that we call GPCR6 (TTHERM_00925490). Based on sequence comparisons, the Gpcr6p protein belongs to the Rhodopsin Family of GPCRs. Notably, Gpcr6p shares highest amino acid sequence homologies to GPCRs from Paramecium and several plants. One of the phenotypes of the G6 mutant is a decreased responsiveness to the depolarizing ions Ba²⁺ and K⁺, suggesting a decrease in basal excitability (decrease in Ca²⁺ channel activity). The other major phenotype of G6 is a loss of chemoattraction to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and proteose peptone (PP), two known chemoattractants in Tetrahymena. Using microsomal [³⁵S]GTPγS binding assays, we found that wild-type (CU427) have a prominent basal G-protein activity. This activity is decreased to the same level by pertussis toxin (a G-protein inhibitor), addition of chemoattractants, or the G6 mutant. Since the basal G-protein activity is decreased by the GPCR6 knockout, it is likely that this gene codes for a constitutively active GPCR in Tetrahymena. We propose that chemoattractants like LPA and PP cause attraction in Tetrahymena by decreasing the basal G-protein stimulating activity of Gpcr6p. This leads to decreased excitability in wild-type and longer runs of smooth forward swimming (less interrupted by direction changes) towards the attractant. Therefore, these attractants may work as inverse agonists through the constitutively active Gpcr6p coupled to a pertussis-sensitive G-protein. PMID:22140501

  7. Constitutive Stringent Response Restores Viability of Bacillus subtilis Lacking Structural Maintenance of Chromosome Protein

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Camille; Guérin, Cyprien; Noirot, Philippe; Dervyn, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking the SMC-ScpAB complex are severely impaired for chromosome condensation and partitioning, DNA repair, and cells are not viable under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated suppressor mutations that restored the capacity of a smc deletion mutant (Δsmc) to grow under standard conditions. These suppressor mutations reduced chromosome segregation defects and abrogated hypersensitivity to gyrase inhibitors of Δsmc. Three suppressor mutations were mapped in genes involved in tRNA aminoacylation and maturation pathways. A transcriptomic survey of isolated suppressor mutations pointed to a potential link between suppression of Δsmc and induction of the stringent response. This link was confirmed by (p)ppGpp quantification which indicated a constitutive induction of the stringent response in multiple suppressor strains. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of arginine hydroxamate (RHX), a potent inducer of stringent response, restored growth of Δsmc under non permissive conditions. We showed that production of (p)ppGpp alone was sufficient to suppress the thermosensitivity exhibited by the Δsmc mutant. Our findings shed new light on the coordination between chromosome dynamics mediated by SMC-ScpAB and other cellular processes during rapid bacterial growth. PMID:26539825

  8. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  9. Biomineral ultrastructure, elemental constitution and genomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in hemichordates.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C B; Bishop, C D

    2012-08-01

    Here, we report the discovery and characterization of biominerals in the acorn worms Saccoglossus bromophenolosus and Ptychodera flava galapagos (Phylum: Hemichordata). Using electron microscopy, X-ray microprobe analyses and confocal Raman spectroscopy, we show that hemichordate biominerals are small CaCO(3) aragonitic elements restricted to specialized epidermal structures, and in S. bromophenolosus, are apparently secreted by sclerocytes. Investigation of urchin biomineralizing proteins in the translated genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of Saccoglossus kowalevskii indicates that three members of the urchin MSP-130 family, a carbonic anhydrase and a matrix metaloprotease are present and transcribed during the development of S. kowalevskii. The SM family of proteins is absent from the hemichordate genome. These results increase the number of phyla known to biomineralize and suggest that some of the gene-regulatory 'toolkit', if not mineralized tissue themselves, may have been present in the common ancestor to hemichordates and echinoderms. PMID:22496191

  10. Biomineral ultrastructure, elemental constitution and genomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in hemichordates

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, C. B.; Bishop, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the discovery and characterization of biominerals in the acorn worms Saccoglossus bromophenolosus and Ptychodera flava galapagos (Phylum: Hemichordata). Using electron microscopy, X-ray microprobe analyses and confocal Raman spectroscopy, we show that hemichordate biominerals are small CaCO3 aragonitic elements restricted to specialized epidermal structures, and in S. bromophenolosus, are apparently secreted by sclerocytes. Investigation of urchin biomineralizing proteins in the translated genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of Saccoglossus kowalevskii indicates that three members of the urchin MSP-130 family, a carbonic anhydrase and a matrix metaloprotease are present and transcribed during the development of S. kowalevskii. The SM family of proteins is absent from the hemichordate genome. These results increase the number of phyla known to biomineralize and suggest that some of the gene-regulatory ‘toolkit’, if not mineralized tissue themselves, may have been present in the common ancestor to hemichordates and echinoderms. PMID:22496191

  11. Preparation and characterization of a stable BHK-21 cell line constitutively expressing the Schmallenberg virus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongning; Wu, Shaoqiang; Song, Shanshan; Lv, Jizhou; Feng, Chunyan; Lin, Xiangmei

    2015-08-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus that predominantly infects livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Its nucleocapsid (N) protein is an ideal target antigen for SBV diagnosis. In this study, a stable BHK-21 cell line, BHK-21-EGFP-SBV-N, constitutively expressing the SBV N protein was obtained using a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system combined with puromycin selection. To facilitate the purification of recombinant SBV N protein, the coding sequence for a hexa-histidine tag was introduced into the C-terminus of the SBV N gene during construction of the recombinant lentivirus vector pLV-EGFP-SBV-N. The BHK-21-EGFP-SBV-N cell line was demonstrated to spontaneously emit strong enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) signals that exhibited a discrete punctate distribution throughout the cytoplasm. SBV N mRNA and protein expression in this cell line were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The expressed recombinant SBV N protein carried an N-terminal EGFP tag, and was successfully purified using Ni-NTA agarose by means of its C-terminal His tag. The purified SBV N protein could be recognized by SBV antisera and an anti-SBV monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C8 in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analyses. Indirect immunofluorescence assays further demonstrated that the stable cell line reacts with SBV antisera and mAb 2C8. These results suggest that the generated cell line has the potential to be used in the serological diagnosis of SBV. PMID:26013296

  12. Constitutive Nuclear Expression of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Fails to Rescue the Dmp1-null Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Zhengguo; Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Kevin; Liu, Ying; McKee, Marc D.; Qin, Chunlin; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Jian Q.

    2014-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) plays multiple roles in bone, tooth, phosphate homeostasis, kidney, salivary gland, reproductive cycles, and the development of cancer. In vitro studies have indicated two different biological mechanisms: 1) as a matrix protein, DMP1 interacts with αvβ3 integrin and activates MAP kinase signaling; and 2) DMP1 serves as a transcription co-factor. In vivo studies have demonstrated its key role in osteocytes. This study attempted to determine whether DMP1 functions as a transcription co-factor and regulates osteoblast functions. For gene expression comparisons using adenovirus constructs, we targeted the expression of DMP1 either to the nucleus only by replacing the endogenous signal peptide with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence (referred to as NLSDMP1) or to the extracellular matrix as the WT type (referred to as SPDMP1) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. High levels of DMP1 in either form greatly increased osteogenic gene expression in an identical manner. However, the targeted NLSDMP1 transgene driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col 1α1 promoter in the nucleus of osteoblasts and osteocytes failed to rescue the phenotyope of Dmp1-null mice, whereas the SPDMP1 transgene rescued the rickets defect. These studies support the notion that DMP1 functions as an extracellular matrix protein, rather than as a transcription co-factor in vivo. We also show that DMP1 continues its expression in osteoblasts during postnatal development and that the deletion of Dmp1 leads to an increase in osteoblast proliferation. However, poor mineralization in the metaphysis indicates a critical role for DMP1 in both osteoblasts and osteocytes. PMID:24917674

  13. A Borrelia burgdorferi Surface-Exposed Transmembrane Protein Lacking Detectable Immune Responses Supports Pathogen Persistence and Constitutes a Vaccine Target.

    PubMed

    Kung, Faith; Kaur, Simarjot; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Wilder, Cara N; Sharma, Kavita; Buyuktanir, Ozlem; Pal, Utpal

    2016-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi harbors a limited set of transmembrane surface proteins, most of which constitute key targets of humoral immune responses. Here we show that BB0405, a conserved membrane-spanning protein of unknown function, fails to evoke detectable antibody responses despite its extracellular exposure. bb0405 is a member of an operon and ubiquitously expressed throughout the rodent-tick infection cycle. The gene product serves an essential function in vivo, as bb0405-deletion mutants are unable to transmit from ticks and establish infection in mammalian hosts. Despite the lack of BB0405-specific immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G antibodies during natural infection, mice immunized with a recombinant version of the protein elicited high-titer and remarkably long-lasting antibody responses, conferring significant host protection against tick-borne infection. Taken together, these studies highlight the essential role of an apparently immune-invisible borrelial transmembrane protein in facilitating infection and its usefulness as a target of protective host immunity blocking the transmission of B. burgdorferi. PMID:26747708

  14. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Alexandre; Jones, Jeffery W.; Friedrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the phylogenetic age of the Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) gene family of G protein-coupled receptors, the founding member of which regulates development and lifespan in Drosophila. Here we report the results from a targeted homolog search of 39 holozoan genomes and phylogenetic analysis of the conserved seven transmembrane domain. Our findings reveal that the Mth/Mthl gene family is ancient, has experienced numerous extinction and expansion events during metazoan evolution, and acquired the current definition of the Methuselah ectodomain during its exceptional expansion in arthropods. In addition, our findings identify Mthl1, Mthl5, Mthl14, and Mthl15 as the oldest Mth/Mthl gene family paralogs in Drosophila. Future studies of these genes have the potential to define ancestral functions of the Mth/Mthl gene family. PMID:26915348

  15. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  16. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  17. Constitutive Endocytic Recycling and Protein Kinase C-mediated Lysosomal Degradation Control KATP Channel Surface Density*

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Paul T.; Smith, Andrew J.; Taneja, Tarvinder K.; Howell, Gareth J.; Lippiat, Jonathan D.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels control insulin secretion by coupling the excitability of the pancreatic β-cell to glucose metabolism. Little is currently known about how the plasma membrane density of these channels is regulated. We therefore set out to examine in detail the endocytosis and recycling of these channels and how these processes are regulated. To achieve this goal, we expressed KATP channels bearing an extracellular hemagglutinin epitope in human embryonic kidney cells and followed their fate along the endocytic pathway. Our results show that KATP channels undergo multiple rounds of endocytosis and recycling. Further, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate significantly decreases KATP channel surface density by reducing channel recycling and diverting the channel to lysosomal degradation. These findings were recapitulated in the model pancreatic β-cell line INS1e, where activation of PKC leads to a decrease in the surface density of native KATP channels. Because sorting of internalized channels between lysosomal and recycling pathways could have opposite effects on the excitability of pancreatic β-cells, we propose that PKC-regulated KATP channel trafficking may play a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:20026601

  18. An Ancestral Role for CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 Proteins in Both Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yasumura, Yuki; Pierik, Ronald; Kelly, Steven; Sakuta, Masaaki; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Land plants have evolved adaptive regulatory mechanisms enabling the survival of environmental stresses associated with terrestrial life. Here, we focus on the evolution of the regulatory CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) component of the ethylene signaling pathway that modulates stress-related changes in plant growth and development. First, we compare CTR1-like proteins from a bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens (representative of early divergent land plants), with those of more recently diverged lycophyte and angiosperm species (including Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) and identify a monophyletic CTR1 family. The fully sequenced P. patens genome encodes only a single member of this family (PpCTR1L). Next, we compare the functions of PpCTR1L with that of related angiosperm proteins. We show that, like angiosperm CTR1 proteins (e.g. AtCTR1 of Arabidopsis), PpCTR1L modulates downstream ethylene signaling via direct interaction with ethylene receptors. These functions, therefore, likely predate the divergence of the bryophytes from the land-plant lineage. However, we also show that PpCTR1L unexpectedly has dual functions and additionally modulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. In contrast, while AtCTR1 lacks detectable ABA signaling functions, Arabidopsis has during evolution acquired another homolog that is functionally distinct from AtCTR1. In conclusion, the roles of CTR1-related proteins appear to have functionally diversified during land-plant evolution, and angiosperm CTR1-related proteins appear to have lost an ancestral ABA signaling function. Our study provides new insights into how molecular events such as gene duplication and functional differentiation may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of regulatory mechanisms in plants. PMID:26243614

  19. Production of dengue virus envelope protein domain III-based antigens in tobacco chloroplasts using inducible and constitutive expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas; Ruf, Stephanie; Wang, Yanliang; Skaugen, Morten; Bock, Ralph; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is a disease in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and about half the world's population is at risk of infection according to the World Health Organization. Dengue is caused by any of the four related dengue virus serotypes DEN-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are transmitted to people by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Currently there is only one vaccine (Dengvaxia(®)) available (limited to a few countries) on the market since 2015 after half a century's intensive efforts. Affordable and accessible vaccines against dengue are hence still urgently needed. The dengue envelop protein domain III (EDIII), which is capable of eliciting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, has become the focus for subunit vaccine development. To contribute to the development of an accessible and affordable dengue vaccine, in the current study we have used plant-based vaccine production systems to generate a dengue subunit vaccine candidate in tobacco. Chloroplast genome engineering was applied to express serotype-specific recombinant EDIII proteins in tobacco chloroplasts using both constitutive and ethanol-inducible expression systems. Expression of a tetravalent antigen fusion construct combining EDIII polypeptides from all four serotypes was also attempted. Transplastomic EDIII-expressing tobacco lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed expression of EDIII antigen-encoding genes. EDIII protein accumulation levels varied for the different recombinant EDIII proteins and the different expression systems, and reached between 0.8 and 1.6 % of total cellular protein. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the chloroplast compartment as a production site for an EDIII-based vaccine candidate against dengue fever and presents a Gateway(®) plastid transformation vector for inducible transgene expression. PMID:27116001

  20. A constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor causes mating self-compatibility in the mushroom Coprinus.

    PubMed Central

    Olesnicky, N S; Brown, A J; Dowell, S J; Casselton, L A

    1999-01-01

    In the mushroom Coprinus cinereus, the multiallelic B mating type genes are predicted to encode a large family of seven-transmembrane domain receptors and CaaX-modified pheromones. We have shown that a single amino acid change Q229P in transmembrane domain VI of one receptor confers a self-compatible mating phenotype. Using a heterologous yeast assay, we have demonstrated that this C.cinereus pheromone receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor and that the Q229P mutation is constitutively activating. A C.cinereus pheromone precursor was processed to an active species specifically in yeast MATa cells and activated the co-expressed wild-type receptor. Yeast cells expressing the wild-type receptor were used to test the activity of synthetic peptides, enabling us to predict the structure of the mature C.cinereus pheromone and to show that the Q229P mutation does not compromise normal receptor function. PMID:10329622

  1. Constitutive Expression of Yes-Associated Protein (Yap) in Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibres Induces Muscle Atrophy and Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Robert N.; Gray, Stuart R.; Walker, Claire; Carroll, Andrew M.; Itzstein, Cecile; Lionikas, Arimantas; Zammit, Peter S.; De Bari, Cosimo; Wackerhage, Henning

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the Hippo pathway member Yes-associated protein (Yap, gene name Yap1) in skeletal muscle fibres in vivo. Specifically we bred an inducible, skeletal muscle fibre-specific knock-in mouse model (MCK-tTA-hYAP1 S127A) to test whether the over expression of constitutively active Yap (hYAP1 S127A) is sufficient to drive muscle hypertrophy or stimulate changes in fibre type composition. Unexpectedly, after 5–7 weeks of constitutive hYAP1 S127A over expression, mice suddenly and rapidly lost 20–25% body weight and suffered from gait impairments and kyphosis. Skeletal muscles atrophied by 34–40% and the muscle fibre cross sectional area decreased by ≈40% when compared to control mice. Histological analysis revealed evidence of skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration, necrotic fibres and a NADH-TR staining resembling centronuclear myopathy. In agreement with the histology, mRNA expression of markers of regenerative myogenesis (embryonic myosin heavy chain, Myf5, myogenin, Pax7) and muscle protein degradation (atrogin-1, MuRF1) were significantly elevated in muscles from transgenic mice versus control. No significant changes in fibre type composition were detected using ATPase staining. The phenotype was largely reversible, as a cessation of hYAP1 S127A expression rescued body and muscle weight, restored muscle morphology and prevented further pathological progression. To conclude, high Yap activity in muscle fibres does not induce fibre hypertrophy nor fibre type changes but instead results in a reversible atrophy and deterioration. PMID:23544078

  2. Constitutive overexpression of soybean plasma membrane intrinsic protein GmPIP1;6 confers salt tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Under saline conditions, plant growth is depressed via osmotic stress and salt can accumulate in leaves leading to further depression of growth due to reduced photosynthesis and gas exchange. Aquaporins are proposed to have a major role in growth of plants via their impact on root water uptake and leaf gas exchange. In this study, soybean plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1;6 (GmPIP1;6) was constitutively overexpressed to evaluate the function of GmPIP1;6 in growth regulation and salt tolerance in soybean. Results GmPIP1;6 is highly expressed in roots as well as reproductive tissues and the protein targeted to the plasma membrane in onion epidermis. Treatment with 100 mM NaCl resulted in reduced expression initially, then after 3 days the expression was increased in root and leaves. The effects of constitutive overexpression of GmPIP1;6 in soybean was examined under normal and salt stress conditions. Overexpression in 2 independent lines resulted in enhanced leaf gas exchange, but not growth under normal conditions compared to wild type (WT). With 100 mM NaCl, net assimilation was much higher in the GmPIP1;6-Oe and growth was enhanced relative to WT. GmPIP1;6-Oe plants did not have higher root hydraulic conductance (Lo) under normal conditions, but were able to maintain Lo under saline conditions compared to WT which decreased Lo. GmPIP1;6-Oe lines grown in the field had increased yield resulting mainly from increased seed size. Conclusions The general impact of overexpression of GmPIP1;6 suggests that it may be a multifunctional aquaporin involved in root water transport, photosynthesis and seed loading. GmPIP1;6 is a valuable gene for genetic engineering to improve soybean yield and salt tolerance. PMID:24998596

  3. Constitutive expression of tdTomato protein as a cytotoxicity and proliferation marker for space radiation biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Arif A.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Berger, Thomas; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Feles, Sebastian; Kätzel, Thorben; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions requires knowledge on the biological effectiveness of different space radiation components, e.g. heavy ions, on the interaction of radiation and other space environmental factors such as microgravity, and on the physical and biological dose distribution in the human body. Space experiments and ground-based experiments at heavy ion accelerators require fast and reliable test systems with an easy readout for different endpoints. In order to determine the effect of different radiation qualities on cellular proliferation and the biological depth dose distribution after heavy ion exposure, a stable human cell line expressing a novel fluorescent protein was established and characterized. tdTomato, a red fluorescent protein of the new generation with fast maturation and high fluorescence intensity, was selected as reporter of cell proliferation. Human embryonic kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a plasmid encoding tdTomato under the control of the constitutively active cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (ptdTomato-N1). The stably transfected cell line was named HEK-ptdTomato-N1 8. This cytotoxicity biosensor was tested by ionizing radiation (X-rays and accelerated heavy ions) exposure. As biological endpoints, the proliferation kinetics and the cell density reached 100 h after irradiation reflected by constitutive expression of the tdTomato were investigated. Both were reduced dose-dependently after radiation exposure. Finally, the cell line was used for biological weighting of heavy ions of different linear energy transfer (LET) as space-relevant radiation quality. The relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions in reducing cellular proliferation peaked at an LET of 91 keV/μm. The results of this study demonstrate that the HEK-ptdTomato-N1 reporter cell line can be used as a fast and reliable biosensor system for detection of cytotoxic damage caused by ionizing radiation.

  4. Assessment of heat shock protein 70 induction by heat in alfalfa varieties and constitutive overexpression in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Iannacone, Rina; Capomaccio, Stefano; Metelli, Alessandra; Armentano, Nadia; Semeraro, Lucia; Cellini, Francesco; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock. PMID:25951604

  5. MDCK cells expressing constitutively active Yes-associated protein (YAP) undergo apical extrusion depending on neighboring cell status

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takanori; Ishihara, Erika; Miyamura, Norio; Narumi, Rika; Kajita, Mihoko; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Akira; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a cell-cell interaction by which a cell compares its fitness to that of neighboring cells. The cell with the relatively lower fitness level is the “loser” and actively eliminated, while the cell with the relatively higher fitness level is the “winner” and survives. Recent studies have shown that cells with high Yes-associated protein (YAP) activity win cell competitions but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we report the unexpected finding that cells overexpressing constitutively active YAP undergo apical extrusion and are losers, rather than winners, in competitions with normal mammalian epithelial cells. Inhibitors of metabolism-related proteins such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) suppressed this apical extrusion, as did knockdown of vimentin or filamin in neighboring cells. Interestingly, YAP-overexpressing cells switched from losers to winners when co-cultured with cells expressing K-Ras (G12V) or v-Src. Thus, the role of YAP in deciding cell competitions depends on metabolic factors and the status of neighboring cells. PMID:27324860

  6. Assessment of Heat Shock Protein 70 Induction by Heat in Alfalfa Varieties and Constitutive Overexpression in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Iannacone, Rina; Capomaccio, Stefano; Metelli, Alessandra; Armentano, Nadia; Semeraro, Lucia; Cellini, Francesco; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock. PMID:25951604

  7. Constitutive heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) expression in rainbow trout hepatocytes: effect of heat shock and heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Boone, Adrienne N; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2002-06-01

    The 70-kDa family of heat shock proteins plays an important role as molecular chaperones in unstressed and stressed cells. The constitutive member of the 70 family (hsc70) is crucial for the chaperoning function of unstressed cells, whereas the inducible form (hsp70) is important for allowing cells to cope with acute stressor insult, especially those affecting the protein machinery. In fish, the role of hsc70 in the cellular stress response process is less clear primarily because of the lack of a fish-specific antibody for hsc70 detection. In this study, we purified hsc70 to homogeneity from trout liver using a three-step purification protocol with differential centrifugation, ATP-agarose affinity chromatography and electroelution. Polyclonal antibodies to trout hsc70 generated in rabbits cross-reacted strongly with both purified trout hsc70 protein and also purified recombinant bovine hsc70. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Western blotting confirmed that the isoelectric point of rainbow trout hsc70 was more acidic than hsp70. Using this antibody, we detected hsc70 content in the liver, heart, gill and skeletal muscle of unstressed rainbow trout. Primary cultures of trout hepatocytes subjected to a heat shock (+15 degrees C for 1 h) or exposed to either CuSO(4) (200 microM for 24 h), CdCl(2) (10 microM for 24 h) or NaAsO(2) (50 microM for 1 h) resulted in higher hsp70 accumulation over a 24-h period. However, hsc70 content showed no change with either heat shock or heavy metal exposure suggesting that hsc70 is not modulated by sublethal acute stressors in trout hepatocytes. Taken together, we have for the first time generated polyclonal antibodies specific to rainbow trout hsc70 and this antibody will allow for the characterization of the role of hsc70 in the cellular stress response process in fish. PMID:12106899

  8. H3K27 demethylation by JMJD3 at a poised enhancer of anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 determines ERα ligand dependency

    PubMed Central

    Svotelis, Amy; Bianco, Stéphanie; Madore, Jason; Huppé, Gabrielle; Nordell-Markovits, Alexei; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Gévry, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin represents a repressive barrier to the process of ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. Here, we show that H3K27 methylation imposes ligand-dependent regulation of the oestrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent apoptotic response via Bcl-2 in breast cancer cells. The activation of BCL2 transcription is dependent on the simultaneous inactivation of the H3K27 methyltransferase, EZH2, and the demethylation of H3K27 at a poised enhancer by the ERα-dependent recruitment of JMJD3 in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. We also provide evidence that this pathway is modified in cells resistant to anti-oestrogen (AE), which constitutively express BCL2. We show that the lack of H3K27 methylation at BCL2 regulatory elements due to the inactivation of EZH2 by the HER2 pathway leads to this constitutive activation of BCL2 in these AE-resistant cells. Our results describe a mechanism in which the epigenetic state of chromatin affects ligand dependency during ERα-regulated gene expression. PMID:21841772

  9. Lipid rafts association and anti-apoptotic function of prohibitin in ultraviolet B light-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-08-01

    Upon UVB irradiation, an alternation of major lipid raft components can lead to the recruitment/activation of rafts-associated proteins and initiation of downstream apoptotic signalling pathways. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify potential regulators of UVB-induced apoptosis and mass spectrometry fingerprint analysis to identify proteins that are altered in the rafts after UVB irradiation. Our data show that levels of several proteins, including prohibitin (PHB), were changed in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. We also demonstrate that while total PHB expression was not changed, the protein was enriched in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. Reduced expression of PHB using siRNA knockdown resulted in an increase in cellular apoptosis after UVB irradiation. Based on these results, we propose that PHB protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis. PMID:22776003

  10. Protein carbamylation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-09-01

    Carbamylation constitutes a posttranslational modification of proteins or amino acids and results from different pathways in vivo. First is the non-enzymatic reaction between isocyanic acid, a decomposition product of urea, and either the N-terminus or the ɛ-amino group of lysine residues. Isocyanic acid levels, while low in vivo, are in equilibrium with urea and are thus increased in chronic and end-stage renal diseases. An alternative pathway involves the leukocyte heme protein myeloperoxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, producing isocyanate at inflammation sites. Notably, plasma thiocyanate levels are increased in smokers, and leukocyte-driven protein carbamylation occurs both within human and animal atherosclerotic plaques, as well as on plasma proteins. Protein carbamylation is considered a hallmark of molecular aging and is implicated in many pathological conditions. Recently, it has been shown that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces endothelial dysfunction via lectin-like-oxidized LDL receptor-1 activation and increased reactive oxygen species production, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Moreover, carbamylated LDL harbors atherogenic activities, including both binding to macrophage scavenger receptors inducing cholesterol accumulation and foam-cell formation, as well as promoting vascular smooth muscle proliferation. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein loses its anti-apoptotic activity after carbamylation, contributing to endothelial cell death. In addition to involvement in atherogenesis, protein carbamylation levels have emerged as a particularly strong predictor of both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies also suggest that protein carbamylation may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:26061545

  11. The Cell Shape-determining Csd6 Protein from Helicobacter pylori Constitutes a New Family of l,d-Carboxypeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun Sook; Im, Ha Na; An, Doo Ri; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young; Mobashery, Shahriar; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Yoo, Jakyung; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Kim, Cheolhee; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Bang, Geul; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Byung Il; Yoon, Hye Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. Its high motility in the viscous gastric mucosa facilitates colonization of the human stomach and depends on the helical cell shape and the flagella. In H. pylori, Csd6 is one of the cell shape-determining proteins that play key roles in alteration of cross-linking or by trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Csd6 is also involved in deglycosylation of the flagellar protein FlaA. To better understand its function, biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations were carried out. We show that Csd6 has a three-domain architecture and exists as a dimer in solution. The N-terminal domain plays a key role in dimerization. The middle catalytic domain resembles those of l,d-transpeptidases, but its pocket-shaped active site is uniquely defined by the four loops I to IV, among which loops I and III show the most distinct variations from the known l,d-transpeptidases. Mass analyses confirm that Csd6 functions only as an l,d-carboxypeptidase and not as an l,d-transpeptidase. The d-Ala-complexed structure suggests possible binding modes of both the substrate and product to the catalytic domain. The C-terminal nuclear transport factor 2-like domain possesses a deep pocket for possible binding of pseudaminic acid, and in silico docking supports its role in deglycosylation of flagellin. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that H. pylori Csd6 and its homologs constitute a new family of l,d-carboxypeptidase. This work provides insights into the function of Csd6 in regulating the helical cell shape and motility of H. pylori. PMID:26306031

  12. The Cell Shape-determining Csd6 Protein from Helicobacter pylori Constitutes a New Family of L,D-Carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun Sook; Im, Ha Na; An, Doo Ri; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young; Mobashery, Shahriar; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Yoo, Jakyung; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Kim, Cheolhee; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Bang, Geul; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Byung Il; Yoon, Hye Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. Its high motility in the viscous gastric mucosa facilitates colonization of the human stomach and depends on the helical cell shape and the flagella. In H. pylori, Csd6 is one of the cell shape-determining proteins that play key roles in alteration of cross-linking or by trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Csd6 is also involved in deglycosylation of the flagellar protein FlaA. To better understand its function, biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations were carried out. We show that Csd6 has a three-domain architecture and exists as a dimer in solution. The N-terminal domain plays a key role in dimerization. The middle catalytic domain resembles those of l,d-transpeptidases, but its pocket-shaped active site is uniquely defined by the four loops I to IV, among which loops I and III show the most distinct variations from the known l,d-transpeptidases. Mass analyses confirm that Csd6 functions only as an l,d-carboxypeptidase and not as an l,d-transpeptidase. The d-Ala-complexed structure suggests possible binding modes of both the substrate and product to the catalytic domain. The C-terminal nuclear transport factor 2-like domain possesses a deep pocket for possible binding of pseudaminic acid, and in silico docking supports its role in deglycosylation of flagellin. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that H. pylori Csd6 and its homologs constitute a new family of l,d-carboxypeptidase. This work provides insights into the function of Csd6 in regulating the helical cell shape and motility of H. pylori. PMID:26306031

  13. Expression changes of antioxidant, apoptotic, anti-apoptotic genes and miR-15b-34a-21-98 in over tissue by using erythromycin, quinacrine and tetracycline in non-surgical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Yumrutas, Onder; Atilgan, Remzi; Baspinar, Melike; Sapmaz, Ekrem; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, effects on expression of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes (GSR, GRX3, SOD1, RAI-NOS, HSP7, BAX, Bcl-2, CASP3 and MDH1) of substances being used in non-surgical sterilization such as quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline were evaluated in over tissue. Moreover, expression of some specific mi-RNA (miR-15b, miR-21, miR34a and miR-98) that playing a role in apoptosis was determined in same tissue. Prospective comparative experimental study. Genetics and Histology laboratory. Total number of 28 Wistar albino 12-14 week old female rats with regular cycles and 200-220 grams in weight. Total RNA was isolated from tissues by using a RNA isolation kit. Gene expression levels were evaluated by Real-Time PCR method. Tubal passage and fibrosis induction in tissues was observed in the histochemical analysis. In the statistical analysis of data Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used and p < 0.05 were accepted as significant. While the expressions of target genes found to be increased in quinacrine and erythromycin group when compared to control group, this increase was insignificant. In quinacrine group, increase in the SOD1 expression levels was only statistically significant (p < 0.05). Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21, miR34a and miR-98 microRNAs were found to be up-regulated in all experimental groups, despite this, only the increased expression miR-34 was found as statistically significant when compared to control. Tubal blockage and fibrosis induction scores of quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline were significantly higher than control. Results of the present study suggest that the doses treated of quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline used in non-surgical sterilization effect poorly the expression of anti-oxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, but the expression of miR-34 playing the role in apoptosis increased after treatment of these substances. PMID:25195052

  14. ZNF667/Mipu1 Is a Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factor That Directly Regulates the Expression of the Rat Bax Gene in H9c2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Hao; Shi, Chunli; Liu, Ke; Liu, Meidong; Wang, Nian; Wang, Kangkai; Zhang, Huali; Wang, Guiliang; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    ZNF667/Mipu1, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor, was suggested to play an important role in oxidative stress. However, none of the target genes or potential roles of ZNF667 in cardiomyocytes have been elucidated. Here, we investigated the functional role of ZNF667 in H9c2 cell lines focusing on its molecular mechanism by which it protects the cells from apoptosis. We found that ZNF667 inhibited the expression and the promoter activity of the rat proapoptotic gene Bax gene, and at the same time prevented apoptosis of H9c2 cells, induced by H2O2 and Dox. Western immunoblotting analysis revealed that ZNF667 also inhibited Bax protein expression, accompanied by attenuation of the mitochondrial translocation of Bax protein, induced by H2O2. EMSA and target detection assay showed that the purified ZNF667 fusion proteins could interact with the Bax promoter sequence in vitro, and this interaction was dependent upon the ZNF667 DNA binding sequences or its core sequence in the promoter. Furthermore, ChIP assay demonstrated that a stimulus H2O2 could enhance the ability of ZNF667 protein binding to the promoter. Finally, a reporter gene assay showed that ZNF667 could repress the activity of the Bax gene promoter, and the repression was dependent upon its binding to the specific DNA sequence in the promoter. Our work demonstrates that ZNF667 that confers cytoprotection is a novel regulator of the rat Bax gene, mediating the inhibition of the Bax mRNA and protein expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in response to H2O2 treatment. PMID:25397408

  15. Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623

  16. The anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of gallic acid against mucosal inflammation- and erosions-induced by gastric ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Mojadami, Shahnaz; Farbood, Yaghoob; Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Kazem

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on gastric mucosal lesions caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat. Forty male rats were randomly divided into sham, control (I/R injury) and three gallic acid-pretreated groups. To induce I/R lesions, the celiac artery was clamped for 30 min and then the clamp was removed to allow reperfusion for 6 hr. Pretreated rats received gallic acid (15, 30 or 60 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) 30 min prior to the induction of I/R injury. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the areas of ulceration were compared. Samples of gastric mucosa were collected to evaluate the protein expression of pro-apoptotic factor, caspase-3, and pro-inflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using western blot. Pretreatment with gallic acid decreased the total area of gastric lesions. Gallic acid at 30 mg kg-1 decreased the levels of protein expression of caspase-3 and iNOS induced by I/R injury. Our findings showed the protective effect of gallic acid on gastric mucosa against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect of gallic acid was mainly mediated by reducing protein expression of iNOS and caspase-3. PMID:26973766

  17. Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Chun, Sung Wan; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yongho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lithospermic acid B (LAB) has been reported to protect OLETF rats, an established type 2 diabetic animal model, from the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. We investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) has a protective role under cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in vitro and whether it slows the development of diabetes in OLETF rats in vivo. Pretreatment with 50 {mu}M LAB significantly reduced the 1000 U/mL INF-{gamma} and 100 U/mL IL-1{beta}-induced INS-1 cell death. LAB significantly alleviated cytokine-induced phosphorylations of p38 and JNK in accordance with a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 activity in beta-cells. LAB also protected against the cytokine-induced caspase-3 apoptotic pathway via significant activation of Nrf2-HO (heme-oxigenase)-1 and Sirt1 expression. OLETF rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day LAB showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared to untreated OLETF control rats in vivo. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of LAB on pancreatic {beta}-cells are related with both alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1.

  18. In contrast to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic peripheral effect, levosimendan failed to induce a long-term neuroprotective effect in a rat model of mild septic encephalopathy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, Konstanze; Bent, Franziska; Wagner, Sören; Zorn, Markus; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Levosimendan shows protective myocardial characteristics and is administered to enhance cardiac contractility in patients. However, currently little is known about levosimendan's effect on brain. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the long-term effect of levosimendan on brain and during mild rat sepsis in comparison to its peripheral mode of action. Adult rats (n=40) were divided into four groups with n=10 per group: (I) sham, (II) levosimendan (283 μg/kg body weight i.v.), (III) lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 8 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and (IV) LPS+levosimendan. Levosimendan was given 24h after injecting LPS. Psychometric investigations were conducted using a Morris water maze (MWM) and a holeboard test. In cerebral and splenic tissue, IL-1β, Il-6, TNFalpha levels, and apoptosis were determined; cerebral tissue corticosterone concentration was measured 6 days after injecting LPS. Blood cytokine concentrations were determined 1 day and 6 days after injecting LPS. Rats that received an LPS injection spent more time in the outer zone of the MWM according to increased cerebral corticosterone levels, and showed decreased cognitive abilities. LPS induced a reduction in body weight, increased splenic apoptosis and blood cytokine level. Levosimendan showed anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties in spleen but failed to show a long-term neuroprotective effect. PMID:24361133

  19. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust particles exhibit alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity associated with decrease in antioxidant defenses and imbalance in pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Seriani, Robson; de Souza, Claudia Emanuele Carvalho; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Frias, Daniela Perroni; Matsuda, Monique; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Ferreira, Márcia Zotti Justo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines produce adverse alterations in cells of the airways by activating intracellular signaling pathways and apoptotic gene overexpression, and also by influencing metabolism and cytoskeleton changes. This study used human bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) in culture and evaluates their exposure to DEPs (15ug/mL for 1 and 2 h) in order to determine changes to cell rheology (viscoelasticity) and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEPs were found to have a significant loss in stiffness, membrane stability, and mitochondrial activity. The genes involved in apoptosis [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 and caspase-3)] presented inversely proportional expressions (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively), low expression of the genes involved in antioxidant responses [SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1); SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) (p = 0.01)], along with an increase in cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) (p = 0.01). These results suggest that alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity could be associated with oxidative stress and imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. PMID:26856867

  20. Targeting cytosolic phospholipase A2 α in colorectal cancer cells inhibits constitutively activated protein kinase B (AKT) and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chanlu; Hua, Sheng; Li, Jianfang; Wang, Tingfeng; Yao, Mu; Vignarajan, Soma; Teng, Ying; Hejazi, Leila; Liu, Bingya; Dong, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive activation of protein kinase B (AKT) in a hyper-phosphorylated status at Ser473 is one of the hallmarks of anti-EGFR therapy-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to examine the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) on AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with mutation in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was resistant to EGF stimulation in CRC cell lines of DLD-1 (PIK3CAE545K mutation) and HT-29 (PIK3CAP499T mutation). Over-expression of cPLA2α by stable transfection increased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in DLD-1 cells. In contrast, silencing of cPLA2α with siRNA or inhibition with Efipladib decreased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in HT-29. Treating animals transplanted with DLD-1 with Efipladib (10 mg/kg, i.p. daily) over 14 days reduced xenograft growth by >90% with a concomitant decrease in AKT phosphorylation. In human CRC tissue, cPLA2α expression and phosphorylation were increased in 63% (77/120) compared with adjacent normal mucosa determined by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that cPLA2α is required for sustaining AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with PI3K mutation, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of CRC resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:25365190

  1. Loss of compensatory pro-survival and anti-apoptotic modulator, IKKε, sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to CHEK1 loss through an increased level of p21

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Marianne K.; Min, Dong J.; Wright, George; Goldlust, Ian; Annunziata, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is extremely heterogeneous, implying that therapeutic strategies should be specifically designed based on molecular characteristics of an individual's tumor. Previously, we showed that IKKε promotes invasion and metastasis in a subset of OCs. Here, we identified CHEK1 as an IKKε-dependent lethal gene from shRNA kinome library screen. In subsequent pharmacological intervention studies, the co-inhibition of IKKε and CHEK1 was more effective in killing OC cells than single treatment. At the molecular level, co-inhibition dramatically decreased pro-survival proteins, but increased proteins involved in DNA damage and apoptosis. IKKε-knockdown increased p21 levels, while overexpression of wild-type IKKε, but not a kinase dead IKKε mutant decreased p21 levels. We further demonstrated that the depletion of p21 rendered OC cells more resistant to cell death induced by co-inhibition of IKKε and CHEK1. In conclusion, we revealed a novel interplay between IKKε, CHEK1 and p21 signaling in survival of OC. Our study provides a rationale for the clinical development of specific IKKε inhibitor and for usage of IKKε as an exploratory marker for resistance to CHEK1 inhibitors in the clinic. The interplay provides one potential explanation as to why very few clinical responses were achieved in patients treated with single-agent CHEK1 inhibitors. PMID:25474241

  2. Electro-acupuncture at points of Zusanli and Quchi exerts anti-apoptotic effect through the modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiehua; You, Yongmei; Tao, Jing; Ye, Xiaoqian; Huang, Jia; Yang, Shanli; Lin, Zhicheng; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2014-01-13

    We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and deeply investigated the relationship between this neuroprotective effect and PI3K/Akt pathway. Rats underwent focal cerebral IR injured by suture method and received the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of EA at points of Zusanli(ST36) and Quchi(LI11) after the operation. We found that the EA treatment significantly (p<0.05) improved neurological deficit and cerebral infarction. Furthermore, EA profoundly activated PI3K/Akt signaling resulted in the inhibition of cerebral cell apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra. Simultaneously EA increased the expression of PI3K, p-Akt, p-Bad and Bcl-2 at the protein level and the expression of Bcl-2 at the mRNA level. On the contrary, EA inhibited the Bax and cleaved Caspase-3-positive expression. The selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 compromised EA-induced neuroprotective effects and reduced the elevation of p-Akt, p-Bad and Bcl-2 levels. Our data suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway played a critical role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of EA treatment at points of Zusanli and Quchi after the ischemic stroke. PMID:24157854

  3. Retinoprotective Effects of Bilberry Anthocyanins via Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanisms in a Visible Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration Model in Pigmented Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Feng; Yang, Xue; Deng, Qianchun; Ji, Baoping; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive visible light exposure can induce damage to retinal cells and contribute to the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration. In this study we created a model of phototoxicity in pigmented rabbits. Furthermore, we investigated the protective effect of bilberry anthocyanin extract (BAE, Table A1) and explored the possible mechanisms of action in this model. The model of light-induced retinal damage was established by the pigmented rabbits exposed to light at 18,000 lx for 2 h, and they were sacrificed on day 7. After administration of BAE at dosages of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, retinal dysfunction was significantly inhibited in terms of electroretinograms, and the decreased thicknesses of retinal outer nuclear layer and lengths of the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells were suppressed in rabbits with retinal degeneration. BAE attenuated the changes caused by light to certain apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3). The extract increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, as well as the total antioxidant capacity, but decreased the malondialdehyde level in the retinal cells. BAE inhibited the light-induced elevation in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic parameters (IL-1β and VEGF). Results showed that visible light-induced retinal degeneration model in pigmented rabbits was successfully established and BAE exhibited protective effects by increasing the antioxidant defense mechanisms, suppressing lipid peroxidation and proinflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting retinal cells apoptosis. PMID:26694327

  4. Turmeric toxicity in A431 epidermoid cancer cells associates with autophagy degradation of anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic p53 mutant.

    PubMed

    Thongrakard, Visa; Titone, Rossella; Follo, Carlo; Morani, Federica; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tencomnao, Tewin; Isidoro, Ciro

    2014-12-01

    The keratinocyte-derived A431 Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells express the p53R273H mutant, which has been reported to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we show that the crude extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa), similarly to its bioactive component Curcumin, could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in A431 cells, and these effects were concomitant with degradation of p53. Turmeric and curcumin also stimulated the activity of mTOR, which notoriously promotes cell growth and acts negatively on basal autophagy. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of mTOR synergized with turmeric and curcumin in causing p53 degradation, increased the production of autophagosomes and exacerbated cell toxicity leading to cell necrosis. Small-interference mediated silencing of the autophagy proteins BECLIN 1 or ATG7 abrogated the induction of autophagy and largely rescued p53 stability in Turmeric-treated or Curcumin-treated cells, indicating that macroautophagy was mainly responsible for mutant p53 degradation. These data uncover a novel mechanism of turmeric and curcumin toxicity in chemoresistant cancer cells bearing mutant p53. PMID:25044209

  5. Topological Transitions in Mitochondrial Membranes controlled by Apoptotic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Sanders, Lori K.; Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Ivashyna, Olena; Schlesinger, Paul H.

    2010-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family comprises pro-apoptotic proteins, capable of permeabilizing the mitochondrial membrane, and anti-apoptotic members interacting in an antagonistic fashion to regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). They offer potential therapeutic targets to re-engage cellular suicide in tumor cells but the extensive network of implicated protein-protein interactions has impeded full understanding of the decision pathway. We show, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, that pro-apoptotic proteins interact with mitochondrial-like model membranes to generate saddle-splay (negative Gaussian) curvature topologically required for pore formation, while anti-apoptotic proteins can deactivate curvature generation by molecules drastically different from Bcl-2 family members and offer evidence for membrane-curvature mediated interactions general enough to affect very disparate systems.

  6. Constitutive modulation of Raf-1 protein kinase is associated with differential gene expression of several known and unknown genes.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S.; Wang, F. H.; Whiteside, T. L.; Kasid, U.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raf-1, a cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase, plays an important role in mitogen- and damage-responsive cellular signal transduction pathways. Consistent with this notion is the fact that constitutive modulation of expression and/or activity of Raf-1 protein kinase modifies cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival. Although these effects are controlled at least in part by transcriptional mechanisms, the role of Raf-1 in the regulation of specific gene expression is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differential display of mRNA was used to identify the genes differentially expressed in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells (PCI-06A) transfected with either the antisense c-raf-1 cDNA (PCI-06A-Raf(AS)), or a portion of cDNA coding for the kinase domain of Raf-1 (PCI-06A-Raf(K)). The differentially expressed fragments were cloned and sequenced, and they were used as probes to compare the expression patterns in parent transfectants by Northern blot analysis. In addition, expression patterns of the novel genes were examined in normal tissues and cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed cDNA fragments were identified and sequenced. Northern blot analysis revealed that four of these fragments representing human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX-II), and two as-yet unidentified cDNAs (KAS-110 and KAS-111) were relatively overexpressed in PCI-06A-Raf(AS) transfectants compared with PCI-06A-Raf(K) transfectants. The other two cDNA fragments representing human elongation factor-1 alpha (HEF-1 alpha) and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAz) were overexpressed in PCI-06A-Raf(K) transfectants compared with PCI-06A-Raf(AS) transfectants. The KAS-110 (114 bp) and KAS-111 (202 bp) cDNAs did not show significant matches with sequences in the GenEMBL, TIGR, and HGS DNA databases, and these may represent novel genes. The KAS-110 and KAS-111 transcripts, approximately 0.9 kb and

  7. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  8. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Mariz, F. C.; Coimbra, E. C.; Jesus, A. L. S.; Nascimento, L. M.; Torres, F. A. G.; Freitas, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris. PMID:26090426

  9. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.

    PubMed

    Mariz, F C; Coimbra, E C; Jesus, A L S; Nascimento, L M; Torres, F A G; Freitas, A C

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris. PMID:26090426

  10. Identification of a small, very acidic constitutive nucleolar protein (NO29) as a member of the nucleoplasmin family

    PubMed Central

    Zirwes, Rudolf F.; Schmidt-Zachmann, Marion S.; Franke, Werner W.

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery and molecular characterization of a small and very acidic nucleolar protein of an SDS/PAGE mobility corresponding to Mr 29,000 (NO29). The cDNA-deduced sequence of the Xenopus laevis protein defines a polypeptide of a calculated molecular mass of 20,121 and a pI of 3.75, with an extended acidic region near its C terminus, and is related to the major nucleolar protein, NO38, and the histone-binding protein, nucleoplasmin. This member of the nucleoplasmin family of proteins was immunolocalized to nucleoli in Xenopus oocytes and diverse somatic cells. Protein NO29 is associated with nuclear particles from Xenopus oocytes, partly complexed with protein NO38, and occurs in preribosomes but not in mature ribosomes. The location and the enormously high content of negatively charged amino acids lead to the hypothesis that NO29 might be involved in the nuclear and nucleolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins and the coordinated assembly of pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:9326619

  11. Constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related proteins and antioxydant enzyme activities triggers maize resistance towards Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Maschietto, Valentina; Lanubile, Alessandra; Leonardis, Silvana De; Marocco, Adriano; Paciolla, Costantino

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen of maize that causes ear rot and contaminates the grains with fumonisin mycotoxins. Breeding for resistance to Fusarium emerged as the most economic and environmentally safe strategy; therefore the discovery of resistant sources and effective molecular markers are a priority. Ears of resistant (CO441 and CO433) and susceptible (CO354 and CO389) maize lines were inoculated with F. verticillioides and the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (PR1, PR5, PRm3, PRm6) and genes that protect from oxidative stress (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) were evaluated in the kernels at 72h post inoculation. In addition, the oxidation level and the enzymatic activity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytosolic and wall peroxidases were investigated. The uninoculated kernels of the resistant lines showed higher gene expression and enzymatic activities, highlighting the key role of constitutive resistance in limiting pathogen attack. In contrast, the susceptible lines activated defensive genes only after pathogen inoculation, resulting in increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as well as lower enzymatic activities. The constitutive defenses observed in this study from seed could be profitably exploited to develop markers to speed up conventional breeding programs in the selection of resistant genotypes. PMID:27340858

  12. A Constitutively Active Gαi3 Protein Corrects the Abnormal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Phenotype of Oa1−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alejandra; Wang, Ying; Ahmedli, Novruz B.; Jiang, Meisheng; Farber, Debora B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular Albinism type 1 (OA1) is a disease caused by mutations in the OA1 gene and characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as well as abnormal crossing of the optic axons at the optic chiasm. We showed in our previous studies in mice that Oa1 activates specifically Gαi3 in its signaling pathway and thus, hypothesized that a constitutively active Gαi3 in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice might keep on the Oa1 signaling cascade and prevent the formation of macromelanosomes. To test this hypothesis, we have generated transgenic mice that carry the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) protein in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice and are now reporting the effects that the transgene produced on the Oa1−/− RPE phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice carrying RPE-specific expression of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) were generated by injecting fertilized eggs of Oa1−/− females with a lentivirus containing the Gαi3 (Q204L) cDNA. PCR, Southern blots, Western blots and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the transgene in the RPE of positive transgenic mice. Morphometrical analyses were performed using electron microscopy to compare the size and number of melanosomes per RPE area in putative Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) transgenic mice with those of wild-type NCrl and Oa1−/− mice. Results We found a correlation between the presence of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) transgene and the rescue of the normal phenotype of RPE melanosomes in Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) mice. These mice have higher density of melanosomes per RPE area and a larger number of small melanosomes than Oa1−/− mice, and their RPE phenotype is similar to that of wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results show that a constitutively active Gαi3 protein can by-pass the lack of Oa1 protein in Oa1−/− mice and consequently rescue the RPE melanosomal phenotype. PMID:24098784

  13. Eubacterial SpoVG Homologs Constitute a New Family of Site-Specific DNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jutras, Brandon L.; Chenail, Alicia M.; Rowland, Christi L.; Carroll, Dustin; Miller, M. Clarke; Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A site-specific DNA-binding protein was purified from Borrelia burgdorferi cytoplasmic extracts, and determined to be a member of the highly conserved SpoVG family. This is the first time a function has been attributed to any of these ubiquitous bacterial proteins. Further investigations into SpoVG orthologues indicated that the Staphylococcus aureus protein also binds DNA, but interacts preferentially with a distinct nucleic acid sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping between the S. aureus and B. burgdorferi proteins identified that a 6-residue stretch of the SpoVG α-helix contributes to DNA sequence specificity. Two additional, highly conserved amino acid residues on an adjacent β-sheet are essential for DNA-binding, apparently by contacts with the DNA phosphate backbone. Results of these studies thus identified a novel family of bacterial DNA-binding proteins, developed a model of SpoVG-DNA interactions, and provide direction for future functional studies on these wide-spread proteins. PMID:23818957

  14. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  15. Metalloprotease cleavage of the N terminus of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR37L1 reduces its constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Coleman, James L J; Ngo, Tony; Schmidt, Johannes; Mrad, Nadine; Liew, Chu Kong; Jones, Nicole M; Graham, Robert M; Smith, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the pharmacology or physiology of GPR37L1, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor that is abundant in the cerebellum. Mice deficient in this receptor exhibit precocious cerebellar development and hypertension. We showed that GPR37L1 coupled to the G protein Gαswhen heterologously expressed in cultured cells in the absence of any added ligand, whereas a mutant receptor that lacked the amino terminus was inactive. Conversely, inhibition of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) enhanced receptor activity, indicating that the presence of the amino terminus is necessary for GPR37L1 signaling. Metalloprotease-dependent processing of GPR37L1 was evident in rodent cerebellum, where we detected predominantly the cleaved, inactive form. However, comparison of the accumulation of cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) in response to phosphodiesterase inhibition in cerebellar slice preparations from wild-type and GPR37L1-null mice showed that some constitutive signaling remained in the wild-type mice. In reporter assays of Gαsor Gαisignaling, the synthetic, prosaposin-derived peptide prosaptide (TX14A) did not increase GPR37L1 activity. Our data indicate that GPR37L1 may be a constitutively active receptor, or perhaps its ligand is present under the conditions that we used for analysis, and that the activity of this receptor is instead controlled by signals that regulate metalloprotease activity in the tissue. PMID:27072655

  16. Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein 8 (VAMP8)-mediated Zymogen Granule Exocytosis Is Dependent on Endosomal Trafficking via the Constitutive-Like Secretory Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Scott W; Falkowski, Michelle A.; Thomas, Diana D. H.; Jones, Elaina K.; Hong, Wanjin; Giasano, Herbert Y.; Boulis, Nicholas M.; Groblewski, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Acinar cell zymogen granules (ZG) express 2 isoforms of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family (VAMP2 and -8) thought to regulate exocytosis. Expression of tetanus toxin to cleave VAMP2 in VAMP8 knock-out (−/−) acini confirmed that VAMP2 and -8 are the primary VAMPs for regulated exocytosis, each contributing ∼50% of the response. Analysis of VAMP8−/− acini indicated that although stimulated secretion was significantly reduced, a compensatory increase in constitutive secretion maintained total secretion equivalent to wild type (WT). Using a perifusion system to follow secretion over time revealed VAMP2 mediates an early rapid phase peaking and falling within 2–3 min, whereas VAMP8 controls a second prolonged phase that peaks at 4 min and slowly declines over 20 min to support the protracted secretory response. VAMP8−/− acini show increased expression of the endosomal proteins Ti-VAMP7 (2-fold) and Rab11a (4-fold) and their redistribution from endosomes to ZGs. Expression of GDP-trapped Rab11a-S25N inhibited secretion exclusively from the VAMP8 but not the VAMP2 pathway. VAMP8−/− acini also showed a >90% decrease in the early endosomal proteins Rab5/D52/EEA1, which control anterograde trafficking in the constitutive-like secretory pathway. In WT acini, short term (14–16 h) culture also results in a >90% decrease in Rab5/D52/EEA1 and a complete loss of the VAMP8 pathway, whereas VAMP2-secretion remains intact. Remarkably, rescue of Rab5/D52/EEA1 expression restored the VAMP8 pathway. Expressed D52 shows extensive colocalization with Rab11a and VAMP8 and partially copurifies with ZG fractions. These results indicate that robust trafficking within the constitutive-like secretory pathway is required for VAMP8- but not VAMP2-mediated ZG exocytosis. PMID:25138214

  17. Leu343Phe substitution in the Malx3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the constitutivity and glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression.

    PubMed

    Higgins, V J; Braidwood, M; Bissinger, P; Dawes, I W; Attfield, P V

    1999-06-01

    To utilise maltose as a carbon source Saccharomyces cerevisiae needs one or more functional MAL loci that contain the MALx1 gene encoding maltose permease, MALx2 encoding maltase, and MALx3 encoding a transcriptional activator. Maltose causes a rapid MALx3-dependent induction of MAL gene transcription, and glucose represses this activation via Mig1p. A MALx3 gene conveying high MAL gene expression in the absence of maltose in a malx3 laboratory mutant strain has been isolated from baker's yeast. The construction of hybrid genes between the isolated gene and a highly regulated MALx3 gene showed that constitutivity was the result of multiple amino-acid alterations throughout the structural gene. The combined effect of these amino-acid alterations was shown to be stronger than the sum of their individual effects on constitutivity. Analysis in glucose-repressed conditions confirmed that increased MALx3 transcript levels increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression but did not affect constitutivity. Analysis of four mutations between aa 343 and 375, lying within a proposed negative regulatory domain, showed that the single mutation of Leu343Phe increased the glucose insensitivity of MAL gene expression by 30-fold. These results demonstrate that not only Mig1p modulation of MALx3 expression, but also the MALx3 protein structure, is involved in the glucose-insensitive expression of the MAL genes. PMID:10369955

  18. Constitutive expression of a novel antimicrobial protein, Hcm1, confers resistance to both Verticillium and Fusarium wilts in cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Lingyun; Zou, Lifang; Li, Yurong; Chen, Gongyou; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium and Verticillium wilts, two of the most important diseases in cotton, pose serious threats to cotton production. Here we introduced a novel antimicrobial protein Hcm1, which comprised harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), and the chimeric protein, cecropin A-melittin, into cotton. The transgenic cotton lines with stable Hcm1 expression showed a higher resistance to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts both in greenhouse and field trials compared to controls. Hcm1 enabled the transgenic cotton to produced a microscopic hypersensitive response (micro-HR), reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, and caused the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in response to biotic stress, indicating that the transgenic cotton was in a primed state and ready to protect the host from pathogenic infection. Simultaneously, Hcm1 protein inhibited the growth of Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) and Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) in vitro. The spread of fungal biomass was also inhibited in vivo since the V. dahliae biomass was decreased dramatically in transgenic cotton plants after inoculation with V. dahliae. Together, these results demonstrate that Hcm1 could activate innate immunity and inhibit the growth of V. dahliae and F. oxysporum to protect cotton against Verticillium and Fusarium wilts. PMID:26856318

  19. Constitutive expression of a novel antimicrobial protein, Hcm1, confers resistance to both Verticillium and Fusarium wilts in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Lingyun; Zou, Lifang; Li, Yurong; Chen, Gongyou; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium and Verticillium wilts, two of the most important diseases in cotton, pose serious threats to cotton production. Here we introduced a novel antimicrobial protein Hcm1, which comprised harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), and the chimeric protein, cecropin A-melittin, into cotton. The transgenic cotton lines with stable Hcm1 expression showed a higher resistance to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts both in greenhouse and field trials compared to controls. Hcm1 enabled the transgenic cotton to produced a microscopic hypersensitive response (micro-HR), reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, and caused the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in response to biotic stress, indicating that the transgenic cotton was in a primed state and ready to protect the host from pathogenic infection. Simultaneously, Hcm1 protein inhibited the growth of Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) and Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) in vitro. The spread of fungal biomass was also inhibited in vivo since the V. dahliae biomass was decreased dramatically in transgenic cotton plants after inoculation with V. dahliae. Together, these results demonstrate that Hcm1 could activate innate immunity and inhibit the growth of V. dahliae and F. oxysporum to protect cotton against Verticillium and Fusarium wilts. PMID:26856318

  20. Trypanosomal TAC40 constitutes a novel subclass of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins specialized in mitochondrial genome inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Schnarwiler, Felix; Niemann, Moritz; Doiron, Nicholas; Harsman, Anke; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Dewar, Caroline E.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Jackson, Christopher B.; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Meisinger, Chris; Hiller, Sebastian; Warscheid, Bettina; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Schneider, André

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms allowing their inheritance to daughter cells. In contrast to most other eukaryotes Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion whose single-unit genome is physically connected to the flagellum. Here we identify a β-barrel mitochondrial outer membrane protein, termed tripartite attachment complex 40 (TAC40), that localizes to this connection. TAC40 is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance and belongs to the mitochondrial porin protein family. However, it is not specifically related to any of the three subclasses of mitochondrial porins represented by the metabolite transporter voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the protein translocator of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40), or the fungi-specific MDM10, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). MDM10 and TAC40 mediate cellular architecture and participate in transmembrane complexes that are essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In yeast MDM10, in the context of the ERMES, is postulated to connect the mitochondrial genomes to actin filaments, whereas in trypanosomes TAC40 mediates the linkage of the mitochondrial DNA to the basal body of the flagellum. However, TAC40 does not colocalize with trypanosomal orthologs of ERMES components and, unlike MDM10, it regulates neither mitochondrial morphology nor the assembly of the protein translocase. TAC40 therefore defines a novel subclass of mitochondrial porins that is distinct from VDAC, TOM40, and MDM10. However, whereas the architecture of the TAC40-containing complex in trypanosomes and the MDM10-containing ERMES in yeast is very different, both are organized around a β-barrel protein of the mitochondrial porin family that mediates a DNA–cytoskeleton linkage that is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24821793

  1. β-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of the SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulwon; Cho, Somi K; Kapoor, Shweta; Kumar, Ansu; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2014-10-01

    Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently observed and closely linked with proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated whether β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated primarily from the essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), can mediate its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in cancer cells. The effect of CPO on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and phosphatase, STAT3-regulated gene products and apoptosis was investigated using both functional proteomics tumor pathway technology platform and different tumor cell lines. We found that CPO suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM), breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with a significant dose- and time-dependent effects observed in MM cells. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases c-Src and JAK1/2. Also, vanadate treatment reversed CPO-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that CPO induced the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, deletion of SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of CPO to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by CPO inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and abrogated the invasive potential of tumor cells. Our results suggest for the first time that CPO is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling cascade and thus has an enormous potential for the treatment of various cancers harboring constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:23765383

  2. Constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes by controlling the expression of distinct Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Fabrice; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Jaspar, Fabrice; Minner, Frédéric; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre; Merville, Marie-Paule; Bours, Vincent; Lekeux, Pierre

    2002-05-15

    Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity protects quiescent mature immune cells from spontaneous apoptosis. Here, we examined whether NF-kappaB exerts its antiapoptotic function in these cells through the control of Bcl-2 family proteins. Specific pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB were used to achieve total NF-kappaB inactivation in quiescent human blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. NF-kappaB inhibition induced drastic lymphocyte and granulocyte apoptosis, but only moderate monocyte apoptosis. T- and B-cell apoptosis was slow and associated with a gradual down-regulation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2, respectively. By contrast, granulocyte apoptosis was fast and accompanied by a rapid cellular accumulation of Bcl-x(S), the proapoptotic Bcl-x isoform that is generated from alternative splicing of the bcl-x pre-mRNA. Finally, antisense bcl-x(L) and bcl-2 knockdown in T and B cells, respectively, and induction of Bcl-x(S) expression in granulocytes through antisense oligonucleotide-mediated redirection of bcl-x pre-mRNA splicing were sufficient to induce significant apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results reveal that basal NF-kappaB activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes through regulation of distinct members of the Bcl-2 family. This study sheds light on the constitutive mechanisms by which NF-kappaB maintains defense integrity. PMID:11986224

  3. The deubiquitinase Usp27x stabilizes the BH3-only protein Bim and enhances apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arnim; Heinlein, Melanie; Dengjel, Jörn; Alber, Claudia; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Häcker, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Bim is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member of the BH3-only protein subgroup. Expression levels of Bim determine apoptosis susceptibility in non-malignant and in tumour cells. Bim protein expression is downregulated by proteasomal degradation following ERK-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Here, we report the identification of a deubiquitinase, Usp27x, that binds Bim upon its ERK-dependent phosphorylation and can upregulate its expression levels. Overexpression of Usp27x reduces ERK-dependent Bim ubiquitination, stabilizes phosphorylated Bim, and induces apoptosis in PMA-stimulated cells, as well as in tumour cells with a constitutively active Raf/ERK pathway. Loss of endogenous Usp27x enhances the Bim-degrading activity of oncogenic Raf. Overexpression of Usp27x induces low levels of apoptosis in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and substantially enhances apoptosis induced in these cells by the inhibition of ERK signalling. Finally, deletion of Usp27x reduces apoptosis in NSCLC cells treated with an EGFR inhibitor. Thus, Usp27x can trigger via its proteolytic activity the deubiquitination of Bim and enhance its levels, counteracting the anti-apoptotic effects of ERK activity, and therefore acts as a tumour suppressor. PMID:27013495

  4. Human hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: Role of BH3 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.W.; Chen, W.N. . E-mail: WNChen@ntu.edu.sg

    2005-12-23

    The smallest protein of hepatitis B virus, HBX, has been implicated in the development of liver diseases by interfering with normal cellular processes. Its role in cell proliferation has been unclear as both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic activities have been reported. We showed molecular evidence that HBX induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. A Bcl-2 Homology Domain 3 was identified in HBX, which interacted with anti-apoptotic but not pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. HBX induced apoptosis when transfected into HepG2 cells, as demonstrated by both flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity. However, HBX protein may not be stable in apoptotic cells triggered by its own expression as only its mRNA or the fusion protein with the glutathione-S-transferase was detected in transfected cells. Our results suggested that HBX behaved as a pro-apoptotic protein and was able to induce apoptosis.

  5. Binding capability of the enediyne-associated apoprotein to human tumors and constitution of a ligand oligopeptide-integrated protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Chen, Hongxia; Miao, Qingfang; Wu, Shuying; Shang, Yue; Zhen, Yongsu

    2009-10-26

    The molecule of lidamycin that belongs to the chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics is composed of an apoprotein (LDP) and an enediyne chromophore. The enediyne moiety of the molecule is responsible for the potent cytotoxicity; however, the biological function of the apoprotein moiety, particularly its interaction with cancer cells, remains unclear. In present study, the binding capability of LDP to human tumors was detected for the first time by tissue microarray. LDP bound to various human tumors with significant difference from the corresponding normal tissues. Positive correlation between binding activity and the overexpression of VEGF and EGFR was confirmed by lung carcinoma tissue microarray. A fusion protein LG-LDP that consists of LDP and a ligand oligopeptide to EGFR was constructed by DNA recombination. LG-LDP showed augmented binding to EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells. Furthermore, an energized fusion protein LG-LDP-AE was prepared by integrating the active enediyne (AE) into LG-LDP molecule. By MTT assay, LG-LDP-AE displayed extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells with IC50 approximate to 0.01nM. The results indicate that LDP binds to various human tumors and it might serve as a delivery carrier by integration of ligand oligopeptide to manufacture motif-based, targeted fusion proteins for cancer. PMID:19737585

  6. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-{kappa}B in H1299 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Mi Ran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (G{alpha}i1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of G{alpha}i1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of G{alpha}i1QL. G{alpha}i1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-{kappa}B, which resulted from an increase in NF-{kappa}B p50 protein. We conclude that G{alpha}i1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Stress-Inducible and a Constitutive Small Heat-Shock Protein Targeted to the Matrix of Plant Peroxisomes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Changle; Haslbeck, Martin; Babujee, Lavanya; Jahn, Olaf; Reumann, Sigrun

    2006-01-01

    Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) are widespread molecular chaperones for which a peroxisomal localization has not yet been reported. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes two sHsps with putative peroxisomal targeting signals type 1 or 2 (PTS1 or PTS2). As demonstrated by double-labeling experiments using full-length fusion proteins with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein and deletion constructs lacking the putative targeting domains, AtHsp15.7 (At5g37670) and AtAcd31.2 (At1g06460) are targeted to the peroxisome matrix by a functional PTS1 (SKL>) and a functional PTS2 (RLx5HF), respectively. The peroxisomal localization of AtAcd31.2 was further confirmed by isolation of leaf peroxisomes from Arabidopsis by two successive sucrose density gradients, protein separation by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometric protein identification. When AtHsp15.7 and AtAcd31.2 were heterologously expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and directed to the cytosol by deletion of the PTSs, both sHsps were able to complement the morphological phenotype of yeast mutants deficient in the cytosolic homologs ScHsp42 or ScHsp26. According to expression studies by reverse transcription-PCR, AtAcd31.2 is constitutively expressed, whereas AtHsp15.7 is hardly expressed under normal conditions but strongly induced by heat and oxidative stress, the latter of which was triggered by the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole or the herbicide methyl viologen applied by watering of whole plants or infiltration of rosette leaves. Thus, plants are exceptional among eukaryotes in employing sHsps in the peroxisome matrix to prevent unspecific aggregation of partially denatured proteins under both physiological and stress conditions. PMID:16531488

  8. What Is a Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  9. Central Role of Protein Kinase Cε in Constitutive Activation of ERK1/2 and Rac1 in the Malignant Cells of Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Slupsky, Joseph R.; Kamiguti, Aura S.; Harris, Robert J.; Cawley, John C.; Zuzel, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    We have previously identified the presence of Ras/Raf-independent constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the hairy cells (HCs) of hairy cell leukemia. The aim of the present study was to characterize the signaling components involved in this activation and their relationship to the reported activation of Rac1. We found that both Rac1 and ERK activation in HCs are downstream of active Src and protein kinase C (PKC). Inhibition with toxin B showed that Rac1 plays no role in ERK activation in HCs. However, toxin B inhibited p60src and the Rac1-GEF Vav, demonstrating a positive feedback/activation of p60src by Rac1. Treatment with specific small interfering RNA for various PKC isoforms, or with PKC isoform-specific inhibitors, demonstrated a central role for PKCε in the constitutive activation of Rac1 and ERK in HCs. PKCε and active ERK were mutually associated and co-localized with mitochondria in HCs. Furthermore, active PKCε was nitrated on tyrosine, pointing to a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism of activation. By being involved in activation of ERK and Rac1, PKCε plays roles in both the survival of HCs and in the cytoskeletal dynamics responsible for the distinctive morphology and tissue homing of these cells. Our study therefore describes novel aspects of signaling important for the pathogenesis of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:17255340

  10. 4.1R proteins associate with interphase microtubules in human T cells: a 4.1R constitutive region is involved in tubulin binding.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ferreiro, C M; Luque, C M; Correas, I

    2001-11-30

    Red blood cell protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80-kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane. To contribute to the characterization of functional roles and partners of specific nonerythroid 4.1R isoforms, we analyzed 4.1R in human T cells and found that endogenous 4.1R was distributed to the microtubule network. Transfection experiments of T cell 4.1R cDNAs in conjunction with confocal microscopy analysis revealed the colocalization of exogenous 4.1R isoforms with the tubulin skeleton. Biochemical analyses using Taxol (paclitaxel)-polymerized microtubules from stably transfected T cells confirmed the association of the exogenous 4.1R proteins with microtubules. Consistent with this, endogenous 4.1R immunoreactive proteins were also detected in the microtubule-containing fraction. In vitro binding assays using glutathione S-transferase-4.1R fusion proteins showed that a constitutive domain of the 4.1R molecule, one that is therefore present in all 4.1R isoforms, is responsible for the association with tubulin. A 22-amino acid sequence comprised in this domain and containing heptad repeats of leucine residues was essential for tubulin binding. Furthermore, ectopic expression of 4.1R in COS-7 cells provoked microtubule disorganization. Our results suggest an involvement of 4.1R in interphase microtubule architecture and support the hypothesis that some 4.1R functional activities are cell type-regulated. PMID:11579097

  11. Premature termination of GAT1 transcription explains paradoxical negative correlation between nitrogen-responsive mRNA, but constitutive low-level protein production

    PubMed Central

    Isabelle, Georis; Tate, Jennifer J; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Cooper, Terrance G; Dubois, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    The first step in executing the genetic program of a cell is production of mRNA. In yeast, almost every gene is transcribed as multiple distinct isoforms, differing at their 5′ and/or 3′ termini. However, the implications and functional significance of the transcriptome-wide diversity of mRNA termini remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we show that the GAT1 gene, encoding a transcriptional activator of nitrogen-responsive catabolic genes, produces a variety of mRNAs differing in their 5′ and 3′ termini. Alternative transcription initiation leads to the constitutive, low level production of 2 full length proteins differing in their N-termini, whereas premature transcriptional termination generates a short, highly nitrogen catabolite repression- (NCR-) sensitive transcript that, as far as we can determine, is not translated under the growth conditions we used, but rather likely protects the cell from excess Gat1. PMID:26259534

  12. Constitutive Interferon-Inducible Protein 16-Inflammasome Activation during Epstein-Barr Virus Latency I, II, and III in B and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Dipanjan; Chikoti, Leela; Lu, Jie; Everly, David

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), etiologically linked with human B-cell malignancies and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), establishes three types of latency that facilitate its episomal genome persistence and evasion of host immune responses. The innate inflammasome responses recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns which lead into the association of a cytoplasmic sensor such as NLRP3 and AIM2 proteins or nuclear interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with adaptor ASC protein (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase recruitment domain) and effector procaspase-1, resulting in active caspase-1 formation which cleaves the proforms of inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and IL-33 cytokines. Whether inflammasome responses recognize and respond to EBV genome in the nuclei was not known. We observed evidence of inflammasome activation, such as the activation of caspase-1 and cleavage of pro-IL-1β, -IL-18, and -IL-33, in EBV latency I Raji cells, latency II NPC C666-1 cells, and latency III lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Interaction between ASC with IFI16 but not with AIM2 or NLRP3 was detected in all three latencies and during EBV infection of primary human B cells. IFI16 and cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 were detected in the exosomes from Raji cells and LCL. Though EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are common to all forms of EBV latency, caspase-1 cleavage was not detected in cells expressing EBNA1 alone, and blocking EBER transcription did not inhibit caspase-1 cleavage. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, IFI16 colocalized with the EBV genome in LCL and Raji cell nuclei. These studies demonstrated that constant sensing of latent EBV genome by IFI16 in all types of latency results in the constitutive induction of the inflammasome and IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 maturation. PMID:23720728

  13. Constitutive interferon-inducible protein 16-inflammasome activation during Epstein-Barr virus latency I, II, and III in B and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Dipanjan; Chikoti, Leela; Lu, Jie; Everly, David; Chandran, Bala

    2013-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), etiologically linked with human B-cell malignancies and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), establishes three types of latency that facilitate its episomal genome persistence and evasion of host immune responses. The innate inflammasome responses recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns which lead into the association of a cytoplasmic sensor such as NLRP3 and AIM2 proteins or nuclear interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with adaptor ASC protein (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase recruitment domain) and effector procaspase-1, resulting in active caspase-1 formation which cleaves the proforms of inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and IL-33 cytokines. Whether inflammasome responses recognize and respond to EBV genome in the nuclei was not known. We observed evidence of inflammasome activation, such as the activation of caspase-1 and cleavage of pro-IL-1β, -IL-18, and -IL-33, in EBV latency I Raji cells, latency II NPC C666-1 cells, and latency III lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Interaction between ASC with IFI16 but not with AIM2 or NLRP3 was detected in all three latencies and during EBV infection of primary human B cells. IFI16 and cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 were detected in the exosomes from Raji cells and LCL. Though EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are common to all forms of EBV latency, caspase-1 cleavage was not detected in cells expressing EBNA1 alone, and blocking EBER transcription did not inhibit caspase-1 cleavage. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, IFI16 colocalized with the EBV genome in LCL and Raji cell nuclei. These studies demonstrated that constant sensing of latent EBV genome by IFI16 in all types of latency results in the constitutive induction of the inflammasome and IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 maturation. PMID:23720728

  14. Increased apoptosis in high-fat diet induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with JNK activation and imbalance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in Bcl-2 family in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatocyte apoptosis in addition to increased oxidative stress could be a key component in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the cellular apoptotic response and its association with oxidative stress as well as the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated in hi...

  15. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42 d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  16. Effector Protein Cig2 Decreases Host Tolerance of Infection by Directing Constitutive Fusion of Autophagosomes with the Coxiella-Containing Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Lara J.; Reed, Shawna R.; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Arteaga, David D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii replicates in an acidified lysosome-derived vacuole. Biogenesis of the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) requires bacterial effector proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm secretion system. Genetic and cell biological analysis revealed that an effector protein called Cig2 promotes constitutive fusion of autophagosomes with the CCV to maintain this compartment in an autolysosomal stage of maturation. This distinguishes the CCV from other pathogen-containing vacuoles that are targeted by the host autophagy pathway, which typically confers host resistance to infection by delivering the pathogen to a toxic lysosomal environment. By maintaining the CCV in an autolysosomal stage of maturation, Cig2 enabled CCV homotypic fusion and enhanced bacterial virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) model of infection by a mechanism that decreases host tolerance. Thus, C. burnetii residence in an autolysosomal organelle alters host tolerance of infection, which indicates that Cig2-dependent manipulation of a lysosome-derived vacuole influences the host response to infection. PMID:27435465

  17. Abnormal activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα promotes a constitutive release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Averna, Monica; Bavestrello, Margherita; Cresta, Federico; Pedrazzi, Marco; De Tullio, Roberta; Minicucci, Laura; Sparatore, Bianca; Salamino, Franca; Pontremoli, Sandro; Melloni, Edon

    2016-08-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is physiologically involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix components but its abnormal release has been observed in several human pathologies. We here report that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), express constitutively and release at high rate MMP9 due to the alteration in their intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. This spontaneous and sustained MMP9 secretion may contribute to the accumulation of this protease in fluids of CF patients. Conversely, in PBMCs isolated from healthy donors, expression and secretion of MMP9 are undetectable but can be evoked, after 12 h of culture, by paracrine stimulation which also promotes an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. We also demonstrate that in both CF and control PBMCs the Ca(2+)-dependent MMP9 secretion is mediated by the concomitant activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα (PKCα), and that MMP9 expression involves extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Our results are supported by the fact that either the inhibition of Ca(2+) entry or chelation of [Ca(2+)]i as well as the inhibition of single components of the signaling pathway or the restoration of CFTR activity all promote the reduction of MMP9 secretion. PMID:27349634

  18. Leishmania donovani Exploits Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL-1) Protein to Prevent Mitochondria-dependent Host Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Giri, Jayeeta; Srivastav, Supriya; Basu, Moumita; Palit, Shreyasi; Gupta, Purnima; Ukil, Anindita

    2016-02-12

    Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms used by host cells to remove unwanted intracellular organisms, and often found to be subverted by pathogens through use of host anti-apoptotic proteins. In the present study, with the help of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we documented that the macrophage anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is exploited by the intra-macrophage parasite Leishmania donovani to protect their "home" from actinomycin D-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Among all the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, infection preferentially up-regulated expression of MCL-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels and compared with infected control, MCL-1-silenced infected macrophages documented enhanced caspase activity and increased apoptosis when subjected to actinomycin D treatment. Phosphorylation kinetics and ChIP assay demonstrated that infection-induced MCL-1 expression was regulated by transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) and silencing of CREB resulted in reduced expression of MCL-1 and increased apoptosis. During infection, MCL-1 was found to be localized in mitochondria and this was significantly reduced in Tom70-silenced macrophages, suggesting the active role of TOM70 in MCL-1 transport. In the mitochondria, MCL-1 interacts with the major pro-apoptotic protein BAK and prevents BAK-BAK homo-oligomer formation thereby preventing cytochrome c release-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Silencing of MCL-1 in the spleen of infected mice showed decreased parasite burden and increased induction of splenocyte apoptosis. Collectively our results showed that L. donovani exploited the macrophage anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 to prevent BAK-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis thereby protecting its niche, which is essential for disease progression. PMID:26670606

  19. N-(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone inhibits tumor growth independent of Bcl-2 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Neely, Aaron M.; Schwarzer, Christian; Lu, Huayi; Whitt, Aaron G.; Stivers, Nicole S.; Burlison, Joseph A.; White, Carl; Machen, Terry E.; Li, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacterial communication. C12 has also been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of tumor cells. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of C12-triggerred tumor cell apoptosis is still unclear. In addition, it is completely unknown whether C12 possesses any potential therapeutic effects in vivo. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in tumor cells through inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Importantly, C12 inhibits tumor growth in animals regardless of either pro- or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, opposite to conventional chemotherapeutics, C12 requires paraoxonase 2 (PON2) to exert its cytotoxicity on tumor cells in vitro and its inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that C12 inhibits tumor growth independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and through inducing unique apoptotic signaling mediated by PON2 in tumor cells. PMID:26758417

  20. N-(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone inhibits tumor growth independent of Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoping; Neely, Aaron M; Schwarzer, Christian; Lu, Huayi; Whitt, Aaron G; Stivers, Nicole S; Burlison, Joseph A; White, Carl; Machen, Terry E; Li, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacterial communication. C12 has also been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of tumor cells. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of C12-triggerred tumor cell apoptosis is still unclear. In addition, it is completely unknown whether C12 possesses any potential therapeutic effects in vivo. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in tumor cells through inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Importantly, C12 inhibits tumor growth in animals regardless of either pro- or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, opposite to conventional chemotherapeutics, C12 requires paraoxonase 2 (PON2) to exert its cytotoxicity on tumor cells in vitro and its inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that C12 inhibits tumor growth independent of both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and through inducing unique apoptotic signaling mediated by PON2 in tumor cells. PMID:26758417

  1. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Yim, Kendrick; Rivas, Candy; Alarcon, Sylvia; Schwartz, Harvey; Khamit-Kush, Kofi; Scroggins, Bradley T.; Beebe, Kristin; Trepel, Jane B.; Neckers, Len

    2015-01-01

    The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states. PMID:26517842

  2. Quantitative expression profiling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in metastatic melanoma: the constitutively active orphan GPCR GPR18 as novel drug target.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y; Verdegaal, E M E; Siderius, M; Bebelman, J P; Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Willemze, R; Tensen, C P; Osanto, S

    2011-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of human cancers and are considered amongst the most desirable targets for drug development. Utilizing a robust quantitative PCR array, we quantified expression of 94 human GPCRs, including 75 orphan GPCRs and 19 chemokine receptors, and 36 chemokine ligands, in 40 melanoma metastases from different individuals and benign nevi. Inter-metastatic site comparison revealed that orphan GPR174 and CCL28 are statistically significantly overexpressed in subcutaneous metastases, while P2RY5 is overexpressed in brain metastases. Comparison between metastases (all three metastatic sites) and benign nevi revealed that 16 genes, including six orphan receptors (GPR18, GPR34, GPR119, GPR160, GPR183 and P2RY10) and chemokine receptors CCR5, CXCR4, and CXCR6, were statistically significantly differentially expressed. Subsequent functional experiments in yeast and melanoma cells indicate that GPR18, the most abundantly overexpressed orphan GPCR in all melanoma metastases, is constitutively active and inhibits apoptosis, indicating an important role for GPR18 in tumor cell survival. GPR18 and five other orphan GPCRs with yet unknown biological function may be considered potential novel anticancer targets in metastatic melanoma. PMID:20880198

  3. BAM 1 and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 constitute a signaling pathway and modulate CLE peptide-triggered growth inhibition in Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamada, Masashi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Tabata, Ryo; Kinoshita, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Ligand receptor-based signaling is a means of cell-to-cell communication for coordinating developmental and physiological processes in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell-producing meristems utilize this signaling to regulate their activities and ensure for proper development. Shoot and root systems share common requirements for carrying out this process; however, its molecular basis is largely unclear. It has been suggested that synthetic CLV3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide shrinks the root meristem through the actions of CLAVATA2 (CLV2) and the RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our genetic screening for mutations that resist CLE peptide signaling in roots determined that BAM1, which is a member of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) family, is also involved in this pathway. BAM1 is preferentially expressed in the root tip, including the quiescent center and its surrounding stem cells. Our genetic analysis revealed that BAM1 functions together with RPK2. Using coimmunoprecipitation assay, we showed that BAM1 is capable of forming heteromeric complexes with RPK2. These findings suggest that the BAM1 and RPK2 receptors constitute a signaling pathway that modulates cell proliferation in the root meristem and that related molecules are employed in root and shoot meristems. PMID:26083273

  4. Constitutively Activated ALK2 and Increased SMAD1/5 Cooperatively Induce Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Toru; Kohda, Masakazu; Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Nojima, Junya; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kamizono, Jyunji; Noguchi, Yasuo; Iwakiri, Kiyofumi; Kondo, Takeo; Kurose, Junichi; Endo, Ken-ichi; Awakura, Takeshi; Fukushi, Junichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Chiyonobu, Tomohiro; Kawara, Akira; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Akita, Masumi; Komori, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Konosuke; Nanba, Akira; Maruki, Yuichi; Yoda, Tetsuya; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Yu, Paul B.; Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Miyazono, Kohei; Matsuoka, Masaru; Ikebuchi, Kenji; Ohtake, Akira; Oda, Hiromi; Jimi, Eijiro; Owan, Ichiro; Okazaki, Yasushi; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic bone formation in muscle tissue. Recently, a mutation involving a single amino acid substitution in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor, ALK2, was identified in patients with FOP. We report here that the identical mutation, R206H, was observed in 19 Japanese patients with sporadic FOP. This mutant receptor, ALK2(R206H), activates BMP signaling without ligand binding. Moreover, expression of Smad1 and Smad5 was up-regulated in response to muscular injury. ALK2(R206H) with Smad1 or Smad5 induced osteoblastic differentiation that could be inhibited by Smad7 or dorsomorphin. Taken together, these findings suggest that the heterotopic bone formation in FOP may be induced by a constitutively activated BMP receptor signaling through Smad1 or Smad5. Gene transfer of Smad7 or inhibition of type I receptors with dorsomorphin may represent strategies for blocking the activity induced by ALK2(R206H) in FOP. PMID:18684712

  5. Assessing the osteoblast transcriptome in a model of enhanced bone formation due to constitutive G{sub s}–G protein signaling in osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wattanachanya, Lalita; Wang, Liping; Millard, Susan M.; Lu, Wei-Dar; O’Carroll, Dylan; Hsiao, Edward C.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Nissenson, Robert A.

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in osteoblasts (OBs) is an important regulator of bone formation. We previously described a mouse model expressing Rs1, an engineered constitutively active G{sub s}-coupled GPCR, under the control of the 2.3 kb Col I promoter. These mice showed a dramatic age-dependent increase in trabecular bone of femurs. Here, we further evaluated the effects of enhanced G{sub s} signaling in OBs on intramembranous bone formation by examining calvariae of 1- and 9-week-old Col1(2.3)/Rs1 mice and characterized the in vivo gene expression specifically occurring in osteoblasts with activated G{sub s} G protein-coupled receptor signaling, at the cellular level rather than in a whole bone. Rs1 calvariae displayed a dramatic increase in bone volume with partial loss of cortical structure. By immunohistochemistry, Osterix was detected in cells throughout the inter-trabecular space while Osteocalcin was expressed predominantly in cells along bone surfaces, suggesting the role of paracrine mediators secreted from OBs driven by 2.3 kb Col I promoter could influence early OB commitment, differentiation, and/or proliferation. Gene expression analysis of calvarial OBs revealed that genes affected by Rs1 signaling include those encoding proteins important for cell differentiation, cytokines and growth factors, angiogenesis, coagulation, and energy metabolism. The set of G{sub s}-GPCRs and other GPCRs that may contribute to the observed skeletal phenotype and candidate paracrine mediators of the effect of G{sub s} signaling in OBs were also determined. Our results identify novel detailed in vivo cellular changes of the anabolic response of the skeleton to G{sub s} signaling in mature OBs. - Highlights: • OB expression of an engineered G{sub s}-coupled receptor dramatically increases bone mass. • We investigated the changes in gene expression in vivo in enhanced OB G{sub s} signaling. • Genes in cell cycle and transcription were increased in

  6. Constitutive Activation of the G-Protein Subunit G[alpha]s within Forebrain Neurons Causes PKA-Dependent Alterations in Fear Conditioning and Cortical "Arc" mRNA Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michele P.; Cheung, York-Fong; Favilla, Christopher; Siegel, Steven J.; Kanes, Stephen J.; Houslay, Miles D.; Abel, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Memory formation requires cAMP signaling; thus, this cascade has been of great interest in the search for cognitive enhancers. Given that medications are administered long-term, we determined the effects of chronically increasing cAMP synthesis in the brain by expressing a constitutively active isoform of the G-protein subunit G[alpha]s…

  7. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  8. Selective expression of constitutively active pro-apoptotic protein BikDD gene in primary mammary tumors inhibits tumor growth and reduces tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Omar M; Nie, Lei; Chan, Li-Chuan; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that specifically delivering BikDD, a constitutive active mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, to breast cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice has a potent activity against tumor initiating cells (TICs), and that the combination between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and BikDD gene therapy yielded synergistic effect on EGFR and HER2 positive breast cancer cells in immunodeficient nude mice. Those encouraging results have allowed us to propose a clinical trial using the liposome-complexing plasmid DNA expressing BikDD gene which has been approved by the NIH RAC Advisory committee. However, it is imperative to test whether systemic delivery of BikDD-expressing plasmid DNAs with liposomes into immunocompetent mice has therapeutic efficacy and tolerable side effects as what we observed in the nude mice model. In this study, we investigated the effects of BikDD gene-therapy on the primary mammary tumors, especially on tumor initiating cells (TICs), of a genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse harboring normal microenvironment and immune response. The effects on TIC population in tumors were determined by FACS analysis with different sets of murine specific TIC markers, CD49fhighCD61high and CD24+Jagged1-. First we showed in vitro that ectopic expression of BikDD in murine N202 cells derived from MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mouse tumors induced apoptosis and decreased the number of TICs. Consistently, systemic delivery of VISA-Claudin4-BikDD by liposome complexes significantly inhibited mammary tumor growth and slowed down residual tumor growth post cessation of therapy in MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mice compared to the controls. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of BikDD in vivo were consistent with decreased TIC population assessed by FACS analysis and in vitro tumorsphere formation assay of freshly isolated tumor cells. Importantly, systemic administration of BikDD did not cause significant cytotoxic response in standard

  9. Selective expression of constitutively active pro-apoptotic protein BikDD gene in primary mammary tumors inhibits tumor growth and reduces tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Nie, Lei; Chan, Li-Chuan; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that specifically delivering BikDD, a constitutive active mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, to breast cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice has a potent activity against tumor initiating cells (TICs), and that the combination between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and BikDD gene therapy yielded synergistic effect on EGFR and HER2 positive breast cancer cells in immunodeficient nude mice. Those encouraging results have allowed us to propose a clinical trial using the liposome-complexing plasmid DNA expressing BikDD gene which has been approved by the NIH RAC Advisory committee. However, it is imperative to test whether systemic delivery of BikDD-expressing plasmid DNAs with liposomes into immunocompetent mice has therapeutic efficacy and tolerable side effects as what we observed in the nude mice model. In this study, we investigated the effects of BikDD gene-therapy on the primary mammary tumors, especially on tumor initiating cells (TICs), of a genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse harboring normal microenvironment and immune response. The effects on TIC population in tumors were determined by FACS analysis with different sets of murine specific TIC markers, CD49f(high)CD61(high) and CD24(+)Jagged1(-). First we showed in vitro that ectopic expression of BikDD in murine N202 cells derived from MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mouse tumors induced apoptosis and decreased the number of TICs. Consistently, systemic delivery of VISA-Claudin4-BikDD by liposome complexes significantly inhibited mammary tumor growth and slowed down residual tumor growth post cessation of therapy in MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mice compared to the controls. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of BikDD in vivo were consistent with decreased TIC population assessed by FACS analysis and in vitro tumorsphere formation assay of freshly isolated tumor cells. Importantly, systemic administration of BikDD did not cause significant cytotoxic response in

  10. Increased Leptin Response and Inhibition of Apoptosis in Thymocytes of Young Rats Offspring from Protein Deprived Dams during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Simone Vargas; Salama, Carolina; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Helal-Neto, Edward; Citelli, Marta; Savino, Wilson; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mild maternal malnutrition in rat dams, in terms of thymocyte responses and the putative role of leptin. The young progeny of dams submitted to protein deprivation (PD) during lactation showed at 30 days of age lower body and thymus weights, significant alterations in CD4/CD8-defined T cell subsets without modifications in total thymocyte number as well as in proliferative response. Despite, the rats from PD group did not present alterations in leptin circulating levels, the expression of leptin receptor ObRb was enhanced in their thymocytes. This change was accompanied by an increase in leptin signaling response of thymocytes from PD rats, with an increase in JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation after leptin stimulation. Thymocytes from PD rats also presented a decreased rate of spontaneous apoptosis when compared to controls. Accordingly, higher expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and lower of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, with no change of pro-apoptotic Bad, and higher pro-caspase 3 content were detected in PD thymocytes. Moreover, thymocytes from PD group exhibited a constitutive higher nuclear content of p65 NF-kB associated to a lower IkB content in the cytoplasm. Finally, although there was no change in ob gene expression in PD thymocytes, a higher mRNA expression for the Ob gene was observed in the thymic microenvironment from PD animals. Taken together, the results show that mild maternal protein deprivation during lactation affects thymic homeostasis, enhancing leptin activity, which in turn protects thymocytes from apoptosis in the young progeny, with possible consequences upon the immune response of these animals in adult life. PMID:23675529

  11. Platelet activation via the collagen receptor GPVI is not altered in platelets from chronic myeloid leukaemia patients despite the presence of the constitutively phosphorylated adapter protein CrkL.

    PubMed

    Best, D; Pasquet, S; Littlewood, T J; Brunskill, S J; Pallister, C J; Watson, S P

    2001-03-01

    In this study, we show that the adapter proteins CrkL and Cbl undergo increases in tyrosine phosphorylation and form an intracellular complex in platelets stimulated with the snake venom toxin convulxin, a selective agonist at the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of CrkL has previously been reported in platelets from chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. This was confirmed in the present study, and shown to result in a weak constitutive association of CrkL with Cbl and a number of other unidentified tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There was no further increase in phosphorylation of CrkL in CML platelets in response to GPVI activation, whereas phosphorylation of Cbl and its association with CrkL were potentiated. In addition, this was accompanied by a small increase in p42/ 44 mapkinase (MAPK) activity in CML platelets. The functional consequence of the presence of constitutively phosphorylated proteins in CML platelets was investigated by measurement of aminophospholipid exposure and alpha-granule secretion. This revealed little alteration in the concentration-response curves for either in CML platelets stimulated via GPVI, although maximal levels of P-selectin were depressed. Despite the minimal effect on platelet activation in CML patients, we cannot exclude a role for CrkL or Cbl in signal transduction pathways stimulated via GPVI. PMID:11260061

  12. NRF2-driven miR-125B1 and miR-29B1 transcriptional regulation controls a novel anti-apoptotic miRNA regulatory network for AML survival

    PubMed Central

    Shah, N M; Zaitseva, L; Bowles, K M; MacEwan, D J; Rushworth, S A

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor NRF2 is an important regulator of oxidative stress. It is involved in cancer progression, and has abnormal constitutive expression in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Posttranscriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) can affect the malignant phenotype of AML cells. In this study, we identified and characterised NRF2-regulated miRNAs in AML. An miRNA array identified miRNA expression level changes in response to NRF2 knockdown in AML cells. Further analysis of miRNAs concomitantly regulated by knockdown of the NRF2 inhibitor KEAP1 revealed the major candidate NRF2-mediated miRNAs in AML. We identified miR-125B to be upregulated and miR-29B to be downregulated by NRF2 in AML. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis identified putative NRF2 binding sites upstream of the miR-125B1 coding region and downstream of the mir-29B1 coding region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that NRF2 binds to these antioxidant response elements (AREs) located in the 5′ untranslated regions of miR-125B and miR-29B. Finally, primary AML samples transfected with anti-miR-125B antagomiR or miR-29B mimic showed increased cell death responsiveness either alone or co-treated with standard AML chemotherapy. In summary, we find that NRF2 regulation of miR-125B and miR-29B acts to promote leukaemic cell survival, and their manipulation enhances AML responsiveness towards cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. PMID:25323587

  13. Sex Differences in Constitutive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sex bias has been described nowadays in biomedical research on animal models, although sexual dimorphism has been confirmed widely under pathological and physiological conditions. The main objective of our work was to study the sex differences in constitutive autophagy in spinal cord and skeletal muscle tissue from wild type mice. To examine the influence of sex on autophagy, mRNA and proteins were extracted from male and female mice tissues. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and sequestosome 1 (p62), markers to monitor autophagy, were analyzed at 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. We found significant sex differences in the expression of LC3 and p62 in both tissues at these ages. The results indicated that sex and tissue specific differences exist in constitutive autophagy. These data underlined the need to include both sexes in the experimental groups to minimize any sex bias. PMID:24719882

  14. Stimulation of human thyroid growth via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein Gi: constitutive expression of the G-protein alpha subunit Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, E; Wilfing, A; Schiferer, A; Hermann, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Freissmuth, M

    1993-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins, Gs alpha and Gi alpha, activate transmembrane-signaling systems involved in the control of cell proliferation. We have investigated the pattern of expression of Gi alpha subtypes and Gi alpha-mediated proliferative responses in the human thyroid. Human thyroid membranes contain two subtypes of Gi alpha, Gi alpha-1 and Gi alpha-2, as assessed by using specific antibodies. The expression of Gi alpha-1 is under tight control by thyrotropin in vivo and in primary cultures of thyroid epithelial cells. In contrast, Gi alpha-1 is expressed in the absence of thyrotropin in thyroid autonomous adenoma, an endocrine-active tumor, and its levels are not regulated by thyrotropin in thyroid epithelial cells prepared from these tumors. If thyroid epithelial cells are treated with pertussis toxin to block signal transduction via Gi, the mitogenic response to serum factors is reduced. These observations demonstrate that Gi subtypes transmit growth stimuli in the human thyroid. The constitutive expression of Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma may allow for the unregulated stimulation of thyroid cell proliferation by a yet unidentified signaling pathway and, thus, be causally related to autonomous growth of thyroid cells. Images PMID:8434024

  15. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. Methods FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Results Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Conclusions Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to

  16. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival during 6-OHDA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Ay, Muhammet; Jin, Huajun; Gosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD. PMID:24806360

  17. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  18. Teaching the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherman, Donald V.

    1987-01-01

    Courses on the Constitution must focus on the principles of government. Those principles and how the understanding of those principles shaped the document are appropriate subjects for consideration. The best sources for an examination of the Constitution are "The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787" and "The Federalist." (MLW)

  19. Constitution of the AFT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the constitution and the bylaws of the American Federation of Teachers. The constitution is comprised of 12 articles which deal with the name and objectives of the organization, membership, chartering of state and local units, federation officers, the Executive Council, conventions, representation of state and local units at…

  20. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  1. Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yini; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Haitang; Cai, Nan; Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yaoping; Chen, Xue; Zheng, Shaoqiang; Si, Qi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is the primary active substance in ginseng, and it has multiple pharmacological actions. Investigations on the pharmacologic action of ginsenoside Rg1 have developed, with a particular focus on the regulation of metabolism. The present study hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevent cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) pathway in aged rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into isoflurane and ginsenoside Rg1 groups and were treated with 20 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 for 7 days. Morris water maze was performed to analyze the cognitive function of the rats. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays were used to analyze the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and caspase 3. The protein expression levels of AKT, GSK 3β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 were measured using western blot analysis. Ginsenoside Rg1 significantly improved cognitive function, and exhibited antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects, demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against the effect of isoflurane anesthesia in the rats. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity, upregulated the expression of PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β and downregulated the mRNA expression levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 in the aged rats exposed to isoflurane anesthesia. The data obtained in the present study provided evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevented the cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β pathway. PMID:27485139

  2. Protective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinine on ultraviolet A irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast senescence in vitro proceeds via the anti-apoptotic sirtuin 1/nuclear factor-derived erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunli; Wen, Chuanjun; Lin, Jinde; Shen, Gan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) exerts a protective effect on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation‑induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and to elucidate its mechanism of action in vitro. A senescence model was constructed as follows: HDFs (1x10(4)‑1x10(6)) were cultured in a six‑well plate in vitro and then exposed to UVA irradiation at a dosage of 9 J/cm2. Various concentrations of PQQ (50, 100 and 200 ng/ml) were added to the culture medium 24 h prior to UVA exposure. Following 72 h of irradiation, senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase staining was performed in order to evaluate the senescence state. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the senescence marker genes matrix‑metalloprotease (MMP)1 and MMP3 was determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of sirtuin (SIRT)1, SIRT6, nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO‑1) were detected using western blot analysis. The results showed that the percentage of cells stained by X‑gal following 9 J/cm2 UVA irradiation was markedly increased compared with that of the control group (53 and 8%, respectively), while 50 ng/ml PQQ attenuated the ratio of positive staining compared with that of the UVA‑only cells (29 vs. 53%, respectively). Expression of fibroblast senescence marker genes MMP1 and MMP3 was decreased in cells treated with UVA and 50 ng/ml PQQ compared with that of cells in the UVA‑only group. Western blot analysis revealed significant effects of PQQ on SIRT1 and SIRT6. Nrf2 and HO‑1 exbibited mild changes with the same trend when treated with or without UVA and PQQ. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that pyrroloquinoline quinine may have a protective effect on UVA irradiation‑induced HDF aging, which may be associated with the anti‑apoptotic SIRT1/Nrf2/HO‑1 pathway as well as SIRT6 signaling. PMID:26126510

  3. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  4. Use of a promiscuous, constitutively-active bacterial enhancer-binding protein to define the Sigma54 (RpoN) regulon of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sigma54, or RpoN, is an alternative s factor found widely in eubacteria. A significant complication in analysis of the global sigma54 regulon in a bacterium is that the sigma54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires interaction with an active bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) to init...

  5. The role of heat shock proteins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, V; Vickers, S M; Saluja, A K

    2009-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a highly conserved family of proteins which inhabit almost all subcellular locations and cellular membranes. Depending on their location, these proteins perform a variety of chaperoning functions including folding of newly synthesised polypeptides. HSPs also play a major role in the protection of cells against stressful and injury-inciting stimuli. By virtue of this protective function, HSPs have been shown to prevent acinar cell injury in acute pancreatitis. Also, the levels of HSPs have been shown to be markedly elevated in various forms of cancers when compared with non-transformed cells. Further, inhibition of HSPs has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells suggesting that inhibition of HSPs has a potential to emerge as novel anti-cancer therapy, either as monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Several studies have suggested that HSPs can interact with and inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis at multiple sites. Besides the anti-apoptotic role of HSPs, recent studies suggest that they play a role in the generation of anti-cancer immunity, and attempts have been made to utilise this property of HSPs in the generation of anti-cancer vaccines. The anti-apoptotic function and mechanism of various subtypes of HSPs as well as the current status of anti-HSP therapy are discussed in this review. PMID:19520890

  6. Constitutive transcription of the osteocalcin gene in osteosarcoma cells is reflected by altered protein-DNA interactions at promoter regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Bortell, R; Owen, T A; Shalhoub, V; Heinrichs, A; Aronow, M A; Rochette-Egly, C; Lutz, Y; Stein, J L; Lian, J B; Stein, G S

    1993-01-01

    The bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene is transcribed only after completion of proliferation in normal diploid calvarial-derived osteoblasts during extracellular matrix mineralization. In contrast, the OC gene is expressed constitutively in both proliferating and nonproliferating ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. To address molecular mechanisms associated with these tumor-related modifications in transcriptional control, we examined sequence-specific interactions of transactivation factors at key basal and hormone-responsive elements in the OC gene promoter. In ROS 17/2.8 cells compared to normal diploid osteoblasts, the absence of a stringent requirement for cessation of proliferation to support both induction of OC transcription and steroid hormone-mediated transcriptional modulation is reflected by modifications in transcription factor binding at (i) the two primary basal regulatory elements, the OC box (which contains a CCAAT motif as a central core) and the TATA/glucocorticoid-responsive element domain, and (ii) the vitamin D-responsive element. Particularly striking are two forms of the vitamin D receptor complex that are present in proliferating osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells. Both forms of the complex are sensitive to vitamin D receptor antibody and retinoic X receptor antibody. After the down-regulation of proliferation, only the lower molecular weight complex is found in normal diploid osteoblasts. Both forms of the complex are present in nonproliferating ROS 17/2.8 cells with increased representation of the complex exhibiting reduced electrophoretic mobility that is phosphorylation-dependent. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8460137

  7. Inactivation of IkappaBbeta by the tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1: a potential mechanism for constitutive induction of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    McKinsey, T A; Brockman, J A; Scherer, D C; Al-Murrani, S W; Green, P L; Ballard, D W

    1996-01-01

    In resting T lymphocytes, the transcription factor NF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm via interactions with members of the I kappa B family of inhibitors, including IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta. During normal T-cell activation, IkappaBalpha is rapidly phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded by the 26S proteasome, thus permitting the release of functional NF-kappaB. In contrast to its transient pattern of nuclear induction during an immune response, NF-kappaB is constitutively activated in cells expressing the Tax transforming protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1). Recent studies indicate that HTLV-1 Tax targets IkappaBalpha to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, it remains unclear how this viral protein induces a persistent rather than transient NF-kappaB response. In this report, we provide evidence that in addition to acting on IkappaBalpha, Tax stimulates the turnover Of IkappaBbeta via a related targeting mechanism. Like IkappaBalpha, Tax-mediated breakdown of IkappaBbeta in transfected T lymphocytes is blocked either by cell-permeable proteasome inhibitors or by mutation Of IkappaBbeta at two serine residues present within its N-terminal region. Despite the dual specificity of HTLV-1 Tax for IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta at the protein level, Tax selectively stimulates NF-kappaB-directed transcription of the IkappaBalpha gene. Consequently, IkappaBbeta protein expression is chronically downregulated in HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. These findings with IkappaBbeta provide a potential mechanism for the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in Tax-expressing cells. PMID:8628274

  8. Constitutive p53 heightens mitochondrial apoptotic priming and favors cell death induction by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL.

    PubMed

    Le Pen, J; Laurent, M; Sarosiek, K; Vuillier, C; Gautier, F; Montessuit, S; Martinou, J C; Letaï, A; Braun, F; Juin, P P

    2016-01-01

    Proapoptotic molecules directly targeting the BCL-2 family network are promising anticancer therapeutics, but an understanding of the cellular stress signals that render them effective is still elusive. We show here that the tumor suppressor p53, at least in part by transcription independent mechanisms, contributes to cell death induction and full activation of BAX by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL. In addition to mildly facilitating the ability of compounds to derepress BAX from BCL-xL, p53 also provides a death signal downstream of anti-apoptotic proteins inhibition. This death signal cooperates with BH3-induced activation of BAX and it is independent from PUMA, as enhanced p53 can substitute for PUMA to promote BAX activation in response to BH3 mimetics. The acute sensitivity of mitochondrial priming to p53 revealed here is likely to be critical for the clinical use of BH3 mimetics. PMID:26844698

  9. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. PMID:24102738

  10. Ubiquitin-Like Protein SAMP1 and JAMM/MPN+ Metalloprotease HvJAMM1 Constitute a System for Reversible Regulation of Metabolic Enzyme Activity in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shiyun; Hepowit, Nathaniel; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like (Ub/Ubl) proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes by their covalent linkage to protein substrates. Here, we provide evidence for a post-translational modification system that regulates enzyme activity which is composed of an archaeal Ubl protein (SAMP1) and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease (HvJAMM1). Molybdopterin (MPT) synthase activity was found to be inhibited by covalent linkage of SAMP1 to the large subunit (MoaE) of MPT synthase. HvJAMM1 was shown to cleave the covalently linked inactive form of SAMP1-MoaE to the free functional individual SAMP1 and MoaE subunits of MPT synthase, suggesting reactivation of MPT synthase by this metalloprotease. Overall, this study provides new insight into the broad idea that Ub/Ubl modification is a post-translational process that can directly and reversibly regulate the activity of metabolic enzymes. In particular, we show that Ub/Ubl linkages on the active site residues of an enzyme (MPT synthase) can inhibit its catalytic activity and that the enzyme can be reactivated through cleavage by a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease. PMID:26010867

  11. The site of an immune-selected point mutation in the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 does not constitute the neutralization epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Reitz, M S; Aldrich, K; Klasse, P J; Blomberg, J; Gallo, R C; Robert-Guroff, M

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported the in vitro generation of a neutralization-resistant variant of the molecularly cloned isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HXB2D. The molecular basis for the resistance was shown to be a point mutation in the env gene, causing the substitution of threonine for alanine at position 582 of gp41. Here, we show the variant to be resistant to syncytium inhibition as well as to neutralization by the immune-selecting serum. Moreover, 30% of HIV-positive human sera able to neutralize the parental virus have significantly decreased ability to neutralize the variant. As the A-to-T substitution thus has general relevance to the interaction of HIV-1 with the host immune system, we investigated further the biologic and immunologic bases for the altered properties. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the 582 region failed to compete in infectivity, neutralization, or syncytium inhibition assays and did not elicit neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, human antibodies, affinity purified on synthetic peptide resins, bound to gp41 and peptides from the 582 region but did not possess neutralizing antibody activity. Some viral constructs in which the AVERY sequence in the 582 region was altered by site-directed mutagenesis were not infectious, indicating that the primary structure in this region is crucial for viral infectivity. Constructs predicted to possess a local secondary structure similar to that of the variant nevertheless behaved like the parental virus and remained neutralization sensitive. These results suggest that the requirements for neutralization resistance in this region are very precise. Our results with synthetic peptides show that the 582 region does not by itself constitute a neutralization epitope. Moreover, the degree of flexibility in amino acid substitution which allows maintenance of neutralization sensitivity suggests that position 582 does not form part of a noncontiguous neutralization epitope. The basis for

  12. Constitutive Activation of Nuclear Factor-E2-Related Factor 2 Induces Biotransformation Enzyme and Transporter Expression in Livers of Mice With Hepatocyte-Specific Deletion of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qiuqiong; Taguchi, Keiko; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Manautou, José E.; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals that activate nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) often increase multidrug resistance-associated protein expression in liver. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) activates Nrf2. Use of hepatocyte-specific Keap1 deletion represents a non-pharmacological method to determine whether constitutive Nrf2 activation upregulates liver transporter expression in vivo. The mRNA, protein expression and localization of several biotransformation and transporters was determined in livers of wild-type and hepatocyte-specific Keap1-null mice. Sulfotransferase 2a1/2, NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1, Cytochrome P450 2b10, 3a11, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit expression was increased in livers of Keap1-null mice. Oatp1a1 expression was nearly abolished, as compared to that detected in livers of wild-type mice. By contrast, Mrp 1-5 mRNA and protein levels were increased in Keap1-null mouse livers, with Mrp4 expression being more than 15-fold higher than wild-types. In summary, Nrf2 has a significant role in affecting expression of Oatp and Mrp expression. PMID:21538727

  13. Constitutive over-expression of rice ClpD1 protein enhances tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Grover, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) perform the important role of removing protein aggregates from cells, which can otherwise prove to be highly toxic. ClpD system is a two-component protease complex composed of a regulatory ATPase module ClpD and a proteolytic component ClpP. Under desiccation stress condition, rice ClpD1 (OsClpD1) gene encoding for the regulatory subunit, was represented by four variant transcripts differing mainly in the expanse of their N-terminal amino acids. These transcripts were expressed in a differential manner in response to salt, mannitol and polyethylene glycol stresses in rice. Purified OsClpD1.3 protein exhibited intrinsic chaperone activity, shown using citrate synthase as substrate. Arabidopsis (Col-0) plants over-expressing OsClpD1.3 open reading frame downstream to CaMV35S promoter (ClpD1.3 plants) showed higher tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses as compared to wild type plants. ClpD1.3 seedlings also showed enhanced growth during the early stages of seed germination under unstressed, control conditions. The free proline levels and starch breakdown activities were higher in the ClpD1.3 seedlings as compared to the wild type Arabidopsis seedlings. It thus emerges that increasing the potential of ClpD1 chaperoning activity may be of advantage in protection against abiotic stresses. PMID:27457985

  14. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  15. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  16. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  17. President's Report: Constitutional Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1987-01-01

    States that the proper business of social studies is civic education and contends that civic education must take into account the way in which global connections and uncertainties will affect citizenship in the Constitution's third century. Cites the problems associated with AIDS and the Iran-Contra affair as examples. (JDH)

  18. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  19. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  20. Disputing the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Christopher H.

    1987-01-01

    Constitutional law is a good way to introduce students to fundamental debates over means and ends, over what means work and at what costs, and over what ends are not merely desirable, but may be legitimately achieved even through the application of collective force. It also offers an exciting way to teach logic. (MLW)

  1. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  2. Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive expression of the interleukin-5 gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, T; Mitani, K; Ueno, H; Kanda, Y; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1997-01-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrates that adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is frequently associated with eosinophilia, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells frequently express interleukin-5 (IL-5). However, the molecular mechanism of constitutive IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells remains unclear. To clarify the mechanism of aberrant IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells, we investigated the response of the human IL-5 promoter to the HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax. Cotransfection experiments using Jurkat cells revealed that Tax is incapable of activating the IL-5 promoter by itself but that it synergistically transactivates the promoter with GATA-binding protein (GATA-4) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. By introducing a series of mutations within the IL-5 promoter, we found that conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) is responsible for mediating the signal induced by Tax-TPA. A deletion construct of the promoter indicated that the -75 GATA element and CLE0 are sufficient to mediate synergistic activation of the IL-5 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using Jurkat cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that TPA induces a transcription factor to bind CLE0, and an experiment using JPX-9 cell nuclear extracts showed that Tax enhances this binding activity. An antibody supershift experiment revealed that this band consists of c-Jun and JunD. However, among the Jun family members, only c-Jun is able to cooperate with Tax and GATA-4 to activate the IL-5 promoter. We have determined the minimum factors required for IL-5 gene activation by reconstituting the IL-5 promoter activity in F9 cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the functional involvement of Tax protein in IL-5 gene regulation and to suggest the functional triple synergism among Tax, GATA-4, and AP-1, which disrupts regulated control of the gene and leads to constitutive expression of the IL-5 gene. PMID:9234684

  3. Bcl-2 family proteins as targets for anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z

    2000-12-27

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death or apoptosis that is implicated in many human diseases, particularly cancer. In recent years, they have attracted intensive interest in both basic research to understand the fundamental principles of cell survival and cell death and drug discovery to develop a new class of anticancer agents. The Bcl-2 family includes both anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins with opposing biological functions in either inhibiting or promoting cell death. High expression of anti-apoptotic members such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL commonly found in human cancers contributes to neoplastic cell expansion and interferes with the therapeutic action of many chemotherapeutic drugs. The functional blockade of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL could either restore the apoptotic process in tumor cells or sensitize these tumors for chemo- and radiotherapies. This article reviews the recent progress in the design and discovery of small molecules that block the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. These chemical inhibitors are effective modulators of apoptosis and promising leads for the further development of new anticancer agents. PMID:11426648

  4. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  5. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  6. Photocontrolled Exposure of Pro-apoptotic Peptide Sequences in LOV Proteins Modulates Bcl-2 Family Interactions.

    PubMed

    Mart, Robert J; Meah, Dilruba; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2016-04-15

    LOV domains act as biomolecular sensors for light, oxygen or the environment's redox potential. Conformational changes upon the formation of a covalent cysteinyl flavin adduct are propagated through hydrogen-bonding networks in the core of designed hybrid phototropin LOV2 domains that incorporate the Bcl homology region 3 (BH3) of the key pro-apoptotic protein BH3-interacting-domain death agonist (BID). The resulting change in conformation of a flanking amphiphilic α-helix creates a light-dependent optogenetic tool for the modulation of interactions with the anti-apoptotic B-cell leukaemia-2 (Bcl-2) family member Bcl-xL . PMID:26493687

  7. Constitutive expression and silencing of a novel seed specific calcium dependent protein kinase gene in rice reveals its role in grain filling.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, P; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Sundaram, R M; Balachandran, S M

    2015-02-01

    Ca(2+) sensor protein kinases are prevalent in most plant species including rice. They play diverse roles in plant signaling mechanism. Thirty one CDPK genes have been identified in rice and some are functionally characterized. In the present study, the newly identified rice CDPK gene OsCPK31 was functionally validated by overexpression and silencing in Taipei 309 rice cultivar. Spikelets of overexpressing plants showed hard dough stage within 15d after pollination (DAP) with rapid grain filling and early maturation. Scanning electron microscopy of endosperm during starch granule formation confirmed early grain filling. Further, seeds of overexpressing transgenic lines matured early (20-22 DAP) and the average number of maturity days reduced significantly. On the other hand, silencing lines showed more number of unfilled spikelet without any difference in maturity duration. It will be interesting to further decipher the role of OsCPK31 in biological pathways associated with distribution of photosynthetic assimilates during grain filling stage. PMID:25462965

  8. Trichocyst ribbons of a cryptomonads are constituted of homologs of R-body proteins produced by the intracellular parasitic bacterium of Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kai, Atsushi; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Trichocysts are ejectile organelles found in cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, and peniculine ciliates. The fine structure of trichocysts differs considerably among lineages, and their evolutionary relationships are unclear. The biochemical makeup of the trichocyst constituents has been studied in the ciliate Paramecium, but there have been no investigations of cryptomonads and dinoflagellates. Furthermore, morphological similarity between the contents of cryptomonad trichocysts and the R-bodies of the endosymbiotic bacteria of Paramecium has been reported. In this study, we identified the proteins of the trichocyst constituents in a red cryptomonad, Pyrenomonas helgolandii, and found their closest relationships to be with rebB that comprises the R-bodies of Caedibacter taeniospiralis (gammaproteobacteria), which is an endosymbiont of Paramecium. In addition, the biochemical makeups of the trichocysts are entirely different between cryptomonads and peniculine ciliates, and therefore, cryptomonad trichocysts have an evolutionary origin independent from the peniculine ciliate trichocysts. PMID:22447322

  9. Receptor activating NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a constitutive intracellular protein in resting human basophils and is strongly induced on their surface by interleukin 3.

    PubMed

    Poli, Caroline; Martin, Jérôme C; Braudeau, Cécile; Bériou, Gaelle; Hémont, Caroline; Charrier, Céline; Guérin, Sarah; Heslan, Michèle; Josien, Régis

    2015-05-01

    Receptor activating NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a member of the TNF superfamily that plays a pivotal role in bone homeostasis as being the major osteoclastogenesis factor. RANKL also has pleiotropic effects in the immune system in which it is expressed by activated T and B cells and some innate lymphoid cells. RANKL-RANK interactions mediate lymph node organogenesis and immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune disease and carcinogenesis as well as cross talk between the immune system and bone. In this study, we show that basophils were the strongest RANKL mRNA-expressing cells amongst major leukocyte subsets in human blood. RANKL was preformed as an intracellular protein in resting basophils and was rapidly and strongly expressed on their surface upon stimulation with IL-3, but not other stimuli. This expression was stable for at least 6 days. Activated basophils could also release soluble RANKL in small quantities upon interaction with DCs or monocytes. In the blood, basophils were the sole cells to express membrane RANKL in response to IL-3. This study indicates that basophils should be considered as new players in the pleiotropic and complex RANKL-RANK interaction system and suggests a role for RANKL in the interaction between basophils and immune cells in inflammatory allergic tissues and secondary lymphoid organs. PMID:25433635

  10. Biaxial constitutive equation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Walker, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    In developing the constitutive equations an interdisciplinary approach is being pursued. Specifically, both metallurgical and continuum mechanics considerations are recognized in the formulation. Experiments will be utilized to both explore general qualitative features of the material behavior that needs to be modeled and to provide a means of assessing the validity of the equations being developed. The model under development explicitly recognizes crystallographic slip on the individual slip systems. This makes possible direct representation of specific slip system phenomena. The present constitutive formulation takes the anisotropic creep theory and incorporates two state variables into the model to account for the effect of prior inelastic deformation history on the current rate-dependent response of the material.

  11. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    PubMed

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  12. Constitution, 29 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Haiti's 1987 Constitution relating to the family; the protection of children, aliens, and refugees; and individual rights. The age of majority in Haiti is 18, and political and civil rights are attained at age 21 regardless of sex or marital status. Haitians are equal before the law but native-born Haitians who have never renounced their nationality have special advantages. Human rights are guaranteed in conformity with the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. Every citizen has the right to decent housing, education, food, and social security. The state is obligated to provide citizens with appropriate means to protect, maintain, and restore their health. Primary schooling is compulsory and free. Aliens in Haiti enjoy the protection offered citizens, including a limited right to own real property. Political refugees have a right to asylum. The family is considered the foundation of society and enjoys state protection regardless of whether the family is constituted within the bonds of marriage. Legal protection is afforded mothers, children, and the aged. The Constitution also calls for creation of a Family Code to ensure protection and respect for the rights of the family. PMID:12346668

  13. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  14. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  15. Role of reactive oxygen species in brucein D-mediated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lau, S T; Lin, Z X; Leung, P S

    2010-01-01

    Background: In human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) transcription factor is constitutively activated that contributes to the resistance of the tumour cells to induced apoptosis. In our earlier studies, we have shown that brucein D (BD) mediated apoptosis through activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. This study investigated the function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BD-mediated p38-MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways in PANC-1 cells. Methods: Glutathione and dihydroethidium assays were used to measure the antioxidant and superoxide levels, respectively. The protein expression of p22phox, p67phox and p38-MAPK were examined by western blot. The NF-κB activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results: Treatment with BD depleted the intracellular glutathione levels in PANC-1 cells. Brucein D triggered the activation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, p22phox and p67phox while enhancing the generation of superoxide. Increases in both intracellular ROS and NADPH oxidase activity were inhibited by an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Brucein D-mediated activation of p38-MAPK was also inhibited by NAC. However, inhibition of NF-κB activity in BD-treated cells was independent of ROS. In vivo studies showed that BD treatment effectively reduced the rate of xenograft human pancreatic tumour in nude mice with no significant toxicity. Conclusion: These data suggest that BD is an apoptogenic agent for pancreatic cancer cells through activation of the redox-sensitive p38-MAPK pathway and inhibition of NF-κB anti-apoptotic activity in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:20068565

  16. Constitution, 30 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing. PMID:12346681

  17. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  18. Ultra High Throughput Screening of Natural Product Extracts to Identify Pro-apoptotic Inhibitors of Bcl-2 Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hassig, Christian A.; Zeng, Fu-Yue; Kung, Paul; Kiankarimi, Mehrak; Kim, Sylvia; Diaz, Paul W.; Zhai, Dayong; Welsh, Kate; Morshedian, Shana; Su, Ying; O'Keefe, Barry; Newman, David J.; Rusman, Yudi; Kaur, Harneet; Salomon, Christine E.; Brown, Susan G.; Baire, Beeraiah; Michel, Andrew R.; Hoye, Thomas R.; Francis, Subhashree; Georg, Gunda I.; Walters, Michael A.; Divlianska, Daniela B.; Roth, Gregory P.; Wright, Amy E.; Reed, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are validated cancer targets comprised of six related proteins. From a drug discovery perspective, these are challenging targets that exert their cellular functions through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). While several isoform-selective inhibitors have been developed using structure-based design or high throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries, no large scale screen of natural product collections has been reported. A competitive displacement fluorescence polarization (FP) screen of nearly 150,000 natural product extracts was conducted against all six anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins using fluorochrome-conjugated peptide ligands that mimic functionally-relevant PPIs. The screens were conducted in 1,536-well format and displayed satisfactory overall HTS statistics, with Z’-factor values ranging from 0.72 to 0.83, and a hit confirmation rate between 16-64%. Confirmed active extracts were orthogonally tested in a luminescent assay for caspase-3/7 activation in tumor cells. Active extracts were resupplied and effort toward the isolation of pure active components was initiated through iterative bioassay-guided fractionation. Several previously described altertoxins were isolated from a microbial source and the pure compounds demonstrate activity in both Bcl-2 FP and caspase cellular assays. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of ultra high throughput screening using natural product sources and highlight some of the challenges associated with this approach. PMID:24870016

  19. Novel dimerization mode of the human Bcl-2 family protein Bak, a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongfei; Takemoto, Chie; Akasaka, Ryogo; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Kishishita, Seiichiro; Murayama, Kazutaka; Terada, Takaho; Chen, Lirong; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Sugano, Sumio; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Makoto; Kigawa, Takanori; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-05-29

    Interactions of Bcl-2 family proteins play a regulatory role in mitochondrial apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic protein Bak resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and the formation of Bak homo- or heterodimers is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. The previously reported structure of the human Bak protein (residues Glu16-Gly186) revealed that a zinc ion was coordinated with two pairs of Asp160 and His164 residues from the symmetry-related molecules. This zinc-dependent homodimer was regarded as an anti-apoptotic dimer. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the human Bak residues Ser23-Asn185 at 2.5 {angstrom}, and found a distinct type of homodimerization through Cys166 disulfide bridging between the symmetry-related molecules. In the two modes of homodimerization, the molecular interfaces are completely different. In the membrane-targeted model of the S-S bridged dimer, the BH3 motifs are too close to the membrane to interact directly with the anti-apoptotic relatives, such as Bcl-x{sub L}. Therefore, the Bak dimer structure reported here may represent a pro-apoptotic mode under oxidized conditions.

  20. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types. PMID:12344287

  1. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities. PMID:12344286

  2. Modulation of JAK2, STAT3 and Akt1 proteins by granulocyte colony stimulating factor following carbon monoxide poisoning in male rat.

    PubMed

    Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Imen Shahidi, Mohsen; Moallem, Seyyed Adel; Abnous, Khalil; Ghorbani, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, tasteless and non-irritating by-product of inefficient combustion of hydrocarbon fuels such as motor vehicle exhausted gases. It is the leading cause of mortality in the USA among all unintentional toxicants. Male rats exposed to CO poisoning in the heart has many cardiovascular effects such as, cardiomyopathy, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and ischemia and in severe cases, myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac arrest. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the most frequent consequences in the heart. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that mobilizes and differentiates granulocytes from stem cells. It can stimulate many anti-apoptotic pathways such as JAK2-STAT3 and PI3-Akt kinases following cardiac ischemia. G-CSF exerts its anti-apoptotic effects through binding to its specific cell surface receptor. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF following CO poisoning. Rats were exposed to CO 1500 or 3000 ppm for 60 min. Animals received G-CSF 100 μg/kg subcutaneously for five consecutive days after CO intoxication. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the expression of six proteins namely JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3, Akt1 and p-Akt1 following G-CSF 100 μg/kg consecutive dose administration after CO poisoning. There was a significant difference between phosphorylated proteins including p-JAK2, p-STAT3 and p-Akt1 in the G-CSF groups and those in control groups and there were not any significant differences in total protein among the groups. PMID:26810905

  3. Low expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins sets the apoptotic threshold in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Gaudette, Brian T.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Chitta, Kasyapa S.; Poulain, Stéphanie; Powell, Doris; Vertino, Paula; Leleu, Xavier; Lonial, Sagar; Chanan-Khan, Asher A.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Boise, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a proliferative disorder of IgM secreting, lymphoplasmacytoid cells that inhabit the lymph nodes and bone marrow. The disease carries a high prevalence of activating mutations in MyD88 (91%) and CXCR4 (28%). Because signaling through these pathways leads to Bcl-xL induction, we examined Bcl-2 family expression in WM patients and cell lines. Unlike other B-lymphocyte-derived malignancies, which become dependent on expression of anti-apoptotic proteins to counter expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, WM samples expressed both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins at low levels similar to their normal B-cell and plasma cell counterparts. Three WM cell lines expressed pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bim or Bax and Bak at low levels which determined their sensitivity to inducers of intrinsic apoptosis. In two cell lines, miR-155 upregulation, which is common in WM, was responsible for inhibition of FOXO3a and Bim expression. Both antagonizing miR-155 to induce Bim and proteasome inhibition increased the sensitivity to ABT-737 in these lines indicating a lowering of the apoptotic threshold. In this manner, treatments that increase pro-apoptotic protein expression increase the efficacy of agents treated in combination in addition to direct killing. PMID:25893290

  4. The use of cationic nanogels to deliver proteins to myeloma cells and primary T lymphocytes that poorly express heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kozo; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Ayame, Hirohito; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2011-09-01

    Fusion proteins containing protein transduction domain (PTD) are widely used for intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins. PTD-mediated delivery requires expression of heparan sulfate on the surface of the target cells. However, some of metastatic tumor cells and primary lymphocytes poorly express heparan sulfate. Here we demonstrate that proteins complexed with nanosize hydrogels formed by cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulans (cCHP) are efficiently delivered to myeloma cells and primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes probably by induction of macropinocytosis, although these cells are resistant to PTD-mediated protein delivery as a consequence of poor heparan sulfate expression. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL delivered by cCHP nanogels efficiently blocked apoptosis of these cells, establishing functional regulation of cells by proteins delivered by cCHP nanogels. Thus, cCHP nanogel is a useful tool to deliver proteins for development of new cancer therapy and immune regulation. PMID:21605901

  5. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  6. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  7. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's. "Decent,…

  8. Socialist Constitution [1992].

    PubMed

    1992-12-15

    This document contains the text of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Chapter 1 sets out the political principles which govern the existence of the state. Chapter 2 outlines the principles of the socialist economy as they apply to the collective and private ownership of property, to meeting the needs of working people, to the technological revolution, to labor regulations (including a minimum working age of 16 years), to development plans, and to external trade. Chapter 3 covers aspects of culture including education, which involves 11-years of compulsory schooling, scholarships to universities and professional schools, and social education. Children of preschool age are enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens at the state's expense. Other issues dealt with in this chapter are the advancement of science and technology, the work of writers and artists, the provision of cultural facilities, protection of the language, the availability of physical fitness facilities, a universal free medical system, and environmental protection. Chapter 4 outlines national defense measures, and chapter 5 sets out the fundamental rights and duties of citizens. This chapter accords women equal social status and rights as men and protects marriage and the family. State institutions (such as the Supreme People's Assembly, the presidency, the National Defense Committee, the Central People's Committee, the Administrative Council, local assemblies and committees, and the court and procurator's office) are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 describes the national emblem and flag and designates Pyongyang as the capital. PMID:12347140

  9. Targeted delivery of siRNA to cell death proteins in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Brahmamdam, Pavan; Watanabe, Eizo; Unsinger, Jacqueline; Chang, Katherine C.; Schierding, William; Hoekzema, Andrew S.; Zhou, Tony T.; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Holemon, Heather; Heidel, Jeremy D.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Immune suppression is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the septic patient. Apoptotic loss of immune effector cells such as CD4 T and B cells is a key component in the loss immune competence in sepsis. Inhibition of lymphocyte apoptosis has led to improved survival in animal models of sepsis. Using qRT-PCR of isolated splenic CD4 T and B cells, we determined that Bim and PUMA, two key cell death proteins, are markedly up-regulated during sepsis. Lymphocytes have been notoriously difficult to transfect with siRNA. Consequently a novel, cyclodextrin polymer-based, transferrin receptor-targeted, delivery vehicle was employed to co-administer siRNA to Bim and PUMA to mice immediately after cecal ligation and puncture. Anti-apoptotic siRNA based therapy markedly decreased lymphocyte apoptosis and prevented the loss of splenic CD4 T and B cells. Flow cytometry confirmed in vivo delivery of siRNA to CD4 T and B cells and also demonstrated decreases in intracellular Bim and PUMA protein. In conclusion, Bim and PUMA are two critical mediators of immune cell death in sepsis. Use of a novel cyclodextrin polymer-based, transferrin receptor-targeted siRNA delivery vehicle enables effective administration of anti-apoptotic siRNAs to lymphocytes and reverses the immune cell depletion that is a hallmark of this highly lethal disorder. PMID:19033888

  10. A constitutive 70 kDa heat-shock protein is localized on the fibres of spindles and asters at metaphase in an ATP-dependent manner: a new chaperone role is proposed.

    PubMed Central

    Agueli, C; Geraci, F; Giudice, G; Chimenti, L; Cascino, D; Sconzo, G

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, double immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis have been used to show that centrosomes, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos at the first mitotic metaphase, contain the constitutive chaperone, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70. More specifically, we demonstrate that centrosomes contain only the HSP70-d isoform, which is one of the four isoforms identified in P. lividus. We also provide evidence that p34(cell division control kinase-2) and t complex polypeptide-1 (TCP-1) alpha, a subunit of the TCP-1 complex, are localized on the centrosomes. Furthermore, inhibition of TCP-1 in vivo, via microinjecting an anti-(TCP-1 alpha) antibody into P. lividus eggs before fertilization, either impaired mitosis or induced severe malformations in more than 50% of embryos. In addition, we have isolated the whole mitotic apparatus and shown that HSP70 localizes on the fibres of spindles and asters, and binds them in an ATP-dependent manner. These observations suggest that HSP70 has a chaperone role in assisting the TCP-1 complex in tubulin folding, when localized on centrosomes, and during the assembling and disassembling of the mitotic apparatus, when localized on the fibres of spindles and asters. PMID:11716770

  11. A constitutive 70 kDa heat-shock protein is localized on the fibres of spindles and asters at metaphase in an ATP-dependent manner: a new chaperone role is proposed.

    PubMed

    Agueli, C; Geraci, F; Giudice, G; Chimenti, L; Cascino, D; Sconzo, G

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, double immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis have been used to show that centrosomes, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos at the first mitotic metaphase, contain the constitutive chaperone, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70. More specifically, we demonstrate that centrosomes contain only the HSP70-d isoform, which is one of the four isoforms identified in P. lividus. We also provide evidence that p34(cell division control kinase-2) and t complex polypeptide-1 (TCP-1) alpha, a subunit of the TCP-1 complex, are localized on the centrosomes. Furthermore, inhibition of TCP-1 in vivo, via microinjecting an anti-(TCP-1 alpha) antibody into P. lividus eggs before fertilization, either impaired mitosis or induced severe malformations in more than 50% of embryos. In addition, we have isolated the whole mitotic apparatus and shown that HSP70 localizes on the fibres of spindles and asters, and binds them in an ATP-dependent manner. These observations suggest that HSP70 has a chaperone role in assisting the TCP-1 complex in tubulin folding, when localized on centrosomes, and during the assembling and disassembling of the mitotic apparatus, when localized on the fibres of spindles and asters. PMID:11716770

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-binding protein (PBP) but not PPAR-interacting protein (PRIP) is required for nuclear translocation of constitutive androstane receptor in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongsheng; Sarkar, Joy; Ahmed, Mohamed R.; Viswakarma, Navin; Jia Yuzhi; Yu Songtao; Sambasiva Rao, M.; Reddy, Janardan K. . E-mail: jkreddy@northwestern.edu

    2006-08-25

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates transcription of phenobarbital-inducible genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver. CAR is localized to the hepatocyte cytoplasm but to be functional, it translocates into the nucleus in the presence of phenobarbital-like CAR ligands. We now demonstrate that adenovirally driven EGFP-CAR, as expected, translocates into the nucleus of normal wild-type hepatocytes following phenobarbital treatment under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Using this approach we investigated the role of transcription coactivators PBP and PRIP in the translocation of EGFP-CAR into the nucleus of PBP and PRIP liver conditional null mouse hepatocytes. We show that coactivator PBP is essential for nuclear translocation of CAR but not PRIP. Adenoviral expression of both PBP and EGFP-CAR restored phenobarbital-mediated nuclear translocation of exogenously expressed CAR in PBP null livers in vivo and in PBP null primary hepatocytes in vitro. CAR translocation into the nucleus of PRIP null livers resulted in the induction of CAR target genes such as CYP2B10, necessary for the conversion of acetaminophen to its hepatotoxic intermediate metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. As a consequence, PRIP-deficiency in liver did not protect from acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis, unlike that exerted by PBP deficiency. These results establish that transcription coactivator PBP plays a pivotal role in nuclear localization of CAR, that it is likely that PBP either enhances nuclear import or nuclear retention of CAR in hepatocytes, and that PRIP is redundant for CAR function.

  13. Automated protein-ligand interaction screening by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maple, Hannah J; Garlish, Rachel A; Rigau-Roca, Laura; Porter, John; Whitcombe, Ian; Prosser, Christine E; Kennedy, Jeff; Henry, Alistair J; Taylor, Richard J; Crump, Matthew P; Crosby, John

    2012-01-26

    Identifying protein-ligand binding interactions is a key step during early-stage drug discovery. Existing screening techniques are often associated with drawbacks such as low throughput, high sample consumption, and dynamic range limitations. The increasing use of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) demands that these techniques also detect very weak interactions (mM K(D) values). This paper presents the development and validation of a fully automated screen by mass spectrometry, capable of detecting fragment binding into the millimolar K(D) range. Low sample consumption, high throughput, and wide dynamic range make this a highly attractive, orthogonal approach. The method was applied to screen 157 compounds in 6 h against the anti-apoptotic protein target Bcl-x(L). Mass spectrometry results were validated using STD-NMR, HSQC-NMR, and ITC experiments. Agreement between techniques suggests that mass spectrometry offers a powerful, complementary approach for screening. PMID:22148839

  14. Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing Aβ production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in Aβ injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, Aβ injected, and Aβ injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

  15. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  16. The Cytomegalovirus protein pUL37×1 targets mitochondria to mediate neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chien Tai; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H. V.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). This contribution probably encompasses defects of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial turnover (mitophagy), mitochondrial derived oxidative stress, and apoptotic signalling. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein pUL37 × 1 induces Bax mitochondrial translocation and inactivation to prevent apoptosis. Over-expressing pUL37 × 1 in neuronal cells protects against staurosporin and 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis and cell death. Protection is not enhanced by bax silencing in pUL37 × 1 over-expressing cells, suggesting a bax-dependent mechanism of action. pUL37 × 1 increases glycolysis and induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization, a bax independent anti-apoptotic action. pUL37 × 1 increases glycolysis through activation of phosphofructokinase by a calcium-dependent pathway. The dual anti-apoptotic mechanism of pUL37 × 1 may be considered a novel neuroprotective strategy in diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic pathways are involved. PMID:27562039

  17. The Cytomegalovirus protein pUL37×1 targets mitochondria to mediate neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). This contribution probably encompasses defects of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial turnover (mitophagy), mitochondrial derived oxidative stress, and apoptotic signalling. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein pUL37 × 1 induces Bax mitochondrial translocation and inactivation to prevent apoptosis. Over-expressing pUL37 × 1 in neuronal cells protects against staurosporin and 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis and cell death. Protection is not enhanced by bax silencing in pUL37 × 1 over-expressing cells, suggesting a bax-dependent mechanism of action. pUL37 × 1 increases glycolysis and induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization, a bax independent anti-apoptotic action. pUL37 × 1 increases glycolysis through activation of phosphofructokinase by a calcium-dependent pathway. The dual anti-apoptotic mechanism of pUL37 × 1 may be considered a novel neuroprotective strategy in diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic pathways are involved. PMID:27562039

  18. Multimodal Interaction with BCL-2 Family Proteins Underlies the Pro-Apoptotic Activity of PUMA BH3

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Amanda L.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; LaBelle, James L.; Braun, Craig R.; Opoku-Nsiah, Kwadwo A.; Bird, Gregory H.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY PUMA is a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member that drives the apoptotic response to a diversity of p53-dependent and independent cellular insults. Deciphering the spectrum of PUMA interactions that confer its context-dependent pro-apoptotic properties remains a high priority goal. Here, we report the synthesis of PUMA SAHBs, structurally-stabilized PUMA BH3 helices that, in addition to broadly targeting anti-apoptotic proteins, directly bind to BAX. NMR, photocrosslinking, and biochemical analyses revealed that PUMA SAHBs engage an α1/α6 trigger site on BAX to initiate its functional activation. We further demonstrated that a cell-permeable PUMA SAHB analog induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and, like expressed PUMA protein, engages BCL-2, MCL-1 and BAX. Thus, we find that PUMA BH3 is a dual anti-apoptotic inhibitor and pro-apoptotic direct activator, and its mimetics may serve as effective pharmacologic triggers of apoptosis in resistant human cancers. PMID:23890007

  19. The Constitution and Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Rebecca S.

    The paper takes the position that the study and understanding of the United States Constitution should be a critical part of citizenship education, especially as its Bicentennial approaches. Several factors suggest that the Constitution has become the most durable document of its kind in history, and that its teaching should be centered in both…

  20. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  1. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the Constitution…

  2. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  3. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  4. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  5. Pro-survival effects of 17β-estradiol on osteocytes are mediated by nitric oxide/cGMP via differential actions of cGMP-dependent protein kinases I and II.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Nisha; Rangaswami, Hema; Zhuang, Shunhui; Boss, Gerry R; Pilz, Renate B

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens promote bone health in part by increasing osteocyte survival, an effect that requires activation of the protein kinases Akt and ERK1/2, but the molecular mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Because estrogens increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO can have anti-apoptotic effects, we examined the role of NO/cGMP signaling in estrogen regulation of osteocyte survival. Etoposide-induced death of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, assessed by trypan blue staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL assays, was completely prevented when cells were pre-treated with 17β-estradiol. This protective effect was mimicked when cells were pre-treated with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog and blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, or cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), supporting a requirement for NO/cGMP/PKG signaling downstream of 17β-estradiol. siRNA-mediated knockdown and viral reconstitution of individual PKG isoforms demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of estradiol and cGMP were mediated by PKG Iα and PKG II. Akt and ERK1/2 activation by 17β-estradiol required PKG II, and cGMP mimicked the effects of estradiol on Akt and ERK, including induction of ERK nuclear translocation. cGMP induced BAD phosphorylation on several sites, and experiments with phosphorylation-deficient BAD mutants demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of cGMP and 17β-estradiol required BAD phosphorylation on Ser(136) and Ser(155); these sites were targeted by Akt and PKG I, respectively, and regulate BAD interaction with Bcl-2. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol protects osteocytes against apoptosis by activating the NO/cGMP/PKG cascade; PKG II is required for estradiol-induced activation of ERK and Akt, and PKG Iα contributes to pro-survival signaling by directly phosphorylating BAD. PMID:22117068

  6. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  7. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  9. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  10. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  11. The Wnt Target Protein Peter Pan Defines a Novel p53-independent Nucleolar Stress-Response Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Astrid S; Keil, Marina; Kühl, Michael

    2015-04-24

    Proper ribosome formation is a prerequisite for cell growth and proliferation. Failure of this process results in nucleolar stress and p53-mediated apoptosis. The Wnt target Peter Pan (PPAN) is required for 45 S rRNA maturation. So far, the role of PPAN in nucleolar stress response has remained elusive. We demonstrate that PPAN localizes to mitochondria in addition to its nucleolar localization and inhibits the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in a p53-independent manner. Loss of PPAN induces BAX stabilization, depolarization of mitochondria, and release of cytochrome c, demonstrating its important role as an anti-apoptotic factor. Staurosporine-induced nucleolar stress and apoptosis disrupt nucleolar PPAN localization and induce its accumulation in the cytoplasm. This is accompanied by phosphorylation and subsequent cleavage of PPAN by caspases. Moreover, we show that PPAN is a novel interaction partner of the anti-apoptotic protein nucleophosmin (NPM). PPAN depletion induces NPM and upstream-binding factor (UBF) degradation, which is independent of caspases. In summary, we provide evidence for a novel nucleolar stress-response pathway involving PPAN, NPM, and BAX to guarantee cell survival in a p53-independent manner. PMID:25759387

  12. The Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusion Membrane Protein Cpn1027 Interacts with Host Cell Wnt Signaling Pathway Regulator Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein 2 (Caprin2).

    PubMed

    Flores, Rhonda; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified hypothetical protein Cpn1027 as a novel inclusion membrane protein that is unique to Chlamydia pneumoniae. In the current study, using a yeast-two hybrid screen assay, we identified host cell cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein 2 (Caprin2) as an interacting partner of Cpn1027. The interaction was confirmed and mapped to the C-termini of both Cpn1027 and Caprin2 using co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. A RFP-Caprin2 fusion protein was recruited to the chlamydial inclusion and so was the endogenous GSK3β, a critical component of the β-catenin destruction complex in the Wnt signaling pathway. Cpn1027 also co-precipitated GSK3β. Caprin2 is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by promoting the recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence of Wnt signaling while GSK3β is required for priming β-catenin for degradation in the absence of Wnt signaling. The Cpn1027 interactions with Caprin2 and GSK3β may allow C. pneumoniae to actively sequester the β-catenin destruction complex so that β-catenin is maintained even in the absence of extracellular Wnt activation signals. The maintained β-catenin can trans-activate Wnt target genes including Bcl-2, which may contribute to the chlamydial antiapoptotic activity. We found that the C. pneumoniae-infected cells were more resistant to apoptosis induction and the anti-apoptotic activity was dependent on β-catenin. Thus, the current study suggests that the chlamydial inclusion protein Cpn1027 may be able to manipulate host Wnt signaling pathway for enhancing the chlamydial anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:25996495

  13. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.

  14. Alteration of the stability of Bag-1 protein in the control of olfactory neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sourisseau, T; Desbois, C; Debure, L; Bowtell, D D; Cato, A C; Schneikert, J; Moyse, E; Michel, D

    2001-04-01

    Normal apoptosis occurs continuously in the olfactory neuroepithelium of adult vertebrates, making it a useful model for studying neuronal apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic Bag-1 gene in olfactory neuronal cells confers a strong resistance to apoptosis. Conversely decreased levels of Bag-1 were found to precede a massive wave of olfactory neuronal apoptosis triggered by synaptic target ablation. We show that the decrease is brought about by ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Bag-1 protein. The ring finger protein Siah-2 is a likely candidate for the ubiquitination reaction since Siah-2 mRNA accumulated in lesioned olfactory neuroepithelium and overexpression of Siah-2 stimulated Bag-1 ubiquitination and degradation in transient expression assays. These results together identify destabilization of Bag-1 as a necessary step in olfactory neuronal apoptosis. PMID:11257006

  15. Activated protein C promotes neuroprotection: mechanisms and translation to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John H; Fernández, José A; Lyden, Patrick D; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2016-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a plasma serine protease that is capable of antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and cell-signaling activities. Animal injury studies show that recombinant APC and some of its mutants are remarkably therapeutic for a wide range of injuries. In particular, for neurologic injuries, APC reduces damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the brain, by acute brain trauma, and by chronic neurodegenerative conditions. For these neuroprotective effects, APC requires endothelial cell protein C receptor. APC activates cell signaling networks with alterations in gene expression profiles by activating protease activated receptors 1 and 3. To minimize APC-induced bleeding risk, APC variants were engineered to lack > 90% anticoagulant activity but retain normal cell signaling. The neuroprotective APC mutant, 3K3A-APC which has Lys191-193 mutated to Ala191-193, is very neuroprotective and it is currently in clinical trials for ischemic stroke. PMID:27207428

  16. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  17. Lazy Elephants and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1989-01-01

    Depicts an eighth grade unit utilizing the production of a newspaper to teach U.S. history, 1787 to 1791, in a combined social studies and language arts class at Malcolm Price Laboratory School (Iowa). Two teachers used both large- and small-group instruction to focus on the development of the U.S. Constitution. (LS)

  18. Constitutional Reform of School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern, Ed.; Jordan, K. Forbis, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers by experts in educational administration, law, and economics. Six of the papers are devoted to a legal analysis of fiscal inequality among school attendance units, school districts, and States. These contributions are: (1) K. Forbis Jordan and Kern Alexander, "Constitutional Methods of Financing Public…

  19. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  20. Neuroprotective effects of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein during mild hypothermia on traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Guo, Jia-kui; Cai, Ying; Sun, Hong-sheng; Dong, Kun; Wu, Cheng-gang

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), a key regulatory protein, could be facilitated by mild hypothermia in the brain, heart and liver. This study observed the effects of mild hypothermia at 31 ± 0.5°C on traumatic brain injury in rats. Results demonstrated that mild hypothermia suppressed apoptosis in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, facilitated CIRP mRNA and protein expression in these regions, especially in the hypothalamus. The anti-apoptotic effect of mild hypothermia disappeared after CIRP silencing. There was no correlation between mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and CIRP silencing. CIRP silencing inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation. These indicate that CIRP inhibits apoptosis by affecting extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activation, and exerts a neuroprotective effect during mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury. PMID:27335561

  1. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. PMID:24845969

  2. Constitutive Autophagy and Nucleophagy during Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Akinduro, Olufolake; Sully, Katherine; Patel, Ankit; Robinson, Deborah J; Chikh, Anissa; McPhail, Graham; Braun, Kristin M; Philpott, Michael P; Harwood, Catherine A; Byrne, Carolyn; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Bergamaschi, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes migrate through the epidermis up to the granular layer where, on terminal differentiation, they progressively lose organelles and convert into anucleate cells or corneocytes. Our report explores the role of autophagy in ensuring epidermal function providing the first comprehensive profile of autophagy marker expression in developing epidermis. We show that autophagy is constitutively active in the epidermal granular layer where by electron microscopy we identified double-membrane autophagosomes. We demonstrate that differentiating keratinocytes undergo a selective form of nucleophagy characterized by accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3/lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2/p62 positive autolysosomes. These perinuclear vesicles displayed positivity for histone interacting protein, heterochromatin protein 1α, and localize in proximity with Lamin A and B1 accumulation, whereas in newborn mice and adult human skin, we report LC3 puncta coincident with misshaped nuclei within the granular layer. This process relies on autophagy integrity as confirmed by lack of nucleophagy in differentiating keratinocytes depleted from WD repeat domain phosphoinositide interacting 1 or Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1. Final validation into a skin disease model showed that impaired autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Lack of LC3 expression in psoriatic skin lesions correlates with parakeratosis and deregulated expression or location of most of the autophagic markers. Our findings may have implications and improve treatment options for patients with epidermal barrier defects. PMID:27021405

  3. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889

  4. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

  5. The Constitution: Perspectives on Contemporary American Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Four articles expressing the views of nine prominent United States citizens about the Constitution provide a context for reflecting on the meaning of the Constitution in present-day America. In "Why Has the Constitution Endured So Long?" Don Edwards, chairman of the House Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, discusses why the Constitution…

  6. Constitutive upscaling of MR fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Grigor; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-11-01

    We consider a suspension of solid magnetizable particles in a viscous fluid with an applied external magnetic field. We assume the fluid to be electrically non-conducting. Thus, we use the quasi-static Maxwell equations coupled with the Stokes equations to capture the magnetorheological effect. We upscale using two scale asymptotic expansions to obtain the effective equations consisting of a coupled nonlinear system in a connected phase domain as well as the new constitutive laws. Qualitative properties of the solution of this nonlinear system are studied.

  7. The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kliková, K; Pilchova, I; Stefanikova, A; Hatok, J; Dobrota, D; Racay, P

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 are molecular chaperones; their expression is increased after exposure of cells to conditions of environmental stress, including heat shock, heavy metals, oxidative stress, or pathologic conditions, such as ischemia, infection, and inflammation. Their protective function is to help the cell cope with lethal conditions. The HSPs are a class of proteins which, in normal cells, are responsible for maintaining homeostasis, interacting with diverse protein substrates to assist in their folding, and preventing the appearance of folding intermediates that lead to misfolded or damaged molecules. They have been shown to interact with different key apoptotic proteins and play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Several HSPs have been demonstrated to directly interact with various components of tightly regulated caspase-dependent programmed cell death. These proteins also affect caspase-independent apoptosis by interacting with apoptogenic factors. Heat shock proteins are aberrantly expressed in hematological malignancies. Because of their prognostic implications and functional role in leukemias, HSPs represent an interesting target for antileukemic therapy. This review will describe different molecules interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP90, which can be used in cancer therapy based on their inhibition. PMID:26879061

  8. The cytomegalovirus protein UL138 induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by binding to heat shock protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Guo, Gangqiang; Sun, Xiangwei; Chen, Jing; Ye, Lulu; Ye, Sisi; Mao, Chenchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lifang; Jiang, Lubin; Shen, Xian; Xue, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) could act as a tumor promoter and play an “oncomodulatory” role in the neoplastic process of several human malignancies. However, we demonstrate for the first time that UL138, a HCMV latency-associated gene, could act as a tumor inhibitor in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of UL138 is down-regulated in HCMV positive gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, especially in poorly or none differentiated tumors. Overexpression of UL138 in several human GC cell lines inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis, in association with the reduction of an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and the induction of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, protein array analysis reveals that UL138 interacts with a chaperone protein, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). This interaction is confirmed by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining in situ in GC cell lines. In addition, this UL138-mediated cancer cell death could efficiently lead to suppression of human tumor growth in a xenograft animal model of GC. In conclusion, these results uncover a previously unknown role of the cytomegalovirus protein UL138 in inducing GC cells apoptosis, which might imply a general mechanism that viral proteins inhibit cancer growth in interactions with both chaperones and apoptosis-related proteins. Our findings might provide a potential target for new therapeutic strategies of GC treatment. PMID:26735338

  9. The cytomegalovirus protein UL138 induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by binding to heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjing; Lin, Kezhi; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Gangqiang; Sun, Xiangwei; Chen, Jing; Ye, Lulu; Ye, Sisi; Mao, Chenchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lifang; Jiang, Lubin; Shen, Xian; Xue, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) could act as a tumor promoter and play an "oncomodulatory" role in the neoplastic process of several human malignancies. However, we demonstrate for the first time that UL138, a HCMV latency-associated gene, could act as a tumor inhibitor in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of UL138 is down-regulated in HCMV positive gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, especially in poorly or none differentiated tumors. Overexpression of UL138 in several human GC cell lines inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis, in association with the reduction of an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and the induction of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, protein array analysis reveals that UL138 interacts with a chaperone protein, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). This interaction is confirmed by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining in situ in GC cell lines. In addition, this UL138-mediated cancer cell death could efficiently lead to suppression of human tumor growth in a xenograft animal model of GC. In conclusion, these results uncover a previously unknown role of the cytomegalovirus protein UL138 in inducing GC cells apoptosis, which might imply a general mechanism that viral proteins inhibit cancer growth in interactions with both chaperones and apoptosis-related proteins. Our findings might provide a potential target for new therapeutic strategies of GC treatment. PMID:26735338

  10. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The first year of progress on a NASA-Lewis contract with the General Electric Co is documented. The purpose of this contract (NAS3-23927) is to develop and evaluate unified constitutive equations for applications to hot-path components of aircraft gas turbine engines such as high pressure turbine blades and vanes. To accomplish this goal, uniaxial, notched, and multiaxial specimens made of conventionally cast Rene 80 are being tested under conditions that simulate engine operating conditions. To reduce the raw data, automated data reduction techniques are being developed that produce computer files containing the information needed to analyze proposed constitutive theories. Described are the analytical methods being developed to determine the parameters for these nonlinear unified theories by using the reduced data files. In another activity, a dedicated finite-element computer code is being developed to use unified theories in the structural analysis of hot-section components. This code was extensively verified for one such theory by successfully predicting the strain histories measured experimentally at the notch root of complex specimens taken from complex laboratory specimens.

  11. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  12. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  13. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  14. Inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2 or Keap1) Protein Degrades Bcl-xL via Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 and Controls Cellular Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Niture, Suryakant K.; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    INrf2 (Keap1) is an adaptor protein that facilitates INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of Nrf2, a master regulator of cytoprotective gene expression. Here, we present evidence that members of the phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) proteins are involved in the INrf2-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that INrf2, through its DGR domain, interacts with PGAM5, which in turn interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein. INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 complex facilitates ubiquitination and degradation of both PGAM5 and Bcl-xL. Overexpression of PGAM5 protein increased INrf2-mediated degradation of Bcl-xL, whereas knocking down PGAM5 by siRNA decreased INrf2 degradation of Bcl-xL, resulting in increased stability of Bcl-xL. Mutation of PGMA5-E79A/S80A abolished INrf2/PGAM5/Bcl-xL interaction. Therefore, PGAM5 protein acts as a bridge between INrf2 and Bcl-xL interaction. Further studies showed that overexpression of INrf2 enhanced degradation of PGAM5-Bcl-xL complex, led to etoposide-mediated accumulation of Bax, increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activated caspase-3/7, and enhanced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition, antioxidant (tert-butylhydroquinone) treatment destabilized the Nrf2-INrf2-PGAM5-Bcl-xL complex, which resulted in release of Nrf2 in cytosol and mitochondria, release of Bcl-xL in mitochondria, increase in Bcl-xL heterodimerization with Bax in mitochondria, and reduced cellular apoptosis. These data provide the first evidence that INrf2 controls Bcl-xL via PGAM5 and controls cellular apoptosis. PMID:22072718

  15. The use of a neutral peptide aptamer scaffold to anchor BH3 peptides constitutes a viable approach to studying their function

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, L K J; Tomlinson, D C; Lee, T; Knowles, M A; Ko Ferrigno, P

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins are important regulators of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, and their interactions, driven by Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains, are of great interest in cancer research. Particularly, the BH3 domain is of clinical relevance, as it promotes apoptosis through activation of Bcl-2-associated x protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 antagonist killer (Bak), as well as by antagonising the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Although investigated extensively in vitro, the study of the BH3 domain alone inside cells is more problematic because of diminished secondary structure of the unconstrained peptide and a lack of stability. In this study, we report the successful use of a novel peptide aptamer scaffold – Stefin A quadruple mutant – to anchor and present the BH3 domains from Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and Noxa, and demonstrate its usefulness in the study of the BH3 domains in vivo. When expressed intracellularly, anchored BH3 peptides exhibit much the same binding specificities previously established in vitro, however, we find that, at endogenous expression levels, Bcl-2 does not bind to any of the anchored BH3 domains tested. Nonetheless, when expressed inside cells the anchored PUMA and Bim BH3 α-helices powerfully induce cell death in the absence of efficient targeting to the mitochondrial membrane, whereas the Noxa helix requires a membrane insertion domain in order to kill Mcl-1-dependent myeloma cells. Finally, the binding of the Bim BH3 peptide to Bax was the only interaction with a pro-apoptotic effector protein observed in this study. PMID:24481451

  16. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  17. The Constitutional Politics of Charitable Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippenberg, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Clarifies the constitutional issue raised by government efforts to cooperate with faith-based organizations, noting that while programs can be constitutional without necessarily being good public policy, too frequently political and constitutional controversies mix these two considerations, thus confusing those trying to understand and resolve…

  18. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim... any subpart. A constitutional claim will be scrutinized in order to determine whether it is totally...

  19. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  20. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  1. About Our Constitution: 1787-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist elementary school teachers, these materials present a series of lessons about the United States Constitution. Ten lesson plans and appropriate work sheets are included for grades K-3. The topics covered include the age of the Constitution, a constitutional convention, elected representatives, majority rule, voting, law making,…

  2. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  3. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  4. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  5. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  6. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  7. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  8. mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mott, J L; Kobayashi, S; Bronk, S F; Gores, G J

    2007-09-13

    Cellular expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is tightly regulated. Recently, Bcl-2 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. By analogy, we reasoned that Mcl-1 expression may also be regulated by microRNAs. We chose human immortalized, but non-malignant, H69 cholangiocyte and malignant KMCH cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for these studies, because Mcl-1 is dysregulated in cells with the malignant phenotype. By in silico analysis, we identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for the mir-29 family, and found that mir-29b was highly expressed in cholangiocytes. Interestingly, mir-29b was downregulated in malignant cells, consistent with Mcl-1 protein upregulation. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in KMCH cells. This effect was direct, as mir-29b negatively regulated the expression of an Mcl-1 3' untranslated region (UTR)-based reporter construct. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 cellular protein levels and sensitized the cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity. Transfection of non-malignant cells (that express high levels of mir-29) with a locked-nucleic acid antagonist of mir-29b increased Mcl-1 levels and reduced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Thus mir-29 is an endogenous regulator of Mcl-1 protein expression, and thereby, apoptosis. PMID:17404574

  9. mir-29 Regulates Mcl-1 Protein Expression and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Justin L.; Kobayashi, Shogo; Bronk, Steven F.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is tightly regulated. Recently, Bcl-2 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. By analogy, we reasoned that Mcl-1 expression may also be regulated by microRNAs. We chose human immortalized, but non-malignant, H69 cholangiocyte and malignant KMCH cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for these studies because Mcl-1 is dysregulated in cells with the malignant phenotype. In silico analysis identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for the mir-29 family, and we found that mir-29b was highly expressed in cholangiocytes. Interestingly, mir-29b was downregulated in malignant cells, consistent with Mcl-1 protein upregulation. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in KMCH cells. This effect was direct, as mir-29b negatively regulated expression of an Mcl-1 3’ untranslated region (UTR)-based reporter construct. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 cellular protein levels and sensitized the cancer cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Transfection of non-malignant cells (that express high levels of mir-29) with a locked-nucleic acid antagonist of mir-29b increased Mcl-1 levels and reduced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Thus mir-29 is an endogenous regulator of Mcl-1 protein expression and, thereby, apoptosis. PMID:17404574

  10. Transgenic Neospora caninum strains constitutively expressing the bradyzoite NcSAG4 protein proved to be safe and conferred significant levels of protection against vertical transmission when used as live vaccines in mice.

    PubMed

    Marugán-Hernández, V; Ortega-Mora, L M; Aguado-Martínez, A; Jiménez-Ruíz, E; Alvarez-García, G

    2011-10-13

    At present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine to prevent vertical transmission or abortion associated with Neospora caninum infection in cattle. Different vaccine formulations have been assayed, and live vaccines have shown the most promising results in terms of protection. Previously, transgenic N. caninum tachyzoites expressing the bradyzoite stage-specific NcSAG4 antigen in a constitutive manner (Nc-1 SAG4(c)) were obtained and showed a reduced persistence of parasite in inoculated mice. Thus, the present study evaluates the Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1 and Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 transgenic strains and the Nc-1 wild-type (WT) strain to determine their protective efficacy against vertical transmission and cerebral neosporosis in mice. Consequently, dams were immunized twice with 5 × 10(5) tachyzoites of each strain and challenged with 2 × 10(6) tachyzoites of a heterologous and virulent isolate at 7-10 days of gestation. The Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1 strain offered less protection than the other transgenic strain (Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1) or their ancestor (Nc-1 WT). Indeed, 40%, 7% and 5.6% of the postnatal deaths corresponded to pups from dams vaccinated with Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1, Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 and Nc-1 (WT) strains, respectively. In comparison, the non-immunized challenge group had a 100% mortality rate. In addition, mice were protected against congenital transmission; vertical transmission rates were 45%, 11.1% and 10.8% in the Nc-1 SAG4(c)1.1, Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 and Nc-1 WT immunized groups, respectively, vs. 94.9% in the non-vaccinated infected group. However, this protection against the postnatal mortality and the vertical transmission was not associated with a consistent Th1 or Th2-type immune response. Nonetheless, the Nc-1 SAG4(c)2.1 strain appears to be the best candidate for use as a live vaccine, as evidenced by results demonstrating its high levels of protection against vertical transmission and its lower persistence in mice, making this transgenic strain safer than Nc-1 WT. PMID

  11. Combined neurothrombectomy or thrombolysis with adjunctive delivery of 3K3A-activated protein C in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Arun Paul; Griffin, John H.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), vessel recanalization correlates with improved functional status and reduced mortality. Mechanical neurothrombectomy achieves a higher likelihood of revascularization than intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), but there remains significant discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome. The poor neurological recovery among some stroke patients despite successful recanalization confirms the need for adjuvant therapy, such as pharmacological neuroprotection. Prior clinical trials of neuroprotectant drugs failed perhaps due to inability of the agent to reach the ischemic tissue beyond the occluded artery. A protocol that couples mechanical neurothrombectomy with concurrent delivery of a neuroprotectant overcomes this pitfall. Activated protein C (APC) exerts pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antithrombotic, cytoprotective, and neuroregenerative effects in stroke and appears a compelling candidate for this novel approach. PMID:26388732

  12. Identification of an allosteric pocket on human hsp70 reveals a mode of inhibition of this therapeutically important protein.

    PubMed

    Rodina, Anna; Patel, Pallav D; Kang, Yanlong; Patel, Yogita; Baaklini, Imad; Wong, Michael J H; Taldone, Tony; Yan, Pengrong; Yang, Chenghua; Maharaj, Ronnie; Gozman, Alexander; Patel, Maulik R; Patel, Hardik J; Chirico, William; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Talele, Tanaji T; Young, Jason C; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2013-12-19

    Hsp70s are important cancer chaperones that act upstream of Hsp90 and exhibit independent anti-apoptotic activities. To develop chemical tools for the study of human Hsp70, we developed a homology model that unveils a previously unknown allosteric site located in the nucleotide binding domain of Hsp70. Combining structure-based design and phenotypic testing, we discovered a previously unknown inhibitor of this site, YK5. In cancer cells, this compound is a potent and selective binder of the cytosolic but not the organellar human Hsp70s and has biological activity partly by interfering with the formation of active oncogenic Hsp70/Hsp90/client protein complexes. YK5 is a small molecule inhibitor rationally designed to interact with an allosteric pocket of Hsp70 and represents a previously unknown chemical tool to investigate cellular mechanisms associated with Hsp70. PMID:24239008

  13. Identification of an Allosteric Pocket on Human Hsp70 Reveals a Mode of Inhibition of This Therapeutically Important Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rodina, Anna; Patel, Pallav D.; Kang, Yanlong; Patel, Yogita; Baaklini, Imad; Wong, Michael J.H.; Taldone, Tony; Yan, Pengrong; Yang, Chenghua; Maharaj, Ronnie; Gozman, Alexander; Patel, Maulik R.; Patel, Hardik J.; Chirico, William; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Talele, Tanaji T.; Young, Jason C.; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hsp70s are important cancer chaperones that act upstream of Hsp90 and exhibit independent anti-apoptotic activities. To develop chemical tools for the study of human Hsp70, we developed a homology model that unveils a previously unknown allosteric site located in the nucleotide binding domain of Hsp70. Combining structure-based design and phenotypic testing, we discovered a previously unknown inhibitor of this site, YK5. In cancer cells, this compound is a potent and selective binder of the cytosolic but not the organellar human Hsp70s and has biological activity partly by interfering with the formation of active oncogenic Hsp70/Hsp90/client protein complexes. YK5 is a small molecule inhibitor rationally designed to interact with an allosteric pocket of Hsp70 and represents a previously unknown chemical tool to investigate cellular mechanisms associated with Hsp70. PMID:24239008

  14. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  15. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  16. The inhibition of the apoptosis pathway by the Coxiella burnetii effector protein CaeA requires the EK repetition motif, but is independent of survivin.

    PubMed

    Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Borges, Vítor; Sobotta, Katharina; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Menge, Christian; Heydel, Carsten; Gomes, João Paulo; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-05-18

    ABSRTACT Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Query (Q) fever, a zoonotic disease. It requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and thereby facilitates bacterial replication. To date, more than 130 effector proteins have been identified, but their functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that one of these proteins, CaeA (CBU1524) localized to the host cell nucleus and inhibited intrinsic apoptosis of HEK293 or CHO cells. In the present study we addressed the question whether CaeA also affects the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Ectopic expression of CaeA reduced extrinsic apoptosis and prevented the cleavage of the executioner caspase 7, but did not impair the activation of initiator caspase 9. CaeA expression resulted in an up-regulation of survivin (an inhibitor of activated caspases), which, however, was not causal for the anti-apoptotic effect of CaeA. Comparing the sequence of CaeA from 25 different C. burnetii isolates we identified an EK (glutamic acid/ lysine) repetition motif as a site of high genetic variability. The EK motif of CaeA was essential for the anti-apoptotic activity of CaeA. From these data, we conclude that the C. burnetii effector protein CaeA interferes with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. The process requires the EK repetition motif of CaeA, but is independent of the upregulated expression of survivin. PMID:26760129

  17. Maturational alterations in constitutive activity of medial prefrontal cortex kappa-opioid receptors in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Brendan M

    2015-11-01

    Opioid receptors can display spontaneous agonist-independent G-protein signaling (basal signaling/constitutive activity). While constitutive κ-opioid receptor (KOR) activity has been documented in vitro, it remains unknown if KORs are constitutively active in native systems. Using [(35) S] guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate coupling assay that measures receptor functional state, we identified the presence of medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in young rats that declined with age. Furthermore, basal signaling showed an age-related decline and was insensitive to neutral opioid antagonist challenge. Collectively, the present data are first to demonstrate age-dependent alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in rats and changes in the constitutive activity of KORs can differentially impact KOR ligand efficacy. These data provide novel insights into the functional properties of the KOR system and warrant further consideration of KOR constitutive activity in normal and pathophysiological behavior. Opioid receptors exhibit agonist-independent constitutive activity; however, kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) constitutive activity has not been demonstrated in native systems. Our results confirm KOR constitutive activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that declines with age. With the ability to presynaptically inhibit multiple neurotransmitter systems in the mPFC, maturational or patho-logical alterations in constitutive activity could disrupt corticofugal glutamatergic pyramidal projection neurons mediating executive function. Regulation of KOR constitutive activity could serve as a therapeutic target to treat compromised executive function. PMID:26257334

  18. Constitutive Overexpression of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase (GS1) Gene in Transgenic Alfalfa Demonstrates That GS1 May Be Regulated at the Level of RNA Stability and Protein Turnover1

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Jose Luis; Temple, Stephen J.; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2001-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of NH4+ with glutanate to yield glutamine. Gene constructs consisting of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter driving a cytosolic isoform of GS (GS1) gene have been introduced into alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Although transcripts for the transgene were shown to accumulate to high levels in the leaves, they were undetectable in the nodules. However, significant amounts of β-glucuronidase activity could be detected in nodules of plants containing the CaMV 35S promoter-β-glucuronidase gene construct, suggesting that the transcript for the GS1 transgene is not stable in the root nodules. Leaves of alfalfa plants with the CaMV 35S promoter-GS1 gene showed high levels of accumulation of the transcript for the transgene when grown under low-nitrogen conditions and showed a significant drop in the level of GS1 transcripts when fed with high levels of NO3−. However, no increase in GS activity or polypeptide level was detected in the leaves of transgenic plants. The results suggest that GS1 is regulated at the level of RNA stability and protein turnover. PMID:11351075

  19. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  20. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  1. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009By the President of...

  2. Involvement of heat shock proteins in gluten-sensitive enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sziksz, Erna; Pap, Domonkos; Veres, Gábor; Fekete, Andrea; Tulassay, Tivadar; Vannay, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Gluten-sensitive enteropathy, also known as coeliac disease (CD), is an autoimmune disorder occurring in genetically susceptible individuals that damages the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of other nutrients. As it is triggered by dietary gluten and related prolamins present in wheat, rye and barley, the accepted treatment for CD is a strict gluten-free diet. However, a complete exclusion of gluten-containing cereals from the diet is often difficult, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. A class of proteins that have already emerged as drug targets for other autoimmune diseases are the heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are highly conserved stress-induced chaperones that protect cells against harmful extracellular factors. HSPs are expressed in several tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, and their levels are significantly increased under stress circumstances. HSPs exert immunomodulatory effects, and also play a crucial role in the maintenance of epithelial cell structure and function, as they are responsible for adequate protein folding, influence the degradation of proteins and cell repair processes after damage, and modulate cell signalling, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present review discusses the involvement of HSPs in the pathophysiology of CD. Furthermore, HSPs may represent a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of CD due to the cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and anti-apoptotic effects in the intestinal mucosal barrier. PMID:24914370

  3. Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

  4. Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi M L; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Williams, Brett; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James; Mundree, Sagadevan G

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world's population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments. PMID:25870602

  5. Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thi M. L.; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Williams, Brett; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James; Mundree, Sagadevan G.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world’s population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments. PMID:25870602

  6. Defining the criteria for identifying constitutional epimutations.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Mathew A; Ward, Robyn L; Hesson, Luke B

    2016-01-01

    In the January 2016 issue of Clinical Epigenetics, Quiñonez-Silva et al. (Clin Epigenetics 8:1, 2016) described a possible constitutional epimutation of the RB1 gene as a cause of hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. The term constitutional epimutation describes an epigenetic aberration in normal tissues that predisposes to disease. The data presented by Quiñonez-Silva et al. are interesting, but further analysis is required to demonstrate a constitutional epimutation in this family. Here, we define the criteria and describe the experimental approach necessary to identify an epigenetic aberration as a constitutional epimutation. PMID:27096027

  7. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  8. Past, present, and emerging roles of mitochondrial heat shock protein TRAP1 in the metabolism and regulation of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Chang-Nim

    2016-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a member of the HSP90 family, controls a variety of physiological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Most studies have been devoted to understanding the anti-apoptotic roles of TRAP1 in cancer and targeting it for tumor control in clinical settings. Additionally, we have identified a new role for TRAP1 in regulation of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in TRAP1 transgenic mice and cellular proliferation in TRAP1-overexpressing cells, via mitochondrial alterations. Moreover, recent works have indicated a role for TRAP1 in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) as well as a metabolic switch between mitochondrial respiration and aerobic glycolysis called as "Warburg effect." This review discusses the implications of TRAP1 action for both metabolism and the regulation of CSCs. PMID:27072803

  9. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Sae Mi

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-α1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-α1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation. PMID:25360075

  10. BCL2DB: database of BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins.

    PubMed

    Rech de Laval, Valentine; Deléage, Gilbert; Aouacheria, Abdel; Combet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    BCL2DB (http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr) is a database designed to integrate data on BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins. These proteins control the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and probably many other cellular processes as well. This large protein group is formed by a family of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic homologs that have phylogenetic relationships with BCL-2, and by a collection of evolutionarily and structurally unrelated proteins characterized by the presence of a region of local sequence similarity with BCL-2, termed the BH3 motif. BCL2DB is monthly built, thanks to an automated procedure relying on a set of homemade profile HMMs computed from seed reference sequences representative of the various BCL-2 homologs and BH3-only proteins. The BCL2DB entries integrate data from the Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes, European Nucleotide Archive and Protein Data Bank databases and are enriched with specific information like protein classification into orthology groups and distribution of BH motifs along the sequences. The Web interface allows for easy browsing of the site and fast access to data, as well as sequence analysis with generic and specific tools. BCL2DB provides a helpful and powerful tool to both 'BCL-2-ologists' and researchers working in the various fields of physiopathology. Database URL: http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr. PMID:24608034

  11. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  12. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  13. Studying the Constitution: Capitalizing on Two Bicentennials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Jane; and Others

    1987-01-01

    This report addresses the long-term educational responsibility of helping young people become more knowledgeable about the meaning and values of the U.S. Constitution in their personal and civic life. The Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution and the upcoming Bicentennial of the U.S. Bill of Rights in 1991 present the opportunity to refocus…

  14. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  15. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  16. From Confederation to Constitution: 1781-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Melvin I.; Cox, Nancy

    Students should achieve a higher level of understanding and appreciation of the evolving nature of the U.S. Constitution and its relevance to contemporary societal issues by studying historical documents from the period of time between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. This document begins with a history of that period and of the…

  17. Contragate, Covert Action, and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The "Iran-Contragate" hearings were indicative of serious constitutional crisis. Analyzes and disputes following three defenses used by President Reagan to justify his actions in affair: he did not know or approve; it was not a violation of law; and his authority over foreign affairs is given in war powers clause of the Constitution--Congress…

  18. The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment…

  19. The United States and the Indian Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Jonathan S.

    India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

  20. Constitutional Provisions for Community Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of the federal and state constitutions in community college law. Discusses the lack of state constitutional law pertaining explicitly to these institutions and suggests a probable reason for this void. Gives examples of extant state laws and discusses implications for the community college field. (AYC)

  1. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  2. An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

  3. Resources for Teaching about the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes eight resources for teaching about the United States Constitution available from ERIC. Described are instructional materials for junior and senior high school students on such topics as (1) the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, (2) freedom of the press, (3) the history of the United States Constitution, and (4) problems of the…

  4. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  5. Anti-apoptotic Effects of Bone Marrow on Human Islets: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lu-Guang; Luo, John ZQ

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the major factors contributing to the failure of human islet transplantation. Contributors to islet apoptosis exist in both the pre-transplantation and post transplantation stages. Factors include the islet isolation process, deterioration in vitro prior to transplantation, and immune rejection post transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-cultured bone marrow cells with human islets not only significantly enhanced the longevity of human islets but also maintained function. We hypothesized that the protective effects of bone marrow cells on human islets are through mechanisms related to preventing apoptosis. This study observed the levels of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the release of extracellular ATP in vitro, and expression levels of P2X7 ATP receptor (P2X7R), all of which lead to the occurrence of apoptosis in human islets. When human islets were co-cultured with human bone marrow, there was a reduction in the rate of apoptosis correlated with the reduction in inflammatory factors, extra cellular ATP accumulation, and ATP receptor P2X7R expression versus human islets cultured alone. These results suggest that co-culturing bone marrow cells with human islets inhibits inflammation and reduces apoptosis, thus protecting islets from self-deterioration. PMID:26229735

  6. Simultaneous gene silencing of KRAS and anti-apoptotic genes as a multitarget therapy

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kristin; Lademann, Franziska; Thepkaysone, May-Linn; Jahnke, Beatrix; Aust, Daniela E.; Kahlert, Christoph; Weber, Georg; Weitz, Jürgen; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal tumor types worldwide and an effective therapy is still elusive. Targeted therapy focused against a specific alteration is by definition unable to attack broad pathway signaling modification. Tumor heterogeneity will render targeted therapies ineffective based on the regrowth of cancer cell sub-clones. Therefore multimodal therapy strategies, targeting signaling pathways simultaneously should improve treatment. SiRNAs against KRAS and the apoptosis associated genes BCLXL, FLIP, MCL1L, SURVIVIN and XIAP were transfected into human and murine pancreatic cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis was measured by Caspase 3/7 activation, subG1 FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. The therapeutic approach was tested in a subcutaneous allograft model with a murine cancer cell line. By using siRNAs as a systematic approach to remodel signal transduction in pancreatic cancer the results showed increasing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo. Thus, siRNAs are suitable to model multimodal therapy against signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer. Improvements in in vivo delivery of siRNAs against a multitude of targets might therefore be a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:26716649

  7. 3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The summer of 1787 was a... charter on September 17, 1787. With their signatures, and subsequent ratification of the Constitution...

  8. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  9. Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D. Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria PMID:21178363

  10. Expression, function, and targeting of the nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Hail, Numsen; Tabe, Yoko; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins/RNAs is essential to normal cellular function. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells escape anti-neoplastic mechanisms and benefit from pro-survival signals via the dysregulation of this system. The nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein is the only protein in the karyopherin-β protein family that contributes to the trafficking of numerous proteins and RNAs from the nucleus. It is considered to be an oncogenic, anti-apoptotic protein in transformed cells, since it reportedly functions as a gatekeeper for cell survival, including affecting p53 function, and ribosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, abnormally high expression of CRM1 is correlated with poor patient prognosis in various malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of CRM1 has emerged as a novel cancer treatment strategy, starting with a clinical trial with leptomycin B, the original specific inhibitor of CRM1, followed by development of several next-generation small molecules. KPT-330, a novel member of the CRM1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) class of compounds, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the therapy of various malignancies. Results from these trials suggest that SINE compounds may be particularly useful against hematological malignancies, which often become refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26048327

  11. Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria. PMID:21178363

  12. Protein chaperones: a composition of matter review (2008 – 2013)

    PubMed Central

    Taldone, Tony; Patel, Hardik J; Bolaender, Alexander; Patel, Maulik R; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are proteins with important functions in regulating disease phenotypes. Historically, Hsp90 has first received recognition as a target in cancer, with consequent efforts extending its potential role to other diseases. Hsp70 has also attracted interest as a therapeutic target for its role as a co-chaperone to Hsp90 as well as its own anti-apoptotic roles. Areas covered Herein, patents from 2008 to 2013 are reviewed to identify those that disclose composition of matter claimed to inhibit Hsp90 or Hsp70. Expert opinion For Hsp90, there has been considerable creativity in the discovery of novel pharmacophores that fall outside the three initially discovered scaffolds (i.e., ansamycins, resorcinols and purines). Nonetheless, much of the patent literature appears to build on previously reported structure activity relationship through slight modifications of Hsp90 inhibitor space by finding weaknesses in existing patents. The major goal of future development of Hsp90 inhibitors is not necessarily identifying better molecules but rather understanding how to rationally use these agents in the clinic. The development of Hsp70 inhibitors has lagged behind. It will require a more concerted effort from the drug discovery community in order to begin to realize the potential of this target. PMID:24742089

  13. The Constitution and the Black Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the constitutional promises to black people, early congressional efforts to fulfill these promises, early court cases construing the Fourteenth Amendment and the impact of these decisions along with their subsequent overruling. (Author/JB)

  14. Capturing the Essence of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorrow, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Offers three sample lesson plans for elementary grades designed to demonstrate the religious values inherent in the United States Constitution. Each lesson plan focuses on one amendment and includes a discussion of class activities. (DMM)

  15. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in late gestation alters protein kinase C and apoptotic protein expression in murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Tan, Wenjuan; Wang, C C; Leung, Lai K

    2016-06-01

    Mycotoxins are chemicals with diverse toxicities that are produced by fungi. Aflatoxin B1 is commonly found in plant food, and is generally regarded as one of the most toxic mycotoxins. In the present study, pregnant ICR mice were given p.o. daily doses of aflatoxin B1 at 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5mg/kg for 4days (from E13.5 to E16.5). Compared to the control group, time of delivery was shortened and low birth weight was induced in mice treated with 0.5 and 5mg aflatoxin B1/kg, respectively. Placental tissue isolated from pregnant mice at E17.5 showed that the mRNA expression of crh was increased in aflatoxin-treated groups. This upregulation might signify premature delivery. Further analysis indicated that Pkc proteins were activated and Bcl-2 was reduced in the placental tissue of the aflatoxin-treated groups. Reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins, on the other hand, might affect the morphorgenesis and maintenance of the placenta. PMID:26968497

  16. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers developments of constitutive theories in Eulerian description for compressible as well as incompressible ordered homogeneous and isotropic thermofluids in which the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, and the convected time derivatives of the strain tensors of up to a desired order. The fluids described by these constitutive theories are called ordered thermofluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and heat vector are dependent on the convected time derivatives of the strain tensor up to a desired order, the highest order of the convected time derivative of the strain tensor in the argument tensors defines the `order of the fluid'. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, that is, Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second law of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems, and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement

  17. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  18. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  19. Adrenomedullin and Adrenomedullin Binding Protein-1 Attenuate Vascular Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mian; Simms, H Hank; Wang, Ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether vascular endothelial cell apoptosis occurs in the late stage of sepsis and, if so, whether administration of a potent vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin and its newly reported specific binding protein (AM/AMBP-1) prevents sepsis-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Summary Background Data: Polymicrobial sepsis is characterized by an early, hyperdynamic phase followed by a late, hypodynamic phase. Our recent studies have shown that administration of AM/AMBP-1 delays or even prevents the transition from the hyperdynamic phase to the hypodynamic phase of sepsis, attenuates tissue injury, and decreases sepsis-induced mortality. However, the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of AM/AMBP-1 in sepsis remain unknown. Methods: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in adult male rats. Human AMBP-1 (40 μg/kg body weight) was infused intravenously at the beginning of sepsis for 20 minutes and synthetic AM (12 μg/kg body weight) was continuously administered for the entire study period using an Alzert micro-osmotic pump, beginning 3 hours prior to the induction of sepsis. The thoracic aorta and pulmonary tissues were harvested at 20 hours after cecal ligation and puncture (ie, the late stage of sepsis). Apoptosis was determined using TUNEL assay, M30 Cytodeath immunostaining, and electromicroscopy. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression and protein levels were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: Vascular endothelial cells underwent apoptosis formation at 20 hours after cecal ligation and puncture as determined by three different methods. Moreover, partial detached endothelial cell in the aorta was observed. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly at 20 hours after the onset of sepsis while Bax was not altered. Administration of AM/AMBP-1 early after sepsis, however, significantly reduced the number of apoptotic endothelial

  20. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  1. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  2. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  3. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  4. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-Induced Protein 1 (MCPIP1) Enhances Angiogenic and Cardiomyogenic Potential of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Labedz-Maslowska, Anna; Lipert, Barbara; Berdecka, Dominika; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Kamycka, Elzbieta; Sekula, Malgorzata; Madeja, Zbigniew; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Jura, Jolanta; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.

    2015-01-01

    The current evidence suggests that beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward myocardial repair are largely due to paracrine actions of several factors. Although Monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is involved in the regulation of inflammatory response, apoptosis and angiogenesis, whether MCPIP1 plays any role in stem cell-induced cardiac repair has never been examined. By employing retroviral (RV)-transduced overexpression of MCPIP1, we investigated the impact of MCPIP1 on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, metabolic activity, proteome, secretome and differentiation capacity of murine bone marrow (BM) - derived MSCs. MCPIP1 overexpression enhanced angiogenic and cardiac differentiation of MSCs compared with controls as indicated by elevated expression of genes accompanying angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in vitro. The proangiogenic activity of MCPIP1-overexpressing MSCs (MCPIP1-MSCs) was also confirmed by increased capillary-like structure formation under several culture conditions. This increase in differentiation capacity was associated with decreased proliferation of MCPIP1-MSCs when compared with controls. MCPIP1-MSCs also expressed increased levels of proteins involved in angiogenesis, autophagy, and induction of differentiation, but not adverse inflammatory agents. We conclude that MCPIP1 enhances endothelial and cardiac differentiation of MSCs. Thus, modulating MCPIP1 expression may be a novel approach useful for enhancing the immune-regulatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity of BM-derived MSCs for myocardial repair and regeneration of ischemic tissues. PMID:26214508

  5. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  6. Constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Heijde, Marc; Binkert, Melanie; Yin, Ruohe; Ares-Orpel, Florence; Rizzini, Luca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Persiau, Geert; Nolf, Jonah; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Ulm, Roman

    2013-12-10

    Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a UV-B photoreceptor that initiates photomorphogenic responses underlying acclimation and UV-B tolerance in plants. UVR8 is a homodimer in its ground state, and UV-B exposure results in its instantaneous monomerization followed by interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), a major factor in UV-B signaling. UV-B photoreception by UVR8 is based on intrinsic tryptophan aromatic amino acid residues, with tryptophan-285 as the main chromophore. We generated transgenic plants expressing UVR8 with a single amino acid change of tryptophan-285 to alanine. UVR8(W285A) appears monomeric and shows UV-B-independent interaction with COP1. Phenotypically, the plants expressing UVR8(W285A) exhibit constitutive photomorphogenesis associated with constitutive activation of target genes, elevated levels of anthocyanins, and enhanced, acclimation-independent UV-B tolerance. Moreover, we have identified COP1, REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and 2 (RUP1 and RUP2), and the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) family as proteins copurifying with UVR8(W285A). Whereas COP1, RUP1, and RUP2 are known to directly interact with UVR8, we show that SPA1 interacts with UVR8 indirectly through COP1. We conclude that UVR8(W285A) is a constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis, as is consistent with the crucial importance of monomer formation and COP1 binding for UVR8 activity. PMID:24277841

  7. Chemosensitization of Prostate Cancer by Modulating Bcl-2 Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Karnak, David; Xu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in oncology is the development of chemoresistance. This often occurs as cancer progresses and malignant cells acquire mechanisms to resist insults that would normally induce apoptosis. The onset of androgen independence in advanced prostate cancer is a prime example of this phenomenon. Overexpression of the pro-survival/anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 are hallmarks of this transition. Here we outline the evolution of therapeutics designed to either limit the source or disrupt the interactions of these pro-survival proteins. By either lessening the stoichiometric abundance of Bcl-2/xL/Mcl-1 in reference to their pro-apoptotic foils or freeing these pro-apoptotic proteins from their grip, these treatments aim to sensitize cells to chemotherapy by priming cells for death. DNA anti-sense and RNA interference have been effectively employed to decrease Bcl-2 family mRNA and protein levels in cell culture models of advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical studies are lagging due to in vivo delivery challenges. The burgeoning field of nanoparticle delivery holds great promise in helping to overcome the challenge of administering highly labile nucleic acid based therapeutics. On another front, small molecule inhibitors that block the hetero-dimerization of pro-survival with pro-apoptotic proteins have significant clinical advantages and have advanced farther in clinical trials with promising early results. Most recently, a peptide has been discovered that can convert Bcl-2 from a pro-survival to a pro-apoptotic protein. The future may lie in targeting multiple steps of the apoptotic pathway, including Bcl-2/xL/Mcl-1, to debilitate the survival capacity of cancer cells and make chemotherapy induced death their only option. PMID:20298153

  8. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ..., Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181... Citizenship Day, and September 17 through September 23, 2012, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR...

  9. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW/MIA Recognition Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register /...

  10. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  11. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  12. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  13. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  14. Student Perspectives on Behaviors That Constitute Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.; Schultz, Jennifer L.; Sanford, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A previous study conducted a decade ago determined that there can be considerable disagreement--not only between students and faculty, but also among students and among faculty--regarding behaviors that constitute cheating. This article reports the results of a research study that replicated the student survey administered for the previous study,…

  15. Celebrating the Constitution: A Bicentennial Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walch, Timothy G., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This commemorative document was published to celebrate the Bicentennial of the signing of the U.S. Constitution and to pay tribute to the bicentennial celebration efforts of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration staff. The included articles are: (1) "Introduction: A Celebration at the National Archives" (F. Burke); (2) "The Odyssey…

  16. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  17. Censorship of Obscenity: The Developing Constitutional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, William B.; McClure, Robert C.

    1960-01-01

    To demonstrate that substantial protection has been given to published material dealing with sex, an analysis of the constitutional criteria governing recent Supreme Court decisions in the area of obscenity censorship is presented. It is found that the Supreme Court uses "hard core pornography" as the foundation of a "constant" concept of…

  18. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  19. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  20. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  1. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  2. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constitutional officers. 452.18 Section 452.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Coverage of...

  3. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  4. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  5. Leukemic HRX Fusion Proteins Inhibit GADD34-Induced Apoptosis and Associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Haskell T.; Chinery, Rebecca; Wu, Daniel Y.; Kussick, Steven J.; Payne, John M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Tkachuk, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in acute leukemia is a reciprocal translocation involving the HRX gene (also called MLL, ALL-1, or HTRX) at chromosomal locus 11q23, resulting in the formation of HRX fusion proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and human cell culture coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we show here that HRX proteins interact directly with the GADD34 protein. We have found that transfected cells overexpressing GADD34 display a significant increase in apoptosis after treatment with ionizing radiation, indicating that GADD34 expression not only correlates with apoptosis but also can enhance apoptosis. The amino-terminal third of the GADD34 protein was necessary for this observed increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, coexpression of three different HRX fusion proteins (HRX-ENL, HRX-AF9, and HRX-ELL) had an anti-apoptotic effect, abrogating GADD34-induced apoptosis. In contrast, expression of wild-type HRX gave rise to an increase in apoptosis. The difference observed here between wild-type HRX and the leukemic HRX fusion proteins suggests that inhibition of GADD34-mediated apoptosis may be important to leukemogenesis. We also show here that GADD34 binds the human SNF5/INI1 protein, a member of the SNF/SWI complex that can remodel chromatin and activate transcription. These studies demonstrate, for the first time, a gain of function for leukemic HRX fusion proteins compared to wild-type protein. We propose that the role of HRX fusion proteins as negative regulators of post-DNA-damage-induced apoptosis is important to leukemia progression. PMID:10490642

  6. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place...

  7. Evaluation of Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins Expression in the Rat Hippocampus due to Childhood Febrile Seizure

    PubMed Central

    SAEEDI BORUJENI, Mohammad Javad; HAMI, Javad; HAGHIR, Hossein; RASTIN, Maryam; SAZEGAR, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Simple Febrile Seizure (SFS) is the most common seizure disorder in childhood, and is frequently described as inoffensive disorder. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting the association between neonatal febrile seizures and hippocampal abnormalities in adulthood. This study was conducted at evaluating the hippocampal expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins following SFS induction in rat neonates. Materials & Methods Febrile seizure was modeled by hyperthermia-induced seizure in 22-dayold male rats by a hot water bath. The animals were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of seizure behaviors: Hyperthermia without seizure (n=10) and hyperthermia with seizure (n=10). To control the effects of environmental stress a sham-control group was also added (n=10). The rats’ hippocampi were dissected 2 or 15 days after hyperthermia. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins were measured using Western Blotting technique. Results The hippocampal expression of Bcl-2 protein was significantly lower in the hyperthermia with seizure animals than that of the sham-control and hyperthermia without seizure groups. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein also significantly increased in the hippocampus of hyperthermia with seizure group rats compared to the sham-control and hyperthermia without seizure animals. Conclusion The simple febrile seizure markedly disturbed the hippocampal expression of both Bcl2 and Bax proteins, resulting in apoptosis promotion in hippocampi of juvenile rats, which were measurable for at least 15 days. PMID:27057189

  8. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  9. Integration and oligomerization of Bax protein in lipid bilayers characterized by single molecule fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Dongxiang

    2014-11-14

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. The activated Bax translocates to mitochondria, where it forms pore and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane. This process requires the BH3-only activator protein (i.e. tBid) and can be inhibited by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-xL. Here by using single molecule fluorescence techniques, we studied the integration and oligomerization of Bax in lipid bilayers. Our study revealed that Bax can bind to lipid membrane spontaneously in the absence of tBid. The Bax pore formation undergoes at least two steps: pre-pore formation and membrane insertion. The activated Bax triggered by tBid or BH3 domain peptide integrates on bilayers and tends to form tetramers, which are termed as pre-pore. Subsequent insertion of the pre-pore into membrane is highly dependent on the composition of cardiolipin in lipid bilayers. Bcl-xL can translocate Bax from membrane to solution and inhibit the pore formation. The study of Bax integration and oligomerization at the single molecule level provides new evidences that may help elucidate the pore formation of Bax and its regulatory mechanism in apoptosis. PMID:25288797

  10. PFI-1 – A highly Selective Protein Interaction Inhibitor Targeting BET Bromodomains

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Costa, David Da; Thanasopoulou, Angeliki; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Fish, Paul V.; Philpott, Martin; Fedorov, Oleg; Brennan, Paul; Bunnage, Mark E.; Owen, Dafydd R.; Bradner, James E.; Taniere, Philippe; O’Sullivan, Brendan; Müller, Susanne; Schwaller, Juerg; Stankovic, Tatjana; Knapp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bromo and extra terminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are transcriptional regulators required for efficient expression of several growth promoting and anti-apoptotic genes as well as for cell cycle progression. BET proteins are recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin via their two N-terminal bromodomains (BRDs), a protein interaction module that specifically recognizes acetylated lysine residues in histones H3 and H4. Inhibition of the BET-histone interaction results in transcriptional down-regulation of a number of oncogenes providing a novel pharmacological strategy for the treatment of cancer. Here we present a potent and highly selective dihydroquinazoline-2-one inhibitor, PFI-1 that efficiently blocks the interaction of BET BRDs with acetylated histone tails. Co-crystal structures showed that PFI-1 acts as an acetyl-lysine (Kac) mimetic inhibitor efficiently occupying the Kac binding site in BRD4 and BRD2. PFI-1 has antiproliferative effects on leukaemic cell lines and efficiently abrogates their clonogenic growth. Exposure of sensitive cell lines with PFI-1 results in G1 cell cycle arrest, down-regulation of MYC expression as well as induction of apoptosis and induces differentiation of primary leukaemic blasts. Intriguingly, cells exposed to PFI-1 showed significant down-regulation of Aurora B kinase, thus attenuating phosphorylation of the Aurora substrate H3S10 providing an alternative strategy for the specific inhibition of this well established oncology target. PMID:23576556

  11. Conformational Rearrangements in the Pro-apoptotic Protein, Bax, as It Inserts into Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Gahl, Robert F.; He, Yi; Yu, Shiqin; Tjandra, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins regulates the activation of apoptosis through the mitochondria pathway. Pro- and anti-apoptotic members of this family keep each other in check until the correct time to commit to apoptosis. The point of no return for this commitment is the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Translocation of the pro-apoptotic member, Bax, from the cytosol to the mitochondria is the molecular signature of this event. We employed a novel method to reliably detect Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between pairs of fluorophores to identify intra-molecular conformational changes and inter-molecular contacts in Bax as this translocation occurs in live cells. In the cytosol, our FRET measurement indicated that the C-terminal helix is exposed instead of tucked away in the core of the protein. In addition fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) showed that cytosolic Bax diffuses much slower than expected, suggesting possible complex formation or transient membrane interaction. Cross-linking the C-terminal helix (α9) to helix α4 reduced the potential of those interactions to occur. After translocation, our FRET measurements showed that Bax molecules form homo-oligomers in the mitochondria through two distinct interfaces involving the BH3 domain (helix α2) and the C-terminal helix. These findings have implications for possible contacts with other Bcl-2 proteins necessary for the regulation of apoptosis. PMID:25315775

  12. Extracellular Release and Signaling by Heat Shock Protein 27: Role in Modifying Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Batulan, Zarah; Pulakazhi Venu, Vivek Krishna; Li, Yumei; Koumbadinga, Geremy; Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana Gisela; Shi, Chunhua; O’Brien, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is traditionally viewed as an intracellular chaperone protein with anti-apoptotic properties. However, recent data indicate that a number of heat shock proteins, including HSP27, are also found in the extracellular space where they may signal via membrane receptors to alter gene transcription and cellular function. Therefore, there is increasing interest in better understanding how HSP27 is released from cells, its levels and composition in the extracellular space, and the cognate cell membrane receptors involved in effecting cell signaling. In this paper, the knowledge to date, as well as some emerging paradigms about the extracellular function of HSP27 is presented. Of particular interest is the role of HSP27 in attenuating atherogenesis by modifying lipid uptake and inflammation in the plaque. Moreover, the abundance of HSP27 in serum is an emerging new biomarker for ischemic events. Finally, HSP27 replacement therapy may represent a novel therapeutic opportunity for chronic inflammatory disorders, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:27507972

  13. Structural and biochemical analysis of Bcl-2 interaction with the hepatitis B virus protein HBx.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianyu; Liu, Minhao; Wu, Jianping; Shi, Yigong

    2016-02-23

    HBx is a hepatitis B virus protein that is required for viral infectivity and replication. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members are thought to be among the important host targets of HBx. However, the structure and function of HBx are poorly understood and the molecular mechanism of HBx-induced carcinogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we report biochemical and structural characterization of HBx. The recombinant HBx protein contains metal ions, in particular iron and zinc. A BH3-like motif in HBx (residues 110-135) binds Bcl-2 with a dissociation constant of ∼193 μM, which is drastically lower than that for a canonical BH3 motif from Bim or Bad. Structural analysis reveals that, similar to other BH3 motifs, the BH3-like motif of HBx adopts an amphipathic α-helix and binds the conserved BH3-binding groove on Bcl-2. Unlike the helical Bim or Bad BH3 motif, the C-terminal portion of the bound HBx BH3-like motif has an extended conformation and makes considerably fewer interactions with Bcl-2. These observations suggest that HBx may modulate Bcl-2 function in a way that is different from that of the classical BH3-only proteins. PMID:26858413

  14. Pancortin-2 interacts with WAVE1 and Bcl-xL in a mitochondria-associated protein complex that mediates ischemic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Aiwu; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Liu, Dong; Khatri, Rina G; Mustafa, Khadija; Kwak, Seung; Ling, Huai-Ping; Gonzales, Cathleen; Xin, Ouyang; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Guo, Zhihong; Mark, Robert J; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-02-14

    The actin-modulating protein Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein verprolin homologous-1 (WAVE1) and a novel CNS-specific protein, pancortin, are highly enriched in adult cerebral cortex, but their functions are unknown. Here we show that WAVE1 and pancortin-2 interact in a novel cell death cascade in adult, but not embryonic, cerebral cortical neurons. Focal ischemic stroke induces the formation of a protein complex that includes pancortin-2, WAVE1, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The three-protein complex is associated with mitochondria resulting in increased association of Bax with mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and neuronal apoptosis. In pancortin null mice generated using a Cre-loxP system, ischemia-induced WAVE1-Bcl-xL interaction is diminished, and cortical neurons in these mice are protected against ischemic injury. Thus, pancortin-2 is a mediator of ischemia-induced apoptosis of neurons in the adult cerebral cortex and functions in a novel mitochondrial/actin-associated protein complex that sequesters Bcl-xL. PMID:17301160

  15. Constitutive synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in the thymus.

    PubMed Central

    Giroir, B P; Brown, T; Beutler, B

    1992-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of endotoxic shock, the normal function of TNF that has preserved this protein throughout mammalian evolution remains unknown. If the protein serves a role in normal development or homeostasis, it must be produced under physiologic conditions. To determine whether TNF secretion occurs in normal animals, and to define the tissue sources of the protein, we prepared a reporter construct in which the TNF coding sequence and introns are replaced by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence. This construct was inserted into the murine genome, yielding 13 transgenic founders. Macrophages harvested from 4 of the transgenic lines expressed CAT activity after stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Each of these 4 transgenic lines also constitutively expressed CAT activity in the thymus but in no other tissue examined. Cultured thymocytes secrete TNF, as demonstrated both by cytotoxicity assays and by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled thymic culture medium. CAT activity was associated with the thymic lymphocyte population and not with thymic macrophages or dendritic cells. CAT activity was present in thymic lymphocytes irrespective of CD4 or CD8 expression; T cells from the spleen, however, had no detectable CAT activity. The biosynthesis of TNF in the thymus of normal animals implies a role for this protein in the development or regulation of the immune response. Images PMID:1594585

  16. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  17. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level. PMID:23057208

  18. Probabilistic constitutive law for damage in ligaments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheying; De Vita, Raffaella

    2009-11-01

    A new constitutive equation is presented to describe the damage evolution process in parallel-fibered collagenous tissues such as ligaments. The model is formulated by accounting for the fibrous structure of the tissues. The tissue's stress is defined as the average of the collagen fiber's stresses. The fibers are assumed to be undulated and straightened out at different stretches that are randomly defined according to a Weibull distribution. After becoming straight, each collagen fiber is assumed to be linear elastic. Damage is defined as a reduction in collagen fiber's stiffness and occurs at different stretches that are also randomly defined by a Weibull distribution. Due to the lack of experimental data, the predictions of the constitutive equation are analyzed by varying the values of its structural parameters. Moreover, the results are compared with the available stress-strain data in the biomechanics literature that evaluate damage produced by subfailure stretches in rat medial collateral ligaments. PMID:19665914

  19. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanie