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Sample records for anti-hbc positive result

  1. Long-term efficacy of nucleoside monotherapy in preventing HBV infection in HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers

    PubMed Central

    Chotiyaputta, Watcharasak; Pelletier, Shawn J.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in up to 87.5% of HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers in the absence of HBV prophylaxis. There is no standardized prophylactic regimen to prevent HBV infection in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term efficacy of nucleoside analogue to prevent HBV infection in this setting. Methods A retrospective study of HBsAg-negative patients receiving liver transplantation (LT) from anti-HBc-positive donors during a 10-year period. Results Twenty patients were studied, mean age was 50.2 ± 8.3 years, 40% were men, and 90% were Caucasian. The median MELD score at the time of LT was 18 (12–40). None of the patients received hepatitis B immune globulin. Eighteen patients received nucleoside analogue monotherapy: 10 received lamivudine and 8 received entecavir. None of these 18 patients developed HBV infection after a median follow up of 32 (1–75) months. One patient received a second course of hepatitis B vaccine 50 months after LT with anti-HBs titer above 1,000 mIU/mL. Lamivudine was discontinued and the patient remained HBsAg negative 18 months after withdrawal of lamivudine. Two patients who were anti-HBs positive before LT were not started on HBV prophylaxis after LT; both developed HBV infection after LT. Conclusions Nucleoside monotherapy is sufficient in preventing HBV infection in HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers. HBV prophylaxis is necessary in anti-HBs-positive recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers. PMID:21286341

  2. Changes in the anti-HBc profile of infants born to HBV infected mothers from Iran.

    PubMed

    Roushan, Mohammad Reza Hasanjani; Saedi, Fayyaz; Soleimani, Shima; Baiany, Masomeh

    2016-08-31

    From 2007 to 2014, 328 infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers, who received passive-active immunization against hepatitis B at birth were tested for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 12-15months of age. Thirteen (4%) cases were HBsAg positive. Forty-four infants who were anti-HBs, anti-HBc positive (group 1) and twenty-one infants who were anti-HBc positive alone (group 2) were identified. Both groups were followed-up annually for testing anti-HBs and anti-HBc to verify if anti-HBc was of maternal origin. In group 1, anti-HBc disappeared in 41 cases at month 24, and it disappeared from the remaining 3 cases at month 36. In group 2, anti-HBc disappeared in 18 cases at month 24 and in the remaining 3 cases at month 36. The results show that maternal anti-HBc may persist up to 3years in some children. PMID:27475475

  3. Presence of anti-HBc is associated to high rates of HBV resolved infection and low threshold for Occult HBV Infection in HIV patients with negative HBsAg in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose Ignacio; Jensen, Daniela; Sarmiento, Valeska; Peirano, Felipe; Acuña, Pedro; Fuster, Felipe; Soto, Sabrina; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Huilcaman, Marco; Bruna, Mario; Jensen, Werner; Fuster, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    HBV-HIV coinfection is prevalent. Frequently, anti-HBc is the only serological marker of HBV, which can be indicative of HBV resolved infection, when found together with anti-HBs reactivity; or present as "isolated anti-HBc," related to HBV occult infection with presence of detectable DNA HBV, more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals. Regional data about this condition are scarce. Anti-HBc rapid test has been used as screening, but its performance has not been described in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was determine prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive patients, serological pattern of HBV resolved infection and isolated anti-HBc, evaluating presence of HBV occult infection. Assess anti-HBc rapid test compared to ECLIA. Methods included measurement of anti-HBc and anti-HBs in HIV-positive patients with negative HBsAg. Serum HBV DNA quantification and HBV booster vaccination to "isolated anti-HBc" individuals. Detection of anti-HBc by rapid test and ECLIA. In 192 patients, prevalence of anti-HBc was 42.7% (82/192); associated to male gender, drug use, men-sex-men, positive-VDRL, and longer time HIV diagnosis. 34.4% (66/192) had presence of anti-HBs, mean titers of 637 ui/ml. Isolated anti-HBc in 8.3% (16/192), associated to detectable HIV viral load and no-use of HAART; in them, HBV DNA was undetectable, and 60% responded to HBV vaccination booster. Anti-HBc rapid test showed low sensibility (32.9%) compared to ECLIA. These results show that prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive individuals is high, in most cases accompanied with anti-HBs as HBV resolved infection. Low prevalence of "isolated anti-HBc," with undetectable HBV DNA, and most had anamnestic response to HBV vaccination; suggest low possibility of occult HBV infection. Anti-HBc rapid test cannot be recommended as screening method for anti-HBc. PMID:26381185

  4. Positive hepatitis B virus core antibody in HIV infection--false positive or evidence of previous infection?

    PubMed

    Pallawela, S N S; Sonnex, C; Mabayoje, D; Bloch, E; Chaytor, S; Johnson, M A; Carne, C; Webster, D P

    2015-02-01

    Isolated HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is defined as the presence of anti-HBc with a negative HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs <10 IU/l). In patients infected with HIV with isolated anti-HBc, the aim was to determine: The prevalence of isolated positive anti-HBc; The most effective method of identifying which patients have had previous Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection; The prevalence of false positive anti-HBc. HBV serology results were identified from 539 patients infected with HIV sampled between January 2010 and December 2012. In those with an isolated anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe, a second anti-HBc test was carried out using a different assay. Samples were also screened for HBV DNA. The anti-retroviral regimens at time of screening were documented. 101/539 had an isolated anti-HBc. Of these, 32 (32%) had a positive anti-HBe (including 1 equivocal) and 69(68%) were anti-HBe negative. Of those negative for anti-HBe, 32 were tested for both DNA and a second anti-HBc. Of these 26 (81%) were on cART at time of HBV testing, with 25 (78%) on ART with anti-HBV activity. The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was 19%. Only 32% were also anti-HBe positive, whereas 97% of those anti-HBe negative were positive on a second anti-HBc assay suggesting lack of utility of anti-HBe in resolving serological quandaries. One subject (3%) had a false positive anti-HBc. There was no evidence of chronic HBV but 78% patients were on HBV-suppressive combination anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:25174739

  5. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  6. [The development and certification of the Hepabest anti-HBc IgG test system for detecting antibodies to the core antigen of the hepatitis B virus].

    PubMed

    Iaroslavtseva, O A; Netesova, I G; Karpenko, L I; Mel'nikova, O V; Zaĭtsev, S A; Il'ichev, A A

    1998-01-01

    The comparison of the newly developed "HepaBest anti-HBc IgG" assay system for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen with the reference system "ImmunoComb HBc IgG" (Orgenics, France-Israel) and its approbation on 91 serum samples from patients in the Infectious Clinical Hospital were carried out. The coincidence rate of the results obtained with the use of the two assay systems was 87.9%. The system "HepaBest anti-HBc IgG" permitted the detection of patients whose sera contained no other HBV markers, except anti-HBc IgG. This assay system may be recommended for use in clinical and epidemiological investigations for ascertaining the diagnosis. PMID:9783401

  7. Hepatitis B virus DNA in blood donors with anti-HBc as a possible indicator of active hepatitis B virus infection in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Montalvo, B M; Farfán-Ale, J A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Puerto-Manzano, F I

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be present in serum even when negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). If routine screening of sera for anti-HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) is not done, low-level HBV viraemia may not be identified. A study was done on the presence of HBV DNA in serum samples from Mexican blood donors negative for HBsAg. Sera from 158 volunteer blood donors, negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs, but positive for anti-HBc, were analysed using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HBV DNA was detected in sera from 13 (8.23%) of the 158. Specificity of the PCR-amplified products was corroborated using Southern blot. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis showed identical SSCP-banding patterns for all 13 PCR products, suggesting similar cDNA sequences. Occult HBV infection was observed in approximately 8% of anti-HBc only donors. The absence of HBsAg in the blood of apparently healthy individuals may not be sufficient to ensure lack of circulating HBV, and blood containing anti-HBc only may be infectious until proven otherwise. PMID:16202051

  8. Hepatitis B Core IgM antibody (anti-HBcIgM) among hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) negative blood donors in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transfusion associated Hepatitis B virus (TAHBV) continues to be a major problem despite mandatory screening for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Presence of HBsAg is the common method for detecting hepatitis B infection. Unfortunately, this marker is not detected during the window period of the infection. Nigeria being a developing country cannot afford DNA testing of all collected units of blood which serve as the only possibility of achieving zero risk of transfusion associated HBV. Five different serological makers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were therefore assessed to evaluate the reliability of using HBsAg marker alone in diagnosis of HBV infection among blood donors and to detect the serological evidence of the infection at the window period. This will preclude the possibility of transmitting hepatitis B through transfusion of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative blood in Nigeria. Methods Between July and August 2009, 92 blood donors were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of 5 different markers of Hepatitis B virus infection was detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Demographic factors were assessed during the study. Results HBsAg and its antibody (anti-HBs) was detected in 18 (19.6%) and 14(15.2%) of the 92 blood donors respectively. Anti-HBc IgM was found in 12(13.0%) of the 92 blood donors while Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and its antibody (anti-HBe) were detected in 4(8.9%) and 12(26.7%) respectively from 45 donors sampled. HBeAg is a marker of high infectivity and appears after HBsAg. At least one serological marker was detected in 30(32.6%) of the blood donors. Five (5.4%) of the 92 donors had anti-HBc IgM as the only serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. Conclusions The result of this study shows that five donors have anti-HBcIgM as the only serological evidence of HBV infection. Inclusion of anti-HBcIgM in routine screening of blood donors in Nigeria should be encouraged

  9. T- and B-cell responses and previous exposure to hepatitis B virus in 'anti-HBc alone' patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Sachse, P; Semmo, M; Lokhande, M; Montani, M; Dufour, J-F; Zoulim, F; Klenerman, P; Semmo, N

    2015-12-01

    A serologic response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) defined as 'anti-HBc alone' is commonly observed, but its significance remains unclear. This study aimed to define the relationship between 'anti-HBc alone' serostatus and HBV infection, including HBV-specific T- and B-cell memory responses. We enrolled 31 'anti-HBc alone' patients. Total HBV DNA and cccDNA were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in liver samples from 22 'anti-HBc alone' patients vs controls (chronic or resolved HBV infection), followed by HBsAg/HBcAg immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. IFN-γ secretion by HBV-specific T cells was compared in individuals who were 'anti-HBc alone' (n = 27), resolved HBV (n = 21), chronic HBV (n = 24) and 12 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. An HBsAg-IgG B-cell ELISpot assay was performed in 'anti-HBc alone' patients before and after one dose of recombinant HBsAg vaccine. The majority (23/31, 74.2%) of the 'anti-HBc alone' individuals were co-infected with HCV. Infrequent intrahepatic total HBV DNA (2/22, 9.1%) and cccDNA (1/22, 4.5%) were detected in biopsies; HBsAg and HBcAg IHC staining was negative. HBV-specific T-cell responses were similar between 'anti-HBc alone' individuals and HBV resolvers. Circulating HBV-memory B-cell responses were detected in all 'anti-HBc alone' individuals, consistent with an HBsAg-specific memory pool. After one HBV vaccine dose, increased anti-HBs antibody levels were observed, accompanied by an expansion of HBsAg-specific memory B cells (P = 0.0226). 'Anti-HBc alone' individuals showed HBV-specific T-cell and memory B-cell responses typical of previous viral exposure and protective memory, suggesting a resolved infection. PMID:26075501

  10. [Significance of the "isolated anti-HBc" serological pattern determinated by the serological response to the vaccination against Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Coz Yataco, Angel; Lozano Miranda, Adelina; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Antunez de Mayolo Ramis, Eleazar

    2005-01-01

    Frequently Blood Bank donors are found to have a presence of Total Anti-Bc in the serum in the absence of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Anti-Bs) antibody. This study was designed to determine the serological response to the vaccination against the Hepatitis B virus, and evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine in such cases, taking into consideration that the protective antibody titers for Hepatitis B are measured in levels above 10 mUl/ml.Thirty-one patients with the HBsAg negative/Anti-Bs negative/Antil-Bc positive serological patterns received three doses of the recombinant DNA vaccine (Hepavax Gene 20 microg), in a 0, 1, 2 months vaccination schedule. Anti-HBs levels were taken 30 days after the application of the last dose. After the 3 doses of the vaccine, the Anti-HBs levels were > 100 mUl/ml in 89% of the cases, > 500 in 50% and > 1000 in 14.3% of the vaccinated patients. Only 3 patients (9.7%) did not show serological response 30 days after the application of the last dose of the vaccine. In conclusion, 90% of the patients administered the HBsAg negative/Anti-HBs negative/Anti-HBc positive serological patterns, obtained Anti-HBs levels considered protectors ( > 10 mUl/m). PMID:16237469

  11. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay for anti-HBc IgM in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, S; Ashcavai, M; Chau, K H; Nevalainen, D E; Peters, R L

    1984-09-01

    Corzyme-MTM (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL), a newly introduced kit for the measurement of serum IgM antihepatitis B core antigen by enzyme immunoassay, was evaluated for the diagnosis of acute B-viral hepatitis (AVH-B). The study included 175 acute viral hepatitis patients with transient hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Sera from 160 were tested on multiple occasions until their HBsAg cleared. IgM anti-HBc was found in 171 of 175 patients (98.4%) during the acute phase. The serum samples from 42 patients with liver biopsy-proven chronic active hepatitis, type B (CAH-B), and 18 patients with persistent hepatitis, type B (PH-B), were analyzed for the presence of IgM anti-HBc, using the same technic. None of the sera from 42 patients with CAH-B and only 2 of the 18 patients with PHB had IgM anti-HBc. Thus, the measuring IgM anti-HBc using Corzyme-M kit is helpful in the diagnosis of AVH-B and in the discrimination of acute from chronic HBV infections. PMID:6380271

  12. Quantitative Hepatitis B Core Antibody Level Is a New Predictor for Treatment Response In HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Peginterferon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Feng-Qin; Song, Liu-Wei; Yuan, Quan; Fang, Lin-Lin; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Shang, Jia; Wu, Shu-Huan; Sun, Yong-Tao; Wei, Shao-Feng; Wang, Mao-Rong; Wan, Mo-Bin; Jia, Ji-Dong; Luo, Guang-Han; Tang, Hong; Li, Shu-Chen; Niu, Jun-Qi; Zhou, Wei-dong; Sun, Li; Xia, Ning-Shao; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A recent study revealed that quantitative hepatitis B core antibody (qAnti-HBc) level could serve as a novel marker for predicting treatment response. In the present study, we further investigated the predictive value of qAnti-HBc level in HBeAg-positive patients undergoing PEG-IFN therapy. A total of 140 HBeAg-positive patients who underwent PEG-IFN therapy for 48 weeks and follow-up for 24 weeks were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were taken every 12 weeks post-treatment. The predictive value of the baseline qAnti-HBc level for treatment response was evaluated. Patients were further divided into 2 groups according to the baseline qAnti-HBc level, and the response rate was compared. Additionally, the kinetics of the virological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Patients who achieved response had a significantly higher baseline qAnti-HBc level (serological response [SR], 4.52±0.36 vs. 4.19±0.58, p=0.001; virological response [VR], 4.53±0.35 vs. 4.22±0.57, p=0.005; combined response [CR], 4.50±0.36 vs. 4.22±0.58, p=0.009)). Baseline qAnti-HBc was the only parameter that was independently correlated with SR (p=0.008), VR (p=0.010) and CR(p=0.019). Patients with baseline qAnti-HBc levels ≥30,000 IU/mL had significantly higher response rates, more HBV DNA suppression, and better hepatitis control in PEG-IFN treatment. In conclusion, qAnti-HBc level may be a novel biomarker for predicting treatment response in HBeAg-positive patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy. PMID:25553110

  13. Hepatitis B Virus infection in HIV-positive population in Brazil: results of a survey in the state of Mato Grosso and a comparative analysis with other regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Pereira, Rui Alberto Roldão; Hg Mussi, Aparecida Duarte; de Azevedo e Silva, Vergínia Correa; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Background End-stage liver disease is currently a major concern among HIV-positive individuals due to co-infection with hepatotropic virus. Hepatitis C has been pointed out as a remarkable factor for that. More recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has also been found to play a role on liver disease in this population. HIV-HBV co-infection prevalence remains largely unknown in vast areas of Brazil. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in HIV-infected subjects living in the state of Mato Grosso, in the Central region of Brazil, and compare it to other Brazilian studies. We also assess epidemiologic data regarding risk factors and vaccinal status. Methods HIV-positive individuals followed at the Central Laboratory of the Department of Public Health of Mato Grosso in the city of Cuiabá composed the sample. Participants answered a specific questionnaire and had a blood sample taken and tested for serologic markers. Results A thousand individuals were interviewed and tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HDV if positive for HBsAg. Measurements of CD4 and viral load for HIV-1 were also performed. Overall prevalence of HBV exposure (anti-HBc +ve) was 40.0%, and 3.7% for HBsAg. This prevalence data was similar or slightly lower than for other Brazilian regions, which ranged from 40% and 3% to 71% and 24%, respectively. Testing for anti-HDV in the 37 HBsAg positive patients was positive in only one subject. Factors that showed independent association with HBV exposure, after adjustment, were: male gender, older age groups, tattooing, and reporting more than ten sexual partners throughout life (p < 0.01). Eighty-one (27.5%) out of 291 HBV-unexposed individuals who reported vaccination were anti-HBs positive. Anti-HBs prevalence was higher among those who had higher levels of CD4 by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Our data showed HBV infection prevalence similar or slightly lower than that reported in

  14. The European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardization of assay results for hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, G; Anastassopoulou, C; Nardone, A; Andrews, N; Barbara, C; Boot, H J; Butur, D; Davidkin, I; Gelb, D; Griskevicius, A; Hesketh, L; Icardi, G; Jones, L; Kra-Oz, Z; Miller, E; Mossong, J; Nemecek, V; de Ory, F; Sobotová, Z; Thierfelder, W; Van Damme, P; Hatzakis, A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 was to coordinate and standardize the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. In this study, the standardization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results is described. The 15 participating national laboratories tested a unique panel of 172 sera established by the Greek reference centre for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and/or to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) by assay methods of their choice. Country-specific quantitative measurements for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were transformed into common units using standardization equations derived by regressing each country's panel results against the reference centre's results, thus adjusting for interassay and interlaboratory variability. For HBsAg, a qualitative analysis (positive/negative) showed at least 99% agreement with the reference laboratory for all countries. By combining these standardized and qualitative results for the markers mentioned earlier, it was possible to achieve comparable estimates of the proportion of the population susceptible to HBV, vaccinated against HBV, with a past HBV infection, and with a current infection or chronic carrier state. Standardization is a very important tool that allows for international serological comparisons to assess the current vaccination policies and the progress of HBV control in Europe. PMID:17381718

  15. Positive Classroom Environments = Positive Academic Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Fleming, LaTerra; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of a positive classroom environment and its impact on student behavior and achievement. It also provides strategies for developing expectations for student achievement and the importance of parental involvement. A positive classroom environment is essential in keeping behavior problems to a minimum. There are a…

  16. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

  17. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  18. Solid organ transplantation from hepatitis B virus-positive donors: consensus guidelines for recipient management.

    PubMed

    Huprikar, S; Danziger-Isakov, L; Ahn, J; Naugler, S; Blumberg, E; Avery, R K; Koval, C; Lease, E D; Pillai, A; Doucette, K E; Levitsky, J; Morris, M I; Lu, K; McDermott, J K; Mone, T; Orlowski, J P; Dadhania, D M; Abbott, K; Horslen, S; Laskin, B L; Mougdil, A; Venkat, V L; Korenblat, K; Kumar, V; Grossi, P; Bloom, R D; Brown, K; Kotton, C N; Kumar, D

    2015-05-01

    Use of organs from donors testing positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) may safely expand the donor pool. The American Society of Transplantation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel that reviewed the existing literature and developed consensus recommendations for recipient management following the use of organs from HBV positive donors. Transmission risk is highest with liver donors and significantly lower with non-liver (kidney and thoracic) donors. Antiviral prophylaxis significantly reduces the rate of transmission to liver recipients from isolated HBV core antibody positive (anti-HBc+) donors. Organs from anti-HBc+ donors should be considered for all adult transplant candidates after an individualized assessment of the risks and benefits and appropriate patient consent. Indefinite antiviral prophylaxis is recommended in liver recipients with no immunity or vaccine immunity but not in liver recipients with natural immunity. Antiviral prophylaxis may be considered for up to 1 year in susceptible non-liver recipients but is not recommended in immune non-liver recipients. Although no longer the treatment of choice in patients with chronic HBV, lamivudine remains the most cost-effective choice for prophylaxis in this setting. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin is not recommended. PMID:25707744

  19. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  20. Risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen negative/hepatitis B core antibody positive patients receiving rituximab-containing combination chemotherapy without routine antiviral prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yu Xuan; Tay, Matthew; Teh, Yii Ean; Teng, David; Tan, Daniel S W; Tan, Iain B H; Tai, David W M; Quek, Richard; Tao, Miriam; Lim, Soon Thye

    2011-10-01

    The use of rituximab has been associated with increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative and antihepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive. We aim to determine the rate of HBV reactivation in this group of patients who received rituximab-containing combination chemotherapy without concomitant antiviral prophylaxis and to identify potential risk factors for reactivation. Sixty-two HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive patients with B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy from 2006 to 2009 were included. None of the patients received concomitant antiviral prophylaxis. In this cohort, 48 (77%) patients received rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), eight (13%) received rituximab with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone, and six (10%) received other chemotherapy regimens. Two patients suffered HBV reactivation; both were above 70 years of age, received R-CHOP chemotherapy and were negative for antihepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) at baseline. One of the two patients reactivated shortly after completion of R-CHOP chemotherapy while the other reactivated during rituximab maintenance treatment. Thus, the overall reactivation rate in this cohort of patients is 3% (2/62), 4% (2/48), and 25% (1/4) in patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy and who received rituximab maintenance, respectively. The rate of HBV reactivation is low in patients who are HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive receiving rituximab-based combination chemotherapy without concomitant antiviral prophylaxis. However, elderly patients, particularly those without anti-HBs, seemed particularly at risk. PMID:21520001

  1. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section 219.605 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug...

  2. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Egyptian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Said, Zeinab N; El Sayed, Manal H; Salama, Iman I; Aboel-Magd, Enas K; Mahmoud, Magda H; El Setouhy, Maged; Mouftah, Faten; Azzab, Manal B; Goubran, Heidi; Bassili, Amal; Esmat, Gamal E

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) to promote safe blood donation. METHODS: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 3167 blood donors negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) and human immunodeficiency virus Ab. They were subjected to the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and screening for anti-HBV core antibodies (total) by two different techniques; [Monoliza antibodies to hepatitis B core (Anti-HBc) Plus-Bio-Rad] and (ARC-HBc total-ABBOT). Positive samples were subjected to quantitative detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) (ETI-AB-AUK-3, Dia Sorin-Italy). Serum anti-HBs titers > 10 IU/L was considered positive. Quantitative HBV DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (QIAGEN-Germany) with 3.8 IU/mL detection limit was estimated for blood units with negative serum anti-HBs and also for 32 whose anti-HBs serum titers were > 1000 IU/L. Also, 265 recipients were included, 34 of whom were followed up for 3-6 mo. Recipients were investigated for ALT and AST, HBV serological markers: HBsAg (ETI-MAK-4, Dia Sorin-Italy), anti-HBc, quantitative detection of anti-HBs and HBV-DNA. RESULTS: 525/3167 (16.6%) of blood units were positive for total anti-HBc, 64% of those were anti-HBs positive. Confirmation by ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay were carried out for 498/525 anti-HBc positive samples, where 451 (90.6%) confirmed positive. Reactivity for anti-HBc was considered confirmed only if two positive results were obtained for each sample, giving an overall prevalence of 451/3167 (14.2%) for total anti-HBc. HBV DNA was quantified by real time PCR in 52/303 (17.2%) of anti-HBc positive blood donors (viral load range: 5 to 3.5 x 105 IU/mL) with a median of 200 IU/mL (mean: 1.8 x 104 ± 5.1 x 104 IU/mL). Anti-HBc was the only marker in 68.6% of donors. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis for identifying risk

  3. Informing parents about positive newborn screen results: parents' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Salm, Natalie; Yetter, Elena; Tluczek, Audrey

    2012-12-01

    This descriptive study examined parents' reactions to newborn screening (NBS) results and their recommendations for improving communication. Dimensional and content analyses were conducted on interviews with 203 parents of 106 infants having positive NBS results. Diagnostic results confirmed infants as having congenital hypothyroidism (n = 37), cystic fibrosis (n = 26), or being cystic fibrosis (CF)-carriers (n = 43). Parents' reactions ranged from 'very scary' to 'not too concerned'. Most reported feeling shock, panic, and worry; some reported guilt. Parents in the CF and CF-carrier groups preferred face-to-face disclosure as the communication channel; whereas congenital hypothyroidism group parents supported telephone contacts. Parents recommended providers be well informed, honest, and calm; personalize disclosure, avoid jargon, listen carefully, encourage questions, recognize parental distress, offer realistic reassurance, pace amount and rate of information, assess parents' understanding, and refer to specialists. We conclude that provider-patient communication approach and channel can exacerbate or alleviate parents' negative reactions to positive NBS results. PMID:22984167

  4. "Positive" results increase down the Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a "positive" (full or partial) or "negative" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in "softer" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development). On the other hand, these results support the scientific status

  5. Positive Coombs' test results in two dogs treated with amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Calvert, C A; Sammarco, C; Pickus, C

    2000-06-15

    Effects of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug that is effective in suppressing severe ventricular arrhythmias that are refractory to other antiarrhythmic drugs, were evaluated in 2 dogs with cardiac disease. One dog was a Doberman Pinscher with cardiomyopathy that developed severe thrombocytopenia after receiving amiodarone for 7 months. The second was a Giant Schnauzer with acquired mitral valve degeneration that developed regenerative anemia after receiving amiodarone for 5 months. Results of direct Coombs' tests were positive in both dogs. Adverse effects of amiodarone are numerous; in dogs, the most common adverse effects are anorexia and hepatotoxicosis. Frequent CBC and serum biochemical analyses should be performed when amiodarone is administered with the intent of continuing the drug indefinitely. PMID:10863591

  6. Cardboard versus sterile containers: more nitrite-positive urinalysis results?

    PubMed

    Eley, Rhiannon

    Urinalysis is a frequently performed test that provides valuable information as to the health of individuals. The presence of nitrites in the urine may indicate infection. Antibiotic therapy is commonly started following the results of dipstick urine taken from non-sterile urine samples. This is especially prevalent in men who are immobile, because sterile containers large enough to hold a full bladder of urine are not available (at the author's trust). Urine samples were taken from 25 male A&E patients in a sterile container. Half of each sample was decanted into an ordinary cardboard urine bottle and both samples were then tested using dipstick urinalysis after 1 minute and after 10 minutes to see if there was a difference in the presence of nitrites between the two container types. After 10 minutes, 21 of the 25 samples showed a positive nitrite dipstick in the cardboard container while it remained negative when the urine remained in the sterile container. These results demonstrate that care needs to be taken when collecting urine samples, and the results of dipstick urinalysis should be used with caution depending on the collection method. PMID:25978475

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM A MICROWAVE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BALAKIN,V.; BAZHAN,A.; LUNEV,P.; SOLYAK,N.; VOGEL,V.; ZHOGOLEV,P.; LISITSYN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    1999-03-29

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required.

  8. Are current screening protocols for chronic hepatitis B virus infection adequate?

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Eva; Kamali, Amanda; Schirmer, Patricia L; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A; Oda, Gina; Winters, Mark A; Durfee, Janet; Martinello, Richard A; Davey, Victoria J; Holodniy, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening usually includes only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) testing; HBV core and surface antibody (anti-HBc, anti-HBs) assays, indicating resolved infection and immunity, are not routinely performed. Yet, serum HBV DNA is measurable in approximately 10% of HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive cases, representing occult HBV infection (OBI). Patient blood samples from 2 Veterans Affairs medical center look-back investigations were screened for HBV infection using HBsAg enzyme immunoassays. Supplementary testing included anti-HBc and anti-HBs enzyme immunoassays. For anti-HBc-positive samples, HBV DNA testing was performed. Background OBI prevalence was further estimated at these 2 facilities based on HBV serology testing results from 1999-2012. Finally, a literature review was performed to determine OBI prevalence in the published literature. Of 1887 HBsAg-negative cohort patients, 98 (5.2%) were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative; and 175 (9.3%), anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Six of 273 were HBV DNA positive, representing 0.3% of the total tested and 2.2% who were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative or anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Among 32,229 general population veterans at these 2 sites who had any HBV testing, 4/108 (3.7%) were HBV DNA positive, none of whom were part of the cohort. In 129 publications with HBsAg-negative patients, 1817/1,209,426 (0.15%) had OBI. However, excluding blood bank studies with greater than 1000 patients, the OBI rate increased to 1800/17,893 (10%). OBI is not rare and has implications for transmission and disease detection. HBsAg testing alone is insufficient for detecting all chronic HBV infections. These findings may impact blood donation, patient HBV screening, follow-up protocols for patients assumed to have cleared the infection, and initiation of immunosuppression in patients with distant or undetected HBV. PMID:27009896

  9. The Development and Resulting Performance Impact of Positive Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthans, Fred; Avey, James B.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Peterson, Suzanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such…

  10. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  11. The positive approach to negative results in toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J P

    1987-08-01

    Negative results in toxicology studies are often as noteworthy as are results that detect significant toxicological effects. The results of 49.1% of all t tests published in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety in 1985 and 1986 were negative. However, despite the importance and prevalence of negative results in toxicology studies, they are frequently misinterpreted. Negative results from statistical tests that have poor statistical power can only be considered to be inconclusive. Because toxicology studies often use small sample sizes, such studies often have poor power to detect small, but biologically significant, effects. Toxicologists may improve the power of their tests by improving experiment design, increasing alpha, increasing sample size, or limiting the analysis to detection of large differences among samples. Selection of both sample size and alpha level should take considerations of statistical power into account. PMID:3428208

  12. Process versus outcome in hypertension: a positive result.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R B; Gibson, E S; Taylor, D W; Bernholz, C D; Sackett, D L

    1982-01-01

    We studied the association between the outcome of antihypertensive care and three items of that care among 230 hypertensive steelworkers who were referred to 83 physicians. The first item was the decision to treat some patients but not others: 63% of the patients were prescribed antihypertensive drugs and the mean decrease in their diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was greater than that among untreated patients (12.2 +/- 0.84 vs 7.8 +/- 0.83 mm Hg [+/- SEM], p less than 0.001). The second item was the vigor of prescribed medication: Patients prescribed more vigorous treatments had lower DBP (p less than 0.005). Third, patient compliance was related to achieving a goal DBP of less than 90 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and the product of prescribed vigor and compliance was highly associated with DBP response (p less than 0.0001). These results stand in contrast to those of previous studies that failed to detect associations between various other items of the care process and the outcome of antihypertensive care. PMID:7053286

  13. Hepatitis B virus prevalence and transmission risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease patients at Clementino Fraga Filho university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tolentino, Yolanda Faia Manhães; Fogaça, Homero Soares; Zaltman, Cyrla; Ximenes, Lia Laura Lewis; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients that followed up in our hospital and try to identify the possible risk factors involved in this infection transmission. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study for which 176 patients were selected according to their arrival for the medical interview. All these patients had already IBD diagnosis. The patient was interviewed and a questionnaire was filled out. RESULTS: In the group of 176 patients whom we examined, we found that 17% (30) were anti-HBc positive. Out of 30 patients with positive anti-HBc, 2.3% (4) had positive HBsAg and negative HBV-DNA. In an attempt to identify the possible HBV infection transmission risk factors in IBD patients, it was observed that 117 patients had been submitted to some kind of surgical procedure, but only 24 patients had positive anti-HBc (P = 0.085). It was also observed that surgery to treat IBD complications was not a risk factor for HBV infection transmission, since we did not get a statically significant P value. However, IBD patients that have been submitted to surgery to treat IBD complications received more blood transfusions then patients submitted to other surgical interventions (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: There was a high incidence of positive anti-HBc (17%) and positive HBsAg (2.3%) in IBD patient when compared with the overall population (7.9%). PMID:18506926

  14. Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and Virological Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Group of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marina P.; Matos, Márcia A. D.; Silva, Ágabo M. C.; Lopes, Carmen L. R.; Teles, Sheila A.; Matos, Marcos A.; Spitz, Natália; Araujo, Natalia M.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Kerr, Ligia R. F. S.; Martins, Regina M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) compared with the general population. This study aims to assess the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBV infection in a sample of MSM in Brazil, where data are scarce. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, from March to November 2014, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). After signing the consent form, participants were interviewed and a blood sample collected. All samples were tested for HBV serological markers and HBV DNA. HBV nucleotide sequence analysis was also performed. Results A total of 522 MSM were recruited in the study. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past [presence of anti-HBc marker]) was 15.4% (95% CI: 8.7–25.8) and the rate of HBsAg carriers was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.6). About 40% (95% CI: 32.3–48.8) of the participants had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination (reactive for isolated anti-HBs). In addition, 44.3% (95% CI: 36.1–52.9) were seronegative for all HBV markers. Age over 25 years old, receptive anal intercourse, previous sex with women, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were factors associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected only in HBsAg-positive individuals. HBV isolates were classified into genotype A (subgenotypes A1 and A2), and some mutations were identified throughout the genome. Therefore, occult HBV infection was not observed in the study population. Conclusions Public health strategies should be improved for the MSM population in order to prevent HBV and other STIs, as well as to provide appropriate management of patients with active infections. PMID:27508385

  15. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  16. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  17. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  18. [Inappropriately ordered tests from hepatitis B vaccinated subjects].

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Oktem, Ibrahim Mehmet Ali

    2010-04-01

    Laboratory testing for viral hepatitis B constitutes a vast burden regarding the cost and the workload for health care system for many countries including ours. There are several reports stating that the cost in question is not always necessary. As a consequence of larger scale vaccination programmes, an increase in unnecessary hepatitis B testing is expected in vaccinated individuals. The present retrospective study aims to determine the rate of inappropriately ordered tests from vaccinated individuals and to discuss the causes and possible solutions of this problem. Laboratory records of 56.349 subjects admitted to Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, during 2007 and 2009, were evaluated retrospectively for hepatitis B serological test results. Unnecessary testing was defined as the requests for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg and anti-HBe tests from those who had positive anti-HBs and negative anti-HBc results. The cost burden was calculated by taking account the prices recommended by the Department of Social Security. The appropriateness of anti-HBs test orders were not taken into evaluation since specific clinical conditions (immune response disorders, HIV infection, chronic hemodialysis, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, contact with HBsAg carriers) were not clarified. It was found that among the 17.869 samples tested for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 4402 (24.6%) were ordered from subjects who were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs positive, anti-HBc negative status). Thus, 11.405 (12.9%) tests out of a total of 88.174 hepatitis B tests (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, anti-HBe) were unnecessarily ordered. Social security services and/or individuals paid approximately 59.000 USD for these unnecessary tests in three years, leading to an economic loss of approximately 20.000 USD yearly. Providing appropriate feedback to clinicians and reflex test application (to order a test according to the results of previous tests in accordance to

  19. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  20. PMA treatment is an effective means to reduce false positive PCR testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional and real time PCR are widely used in detecting bacterial pathogens in various food matrix and environmental samples. Sometimes a positive detection using PCR can not be confirmed by subsequent culture isolation of the targeted pathogen, resulting in a potential “false positive.” False po...

  1. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, M H; Blasini, A M; Ogly, D; Rodríguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    False positive results were obtained for HIV tests in two men with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were suspected of being infected with HIV because of fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory myopathy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HIV were twice positive when tested three times over a period of six months. Western blot analysis showed reactivity against the gp41 band in patient 1. False positive results for HIV tests can occur in patients with SLE, potentially leading to an erroneous diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:1417140

  2. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update. PMID:21205727

  3. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies. PMID:26916154

  4. Correlates of positive health behaviors in cancer survivors: results from the 2010 LIVESTRONG survey.

    PubMed

    Low, Carissa A; Beckjord, Ellen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Dew, Mary Amanda; Posluszny, Donna M; Schmidt, John E; Lowery, Amy E; Nutt, Stephanie A; Arvey, Sarah R; Rechis, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Positive health-promoting behaviors, including lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity) and appropriate health service utilization (e.g., screening for secondary cancers), can minimize the health risks and challenges facing cancer survivors. The goal of this article is to examine factors associated with positive health behaviors in 2,615 posttreatment cancer survivors who completed the 2010 LIVESTRONG survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model odds of reporting each of six positive health behaviors "as a result of your experience with cancer": three "healthy lifestyle" behaviors and three "health care utilization" behaviors. In fully adjusted models, factors associated with greater likelihood of engaging in positive lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical activity, changing diet) included sociodemographic factors, greater knowledge about how to reduce cancer risk; and reporting more psychological benefits due to cancer (ps <.01). Factors associated with greater likelihood of attending medical appointments and obtaining recommended cancer screenings included older age, better patient-provider communication, greater knowledge about how to reduce cancer risk, and more psychological benefits of cancer (ps <.01). Results suggest that knowledge about how to prevent cancer and benefit finding after cancer are related to positive health behaviors broadly, whereas better patient-provider communication is associated with positive cancer screening and health care utilization but not healthy lifestyle behaviors. Clinical interventions targeting these modifiable factors could maximize positive health behavior changes among cancer survivors, affecting risk for cancer recurrence as well as overall health and well-being. PMID:25176347

  5. Amplification of residual DNA sequences in sterile bronchoscopes leading to false-positive PCR results.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, K; Luke, S; McGurn, C; Snowden, N; Monti, C; Fry, W A

    1996-01-01

    PCR has been used successfully for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in uncultured patient samples. Its potential is hindered by the risk of false-positive results as a result of either amplicon carryover of cross-contamination between patient samples. In the present study, we investigated whether residual amplifiable human or M. tuberculosis DNA could remain in sterile bronchoscopes and potentially be a cause of false-positive PCR results in subsequent patient samples. Sterilized bronchoscopes were flushed with sterile saline, and the collected eluate was submitted for PCR amplification of IS6110 sequences and exon 8 of the human p53 gene. Of a total of 55 washes of sterile bronchoscopes from two institutions, 2 (3.6%) contained amplifiable M. tuberculosis DNA and 11 (20%) contained residual human DNA. These findings indicate that residual DNA can remain in sterilized bronchoscopes and can be a source of false-positive PCR results. PMID:8818888

  6. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  7. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  8. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  9. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  10. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  11. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  12. Follow-up actions from positive results of in vitro genetic toxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate follow-up actions and decisions are needed when evaluating and interpreting clear positive results obtained in the in vitro assays used in the initial genotoxicity screening battery (i.e., the battery of tests generally required by regulatory authorities) to assist in...

  13. Lung carcinoma presenting with pathologic femur fracture and false-positive pregnancy test result.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Brandon C; Kamat, Achyut

    2012-09-01

    β-Human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) assays are routinely used to test for pregnancy. However, βhCG may be elevated in conditions other than pregnancy. We describe a case of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathologic femur fracture and a false-positive urine pregnancy test. Lung cancer is the most common nongestational malignancy that produces βhCG among reproductive-age women. Emergency physicians should consider this rare cause of a positive pregnancy test result in women who deny recent sexual intercourse, especially if the patient is older than 40 years, has a history of tobacco use, or presents with respiratory complaints. PMID:22424649

  14. In pursuit of defining clinical relevance of positive patch tests results.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya; Stone, Stephen P; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2007-01-01

    According to the current classification of clinical relevance of the positive patch test reactions, the positive results of patients who are allergic to various allergens that are not responsible for the present dermatitis do not fit into the category of "relevant to present dermatitis" but should be defined as "relevant to a preceding bout of dermatitis." This seems to us inappropriate and misleading because reexposure to the sensitizing agent would quickly revert their reaction to "relevant to present dermatitis." We suggest an alternative possibility to the current division of the various types of clinical relevance, namely, "relevance to a present allergy other than the presenting dermatitis." PMID:17870528

  15. False positive gel-acetylcholinesterase results in blood-stained amniotic fluids.

    PubMed

    Barlow, R D; Cuckle, H S; Wald, N J; Rodeck, C H

    1982-10-01

    The effect of blood contamination on the gel-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test used in the diagnosis of fetal open neural-tube defects was studied with amniotic fluid samples artificially contaminated with fetal or maternal blood in concentrations covering a range exceeding that usually found in clinical practice. Amniotic fluid samples contaminated with maternal blood gave negative gel-AChE results at all concentrations. Contamination with fetal blood yielded positive results if the erythrocyte concentration was greater than about 60 x 10(6) cells/ml. Thus contamination of amniotic fluid with blood is only likely to cause false positive gel-AChE results if this critical concentration is exceeded. Such samples will occur only rarely in clinical practice but when they do the diagnosis should be made with caution. PMID:7126503

  16. Congruent visual and proprioceptive information results in a better encoding of initial hand position.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Proteau, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Goal-directed movements performed in a virtual environment pose serious challenges to the central nervous system because the visual and proprioceptive representations of one's hand position are not perfectly congruent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the vision of one's hand or upper arm, compared with that of a cursor representing the tips of one's index finger and thumb, optimizes the planning and modulation of one's movement as the cursor nears the target. The participants performed manual aiming movements that differed by the source of static visual information available during movement planning and the source of dynamic information available during movement execution. The results revealed that the vision of one's hand during the movement planning phase results in more efficient online control processes than when the movement planning was based on a virtual representation of one's initial hand location. This observation was seen regardless of the availability of online visual feedback during movement execution. These results suggest that a more reliable estimation of the initial hand position results in more accurate estimation of the position of the cursor/hand at any one time resulting in more accurate online control. PMID:21837439

  17. Accuracy and stability of positioning in radiosurgery: long-term results of the Gamma Knife system.

    PubMed

    Heck, Bernhard; Jess-Hempen, Anja; Kreiner, Hans Jürg; Schöpgens, Hans; Mack, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the long term overall accuracy of an irradiation position of Gamma Knife systems. The mechanical accuracy of the system as well as the overall accuracy of an irradiation position was examined by irradiating radiosensitive films. To measure the mechanical accuracy, the GafChromic film was fixed by a special tool at the unit center point (UCP). For overall accuracy the film was mounted inside a phantom at a target position given by a two-dimensional cross. Its position was determined by CT or MRI scans, a treatment was planned to hit this target by use of the standard planning software and the radiation was finally delivered. This procedure is named "system test" according to DIN 6875-1 and is equivalent to a treatment simulation. The used GafChromic films were evaluated by high resolution densitometric measurements. The Munich Gamma Knife UCP coincided within x; y; z: -0.014 +/- 0.09 mm; 0.013 +/- 0.09 mm; -0.002 +/- 0.06 mm (mean +/- SD) to the center of dose distribution. There was no trend in the measured data observed over more than ten years. All measured data were within a sphere of 0.2 mm radius. When basing the target definition in the system test on MRI scans, we obtained an overall accuracy of an irradiation position in the x direction of 0.21 +/- 0.32 mm and in the y direction 0.15 +/- 0.26 mm (mean +/- SD). When a CT-based target definition was used, we measured distances in x direction 0.06 +/- 0.09 mm and in y direction 0.04 +/- 0.09 mm (mean +/- SD), respectively. These results were compared with those obtained with a Gamma Knife equipped with an automatic positioning system (APS) by use of a different phantom. This phantom was found to be slightly less accurate due to its mechanical construction and the soft fixation into the frame. The phantom related position deviation was found to be about +/- 0.2 mm, and therefore the measured accuracy of the APS Gamma Knife was evidently less precise by

  18. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. PMID:24095862

  19. Risk of Breast Cancer in Women with False-Positive Results according to Mammographic Features.

    PubMed

    Castells, Xavier; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Posso, Margarita; Román, Marta; Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Domingo, Laia; Vidal, Carmen; Baré, Marisa; Ferrer, Joana; Quintana, María Jesús; Sánchez, Mar; Natal, Carmen; Espinàs, Josep A; Saladié, Francina; Sala, María

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive screening results according to radiologic classification of mammographic features. Materials and Methods Review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. This retrospective cohort study included 521 200 women aged 50-69 years who underwent screening as part of the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program between 1994 and 2010 and who were observed until December 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer and the 95% confidence interval (CI) in women with false-positive mammograms as compared with women with negative mammograms. Separate models were adjusted for screen-detected and interval cancers and for screen-film and digital mammography. Time without a breast cancer diagnosis was plotted by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results When compared with women with negative mammograms, the age-adjusted HR of cancer in women with false-positive results was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.95; P < .001). The risk was higher in women who had calcifications, whether they were (HR, 2.73; 95% CI: 2.28, 3.28; P < .001) or were not (HR, 2.24; 95% CI: 2.02, 2.48; P < .001) associated with masses. Women in whom mammographic features showed changes in subsequent false-positive results were those who had the highest risk (HR, 9.13; 95% CI: 8.28, 10.07; P < .001). Conclusion Women with false-positive results had an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly women who had calcifications at mammography. Women who had more than one examination with false-positive findings and in whom the mammographic features changed over time had a highly increased risk of breast cancer. Previous mammographic features might yield useful information for further risk-prediction models and personalized follow-up screening protocols. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26878225

  20. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  1. Synchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation of the Newborn: Technical Issues and Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Corrado; Gizzi, Camilla; Montecchia, Francesco; Barbàra, Caterina Silvia; Midulla, Fabio; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Papoff, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Although mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube has undoubtedly led to improvement in neonatal survival in the last 40 years, the prolonged use of this technique may predispose the infant to development of many possible complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Avoiding mechanical ventilation is thought to be a critical goal, and different modes of noninvasive respiratory support beyond nasal continuous positive airway pressure, such as nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, are also available and may reduce intubation rate. Several trials have demonstrated that the newer modes of noninvasive ventilation are more effective than nasal continuous positive airway pressure in reducing extubation failure and may also be more helpful as modes of primary support to treat respiratory distress syndrome after surfactant and for treatment of apnea of prematurity. With synchronized noninvasive ventilation, these benefits are more consistent, and different modes of synchronization have been reported. Although flow-triggering is the most common mode of synchronization, this technique is not reliable for noninvasive ventilation in neonates because it is affected by variable leaks at the mouth and nose. This review discusses the mechanisms of action, benefits and limitations of noninvasive ventilation, describes the different modes of synchronization and analyzes the technical characteristics, properties and clinical results of a flow-sensor expressly developed for synchronized noninvasive ventilation. PMID:27251453

  2. Significance of Response to Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine in Subjects with Isolated Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Ali; Izadi, Shahrokh; Bari, Zohreh; Khosravi, Soheyla; Baghaei, Bita; Saneimoghadam, Esmaeil; Firouzi, Farzad; Espiari, Ali; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Mokhtarifar, Ali; Bakhshipour, Alireza; Ganji, Azita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is important to differentiate whether isolated anti-HBc is due to false positive results or the prior exposure to hepatitis B virus, because individuals with false-positive anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and their blood can be safely transfused. To distinguish between these two conditions, we evaluated the serologic response to hepatitis B vaccine. METHODS Ninety subjects with isolated anti-HBc (cases) and 100 subjects with totally negative hepatitis B serologic markers (controls) were recruited to receive three doses of hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine. Thirty days after the first dose of the vaccine, anti-HBs titers were checked and individuals with anti-HBs titer >50 mIU/mL did not receive additional doses of the vaccine. However, others completed the vaccination course, and another blood sample was collected 30 days after the third dose to measure anti-HBs level. RESULTS Nineteen (21.1%) cases and three (3%) controls had no sero-conversion (anti-HBs titers <10 mIU/mL) 30 days after the third dose (p<0.0001). Primary response, defined as the development of anti-HBs antibody titers ≥10 mIU/mL 30 days after the third dose, was observed in 43 (47.8%) cases and 92 (92%) controls (p<0.0001). Also, 31.1% of cases developed anti-HBs titers ≥ 50 mIU/mL 30 days after the first dose of vaccine, but the rate was significantly lower (5%) in the control group (p<0.0001). Furthermore, half of the individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after three doses of HB vaccination. CONCLUSION More than 75% of individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and can be included in donor pool. Also, one fifth seemed to have occult HBV infection. So HB vaccination may be used as a diagnostic tool for clarifying the situation of the subjects with isolated anti-HBc. PMID:26609352

  3. Significance of Response to Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine in Subjects with Isolated Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Ali; Izadi, Shahrokh; Bari, Zohreh; Khosravi, Soheyla; Baghaei, Bita; Saneimoghadam, Esmaeil; Firouzi, Farzad; Espiari, Ali; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Mokhtarifar, Ali; Bakhshipour, Alireza; Ganji, Azita

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND It is important to differentiate whether isolated anti-HBc is due to false positive results or the prior exposure to hepatitis B virus, because individuals with false-positive anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and their blood can be safely transfused. To distinguish between these two conditions, we evaluated the serologic response to hepatitis B vaccine. METHODS Ninety subjects with isolated anti-HBc (cases) and 100 subjects with totally negative hepatitis B serologic markers (controls) were recruited to receive three doses of hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine. Thirty days after the first dose of the vaccine, anti-HBs titers were checked and individuals with anti-HBs titer >50 mIU/mL did not receive additional doses of the vaccine. However, others completed the vaccination course, and another blood sample was collected 30 days after the third dose to measure anti-HBs level. RESULTS Nineteen (21.1%) cases and three (3%) controls had no sero-conversion (anti-HBs titers <10 mIU/mL) 30 days after the third dose (p<0.0001). Primary response, defined as the development of anti-HBs antibody titers ≥10 mIU/mL 30 days after the third dose, was observed in 43 (47.8%) cases and 92 (92%) controls (p<0.0001). Also, 31.1% of cases developed anti-HBs titers ≥ 50 mIU/mL 30 days after the first dose of vaccine, but the rate was significantly lower (5%) in the control group (p<0.0001). Furthermore, half of the individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after three doses of HB vaccination. CONCLUSION More than 75% of individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and can be included in donor pool. Also, one fifth seemed to have occult HBV infection. So HB vaccination may be used as a diagnostic tool for clarifying the situation of the subjects with isolated anti-HBc. PMID:26609352

  4. [Expert research on sera yielding false-positive results for HIV antibodies during screening].

    PubMed

    Noskov, F S; Smol'skaia, T T; Konikova, R E; Borisova, V V; Leshchinskaia, N P; Noskova, O V; Lobanova, A L; Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Shelukhina, E M

    1992-04-01

    The significance of different serological methods and assay systems for the verification of false positive cases of HIV infection has been analyzed on the basis of materials obtained in arbitration studies. As demonstrated by this analysis, the use of such highly specific and sensitive systems as Huma-Lab, Enzygnost, Serodia and Erythrorecombinant has made it possible to obtain a reliable result as early as at the first stage of expert diagnosis in the enzyme immunoassay and the agglutination test. The methods of radioimmunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence have permitted a more precise differentiation of doubtful results than that achieved by immune blotting. PMID:1496871

  5. Does positive affect change in old age? Results from a 22-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Amieva, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    The authors examined longitudinal change in positive affect (PA), a component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was assessed with the PA subscale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) in a sample of individuals from the PAQUID cohort (n = 3,777; age 62-101 years, M = 75.46, SD = 6.91 at Wave 1) over a period of 22 years (10 waves of data). Latent growth curve modeling was used to assess change in PA. A quadratic latent growth curve was found to characterize the latent growth pattern of PA in our sample, indicating linear change before a decline phase. These results were discussed with reference to the well-being paradox. PMID:25436598

  6. Accuracy of relative positioning by interferometry with GPS Double-blind test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Herring, T. A.; King, B. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cappallo, R. J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Greenspan, R. L.; Snyder, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    MITES (Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying) observations conducted on December 17 and 29, 1980, are analyzed. It is noted that the time span of the observations used on each day was 78 minutes, during which five satellites were always above 20 deg elevation. The observations are analyzed to determine the intersite position vectors by means of the algorithm described by Couselman and Gourevitch (1981). The average of the MITES results from the two days is presented. The rms differences between the two determinations of the components of the three vectors, which were about 65, 92, and 124 m long, were 8 mm for the north, 3 mm for the east, and 6 mm for the vertical. It is concluded that, at least for short distances, relative positioning by interferometry with GPS can be done reliably with subcentimeter accuracy.

  7. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  8. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  9. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  10. [Unexpected Diseases in Two Patients with False-Positive Dengue Immunoglobulin M Antibody Test Results].

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of 162 domestic dengue fever infections occurred in Tokyo, Japan; the first outbreak of its kind in 70 years. Nineteen of these cases were confirmed in our center. Advancements in diagnostic methods have enabled an earlier diagnosis of dengue fever; however, unfamiliarity with the clinical course and characteristics of diagnostic tests for dengue fever can lead to misdiagnosis. We herein describe 2 cases of Japanese patients with false-positive dengue immunoglobulin M antibody test results, who were finally diagnosed as having dermatomyositis and acute hepatitis A infection, respectively. PMID:27197439

  11. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond. PMID:26684444

  12. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    PubMed Central

    Matthijssen, Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana; van den Hout, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC) is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM). The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM) and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure. Highlights of the article In this study the additive value of EM on verbal material (in the procedure Positive Closure) is not found. No effect of the

  13. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  14. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  15. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  16. Air-exposed urine dipsticks give false-positive results for glucose and false-negative results for blood.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H T; Spiegel, D M

    1991-09-01

    Urine dipstick jars often are left uncapped, which led the authors to wonder what effect prolonged air exposure might have on dipstick accuracy. Unexpired Ames Multistixs (Miles Inc., Elkhart, IN) were exposed to ambient air for intervals of up to eight weeks and were used to test urine for the presence or absence of blood, protein, and glucose. Multistixs were read by a blinded participant. A urine sample reading negative for glucose with unexposed (control) Multistixs tested trace positive with three of three Multistixs exposed for 7 days, and 1+ (three of six) or trace positive (three of six) (P less than 0.05) with Multistixs exposed for 28 days. A urine sample reading 1+ for blood with controls tested negative with five of six (P less than 0.05) and six of six (P less than 0.05) Multistixs exposed for 28 and 56 days, respectively. Protein detection was accurate up to 56 days. The authors conclude that urine dipstick jars should be recapped to avoid prompting needless evaluations of glucosuria or delaying detection of important causes of microscopic hematuria. PMID:1877540

  17. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Vogler, Ingridt Hildegard; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Bortoliero, André Luis; Matsuo, Tiemi; Yuahasi, Kátia Kioko; Cancian, Sanderson Júnior; Koguichi, Roberto Setsuo

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II), serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8%) were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6%) for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6%) for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6%) was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6%) for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%), 441 (0.5%), 189 (0.2%), 464 (0.6%), and 473 (0.6%) samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive values for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion. PMID:12751318

  18. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  19. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  20. APIC: Absolute Position Interfero Coronagraph for direct exoplanet detection: first laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Fatmé; Glindemann, Andreas; Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh

    2010-07-01

    For the detection and direct imaging of exoplanets, when the intensity ratio between a star and its orbiting planet can largely exceed 106, coronagraphic methods are mandatory. In 1996, a concept of achromatic interferocoronagraph (AIC) was presented by J. Gay and Y. Rabbia for the detection of very faint stellar companions, such as exoplanets. In an earlier paper, we presented a modified version of the AIC permitting to determine the relative position of these faint companions with respect to the parent star, a problem unsolved in the original design of the AIC. Our modification lied in the use of cylindrical lens doublets as field rotator. By placing two of them in one arm of the interferometric set-up of AIC, we destroyed the axis of symmetry induced by the AIC's original design. Our theoretical study, along with the numerical computations, presented then, and the preliminary test bench results aiming at validating the cylindrical lens doublet field rotation capability, presented in this paper, show that the axis of symmetry is destroyed when one of the cylindrical doublets is rotated around the optic axis.

  1. Otic Barotrauma Resulting from Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Justin P.; Hildrew, Douglas M.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Guittard, Jesse A.; Worley, N. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing problem affecting millions of people in the United States. The prevalence of OSA has risen drastically in the past few decades concurrently with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Subsequently, there has been an ever-increasing rise in the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. While using CPAP devices may lead to many adverse effects, the majority of these effects are described as relatively benign. Case Report: We describe the detailed clinical course and outcome for a patient with otic barotrauma as a result of excessive self-titration of CPAP therapy in an in-home setting. We also discuss the pathophysiology of otic barotrauma and present a review of current literature on the topic. Conclusion: While the benefits of CPAP are clear, we must take into account the rare but possible effects on ear structure and function. Many studies describe an increase in middle ear pressure with the use of CPAP, but few describe the effects of this increased pressure on the middle ear, such as the otic barotrauma described in this case. Given the increased prevalence of OSA, it is important to understand the risks associated with CPAP therapy. PMID:27303224

  2. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  3. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  4. Hepatitis B Reactivation in a HBsAg-Negative, HBcAb-Positive Patient Receiving Fludarabine for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Toscanini, Federica; De Leo, Pasqualina; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Malfatti, Federica; Grasso, Alessandro; Anselmo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is an increasingly recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In haematology, the risk of reactivation of B hepatitis among HBsAg-positive patients has been documented; therefore, use of lamivudine prophylaxis is recommended before starting chemotherapy. Differently, for HBsAg-negative patients with markers of previous HBV infection (i.e., presence of isolated anti-HBc positivity) (anticore patients) management strategies are not univocal. We describe a rare case of HBV reactivation in an anticore patient after fludarabine therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The patient fully recovered after a 6-month course of lamivudine with persistent HBV-DNA clearance and loss of HBsAg. The most important feature of this case is that fludarabine alone infrequently determines HBV reactivation, especially in anticore patients. Therefore, we suggest that patients candidates to receive fludarabine therapy should be considered for lamivudine prophylaxis, not only if HBsAg-positive, but even if anticore-positive only. PMID:25954538

  5. The presence of arginine may be a source of false positive results in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Khandoudi, Nassirah; Porte, Pierre; Chtourou, Sami; Nesslany, Fabrice; Marzin, Daniel; Le Curieux, Frank

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the number of revertant colonies in the Ames test is generally taken as a strong indication of mutagenic activity of a test compound. However, irrelevant positive findings may constitute a major problem in regulatory drug testing. In this study, mixtures containing only amino acids such as glycine, lysine, arginine and isoleucine, routinely used as peptide preservatives in polypeptide pharmaceutical products, were investigated for mutagenesis in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The results demonstrated that in the presence of metabolic activation, all the solutions containing arginine induced an increase in the number of revertant colonies in strains TA98, TA100 and TA1535 compared with the solvent control. More specifically, for strain TA98, all arginine doses tested, i.e. from 0.4 to 8 mg/plate induced a statistically significant increase in the number of revertants. This increase was biologically significant from 1.2 to 8 mg/plate. For strain TA100, the five highest test doses, i.e., from 1.2 to 8 mg/plate, induced statistically and biologically significant increases in the number of revertants. A statistically significant increase in colony number was also observed in strain TA1535, but only at the maximal test dose of 8 mg/plate arginine. These increases were observed with arginine from two different sources, suggesting that the observed effect would not be due to the presence of potential impurities in the type of arginine used. Our findings show that a functional metabolic activation system was required to induce an increase in the number of colonies. The presence of vitamin C inhibited the arginine-induced increase in the number of revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strain TA98, suggesting a potential involvement of oxidative stress. PMID:19619668

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis results from loss of TGFβ signalling in S100A4-positive dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Boomershine, C S; Chamberlain, A; Kendall, P; Afshar-Sharif, A-R; Huang, H; Washington, M K; Lawson, W E; Thomas, J W; Blackwell, T S; Bhowmick, N A

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a poorly understood human disease affecting the exocrine pancreas. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying pancreatic autoimmunity in a murine disease model. Methods: A transgenic mouse with an S100A4/fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) Cre-mediated conditional knockout of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) type II receptor, termed Tgfbr2fspKO, was used to determine the direct role of TGFβ in S100A4+ cells. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that Tgfbr2fspKO mice develop mouse AIP (mAIP) characterised by interlobular ductal inflammatory infiltrates and pancreatic autoantibody production. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-isolated dendritic cells (DCs) from diseased pancreata were verified to have S100A4-Cre-mediated DNA recombination. Results: The Tgfbr2fspKO mice spontaneously developed mAIP by 6 weeks of age. DCs were confirmed to express S100A4, a previously reported protein expressed by fibroblasts. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived DCs from Tgfbr2fspKO mice into 2-week-old syngenic wild-type C57BL/6 mice resulted in reproduction of pancreatitis within 6 weeks. Similar adoptive transfer of wild-type DCs had no effect on pancreas pathology of the host mice. The inability to induce pancreatitis by adoptive transfer of Tgfbr2fspKO DCs in adult mice suggested a developmental event in mAIP pathogenesis. Tgfbr2fspKO DCs undergo elevated maturation in response to antigen and increased activation of naïve CD4-positive T cells. Conclusion: The development of mAIP in the Tgfbr2fspKO mouse model illustrates the role of TGFβ in maintaining myeloid DC immune tolerance. The loss of immune tolerance in myeloid S100A4+ DCs can mediate mAIP and may explain some aspects of AIP disease pathogenesis. PMID:19625278

  7. Positive Darwinian selection results in resistance to cardioactive toxins in true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Halliday, Damien C. T.; Rowell, David M.; Robinson, Anthony J.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Family Bufonidae, true toads, are famous for their endogenously synthesized cardioactive steroids that serve as defensive toxins. Evolution of resistance to these toxins is not understood. We sequenced a key region of the toxin's binding site in the Na+/K+ ATPase for relevant taxa representing Hyloidea (including bufonids), Ranoidea and Archaeobatrachia and tested for positive selection in a phylogenetic context. Bufonidae were distinct from other Hyloidea at 4–6 of 12 sites and, with one exception, had a homologous amino acid sequence. Melanophryniscus stelzneri had a distinct sequence, consistent with other independent evidence for a differentiated toxin. Tests within Bufonidae detected positive selection within the binding region, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of this type for positive selection within Amphibia. There was no evidence for positive selection on Bufonidae or M. stelzneri lineages. Sequence change in Leptodactylus ocellatus, a leptodactylid predator of Bufonidae, provides a molecular basis for predator resistance possibly associated with gene duplication. PMID:19465576

  8. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  9. False-positive HIV test results in infancy and management of uninfected children receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Moss, William J; Thuma, Philip E

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes 2 children misdiagnosed with HIV infection in a clinic in rural Zambia and discusses the implications of false-positive HIV DNA tests in HIV-exposed infants, including the potential magnitude of the problem. Recommendations are needed to address the management of children receiving antiretroviral therapy who are suspected of being uninfected. PMID:25973939

  10. Epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Nurgalieva, Zhannat Z; Hollinger, F Blaine; Graham, David Y; Zhangabylova, S; Zhangabylov, Abai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the two major ethnic groups in Kazakhstan. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study of HBV and HCV seroprevalence was performed among individuals born in Kazakhstan with no history of chronic hepatitis or liver disease. RESULTS: There were 290 volunteers (140 Russians and 150 Kazakhs) aged 10 to 64 years, males accounted for 46%. Active HBV infection (HBsAg positive) was present in 3.8%, anti-HBc in 30%. The prevalence was similar in females and males (33% vs 25%) (P = 0.18). The prevalence of anti-HBc increased from 19% in 10-29 years old volunteers to 53% in 50-years and older volunteers. The prevalence of HBV infection was higher in married than in single adults (38% vs 26%, respectively) (P = 0.2) and more common in Kazakhs (35%) than in Russians (24%) (P = 0.07). HCV infection was present in 9 subjects (3.2%), 5 of them also were positive for anti-HBc in the absence of HBsAg. CONCLUSION: The frequency of active HBV infection (3.8%) coupled with a high prevalence of HBV exposure in those > 50 years of age increases with age, which suggests that horizontal transmission likely relates to the use of contaminated needles. The low prevalence of HCV infection suggests that HBV and HCV are acquired differently in this group of subjects. PMID:17451200

  11. [Polyclonal activation due to Epstein-Barr virus superinfection in a case with chronic hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Bakir Ozbey, Saliha; Mistik, Reşit; Gürcüoğlu, Emel; Oral, Barbaros; Göral, Güher

    2007-10-01

    Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) often occurs subclinically during childhood, resulting in a latent infection of B lymphocytes. In this report, a chronic hepatitis B case who presented with a serologic profile mimicking acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and exhibiting transient autoantibody positivities because of the polyclonal activation of B cells due to EBV reactivation has been presented. The test results of 56 years old male patient who suffered from fatigue and pain on the right upper quadrant, revealed high levels of liver enzymes (AST: 187 U/L, ALT: 569 U/L), positivity of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBe, and negativity of anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg and anti-HBs. Since HBV-DNA level was found 405,974 copies/mL by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the patient was taken into follow-up. At the 6th month AST and ALT levels further elevated (352 U/L and 609 U/L, respectively), and anti-HBc IgM and anti-HBs became positive in addition to the previous positive markers of HBV. With the suspicion of superinfection, further laboratory investigations yielded negative results in CMV-IgM and Paul Bunnel test, while positive results in EBV anti-VCA IgM and IgG, anti-EBNA IgM and IgG, anti-p22 IgM and IgG and anti-EA IgM. In the follow-up period high levels of autoantibody positivities [rheumatoid factor (42.200 U/ml), anti-nuclear antibody (1/100) and anti-Ro-52] together with increased levels of total IgG, IgM and IgA were detected. In the following months, the levels of transaminases, total immunoglobulins and HBV-DNA have distinctively decreased, and in the 20th month the previous HBV profile regained (HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBe positive, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HBs negative, HBV-DNA: 6984 copies/ml) and the other pathological test results returned to normal. As a result, ALT increases seen during the course of chronic hepatitis B should not always be considered as HBV manifestations and the unusual serologic patterns should

  12. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results

    PubMed Central

    Hozhabri, Neda S. T.; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse. PMID:25552786

  13. [Bioprosthesis degeneration in the aortic and mitral valve position. Results and problems from the cardiosurgical viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Cottogni, M; Falbesoner, C; Furtwängler, W; Mair, P; Falk, M; Hutter, J

    1993-01-01

    38 patients (20 men, 18 women) underwent reoperation between July 1989 to September 1992 because of degeneration of bioprosthetic valves implanted in aortic or/and mitral position. Retrospective analysis revealed a mean implantation time of 116.5 +/- 31.5 months for the bioprostheses (median 116). At reoperation 63.2% of them had a single valve replacement, 36.8% a more complex cardiac procedure (double or triple valve replacement, valve replacement and coronary bypass grafting). 50% (n = 9) of the reoperation cohort were symptomatic (NYHA III), 16 (42.1%) were serious symptomatic (NYHA IV). All deaths were NYHA IV preoperatively. Early mortality was 18.4% (n = 7). Mean age at the time of first operation was 51 +/- 10.7, mean age at reoperation was 60.5 +/- 10.6. There was a significantly longer aortic clamp time (AKT, p = 0.0005) and bypass time (BPT, p = 0.0000) compared to first operation, also a significantly longer BPT of the deads confronted with the survivors (p = 0.0075). Bioprosthetic valves in mitral position were significantly longer implanted (p = 0.0416) than in aortic position. But there was no difference in implantation time of commercially available Carpentier-Edwards- or Ionescu-Shiley grafts. At reoperation we changed more than 95% of the degenerated valves to mechanical devices--corresponding to international tendencies. We discuss the early tissue degeneration of bioprosthetic valves and their increasing problem during reoperation. PMID:8212714

  14. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  15. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  16. Demonstration of precise estimation of polar motion parameters with the global positioning system: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were used to determine precise polar motion estimates. Conservatively calculated formal errors of the GPS least squares solution are approx. 10 cm. The GPS estimates agree with independently determined polar motion values from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at the 5 cm level. The data were obtained from a partial constellation of GPS satellites and from a sparse worldwide distribution of ground stations. The accuracy of the GPS estimates should continue to improve as more satellites and ground receivers become operational, and eventually a near real time GPS capability should be available. Because the GPS data are obtained and processed independently from the large radio antennas at the Deep Space Network (DSN), GPS estimation could provide very precise measurements of Earth orientation for calibration of deep space tracking data and could significantly relieve the ever growing burden on the DSN radio telescopes to provide Earth platform calibrations.

  17. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-09-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  18. Preliminary results with saturable microchannel array plates. [featuring positive ion feedback elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Microchannel array plates with a performance comparable to that of a conventional channel electron multiplier have been obtained for the first time. These array plates employ an angled electrostatic field to inhibit the feedback of positive ions within the microchannels. Saturated output pulse height distributions with modal gain values in excess of 10 million have been obtained and stable operation demonstrated over a range of ambient pressures from 0.0000001 to 0.00008 torr. However, a time-dependent reduction in the gain has been observed with these experimental plates because of the accumulation of charge on the insulating strips which are inserted in the wall of the microchannel to establish the angled electrostatic field.

  19. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. PMID:23855557

  20. Accuracy of navigation-assisted acetabular component positioning studied by computed tomography measurements: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Ybinger, Thomas; Kumpan, W; Hoffart, H E; Muschalik, B; Bullmann, W; Zweymüller, K

    2007-09-01

    The postoperative position of the acetabular component is key for the outcome of total hip arthroplasty. Various aids have been developed to support the surgeon during implant placement. In a prospective study involving 4 centers, the computer-recorded cup alignment of 37 hip systems at the end of navigation-assisted surgery was compared with the cup angles measured on postoperative computerized tomograms. This comparison showed an average difference of 3.5 degrees (SD, 4.4 degrees ) for inclination and 6.5 degrees (SD, 7.3 degrees ) for anteversion angles. The differences in inclination correlated with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the anterior superior iliac spine (r = 0.44; P = .007), whereas the differences in anteversion showed a correlation with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the pubic tubercles (r = 0.52; P = .001). In centers experienced in the use of navigational tools, deviations were smaller than in units with little experience in their use. PMID:17826270

  1. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth. PMID:25413523

  2. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations. PMID:27426243

  3. Functional result relating to the positioning of the graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction☆

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Silva Júnior, Otávio; do Nascimento Ohashi, Bruno; de Almeida, Murilo Oliveira; Reis Gonçalves, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the coronal angles for the femoral and tibial tunnels that provide the best postoperative result from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, through assessing the variables of the IKDC and Lysholm–Tegner questionnaires and the hop test. Methods Sixteen patients with a single unilateral ACL injury who underwent this surgery between 24 and 36 months earlier were evaluated. They were divided into four groups in which the tibial and femoral tunnel angles were greater than or less than 65° in the coronal plane. Results The results demonstrated that a more vertical angle for the tibial tunnel (72°) and a more horizontal angle for the femoral tunnel (60°), with valgus alignment of 12° correlated with the best values for the variables studied. This may indicate that the long-term results from this surgery are excellent. Conclusion A more horizontal femoral angle and a more vertical tibial angle produced better assessments in the tests that were applied and in the functional results evaluated. PMID:26229897

  4. The management of isolated positive syphilis enzyme immunoassay results in HIV-negative patients attending a sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Nicola; Adebayo, Michael; Smit, Erasmus; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-08-01

    An unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination negative and rapid plasma reagin negative) presents a clinical challenge to distinguish early syphilis infection from false-positive results. These cases are referred for syphilis line assay (INNO-LIA) and recalled for repeat syphilis serology. We performed a retrospective audit to establish the proportion of HIV-negative cases with unconfirmed positive enzyme immunoassay results, the proportion of these cases that received an INNO-LIA test and repeat syphilis serology testing and reviewed the clinical outcomes; 0.35% (80/22687) cases had an unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay result. Repeat syphilis serology was performed in 80% (64/80) cases, but no additional cases of syphilis were identified. Eighty-eight per cent (70/80) received an INNO-LIA test; 14% (5/37) unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay-positive cases with no prior history of syphilis were confirmed on INNO-LIA assay, supporting a diagnosis of latent syphilis. As a confirmatory treponemal test, the INNO-LIA assay may be more useful than repeat syphilis serological testing. PMID:26637236

  5. Results obtained with position sensitive multiwire proportional chambers with helium, carbon, and oxygen nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emming, J. G.; Gilland, J. R.; Godden, G. D.; Smith, L. H.; Zardiackas, F.

    1974-01-01

    Spatial resolution performance results obtained at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Bevatron with prototype multiwire proportional chamber spatial detectors with integral delay line readout are presented. The effects due to incident nuclei charge, chamber operating parameters, chamber design, electronics, gas mixtures, and magnetic field presence have been investigated and are discussed.

  6. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  7. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  8. A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, J; Waisbren, S E

    2006-10-01

    As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases. False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require follow-up testing, even after the infant's good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact of false-positive newborn screening results on parents, along with a review of current communication practices for follow-up screening. The results of this review suggest that parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents, specifically at the time of follow-up screening. Communication strategies with sample materials are proposed. PMID:16917730

  9. Name-based reporting of HIV-positive test results as a deterrent to testing.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, W J; Dilley, J W; Lihatsh, T; Sabatino, J; Adler, B; Rinaldi, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated attitudes toward name-based reporting of HIV. METHODS: One hundred thirty high-risk, male repeat testers received information on the public health benefits of name-based reporting and reported their intentions to test. RESULTS: Of the 67 men who were randomly selected and asked their intentions before hearing the benefits, 63% said they would not test if reporting were required. After hearing the benefits, 19% changed their minds (P < .014). Of the 63 men who were asked only after hearing the benefits, 44% would not test. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing name-based reporting without working before-hand to change attitudes could undermine the benefits of both testing and HIV surveillance. PMID:10394324

  10. Proteomic Study of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Wattiez, Ruddy; Saussez, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) was recently recognized as a new risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. For oropharyngeal cancers, an HPV+ status is associated with better prognosis in a subgroup of nonsmokers and nondrinkers. However, HPV infection is also involved in the biology of head and neck carcinoma (HNC) in patients with a history of tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption. Thus, the involvement of HPV infection in HN carcinogenesis remains unclear, and further studies are needed to identify and analyze HPV-specific pathways that are involved in this process. Using a quantitative proteomics-based approach, we compared the protein expression profiles of two HPV+ HNC cell lines and one HPV− HNC cell line. We identified 155 proteins that are differentially expressed (P < 0.01) in these three lines. Among the identified proteins, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was upregulated and eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1α) was downregulated in the HPV+ cell lines. Immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses confirmed these results. Moreover, PSCA and EEF1α were differentially expressed in two clinical series of 50 HPV+ and 50 HPV− oral cavity carcinomas. Thus, our study reveals for the first time that PSCA and EEF1α are associated with the HPV-status, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24719866

  11. A False Positive Dengue Fever Rapid Diagnostic Test Result in a Case of Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Toshihide; Sakata, Hidenao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Hayashibara, Yumiko; Inasaki, Noriko; Inahata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Takizawa, Takenori; Kaya, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Japan in August 2014. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with a persistent fever in September 2014. Acute parvovirus B19 infection led to a false positive finding of dengue fever on a rapid diagnostic test (Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette(TM)). To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of a false positive result for dengue IgM with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. We believe that epidemiological information on the prevalence of parvovirus B19 is useful for guiding the interpretation of a positive result with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. PMID:27181552

  12. The orbit determination of the global positioning system satellites for geodetic applications: developments and results at the Geographical Survey Institute.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.

    1989-03-01

    The subject which this paper deals with is a 1-ppm level determination of the orbits of the Global Positioning System satellites for geodetic applications. A detailed model of the observables is developed. A new method of processing the phase and the range observables simultaneously to determine the GPS orbits is presented. Results are included and discussed.

  13. Anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-12-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner's HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  14. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  15. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  16. Rate of occurrence of false-positive results from total coliform most-probable-number analysis of shellfish and estuaries.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Colwell, R R; Weiner, R M

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of confirmed test, false-positive coliform most-probable-number results was compared with environmental parameters and was found to be inversely related to water temperature. It is concluded that the completed coliform test must be done when water temperatures drop below 15 degrees C. PMID:7004355

  17. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  18. PR Means Positive Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  19. Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Hepatitis Delta (HDV) Viruses in the Colombian Population—How Is the Epidemiological Situation?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Gutierrez Fernandez, María Fernanda; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Soares; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem worldwide. In Colombia, data from 1980s described that HBV and HDV infection are important causes of hepatitis, but little is known about HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the currently frequency of HBV, HCV and HDV in four different Colombian regions. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted in 697 habitants from 4 Colombian departments: Amazonas, Chocó, Magdalena and San Andres Islands. Epidemiological data were obtained from an interview applied to each individual aiming to evaluate risk factors related to HBV, HCV or HDV infections. All samples were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV markers. Samples that were positive to HBsAg and/or anti-HBc were tested to anti-HDV. Concerning the geographical origin of the samples, the three HBV markers showed a statistically significant difference: HBsAg (p = 0.033) and anti-HBc (p<0.001) were more frequent in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Isolated anti-HBs (a marker of previous vaccination) frequencies were: Chocó (53.26%), Amazonas (32.88%), Magdalena (17.0%) and San Andrés (15.33%) - p<0.001. Prevalence of anti-HBc increased with age; HBsAg varied from 1.97 to 8.39% (p = 0.033). Amazonas department showed the highest frequency for anti-HCV marker (5.68%), while the lowest frequency was found in San Andrés Island (0.66%). Anti-HDV was found in 9 (5.20%) out of 173 anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positive samples, 8 of them from the Amazonas region and 1 from them Magdalena department. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, HBV, HCV and HDV infections are detected throughout Colombia in frequency levels that would place some areas as hyperendemic for HBV, especially those found in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Novel strategies to increase HBV immunization in the rural population and to strengthen HCV surveillance are reinforced by these results. PMID:21559488

  20. Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

  1. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Kollengode; Mohammed, Hend; Hopkins, Peter; Corley, Amanda; Caruana, Lawrence; Dunster, Kimble; Barnett, Adrian G.; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung. PMID:27445522

  2. Newborn screening for CF in a regional paediatric centre: the psychosocial effects of false-positive IRT results on parents.

    PubMed

    Moran, Janette; Quirk, Kirsten; Duff, Alistair J A; Brownlee, Keith G

    2007-05-01

    Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been established in Leeds since 1975. The current method is measuring IRT and genotyping. Newborn screening for CF results in a small but significant number of false positives. This study explored the psychosocial reactions to such results in a group of parents (N=21) using semi-structured interviews. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and well-validated content analysis. Mothers described a range of emotions during the screening process including anxiety, distress and upset. Waiting for the repeat IRT test results was identified as the most emotionally difficult stage. Discussion focuses on good practice and implications for CF services. PMID:17056302

  3. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  4. PI3K inhibition results in enhanced estrogen receptor function and dependence in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Ana; Li, Zhiqiang; Bergamaschi, Anna; Ellis, Haley; Toska, Eneda; Prat, Aleix; Tao, Jessica J.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa T.; Castel, Pau; Minuesa, Gerard; Morse, Natasha; Rodón, Jordi; Ibrahim, Yasir; Cortes, Javier; Perez-Garcia, Jose; Galvan, Patricia; Grueso, Judit; Guzman, Marta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Kharas, Michael; Lewis, Jason S.; Dickler, Maura; Serra, Violeta; Rosen, Neal; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Baselga, José

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of PIK3CA are the most frequent genomic alterations in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumors, and selective PI3Kα inhibitors are in clinical development. The activity of these agents, however, is not homogeneous, and only a fraction of patients bearing PIK3CA-mutant ER-positive tumors benefit from single agent administration. Searching for mechanisms of resistance, we observed that suppression of PI3K signaling results in induction of ER-dependent transcriptional activity, as demonstrated by changes in expression of genes containing ER binding sites and increased occupancy by the ER of promoter regions of upregulated genes. Furthermore, expression of ESR1 mRNA and ER protein were also increased upon PI3K inhibition. These changes in gene expression were confirmed in vivo in xenografts and patient-derived models and in tumors from patients undergoing treatment with the PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719. The observed effects on transcription were enhanced by the addition of estradiol and suppressed by the anti-ER therapies fulvestrant and tamoxifen. Fulvestrant markedly sensitized ER-positive tumors to PI3Kα inhibition, resulting in major tumor regressions in vivo. We propose that increased ER transcriptional activity may be a reactive mechanism that limits the activity of PI3K inhibitors, and that combined PI3K and ER inhibition is a rational approach to target these tumors. PMID:25877889

  5. One-year results from cryopreserved mitral allograft transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mokracek, A; Canadyova, J; Simunkova, Z; Fiala, R; Hmirak, M; Sulda, M; Burkert, J; Tintera, J; Kobylka, P; Spatenka, J

    2015-01-01

    Mitral allografts are still used only exceptionally in the mitral or tricuspid position. The main indication remains infectious endocarditis of atrioventricular valves for its flexibility and low risk of infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate 1-year results of mitral allografts transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep model. Mitral allografts were processed, cryopreserved, and transplanted into the tricuspid position anatomically (Group I - 11 animals) or antianatomically (Group II - 8 animals). All survivors (4 from Group I, and 3 from Group II) were checked at 3, 6, and 12 months by echocardiography with the exception of one survivor from Group II (which was examinated only visually). Examination throughout follow-up included for mitral allograft regurgitation and annuli dilatation. At postmortem, the papillary muscles were healed and firmly anchored to the right ventricular wall in all subjects. Transventricular fixation of the papillary muscles with buttressed sutures was proven to be a stable, reproducible, and safe method for anchoring mitral allograft leaflets. There were no significant differences between the two implantation methods. Annulus support of mitral allografts might be very useful in this type of operation and could prevent annular dilatation. PMID:26047374

  6. False-positive rifampin resistant results with Xpert MTB/RIF version 4 assay in clinical samples with a low bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Ocheretina, Oksana; Byrt, Erin; Mabou, Marie-Marcelle; Royal-Mardi, Gertrude; Merveille, Yves-Mary; Rouzier, Vanessa; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Pape, Jean W

    2016-05-01

    We report investigation of 22 TB cases with positive Xpert MTB/RIF result for resistance to Rifampin and "Very Low" MTB detection level. Twelve cases were false positive without rpoB mutations, 2 were false-positives with a silent mutation in rpoB codon T508, and only 10 were true positives. PMID:26915638

  7. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, C; Ding, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  8. SU-C-210-06: Quantitative Evaluation of Dosimetric Effects Resulting From Positional Variations of Pancreatic Tumor Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Sehgal, V; Wei, R; Lawrenson, L; Kuo, J; Hanna, N; Ramsinghani, N; Daroui, P; Al-Ghazi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify dosimetric effects resulting from variation in pancreatic tumor position assessed by bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers Methods: Twelve pancreatic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. All patients received modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment using fiducial-based Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) to the intact pancreas. Using daily orthogonal kV and/or Cone beam CT images, the shift needed to co-register the daily pre-treatment images to reference CT from fiducial to bone (Fid-Bone) were recorded as Left-Right (LR), Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Superior-Inferior (SI). The original VMAT plan iso-center was shifted based on KV bone matching positions at 5 evenly spaced fractions. Dose coverage of the planning target volumes (PTVs) (V100%), mean dose to liver, kidney and stomach/duodenum were assessed in the modified plans. Results: A total of 306 fractions were analyzed. The absolute fiducial-bone positional shifts were greatest in the SI direction, (AP = 2.7 ± 3.0, LR = 2.8 ± 2.8, and SI 6.3 ± 7.9 mm, mean ± SD). The V100% was significantly reduced by 13.5%, (Fid-Bone = 95.3 ± 2.0 vs. 82.3 ± 11.8%, p=0.02). This varied widely among patients (Fid-Bone V100% Range = 2–60%), where 33% of patients had a reduction in V100% of more than 10%. The impact on OARs was greatest to the liver (Fid-Bone= 14.6 vs. 16.1 Gy, 10%), and stomach, (Fid-Bone = 23.9 vx. 25.5 Gy, 7%), however was not statistically significant (p=0.10 both). Conclusion: Compared to matching by fiducial markers, matching by bony anatomy would have substantially reduced the PTV coverage by 13.5%. This reinforces the importance of online position verification based on fiducial markers. Hence, implantation of fiducial markers is strongly recommended for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments.

  9. Phenotypic Consequences Resulting from a Methionine-to-Valine Substitution at Position 48 in the HPr Protein of Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Pascale; Brochu, Denis; Thomas, Suzanne; Fradette, Julie; Gauthier, Lucie; Vaillancourt, Katy; Buckley, Nicole; Frenette, Michel; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    1999-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, the HPr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) can be phosphorylated on a histidine residue at position 15 (His15) by enzyme I (EI) of the PTS and on a serine residue at position 46 (Ser46) by an ATP-dependent protein kinase (His∼P and Ser-P, respectively). We have isolated from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, by independent selection from separate cultures, two spontaneous mutants (Ga3.78 and Ga3.14) that possess a missense mutation in ptsH (the gene encoding HPr) replacing the methionine at position 48 by a valine. The mutation did not prevent the phosphorylation of HPr at His15 by EI nor the phosphorylation at Ser46 by the ATP-dependent HPr kinase. The levels of HPr(Ser-P) in glucose-grown cells of the parental and mutant Ga3.78 were virtually the same. However, mutant cells growing on glucose produced two- to threefold less HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P) than the wild-type strain, while the levels of free HPr and HPr(His∼P) were increased 18- and 3-fold, respectively. The mutants grew as well as the wild-type strain on PTS sugars (glucose, fructose, and mannose) and on the non-PTS sugars lactose and melibiose. However, the growth rate of both mutants on galactose, also a non-PTS sugar, decreased rapidly with time. The M48V substitution had only a minor effect on the repression of α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase by glucose, but this mutation abolished diauxie by rendering cells unable to prevent the catabolism of a non-PTS sugar (lactose, galactose, and melibiose) when glucose was available. The results suggested that the capacity of the wild-type cells to preferentially metabolize glucose over non-PTS sugars resulted mainly from inhibition of the catabolism of these secondary energy sources via a HPr-dependent mechanism. This mechanism was activated following glucose but not lactose metabolism, and it did not involve HPr(Ser-P) as the only regulatory molecule. PMID:10559156

  10. Commissioning results of the narrow-band beam position monitor system upgrade in the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.

    1999-04-20

    When using a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness synchrotron radiation source, it is critical to maintain a very high degree of orbit stability, both for the short term and for the duration of an operational fill. A fill-to-fill reproducibility is an additional important requirement. Recent developments in orbit correction algorithms have provided tools that are capable of achieving a high degree of orbit stability. However, the performance of these feedback systems can be severely limited if there are errors in the beam position monitors (BPMs). The present orbit measurement and correction system at the APS storage ring utilizes 360 broad-band-type BPMs that provide turn-by-turn diagnostics and an ultra-stable orbit: < 1.8 micron rms vertically and 4.5 microns rms horizontally in a frequency band of 0.017 to 30 Hz. The effects of beam intensity and bunch pattern dependency on these BPMs have been significantly reduced by employing offset compensation correction. Recently, 40 narrow-band switching-type BPMs have been installed in the APS storage ring, two in each of 20 operational insertion device straight sections, bringing the total number of beam position monitors to 400. The use of narrow-band BPM electronics is expected to reduce sensitivity to beam intensity, bunch pattern dependence, and long-term drift. These beam position monitors are used for orbit correction/feedback and machine protection interlocks for the insertion device beamlines. The commissioning results and overall performance for orbit stability are provided.

  11. New paleomagnetic results from Ordovician sedimentary rocks from NW Anatolia: Tectonic implications for the paleolatitudinal position of the Istanbul Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksum, Erdinc; Hisarlı, Z. Mümtaz; Çinku, Mualla Cengiz; Ustaömer, Timur; Orbay, Naci

    2015-11-01

    The Istanbul terrane, classically known as the "Paleozoic of Istanbul", is geologically one of the important continental components of NW Turkey. The terrane comprises an Early Ordovician to Early Carboniferous transgressive sedimentary sequence and appears as an exotic unit with respect to its present surroundings. The paleogeographical position of the Ordovician rocks is unknown. We have therefore conducted a paleomagnetic study from a total of 56 sites in red fluvial clastics of the Kurtkoy formation and shallow marine quartzites of the Aydos formation to determine the paleolatitude of the Istanbul terrane during the Ordovician. The Lower Ordovician group mean direction calculated from 17 reliable sites provides a mean inclination of I = 19.4°, (α95 = 2.3°, k = 146.0) accepting only inclination data. A paleolatitude of 16.4° is obtained after considering an inclination correction factor of f = 0.6 due to the E/I results. The Early Ordovician paleolatitude of the Istanbul terrane shows a lower paleolatitudinal position closer to the equatorial zone than previously inferred.

  12. Sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to high intensity pulsed ultrasound: inability to confirm previous positive results.

    PubMed

    Miller, M W; Azadniv, M; Pettit, S E; Church, C C; Carstensen, E L; Hoffman, D

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to determine a physical mechanism of action for a recently published report of a small but statistically significant increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to high-intensity pulsed ultrasound. The "positive" report's protocol involved a sizeable chance of ultrasound beam impingement on the side wall of the cell exposure chamber. Ten experiments per regimen were conducted; the regimens included exposures of (a) chamber center, (b) chamber wall, (c) nine grid sites, 0.5 mm between sites, and (d) nine grid sites, 1.5 mm between sites. The last was an exact replication of the conditions previously reported to induce the small SCE effect. The results did not support the postulate of an increase in SCEs with the ultrasound exposures. PMID:2741252

  13. Gadolinium Enhanced MR-angiography Results in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease: Positive Predictive Value Compared to Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirsharifi, Seyed Rasool; Noparast, Morteza; Khazravi, Mona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shakiba, Majid; Sharifi, Amirsina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents systematic atherosclerosis of great vessels. PAD affects approximately 10-20 % of patients older than 60 years and is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate debilitating individuals’ life. Objectives: To compare the results of Gadolinium enhanced MR-Angiography and surgery in patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 30 consecutive patients matching the inclusion criteria were enrolled and MR-Angiography was performed prior to surgery for each one. Results: 22 patients were male (73.3%) and the mean age was 60.3 ± 10.6 years in our study group. The most common artery for cut off and run off was superior femoral artery in both assessments. Proximal section of each artery was the most common anatomical section for cut off and run off. There was a same report of cut off artery by MR-Angiography and surgery (kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.96, P value < 0.001) and positive predictive value was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Conclusions: According to our findings MR-angiography is an appropriate alternative imaging modality for patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease and it facilitates the early diagnosis proposed by the clinical findings. Also beneficial characteristics of this method such as low exposure to ionizing radiation, repeatability, and low risk of contrast agent-induced nephropathy make it a modality of choice in patients with renal impairment. PMID:25763247

  14. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer: how the latest results are improving therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanfang; Rugo, Hope S.

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains an incurable disease, and approximately 25% of patients with HER2+ early breast cancer still relapse after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment. HER2 is a validated therapeutic target that remains relevant throughout the disease process. Recently, a number of novel HER2 targeted agents have become available, including lapatinib (a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor), pertuzumab (a new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a novel antibody–drug conjugate), which provide additional treatment options for patients with HER2+ MBC. The latest clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcome with treatment including pertuzumab or T-DM1 compared with standard HER2 targeted therapy. Here we review the clinical development of approved and investigational targeted agents for the treatment of HER2+ MBC, summarize the latest results of important clinical trials supporting use of these agents in the treatment of HER2+ MBC, and discuss how these results impact therapeutic options in clinical practice. PMID:26557900

  15. Ways to Promote the Positive Development of Children and Youth. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Lerner, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    This brief discusses the elements and features that define positive youth development and highlights some ways to support the positive development of children and youth. Specifically, this brief addresses the critical role that particular out-of-school time settings (regular family dinners and organized activity programs) can play in supporting…

  16. Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure in children with sickle cell anemia: results of a phase I randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Melanie J; Bucks, Romola S; Hogan, Alexandra M; Hambleton, Ian R; Height, Susan E; Dick, Moira C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Rees, David C

    2009-07-01

    Low nocturnal oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) is implicated in complications of Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA). Twenty-four children with SCA were randomized to receive overnight auto-adjusting continuous positive airway pressure (auto-CPAP) with supplemental oxygen, if required, to maintain SpO(2) >or=94% or as controls. We assessed adherence, safety, sleep parameters, cognition and pain. Twelve participants randomized to auto-CPAP (3 with oxygen) showed improvement in Apnea/Hypopnea Index (p<0.001), average desaturation events >3%/hour (p=0.02), mean nocturnal SpO(2) (p=0.02) and cognition. Primary efficacy endpoint (Processing Speed Index) showed no group differences (p=0.67), but a second measure of processing speed and attention (Cancellation) improved in those receiving treatment (p=0.01). No bone marrow suppression, rebound pain or serious adverse event resulting from auto-CPAP use was observed. Six weeks of auto-CPAP therapy is feasible and safe in children with SCA, significantly improving sleep-related breathing disorders and at least one aspect of cognition. PMID:19570752

  17. AB093. A case of exogenous C5-acylcarnitine giving rise to a false positive result in newborn screening (NBS)

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Shu Jun; Tan, Ee Shien; Saumya, Jamuar; Poh, Sherry; Lim, James

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective NBS Screening by MS/MS is considered an effective screening test. However, the technique cannot distinguish between isobaric compounds, thus contributing to some false positive results. One such compound is C5-acylcarnitine in the in the identification of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) in the MS/MS profile. To report and contrast the findings of two newborns with C5-acylcarnitine elevations in newborn screening (NBS). Methods Blood collected on Guthrie card from newborns between 24-72 hours of life is analyzed by MS/MS. C5-acylcarnitine and its related ratios are measured in DBS sample to identify at risk newborn. Results Newborn A: DBS sample C5: 7.96 µmol/L (normal <0.50), C5/C0: 0.99 (normal <0.025), C5/C3: 16.1 (normal <0.40); Plasma acylcarnitines profile: C5: 9.42 µmol/L (normal 0.06-0.29). Urine organic acid profiles showed marked elevations of isovalerylglycine (IVG), ketone bodies and lactate. This profile is consistent with a patient presenting with a diagnosis of IVA. Newborn B: DBS sample C5: 0.84 µmol/L (normal <0.50), C5/C0: 0.041 (normal <0.025), C5/C3: 0.46 (normal <0.40); Despite the abnormal plasma acylcarnitines profile (C5: 4.38 µmol/L, normal 0.06-0.29), the urine acylglycine profile was normal [IVG: 1.02 mg/g Cr (normal 0.3-14.3 mg/g); 2-MBG: 0.16 mg/g Cr (normal: 0.3-7.5 mg/g)]. A 2nd plasma acylcarnitine showed a lower C5 level (1.49 µmol/L) and a repeat urine organic acid profile was normal; no IVG and 2-MBG detected. Mother’s (Newborn B) plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles were normal, ruling out a possible maternal condition. Moreover, it was confirmed that mother and newborn were not on any antibiotics or steroids, which have been previously reported as the causal agents of falsely elevated C5-acylcarnitine. Further investigation revealed mom was using Mustela Nursing Comfort Balm which contained neopentanoate, a compound demonstrated by Boemer et al. [2014] as the causal agent for the false

  18. HIV Symptom Burden and Anemia among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Catherine; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Poudel, Krishna C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Results Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30). Conclusion Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms. PMID:25551656

  19. [The probability of microbiological contamination during the collection and processing of umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ru-Guang; Xi, Yong-Zhi; Hu, Yan-Fen; Ouyang, Ling; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2002-08-01

    To study the pathogens incidences in cord blood and the efficiency of different detective methods, 60 samples were drawn and reserved from collected and processed cord blood, respectively. The BACTEC 9050 system, improved Martin/thioglycollate broth (22 degrees C) and thioglycollate broth (35 degrees C) were employed to detected bacteria (including fungus) at the same time. Two hundred and six cord blood serum samples were used to detect the HBV DNA and HCV RNA by molecular biology technique, HBsAg, Anti-HBC, Anti-HCV, Anti-HCMV-IgM, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 by ELISA and RBC agglutination test were used to detect the TPHA. Results showed that using BACTEC 9050 system, the incidence of bacteria and fungus was 3.33% and 0% respectively in collected cord blood; in processed cord blood, the rates increased to 6.67% and 1.67%, respectively. The sensitivity of BACTEC 9050 was higher than that of Martin/thioglycollate broth (22 degrees C/35 degrees C) culture. In 206 serum samples, the positive rate of HBV DNA was 5.8%, HCV RNA was 2.4%, HBsAg was 2.4%, HCMV-IgM was 1.89%, HCV was 2.4% and Anti-HBC was 29.4%. In those samples that Anti-HBC was positive, the positive rate of HBV DNA was 6.7%. It was concluded that the incidences of microbiological contamination in cord blood were high. The routine culture system would lead to false negative results of obligate anaerobes. It was necessary to replace the current culture system with improved system, such as BACTEC 9050 system. The molecular biology technique would make up for the default of ELISA. PMID:12513773

  20. The effect of landscape position and aspect on chemical weathering and soil formation: contrasting field and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Román, Andrea; Giráldez, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Interest in modelling pedogenesis has increased greatly over the past few years, with the emergence of detailed pedon-scale models (e.g. Soilgen) on the one hand and landscape-scale models (e.g. marm3D, MILESD, LORICA) on the other. Pore water chemistry and chemical weathering is not (well) represented in the latter and needs to be improved in order to adequately model the evolution of soils and of the critical zone. The objective of this work is to analyse the spatial variability of chemical weathering and to develop a new soil landscape model that accounts for this. Here, we present field and model results from the Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory, S Spain. A new model, MILESD2, was developed to integrate the effect of landscape evolution and soil formation. This model is based on a daily spatially-explicit soil water balance. Average soil water content, temperature and deep percolation fluxes are linked to weathering and soil formation processes. Model input (temperature and precipitation) for the last 25 000 years was generated on a daily time by combining palaeoclimate data and the WXGEN weather generator. The soil-landscape model was applied to a 48 km2 semi-natural catchment in Southern Spain, with soils developed on granite. Model-generated runoff was used for a first validation against discharge observations. Next, soil formation output was contrasted against experimental data from 10 soil profiles along two catenas. Field data showed an important variation in mobile regolith thickness, between 0,44 and 1,10m, and in chemical weathering along the catena. Southern slopes were characterized by shallower, stonier and carbon-poor soils, while soils on north-facing slopes were deeper, more fine-textured and had a higher carbon content. Chemical depletion fraction was found to vary between 0,41 and 0,72. The lowest overall weathering intensity was found on plateau positions. South facing slopes revealed slightly lower weathering compared to north facing

  1. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  2. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Gardberg, Anna S.; Del Castillo, Alexis R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Myles, Dean A.A.

    2010-11-19

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 {angstrom} resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH{sub 3}-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the {sigma} level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 {angstrom} resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are {approx}8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0{sigma} level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 {angstrom} resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0{sigma} level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  3. Preliminary results of real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithm development for moving platforms and its performance validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jihye; Park, Kwan-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithms were developed for the purpose of getting precise coordinates of moving platforms. In this implementation, corrections for the satellite orbit and satellite clock were taken from the IGS-RTS products while the ionospheric delay was removed through ionosphere-free combination and the tropospheric delay was either taken care of using the Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model or estimated as a stochastic parameter. To improve the convergence speed, all the available GPS and GLONASS measurements were used and Extended Kalman Filter parameters were optimized. To validate our algorithms, we collected the GPS and GLONASS data from a geodetic-quality receiver installed on a roof of a moving vehicle in an open-sky environment and used IGS final products of satellite orbits and clock offsets. The horizontal positioning error got less than 10 cm within 5 minutes, and the error stayed below 10 cm even after the vehicle start moving. When the IGS-RTS product and the GPT model were used instead of the IGS precise product, the positioning accuracy of the moving vehicle was maintained at better than 20 cm once convergence was achieved at around 6 minutes.

  4. Improving testing for hepatitis B before treatment with rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Jopson, Laura; Ng, Sarah; Lowery, Matthew; Harwood, Jayne; Waugh, Sheila; Valappil, Manoj; McPherson, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Objectives/Background Individuals with current or previous infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) can experience viral reactivation when treated with immunosuppression. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody used to treat many diseases, has potent immunosuppressant effects with a high risk of causing HBV reactivation. Reactivation can range from elevated liver enzymes to acute severe hepatitis with liver failure and a significant mortality risk. HBV screening and appropriate use of prophylactic antiviral therapy can prevent reactivation. This work describes the introduction of a local policy for HBV testing in patients before rituximab treatment and assesses its impact. Methods and Results A baseline review (before policy introduction) of 90 patients showed that only 21 (23%) had hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 17 (19%) had hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBcAb) tested before receiving rituximab. Following introduction of the policy (on the basis of international guidelines), improved laboratory reporting protocols and targeted education sessions, two further reviews of HBV testing rates among patients being initiated onto rituximab were performed. There was a marked increase in pre-rituximab testing for HBsAg from 23 to 79% and for anti-HBcAb from 19 to 78%. Throughout the study period, a total of one (0.8%) HBsAg-positive and six (4.7%) anti-HBcAb-positive patients were identified. Conclusions This work clearly indicates that simple strategies can markedly improve appropriate HBV screening. In our cohort, 6% (of whom only 43% had recognized HBV risk factors) required antiviral prophylaxis, which emphasizes the importance of universal screening before rituximab. Reinforcement of the guidelines and ongoing education is needed to further increase testing rates. PMID:27388147

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccination in End-Stage Pulmonary Disease Patients Evaluated for Lung Transplantation: A Retrospective Single-Center Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Alexandra; Deterding, Lea; Maier, Melanie; Liebert, Uwe G; Berg, Thomas; Wirtz, Hubert; Wiegand, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In times of limited organs for transplantation, anti-HBc-positive organs can be accepted for lung transplantation to increase the number of donors. Transplant recipients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B to prevent HBV infection. However, response after HBV vaccination has only been poorly evaluated in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS Anti-HBs titers of 40 anti-HBc negative patients with end-stage pulmonary disease evaluated for lung transplantation were analyzed with the Architect® system (Abbott, Germany). Responders, partial responders, or non-responders after HBV vaccination were defined by anti-HBs titers >100 IU/L, 10-100 IU/L, and <10 IU/L, respectively. RESULTS There were 34/40 individuals (85%) vaccinated against hepatitis B, and 6 were not vaccinated. Response, partial response, and non-response after vaccination were observed in 10/34 (29.4%), 11/34 (32.4%), and 13/34 (38.2%) of patients, respectively. Response to vaccination did not correlate with sex, pulmonary disease, comorbidities, immunosuppressive therapy, or smoking status. CONCLUSIONS Although 85% of patients evaluated for lung transplantation were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 38.2% did not show an anti-HBs titer >10 IU/L. Thus, anti-HBs titers should be regularly monitored. Nonresponders should be considered for booster vaccinations, alternative vaccination schedules, or prophylactic treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue in case of transplantation of an anti-HBc-positive organ. PMID:27297788

  6. A rare case of Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyreoiditis, positive IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and partial IgA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Snejina; Yankova, Petja; Atanasova, Iliana; Nikolova-Vlahova, Milena; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immune deficiencies, but partial IgA deficiency is even more common. Addison's disease is a rare condition associated with primary adrenal insufficiency due to infection or autoimmune destruction of the adrenals. The association between IgA deficiency and Addison's disease is very rare. Case and laboratory data We observed a 22-year-old male patient with marked darkening of the skin, especially on the palms and areolae, jaundice on the skin and sclera, astheno-adynamia, hypotension (80/50 mm Hg), and pain in the right hypochondrium. The laboratory investigations revealed increased serum levels of total and indirect bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, negative HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HAV IgM, very low serum IgA levels (0.16 g/l) with normal IgG and IgM, negative ANA, ANCA, AMA, LKM-1, anti-GAD-60, anti-IA-2, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, a mild increase in anti-TPO antibodies titer, a marked increase in IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, with no typical changes in cellular immunity, negative T-SPOT-TB test, HLA – A*01; B*08; DRB1*03; DQB1*02, karyotype – 46, XY. Conclusions We present a rare case of partial IgA deficiency with Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyroiditis and positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. IgAD and some autoimmune disorders share several predisposing HLA genes, thus explaining the increased prevalence of IgAD in certain patient groups. PMID:27536208

  7. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  10. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  11. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  12. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  13. Pathways That Affect Wives' HIV Risk Among Serodiscordant Couples in India: Results From the Positive Jeevan Saathi Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Hennink, Monique M; Hynes, Michelle E; Yount, Kathryn M; Kosambiya, Jayesh K; Wingood, Gina M; Sutton-Brown-Fox, Camille; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study examined factors that mitigate or heighten HIV risk among HIV-negative wives in serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. Grounded theory was used to analyze 46 interviews (23 couples) where husbands were HIV-positive and wives were HIV-negative. A conceptual framework emerged from analysis from which we identified five pathways and four key behaviors: (a) safer sex, (b) no sex, (c) coercive sex, and (d) unprotected sex. Most couples either practiced safe sex or abstained from sex. Factors such as wives' assertiveness, a wife's fear of acquiring HIV, mutual understanding, positive sex communication, and a husband's desire to protect wife influenced safe sex/sexual abstinence. Factors such as desire for children, a husband's alcohol use, and intimate partner violence influenced coercive and unprotected sex. Counseling topics on sex communication, verbal and non-verbal safer sex strategies, as well as addressing intimate partner violence and alcohol use may be important in preventing risk to HIV-negative wives. PMID:26848084

  14. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  15. Preliminary results on the effect of sensor position on unobtrusive rollover detection for sleep monitoring in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Daphne I; Goubran, Rafik; Frize, Monique; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Older adults experience increased sleep movement disorders and sleep fragmentation, and these are associated with serious health consequences such as falls. Monitoring sleep fragmentation and restlessness in older adults can reveal information about their daily and long-term health status. Long-term home monitoring is only realistic within the contact of unobtrusive, non-contact sensors. This paper presents exploratory work using the pressure sensor array as an instrument for rollover detection. The sensor output is used to calculate a center of gravity signal, from which five features are extracted. These features are used in a decision tree to classify detected movements in two categories; rollovers and other movements. Rollovers were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 100% respectively, and a Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.86 when data from all sensor positions were included. Intrapositional and interpositional effects of movements on sensors placed throughout the bed are described. PMID:19965073

  16. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Flores, Geane L; de Almeida, Adilson J; Miguel, Juliana C; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Scalioni, Letícia de P; Marques, Vanessa A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-03-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) METHODS: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) RESULTS: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  17. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Geane L.; de Almeida, Adilson J.; Miguel, Juliana C.; Cruz, Helena M.; Portilho, Moyra M.; de P. Scalioni, Letícia; Marques, Vanessa A.; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Melo Villar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  18. Clinical Spectrum Time Course in Anti Jo-1 Positive Antisynthetase Syndrome: Results From an International Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Nuño, Laura; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Govoni, Marcello; Longo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Franceschini, Franco; Neri, Rossella; Castañeda, Santos; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Caporali, Roberto; Iannone, Florenzo; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Pellerito, Raffaele; Schwarting, Andreas; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Quartuccio, Luca; Bartoloni, Elena; Specker, Christof; Murcia, Trinitario Pina; La Corte, Renato; Furini, Federica; Foschi, Valentina; Corral, Javier Bachiller; Airò, Paolo; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Giannini, Margherita; Barsotti, Simone; Menke, Julia; Triantafyllias, Kostantinos; Vitetta, Rosetta; Russo, Alessandra; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Bravi, Elena; Barausse, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Roberto; Selmi, Carlo; Parisi, Simone; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Anti Jo-1 antibodies are the main markers of the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease clinically characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). These manifestations usually co-occur (for practical purpose complete forms) in the same patient, but cases with only 1 or 2 of these findings (for practical purpose incomplete forms) have been described. In incomplete forms, the ex novo occurrence of further manifestations is possible, although with frequencies and timing not still defined. The aim of this international, multicenter, retrospective study was to characterize the clinical time course of anti Jo-1 positive ASSD in a large cohort of patients. Included patients should be anti Jo-1 positive and with at least 1 feature between arthritis, myositis, and ILD. We evaluated the differences between complete and incomplete forms, timing of clinical picture appearance and analyzed factors predicting the appearance of further manifestations in incomplete ASSD. Finally, we collected 225 patients (58 males and 167 females) with a median follow-up of 80 months. At the onset, complete ASSD were 44 and incomplete 181. Patients with incomplete ASSD had frequently only 1 of the classic triad findings (110 cases), in particular, isolated arthritis in 54 cases, isolated myositis in 28 cases, and isolated ILD in 28 cases. At the end of follow-up, complete ASSD were 113, incomplete 112. Only 5 patients had an isolated arthritis, only 5 an isolated myositis, and 15 an isolated ILD. During the follow-up, 108 patients with incomplete forms developed further manifestations. Single main feature onset was the main risk factor for the ex novo appearance of further manifestation. ILD was the prevalent ex novo manifestation (74 cases). In conclusion, ASSD is a condition that should be carefully considered in all patients presenting with arthritis, myositis, and ILD, even when isolated. The ex novo appearance of further

  19. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurements. 3: Result from the southern California borderlands

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.M.

    1993-12-01

    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6 deg W, 34.6 deg N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in th e western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 +/- 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 +/- 1 mm/yr at N16 +/- 3 deg E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 +/- 1.8/yr at a direction of N38 +/- 20 deg W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  20. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in new-onset psychosis. Positive results in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Susana; Clemente, Antonio; Deng, Savannah; Bedmar, Marta; Salvador, Isabel; Herbera, Patricia; Cunill, Vanessa; Vives-Bauza, Cristòfol; Haro, Josep Maria; Canellas, Francesca; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The role of neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAs) in non-encephalitic psychosis is of recent and controversial interest. Most of the studies relating NSAs with psychosis are retrospective and only focused on the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against the NMDAR NR1 subunit (NMDAR-Abs) along with five additional NSAs in 61 first psychotic episode patients and 47 matched controls. We found two patients positive for NMDAR-Abs (3.3%). One of them was eventually considered to have been misdiagnosed and reclassified as encephalitis. The other met the criteria for bipolar I disorder, presented no neurological symptoms and had a comorbid HIV infection of vertical transmission. This is the first reported case of an HIV-infected patient with psychosis associated with NSAs. This study shows that patients presenting with clinically incomplete forms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, with predominant or isolated psychiatric symptoms, can remain undetected if no ancillary tests are performed. To improve patient diagnosis and treatment of individuals with a first psychotic episode, more detailed neurological examinations might be needed. Further studies are required to better clarify the role of NSAs in the neuropsychiatric effects of HIV infection. PMID:26996305

  1. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  2. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  3. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  4. The prevalence and correlates of receiving confirmatory HIV test results among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at a community-based testing center.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew; Wu, Elwin; Mendoza, Moira; Lowry, Blakely; Ford, Lynnette; Holloway, Ian

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of completing the HIV testing process-specifically receiving a confirmatory HIV test and returning for the results-in a sample of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at an HIV testing center in New York City. Of the 213 individuals who received a reactive rapid HIV test result, 82% received a confirmatory HIV test. Of the 236 individuals who received a positive result on a rapid or traditional HIV test that was validated by a positive confirmatory HIV test, 65% returned for the confirmatory test results. Multivariate analyses revealed that being a non-U.S. citizen, homeless/living in transitional housing, being uninsured, and testing off-site were significantly associated with completing the HIV testing process. The findings indicate the need to explore strategies that address obstacles to receiving confirmatory HIV testing and returning for the results, in addition to the feasibility of a rapid confirmatory HIV test. PMID:23016505

  5. Reduction of misleading ("false") positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity assays. III: sensitivity of human cell types to known genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Paul; Smith, Robert; Smith, Katie; Young, Jamie; Jeffrey, Laura; Carmichael, Paul; Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the seemingly high rate of "false" or "misleading" positive results from in vitro micronucleus assays (MNvit) was greater when rodent derived cell lines and certain toxicity measures, such as relative cell count or replication index, were used. These studies suggested that the use of a human cell type with functional p53 and a toxicity measure that included a function of cell proliferation could dramatically reduce the detection of misleading positive results. A reduced "false positive rate" should not be at the expense of a loss of sensitivity of the assay. Therefore, we have investigated the sensitivity of the MNvit assay to known genotoxic agents using three cell types shown previously to be less prone to misleading positives, namely human lymphocytes (HuLy), TK6 and HepG2 cells. The 17 chemicals are well characterised and are from a list of chemicals known to produce positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays. These data demonstrated a high sensitivity of the assay in which TK6 and HuLy cells were employed, such that 15 out of the 17 chemicals were correctly identified. By contrast, the use of HepG2 cells resulted in far fewer than expected positive responses. In conclusion, using TK6 and HuLy cells in preference to long established rodent cell lines in order to improve specificity does not compromise the sensitivity of the MNvit to detect known genotoxic agents. PMID:24632063

  6. Factors involved in continuance of atazanavir-based regimens: Results from a cohort of HIV1-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Andrea; Oreni, Letizia; Franzetti, Marco; Di Cristo, Valentina; Colella, Elisa; Ridolfo, Anna Lisa; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated predictive factors involved in durability and therapeutic failure of atazanavir (ATV)-based antiretroviral regimens with or without ritonavir (r) in real life setting. This retrospective study of HIV-1-positive patients evaluated the factors related to ATV continuance and the time-dependent probability of therapeutic failure (HIV-RNA >200 copies/mL and concomitant discontinuation of ATV). We also investigated the rate of therapeutic failure and the variations in total bilirubin levels from starting unboosted ATV-based regimens. The study involved 1030 patients: 183 treatment-naïve patients (17.8%) started ATV/r (17 subsequently switched to unboosted ATV); 653 (63.4%) switched to ATV/r from previous antiretroviral regimens (121 subsequently switched to unboosted ATV); and 194 (18.8%) switched to unboosted ATV from previous ATV-free regimens. The median ATV follow-up was 28 months (interquartile range 7-56). The risk of ATV discontinuation was significantly lower in patients switched to unboosted ATV from ATV/r (HR 0.45; p < 0.0001). The discontinuation of ATV correlated with female gender (HR 1.26; p = 0.035), use of a zidovudine/didanosine/stavudine containing backbone (HR 1.8; p = 0.004), and a baseline CD4+ cell counts of <200/μL (HR 1.54; p = 0.003), the last of which was also associated with a higher risk of therapeutic failure (HR 2.42; p = 0.001). Total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the patients switching from ATV/r to unboosted ATV. Unboosted ATV-based therapies are safe and effective options in patients whose immuno-virological conditions are stable, and allow the long-term survival of ATV-containing regimeans. PMID:26902109

  7. How the Body Position Can Influence High-resolution Manometry Results in the Study of Esophageal Dysphagia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciriza-de-los-Ríos, Constanza; Canga-Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Lora-Pablos, David; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Castel-de-Lucas, Isabel; Castellano-Tortajada, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The body position can influence esophageal motility data obtained with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine whether the body position influences HRM diagnoses in patients with esophageal dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods HRM (Manoscan) was performed in 99 patients in the sitting and supine positions; 49 had dysphagia and 50 had GERD assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification. Results HRM results varied in the final diagnoses of the esophageal body (EB) in patients with dysphagia (P = 0.024), the result being more distal spasm and weak peristalsis while sitting. In patients with GERD, the HRM diagnoses of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology, and EB varied depending on the position; (P = 0.063, P = 0.017, P = 0.041 respectively). Hypotensive LES, EGJ type III (hiatal hernia), and weak peristalsis were more frequently identified in the sitting position. The reliability (kappa) of the position influencing HRM diagnoses was similar in dysphagia and GERD (“LES diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.32 [0.14–0.49] and GERD 0.31 [0.10–0.52], P = 0.960; “EB diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.49 [0.30–0.69] and GERD 0.39 [0.20–0.59], P = 0.480). The reliability in “EGJ morphology” studies was higher in dysphagia 0.81 (0.68–0.94) than in GERD 0.55 (0.37–0.73), P = 0.020. Conclusions HRM results varied according to the position in patients with dysphagia and GERD. Weak peristalsis was more frequently diagnosed while sitting in dysphagia and GERD. Hypotensive LES and EGJ type III (hiatal hernia) were also more frequently diagnosed in the sitting position in patients with GERD. PMID:26130633

  8. Neurosyphilis and ophthalmic syphilis in persons with negative rapid plasma reagin and positive treponemal antibody test results.

    PubMed

    Tuddenham, Susan; Obeng, Christiana; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-06-01

    The detection of serodiscordant syphilis test results raises several important clinical and public health questions. Based on our retrospective review, the probability of neurosyphilis in persons with serodiscordant serologies is low. The probability of ophthalmic syphilis may be higher, but we lack objective measures for that diagnosis. PMID:25970316

  9. Risk of Reverse Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen in Rituximab-Treated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Yang, Ching-Fen; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Yi-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rituximab causes hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients with CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CD20+ NHL), especially for those seropositive to the antibody of core antigen (anti-HBc). Clinical hepatitis usually develops after reverse seroconversion of HBsAg (HBV-RS), indicated by the reappearance of HBsAg in serum. Because of the relatively high prevalence of anti-HBc seropositivity in unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults in an HBV hyperendemic area, we aimed to investigate additional factors influencing the development of rituximab-associated HBV-RS. Between January 2000 and December 2010, unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults with CD20+ NHL who had received rituximab-containing therapy but not anti-HBV agents were enrolled. Patients with and without HBV-RS were compared in terms of clinical factors and treatments including the number of cycles of rituximab therapy, and transplantation. Competing risk regression was used to identify the factors associated with HBV-RS. For the 482 patients enrolled, the serological status of anti-HBc was available in 75.9%, with a seropositivity rate of 86.6%. At the last follow-up, a total of 33 (6.85%) patients had HBV-RS, with 95.8% anti-HBc seropositive, 78.9% anti-HBs seropositive, and none anti-HCV seropositive. HBV-RS patients have received more cycles (≥6) and prolonged durations of rituximab therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The overall survival was not different between patients with and those without HBV-RS. At the time of HBV-RS, a total of 25 (78.1%) patients had hepatitis flare, especially when HBV-RS appeared during/after induction therapy (100%, 10 of 10). Three (9.1%) patients had fulminant hepatitis, resulting in death in 1 (3%) patient. A higher rituximab cycle intensity was associated with a higher rate of hepatitis flare at the time of HBV-RS. When death in the absence of HBV-RS was considered as the competing risk

  10. The reliability analysis of Xpert-positive result for smear-negative and culture-negative specimen collected from bone and joint tuberculosis suspects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guomei; Mu, Jing; Wang, Guirong; Huo, Fengmin; Dong, Lingling; Li, Yunxu

    2016-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been widely used for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. In clinical practice, specimen yielding smear-negative, culture-negative but Xpert-positive results is frequently confronted. Due to the notorious possibility of contamination that molecular tests always been thought of, Xpert-positive results without bacteriological supporting evidence arouse great confusions to clinicians. Methods A retrospective study was performed. From April 2014 to February 2015, 852 clinical specimens were Xpert-positive. The results of Xpert assay, bacteriological and pathological examinations from either the same specimens or from the specimens collected during same clinical operations were investigated. Results A total of 90 specimens with Xpert-positive but smear-negative and culture-negative results were recruited, and 81 of them were pus specimens collected from Bone and Joint Tuberculosis (BJTB) patients. According to the pathological examination results, 77 of the 81 pus specimens, 8 of 9 other types of specimens were confirmed as either TB or strongly suggestive of TB; three pus specimens and one biopsy tissue were also suggested TB but with less stronger evidence; only one pus specimen was not TB suggestive. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Xpert could be trusted for BJTB diagnosis even when no supporting bacteriological evidence is available in high TB prevalence settings. Our results will alleviate the confusion among clinicians in such scenarios. PMID:27293838

  11. Role of Catheter's Position for Final Results in Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Analysis Based on CSF Dynamics and Specific Drugs Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Perotti; Vicente, Villanueva; Juan Marcos, Asensio Samper; Gustavo, Fabregat-Cid

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective and safe option for the treatment of chronic pathology refractory to conventional pain therapies. Typical intrathecal administered drugs are opioids, baclofen, local anesthetics and adjuvant medications. Although knowledge about mechanisms of action of intrathecal drugs are every day more clear many doubt remain respect the correct location of intrathecal catheter in order to achieve the best therapeutic result. We analyze the factors that can affect drug distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid. Three categories of variables were identified: drug features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and patients features. First category includes physicochemical properties and pharmacological features of intrathecal administered drugs with special attention to drug lipophilicity. In the second category, the variables in CSF flow, are considered that can modify the drug distribution within the CSF with special attention to the new theories of liquoral circulation. Last category try to explain inter-individual difference in baclofen response with difference that are specific for each patients such as the anatomical area to treat, patient posture or reaction to inflammatory stimulus. We conclude that a comprehensive evaluation of the patients, including imaging techniques to study the anatomy and physiology of intrathecal environment and CSF dynamics, could become essential in the future to the purpose of optimize the clinical outcome of intrathecal therapy. PMID:24155999

  12. Positive penicillin allergy testing results: a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers published from 2010 through 2015.

    PubMed

    Harandian, Farnoush; Pham, Donavan; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2016-08-01

    β-lactam antibiotics are the most widely used group of antibiotics, given their effectiveness for the most common bacterial pathogens and their relatively low price. Adverse reactions, mainly cutaneous, are often reported to be associated with their use and hence, less effective and usually more costly alternative antibiotics are prescribed. However, it is not clear what is the risk of immediate immune-mediated (i.e. developing within one hour of administration) and potentially life-threatening reactions among those using β-lactam antibiotic. We conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of immediate adverse reactions to β-lactam antibiotics, specifically penicillin derivatives, in patients with a reported adverse reaction to β-lactam antibiotics. In addition, we determined the effect of age on the prevalence of immediate reactions. Assessing the true risk of using β-lactam antibiotics in patients with a reported allergy could prevent physicians from unnecessarily discouraging the use of β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis using the PubMed, OVID, and Embase databases of work published in English and in French in the last 5 years. Studies were only eligible if they established the prevalence of immediate penicillin reactions with skin testing or challenges in case of negative skin tests. The meta-analysis was conducted using Stata version 12.0. The prevalence of immediate reactions to penicillin derivatives in patients reporting a β-lactam hypersensitivity is 1.98% (95%CI; 1.35%, 2.60%) in the pediatric (under 18 years old) group, 7.78% (95%CI; 6.53%, 9.04%) in the adult group, and 2.84% (95%CI; 1.77%, 3.91%) in the combined group, as tested in various studies, using skin tests and oral challenges. The I(2) value ranged between 87.2% and 97.0%. Our results indicate that the prevalence of immediate reactions is higher in adults than in children. However, wide confidence intervals and a large study

  13. Prospective associations of low positive emotionality with first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders: Results from a 10-wave latent trait-state modeling study.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Ashley D; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Bobova, Lyuba; Prenoveau, Jason M; Revelle, William; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-11-01

    Unipolar depressive disorders and anxiety disorders co-occur at high rates and can be difficult to distinguish from one another. Cross-sectional evidence has demonstrated that whereas all these disorders are characterized by high negative emotion, low positive emotion shows specificity in its associations with depressive disorders, social anxiety disorder, and possibly generalized anxiety disorder. However, it remains unknown whether low positive emotionality, a personality trait characterized by the tendency to experience low positive emotion over time, prospectively marks risk for the initial development of these disorders. We aimed to help address this gap. Each year for up to 10 waves, participants (n = 627, mean age = 17 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of mood and personality and a structured clinical interview. A latent trait-state decomposition technique was used to model positive emotionality and related personality traits over the first 3 years of the study. Survival analyses were used to test the prospective associations of low positive emotionality with first onsets of disorders over the subsequent 6-year follow-up among participants with no relevant disorder history. The results showed that low positive emotionality was a risk marker for depressive disorders, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, although evidence for its specificity to these disorders versus the remaining anxiety disorders was inconclusive. Additional analyses revealed that the risk effects were largely accounted for by the overlap of low positive emotionality with neuroticism. The implications for understanding the role of positive emotionality in depressive disorders and anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:26372005

  14. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  15. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  16. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result. PMID:26864482

  17. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    PubMed

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors. PMID:1412685

  18. Reliability of Disk Diffusion Test Results for the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Nosocomial Gram-positive Microorganisms: Is E-test Method Better?

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Hossein; Soltani, Rasool; Negahban, Sorrosh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Gholami, Keirollah

    2012-01-01

    Disk diffusion test is the usual applicable method for assessing the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in most institutions and hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of resistant-reported results of disk diffusion test for 6 routinely used antibiotics against Gram-positive microorganisms of nosocomial origin, using E-test method. Over a 1-year period, clinical specimens (e.g. blood, tracheal secretions, wound secretions, urine, etc.) were obtained from hospitalized patients with defined nosocomial infection and were cultured. Isolated Gram-positive bacteria underwent disk diffusion test for cephalothin, oxacillin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, teicoplanin (only for Enterococci), and meropenem antibiotics. E-test method was performed for all isolates resistant or intermediately sensitive to the disks of any mentioned antibiotics. Data showed compatible results of disk diffusion test with the results of E-test method for cephalothin, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. None of ciprofloxacin- and vancomycin-resistant isolates in disk diffusion test showed sensitivity in E-test method. Significant differences between the results of disk diffusion and E-test methods were observed for clindamycin and meropenem against S.aureus (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) and Enterococcus spp (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). In order to increase the reliability of antimicrobial susceptibility results, it is recommended to perform E-test for nosocomial Gram-positive microorganisms that show antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion test and it is more important for clindamycin and meropenem. PMID:24250479

  19. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  20. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  1. Predictive Ability of Positive Clinical Culture Results and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, to Identify and Classify Noninvasive Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, LaRee A.; Furuno, Jon P.; Harris, Anthony D.; Singer, Mary; Langenberg, Patricia; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an algorithm to identify and classify noninvasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus by using positive clinical culture results and administrative data. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System. METHODS Data were collected retrospectively on all S. aureus clinical culture results from samples obtained from nonsterile body sites during October 1998 through September 2008 and associated administrative claims records. An algorithm was developed to identify noninvasive infections on the basis of a unique S. aureus–positive culture result from a nonsterile site sample with a matching International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM), code for infection at time of sampling. Medical records of a subset of cases were reviewed to find the proportion of true noninvasive infections (cases that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN] definition of infection). Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for all infections and according to body site of infection. RESULTS We identified 4,621 unique S. aureus–positive culture results, of which 2,816 (60.9%) results met our algorithm definition of noninvasive S. aureus infection and 1,805 (39.1%) results lacked a matching ICD-9-CM code. Among 96 cases that met our algorithm criteria for noninvasive S. aureus infection, 76 also met the NHSN criteria (PPV, 79.2% [95% confidence interval, 70.0%–86.1%]). Among 98 cases that failed to meet the algorithm criteria, 80 did not meet the NHSN criteria (NPV, 81.6% [95% confidence interval, 72.8%–88.0%]). The PPV of all culture results was 55.4%. The algorithm was most predictive for skin and soft-tissue infections and bone and joint infections. CONCLUSION When culture-based surveillance methods are used, the addition of administrative ICD-9-CM codes for infection can increase the PPV of true

  2. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8–9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49–0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01–4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities. PMID:26735548

  3. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8-9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities. PMID:26735548

  4. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Forum T.; Steinhaus French, Kathryn; Osann, Kathryn E.; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C.; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  5. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients' Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result.

    PubMed

    Shah, Forum T; French, Kathryn Steinhaus; Osann, Kathryn E; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  6. Long-term Results from Cyclocryotherapy Applied to the 3O'clock and 9O'clock Positions in Blind Refractory Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Seon; Kim, Young Jun; Seo, Seong Wook; Yoo, Ji Myong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the long-term follow-up results after cyclocryotherapy, applied to the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions in blind refractory glaucoma patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 19 blind patients, and a total of 20 eyes with refractory glaucoma who were treated with cyclocryotherapy. Cyclocryotherapy treatments were performed using a retinal cryoprobe. The temperature of each cyclocryotherapy spot was -80℃ and each spot was maintained in place for 60 seconds. Six cyclocryotherapy spots were placed in each quadrant, including the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions. Results The mean baseline pretreatment intraocular pressure (IOP) in all eyes was 50.9 ± 12.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to a mean IOP at last follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications that patients were still taking at last follow-up was 0.3 ± 0.6. Devastating post-procedure phthisis occurred in only one eye. Conclusions Cyclocryotherapy, performed at each quadrant and at the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock position, is an effective way to lower IOP and, thus, is a reasonable treatment option for refractory glaucoma patients who experience with ocular pain and headaches. PMID:25646060

  7. The reconstructed skin micronucleus assay in EpiDerm™: reduction of false-positive results - a mechanistic study with epigallocatechin gallate.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    The high rate of false-positive or misleading results in in vitro mammalian genotoxicity testing is a hurdle in the development of valuable chemicals, especially those used in cosmetics, for which in vivo testing is banned in the European Union. The reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay in EpiDerm™ (MatTek Corporation, USA) has shown promise as a follow-up for positive in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests. However, few studies have explored its better predictive performance compared with existing in vitro assays. In the present study, we followed the protocol of the RSMN assay and used eight chemicals to compare micronucleus (MN) induction with EpiDerm™ with that in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), both derived from human skin. The assessments of EpiDerm™ conformed to those of in vivo MN assay, whereas those of NHEKs did not. The effect of cell differentiation status on MN induction was further addressed using a model compound, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is a major component of green tea extract that shows positive results in in vitro mammalian genotoxicity assays via oxidative stress and negative results in in vivo MN studies. RSMN assay in an underdeveloped epidermal model, EpiDerm-201™ (MatTek Corporation), showed a negative result identical to that in EpiDerm™, indicating that the barrier function of keratinocytes has limited impact. Analysis of the gene expression profile of both EpiDerm™ and NHEKs after EGCG treatment for 12h revealed that the expression of genes related to genotoxic response was significantly induced only in NHEKs. Conversely, antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in EpiDerm™ were higher than those in NHEKs. These results indicate that EpiDerm™ has antioxidant properties similar to those of a living body and is capable of eliminating oxidative stress that may be caused by EGCG under in vitro experimental conditions. PMID:23988588

  8. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  9. Faster methods for estimating arc centre position during VAR and results from Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Winter, N.; Daniel, B.; Ward, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Direct measurement of the flow of electric current during VAR is extremely difficult due to the aggressive environment as the arc process itself controls the distribution of current. In previous studies the technique of “magnetic source tomography” was presented; this was shown to be effective but it used a computationally intensive iterative method to analyse the distribution of arc centre position. In this paper we present faster computational methods requiring less numerical optimisation to determine the centre position of a single distributed arc both numerically and experimentally. Numerical validation of the algorithms were done on models and experimental validation on measurements based on titanium and nickel alloys (Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 718). The results are used to comment on the effects of process parameters on arc behaviour during VAR.

  10. Linking HIV-positive Jail Inmates to Treatment, Care, and Social Services After Release: Results from a Qualitative Assessment of the COMPASS Program

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, Alexandra; Fu, Jeannia; Bazerman, Lauri; Loewenthal, Helen; Beckwith, Curt

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 17% of individuals living with HIV/AIDS pass through the correctional system each year. Jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose and treat HIV infection among high-risk, transient populations with limited access to medical services. In 2007, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded a multi-site demonstration project entitled Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings that aims to improve diagnosis and treatment services for HIV-positive jail detainees and link them to community-based medical care and social services upon release. We performed an evaluation of the Rhode Island demonstration site entitled Community Partnerships and Supportive Services for HIV-Infected People Leaving Jail (COMPASS). Through in-depth qualitative interviews among 20 HIV-positive COMPASS participants in Rhode Island, we assessed how COMPASS impacted access to health care and social services utilization. Most individuals were receiving HIV treatment and care services upon enrollment, but COMPASS enhanced linkage to medical care and follow-up visits for HIV and other co-morbidities for most participants. Several participants were successfully linked to new medical services as a result of COMPASS, including one individual newly diagnosed with HIV and another who had been living with HIV for many years and was able to commence highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While many individuals reported that COMPASS support prevented substance abuse relapse, ongoing substance abuse nevertheless remained a challenge for several participants. Most participants enrolled in one or more new social services as a result of COMPASS, including Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, food assistance, and housing programs. The primary unmet needs of COMPASS participants were access to mental health services and stable housing. Intensive case management of HIV-positive jail detainees enhances access to medical and social support services and helps

  11. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, CheryI L; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positive breast lesions with low (< 18, N = 55) and high (> 30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively characterize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers. PMID:26887643

  12. Effects of a Community-Based HIV Risk Reduction Intervention Among HIV-Positive Individuals: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Krishna C; Buchanan, David R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention utilizing protection motivation and social cognitive theories to address knowledge, threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Using a quasi-experimental research design, we assigned 277 participants to intervention (n=146) and control (n=131) groups. The intervention group received six sessions on sexual risk reduction strategies and the control group six sessions on medication adherence, smoking, and mental health. Data were collected at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Results indicate that the sexual risk reduction intervention produced a significant increase in HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and intentions to use condoms with regular, HIV-positive, and HIV-negative partners. The positive effects of the intervention remained significant after adjusting for baseline scores and other potential confounders. In conclusion, our theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention was effective in improving HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the intervention in increasing protection motivation and maintaining preventive behaviors. PMID:26010315

  13. Two cases of food additive-induced severe liver damage associated with positive results on lymphocyte stimulation test and for antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Rena; Ohishi, Chitose; Kim, Miniru; Shiina, Masaaki; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masazumi; Munakata, Kazuo; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of severe liver injury and positive result for antinuclear antibodies induced by food additives are reported. The first patient reported long-term intake of Mabo Ramen(®) noodle soup, nutritional supplements, and over-the-counter drugs. Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.6 mg/dL, 1,048, and 1,574 IU/L, respectively. Antinuclear antibody was 80×. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for Mabo Ramen(®) and its additives such as Xanthan gum, guar gum, and Doubanjiang. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis. The autoimmune hepatitis score was 3. The second patient reported intake of dietary supplements, including Bimore C(®) and Chokora BB(®). Laboratory tests revealed that total bilirubin was 9.8 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase was 1,130 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 1,094 IU/L. Antinuclear antibody was 320×. Co-existing pancreatic damage was confirmed by the findings on abdominal CT and elevation of serum lipase, span-1, and DUPAN-2. DLSTs were positive for both supplements. These two supplements contained additives such as titanium oxide, magnesium stearate, and hydroxypropylcellulose. DLSTs for all three additives were positive. Histologic examination revealed periportal necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration of lobular and portal areas. These two cases demonstrate that repeating DLSTs is useful for identifying causative constituents in foods and supplements. PMID:26182392

  14. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580

  15. Prevalence, Predictors, and Same Day Treatment of Positive VIA Enhanced by Digital Cervicography and Histopathology Results in a Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Geneva A.; Bradford, Leslie S.; Manga, Simon; Tih, Pius M.; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Schwaiger, Constance; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kalmakis, Karen; Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) implemented a screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46,048 medical records of women who received care through the CBCHS Women’s Health Program from 2007 through 2014 to determine the prevalence and predictors of positive VIA-DC, rates of same day treatment, and cohort prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Results Of the 44,979 women who were screened for cervical cancer, 9.0% were VIA-DC-positive, 66.8% were VIA-DC-negative, 22.0% were VIA-DC-inadequate (normal ectocervix, but portions of the transformation zone were obscured), and 2.2% were VIA-DC-uncertain (cervical abnormalities confounding VIA-DC interpretation). Risk factors significantly associated with VIA-DC-positive screen were HIV-positivity, young age at sexual debut, higher lifetime number of sexual partners, low education status and higher gravidity. In 2014, 31.1% of women eligible for cryotherapy underwent same day treatment. Among the 32,788 women screened from 2007 through 2013, 201 cases of ICC were identified corresponding to a cohort prevalence of 613 per 100,000. Conclusions High rate of VIA-DC-positive screens suggests a significant burden of potential cervical cancer cases and highlights the need for expansion of cervical cancer screening and prevention throughout the 10 regions of Cameroon. VIA-DC-inadequate rates were also high, especially in older women, and additional screening methods are needed to confirm whether these results are truly negative. In comparison to similar screening programs in sub-Saharan Africa there was low utilization of same day cryotherapy treatment. Further studies are required to characterize possible program specific barriers to treatment, for example cultural demands, health system challenges and cost of procedure. The prevalence of ICC among

  16. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants. PMID:27364289

  17. Prospective and clinical validation of ALK immunohistochemistry: results from the phase I/II study of alectinib for ALK-positive lung cancer (AF-001JP study)

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, K.; Togashi, Y.; Kamihara, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Inoue, A.; Katsuki, H.; Kiura, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Seto, T.; Maemondo, M.; Hida, T.; Harada, M.; Ohe, Y.; Nogami, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Nishio, M.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions need to be accurately and efficiently detected for ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains the reference test. Although increasing data are supporting that ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is highly concordant with FISH, IHC screening needed to be clinically and prospectively validated. Patients and methods In the AF-001JP trial for alectinib, 436 patients were screened for ALK fusions through IHC (n = 384) confirmed with FISH (n = 181), multiplex RT-PCR (n = 68), or both (n = 16). IHC results were scored with iScore. Result ALK fusion was positive in 137 patients and negative in 250 patients. Since the presence of cancer cells in the samples for RT-PCR was not confirmed, ALK fusion negativity could not be ascertained in 49 patients. IHC interpreted with iScore showed a 99.4% (173/174) concordance with FISH. All 41 patients who had iScore 3 and were enrolled in phase II showed at least 30% tumor reduction with 92.7% overall response rate. Two IHC-positive patients with an atypical FISH pattern responded to ALK inhibitor therapy. The reduction rate was not correlated with IHC staining intensity. Conclusions Our study showed (i) that when sufficiently sensitive and appropriately interpreted, IHC can be a stand-alone diagnostic for ALK inhibitor therapies; (ii) that when atypical FISH patterns are accompanied by IHC positivity, the patients should be considered as candidates for ALK inhibitor therapies, and (iii) that the expression level of ALK fusion is not related to the level of response to ALK inhibitors and is thus not required for patient selection. Registration number JapicCTI-101264 (This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center). PMID:26487585

  18. Lupus anticoagulant is the main predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes in aPL-positive patients: validation of PROMISSE study results

    PubMed Central

    Yelnik, Cecile M; Laskin, Carl A; Porter, T Flint; Branch, D Ware; Buyon, Jill P; Guerra, Marta M; Lockshin, Michael D; Petri, Michelle; Merrill, Joan T; Sammaritano, Lisa R; Kim, Mimi Y; Salmon, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that lupus anticoagulant (LAC) is the main predictor of poor pregnancy outcome in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. We sought to confirm this finding in an independent group of patients who were subsequently recruited into the PROMISSE study. Methods The PROMISSE study is a multicentre, prospective, observational study of pregnancy outcomes in women with aPL and/or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that enrolled patients from 2003 to 2015. All consecutive, aPL-positive patients from the PROMISSE study who completed their pregnancy between April 2011 and January 2015 (after the previous PROMISSE report) are included in the current report. Patients were followed monthly until delivery, and aPL was tested at first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at 12 weeks post partum. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were defined as fetal death after 12 weeks of gestation, neonatal death, delivery prior to 36 weeks of gestation due to pre-eclampsia or placental insufficiency or small-for-gestational age (birth weight <5th percentile). Results Forty-four aPL-positive patients are included in this paper. Thirteen patients had APOs, which occurred in 80% of cases during the second trimester of pregnancy. LAC was present in 69% of patients with APOs compared with 27% of patients without APOs (p=0.01). No association was found between anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) IgG or IgM positivity and APOs. Definite antiphospholipid syndrome (history of thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and aPL) was found in 92% of patients with any APOs compared with 45% of patients without APOs (p=0.004). Conversely, the frequency of SLE was not statistically different between those with and without APOs (30% vs 39%). Conclusions Our findings, in an independent group of aPL-positive patients from the PROMISSE study, confirm that LAC, but not aCL and aβ2GPI, is predictive of poor pregnancy

  19. Continuum Contrast as a function of Magnetic Flux Density and Disk Position: Results from a full Solar Cycle of SOHO/MDI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, K.; Basri, G.; Ramos-Stierle, F.; Lewis, T.; Reiners, A.; Berger, T.

    2006-12-01

    The key to understanding total solar irradiance variability is to understand the mechanisms by continuum contrast is effected by the distribution of magnetic flux across the surface of the Sun. The Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite has measured full-disk Stokes-V magnetograms along with cotemporal continuum images throughout Solar Cycle 23. We present the results of an examination of the relationship between corrected MDI continuum images with their cotemporal corrected MDI magnetograms. By separating the series of images into bins of Magnetic Flux Density (MFD) and limb angle, we perform a non-linear least squares fit to the data to produce a 3rd-order polynomial function of continuum contrast vs. MFD and disk position. Using the obtained function we can accurately predict continuum contrast at any given disk position as a function of MFD measured in a given magnetogram. The resulting predictions can be used to make simulated continuum images suitable for bolometric correction and input into total irradiance models. This research was partially supported by LWS TR&T Grant NNG05GK46G

  20. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution. PMID:27010261

  1. Quantitative hepatitis B core antibody level is associated with inflammatory activity in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Ran; Lu, Jian-Hua; Ye, Li-Hong; Sun, Xing-Li; Zheng, Yan-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Cong; Liu, Yun-Yan; Lv, Ying; Huang, Yan; Dai, Er-Hei

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels vary during different phases of disease in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and can be used as a predictor of both interferon-α and nucleoside analogue therapy response. However, there is no information on the association between the quantitative serum anti-HBc (qAnti-HBc) level and liver inflammation in CHB patients. Therefore, we investigated these relationships in a large cohort of treatment-naïve CHB patients. A total of 624 treatment-naïve CHB patients were included in the study. The serum qAnti-HBc level was moderately correlated with ALT and AST levels (P < 0.001) in both hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg [+]) and HBeAg-negative (HBeAg [-]) CHB patients. CHB patients with no to mild inflammation (G0-1) had significantly lower serum qAnti-HBc levels than patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G2-4) (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that a serum qAnti-HBc cut-off value of 4.36 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 71.68%, specificity of 73.81%, positive predictive value of 78.43%, and negative predictive value of 66.24% in HBeAg (+) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). A cut-off value of 4.62 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 54.29%, specificity of 90.00%, positive predictive value of 95.00%, and negative predictive value of 36.00% in HBeAg (-) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). Serum qAnti-HBc levels were positively associated with liver inflammation grade. Furthermore, we identified optimal serum qAnti-HBc cut-off values for the prediction of inflammation activity in both HBeAg (+) and HBeAg (-) treatment-naïve CHB patients. PMID:27559949

  2. [Position paper on the results of Symplicity HTN-3 trial. Grupo de estudio de la hipertensión arterial resistente].

    PubMed

    Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Assad-Morell, José Luis; Ponce de León-Martínez, Enrique; Monreal-Puente, Rogelio; Dávila-Bortoni, Adrián; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis Alberto; Treviño-Frutos, Ramón Javier; Barrera-Oranday, Félix; Del Angel-Soto, Juan Gustavo; Martínez, José Guadalupe; Arellano-Torres, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery denervation has shown to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. Symplicity HTN 1 and 2 trials showed in small and uncontrolled groups, significant systolic blood pressure reductions down to 30 mm Hg. Symplicity HTN-3, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial shaded this initial enthusiasm. Surprisingly, their results showed that renal denervation has a similar effect to placebo. Pre-specified subgroup analysis showed that non-black race individuals, younger than 65 years and with normal renal function, had a statistically significant systolic blood pressure decrease. This manuscript critically appraises the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, proposing possible explanations for the results. Also declares our group position and future actions regarding renal denervation. PMID:25700579

  3. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ≥2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  4. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study.

    PubMed

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K; Christensen, Lise; Jensen, Allan; Blaakaer, Jan; Jarle Christensen, I B; Høgdall, Estrid V S

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to analyse Tetranectin (TN) expression in tumour tissues and TN serum concentration in 758 women with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether TN tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using the polyclonal antibody A-371. Univariate survival analyses stratified for chemotherapy showed that positive tissue TN as demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody indicated a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0001) as well as cancer specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.0001). High serum TN was likewise found to imply longer OS (p < 0.0001) and CSS (p < 0.0001), whereas tissue staining with the two monoclonal antibodies failed to demonstrate any significant correlation with either survival type. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed on all OC cases showed a significantly longer OS (p = 0.0009) and CSS (p = 0.0006) for women with TN positive tumour tissue and in women with high serum TN levels (p < 0.0001 for both). However, in the multivariate Cox regression analysis, only serum TN was found to be an independent prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.01) and not for CSS (p = 0.08). In conclusion, our results predict that a positive TN expression of both tumour tissue and serum points to a more favourable outcome for OC patients. PMID:25846370

  5. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  6. Semiquantitative analysis of in-situ hybridization results using IMAGE software: a rapid method for counting reduced silver grains over mRNA-positive cells.

    PubMed

    Lucas, L R; Mize, R R; Harlan, R E

    1994-06-01

    The advent of microcomputers has brought about a revolution in the computing power available to the average user. Image analysis is a very resource-intensive process, making great demands on computing power, memory, and display capabilities of most computers. Thus, in the past, dedicated, single-use hardware and software had to be custom made for environments requiring image analysis. We present here an easy-to-use image analysis protocol available to most users with a Macintosh II series computer and access to IMAGE (a public domain image analysis program). The protocol allows for semi-quantitation of silver grains over cells used in the interpretation of in-situ hybridization results. We show that the method provides a quick and reliable means of counting grains over mRNA-positive cells in an automated fashion. We also provide evidence that the method can be used to detect differences between experimental treatments. PMID:7526081

  7. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Jos P. N.; IJlst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R.; Houten, Sander M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results. PMID:20490924

  8. Oscillatory movements of monooriented chromosomes and their position relative to the spindle pole result from the ejection properties of the aster and half-spindle.

    PubMed

    Rieder, C L; Davison, E A; Jensen, L C; Cassimeris, L; Salmon, E D

    1986-08-01

    During mitosis a monooriented chromosome oscillates toward and away from its associated spindle pole and may be positioned many micrometers from the pole at the time of anaphase. We tested the hypothesis of Pickett-Heaps et al. (Pickett-Heaps, J. D., D. H. Tippit, and K. R. Porter, 1982, Cell, 29:729-744) that this behavior is generated by the sister kinetochores of a chromosome interacting with, and moving in opposite direction along, the same set of polar microtubules. When the sister chromatids of a monooriented chromosome split at the onset of anaphase in newt lung cells, the proximal chromatid remains stationary or moves closer to the pole, with the kinetochore leading. During this time the distal chromatid moves a variable distance radially away from the pole, with one or both chromatid arms leading. Subsequent electron microscopy of these cells revealed that the kinetochore on the distal chromatid is free of microtubules. These results suggest that the distal kinetochore is not involved in the positioning of a monooriented chromosome relative to the spindle pole or in its oscillatory movements. To test this conclusion we used laser microsurgery to create monooriented chromosomes containing one kinetochore. Correlative light and electron microscopy revealed that chromosomes containing one kinetochore continue to undergo normal oscillations. Additional observations on normal and laser-irradiated monooriented chromosomes indicated that the chromosome does not change shape, and that the kinetochore region is not deformed, during movement away from the pole. Thus movement away from the pole during an oscillation does not appear to arise from a push generated by the single pole-facing kinetochore fiber, as postulated (Bajer, A. S., 1982, J. Cell Biol., 93:33-48). When the chromatid arms of a monooriented chromosome are cut free of the kinetochore, they are immediately ejected radially outward from the spindle pole at a constant velocity of 2 micron/min. This

  9. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  10. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, CheryI L.; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast en-hanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positivebreast lesions with low (<18, N = 55) and high (>30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively charac-terize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers. PMID:26887643

  11. Evaluation of an oral appliance in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure use: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cantore, S; Ballini, A; Farronato, D; Malcangi, G; Dipalma, G; Assandri, F; Garagiola, U; Inchingolo, F; De Vito, D; Cirulli, N

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a phenomenon of repeated, episodic reduction, or cessation of airflow (hypopnea/apnea) as a result of upper airways obstruction. First-line treatment in younger children is adenotonsillectomy, although other available treatment options in middle-aged adults include continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and airway adjuncts. Oral appliances (OA) are a viable treatment alternative in patients with OSAS.The objective of this study was to assess, in a 1-year follow-up study, an OA in OSAS patients. The participants were subjected to polysomnographic examination with a validated device (MicroMESAM). Eight participants were fitted with a Thornton Adjustable Positioner (TAP). The participants were asked to wear the test appliance for 7 nights, and in case of compliance, for 6 months. The selected patients record their usage of the appliance and any adverse effects in a treatment journal. The research focused on the following outcomes: sleep apnea (i.e. reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index) and the effect of oral appliances on daytime function.In conclusion, the results suggest that OA have a definite role in the treatment of snoring and sleep apnea. PMID:26684627

  12. Self-Management of Patient Body Position, Pose, and Motion Using Wide-Field, Real-Time Optical Measurement Feedback: Results of a Volunteer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, James M.; Price, Gareth J.; Sharrock, Phil J.; Jackson, Andrew S.N.; Stratford, Julie; Moore, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a clinical feasibility study, performed in 10 healthy volunteers undergoing a simulated treatment over 3 sessions, to investigate the use of a wide-field visual feedback technique intended to help patients control their pose while reducing motion during radiation therapy treatment. Methods and Materials: An optical surface sensor is used to capture wide-area measurements of a subject's body surface with visualizations of these data displayed back to them in real time. In this study we hypothesize that this active feedback mechanism will enable patients to control their motion and help them maintain their setup pose and position. A capability hierarchy of 3 different level-of-detail abstractions of the measured surface data is systematically compared. Results: Use of the device enabled volunteers to increase their conformance to a reference surface, as measured by decreased variability across their body surfaces. The use of visual feedback also enabled volunteers to reduce their respiratory motion amplitude to 1.7 ± 0.6 mm compared with 2.7 ± 1.4 mm without visual feedback. Conclusions: The use of live feedback of their optically measured body surfaces enabled a set of volunteers to better manage their pose and motion when compared with free breathing. The method is suitable to be taken forward to patient studies.

  13. Evaluating the velocity accuracy of an integrated GPS/INS system: Flight test results. [Global positioning system/inertial navigation systems (GPS/INS)

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Wardlaw, R.

    1991-01-01

    Verifying the velocity accuracy of a GPS receiver or an integrated GPS/INS system in a dynamic environment is a difficult proposition when many of the commonly used reference systems have velocity uncertainities of the same order of magnitude or greater than the GPS system. The results of flight tests aboard an aircraft in which multiple reference systems simultaneously collected data to evaluate the accuracy of an integrated GPS/INS system are reported. Emphasis is placed on obtaining high accuracy estimates of the velocity error of the integrated system in order to verify that velocity accuracy is maintained during both linear and circular trajectories. Three different reference systems operating in parallel during flight tests are used to independently determine the position and velocity of an aircraft in flight. They are a transponder/interrogator ranging system, a laser tracker, and GPS carrier phase processing. Results obtained from these reference systems are compared against each other and against an integrated real time differential based GPS/INS system to arrive at a set of conclusions about the accuracy of the integrated system.

  14. Effectiveness of a Behavioral Intervention for Increasing Safer Sex Behaviors in HIV-positive MSM Methamphetamine Users: Results from the EDGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine use has been associated with rising STI/HIV transmission rates, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). Interventions which successfully reduce risk for HIV transmission among this population are a public health priority. This study examined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention for increasing safer sex behaviors in the context of ongoing methamphetamine use in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM. Methods Three-hundred forty one participants from San Diego, CA were randomly assigned to receive either a safer sex behavioral intervention (EDGE) or a time-equivalent diet-and-exercise attention-control condition. Random effects regression analyses were used to evaluate change in safer sex behaviors over a 12-month period. Results Participants in the EDGE intervention engaged in significantly more protected sex acts at the 8-month (p = .034) and 12-month assessment (p = 0.007). By 12-months post-baseline, a greater percentage of protected sex acts that was observed for EDGE (25.8%) vs. control participants (18.7%) (p = 0.038). There was a significant time-by-intervention interaction (p = .018) for self-efficacy for condom use, suggesting that EDGE participants’ self-efficacy demonstrated a greater increase over time compared to control participants. Conclusions These results suggest that it is possible to reduce high risk sexual behaviors in the context of ongoing methamphetamine use among HIV-infected MSM. PMID:17182196

  15. Controlling False-Positive Results Obtained with the Hodge and Masuda Assays for Detection of Class A Carbapenemase in Species of Enterobacteriaceae by Incorporating Boronic Acid▿

    PubMed Central

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ß-lactamases (extended-spectrum β-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC β-lactamases, metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control. PMID:20181912

  16. Disciplinary Referrals for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with and without Disabilities: Patterns Resulting from School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Swain-Bradway, Jessica; Tobin, Tary J.; May, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our study was to examine if school-wide positive behavior support implementation was associated with reductions in the discipline gap. We provided outcomes from descriptive and preliminary statistical analyses of three years of office discipline referral data from elementary schools engaged in school-wide positive behavior support…

  17. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  18. Innovative integration of decommissioning and deactivation program with soil-groundwater clean up program has positive results on budget and schedule: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, Bruce G.; Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide 'end states' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources. (authors)

  19. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p < .001) was noted. The same technology was used to pass two channels of light through the scalp of brain-injured patients with prolonged, decreased level of consciousness in a tertiary care neuroscience ICU. Transmission data were collected with gross superficial-to-deep spatial resolution. Saturation calculation based on the deep signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  20. Imatinib combined with induction or consolidation chemotherapy in patients with de novo Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the GRAAPH-2003 study.

    PubMed

    de Labarthe, Adrienne; Rousselot, Philippe; Huguet-Rigal, Françoise; Delabesse, Eric; Witz, Francis; Maury, Sébastien; Réa, Delphine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Vekemans, Marie-Christine; Reman, Oumedaly; Buzyn, Agnès; Pigneux, Arnaud; Escoffre, Martine; Chalandon, Yves; MacIntyre, Elizabeth; Lhéritier, Véronique; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Thomas, Xavier; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2007-02-15

    The combination of imatinib with chemotherapy has been recently reported as very promising in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). During 2004 and 2005, 45 patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL were treated in the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAAPH) 2003 study, in which imatinib was started with HAM (mitoxantrone with intermediate-dose cytarabine) consolidation in good early responders (corticosensitive and chemosensitive ALL) or earlier during the induction course in combination with dexamethasone and vincristine in poor early responders (corticoresistant and/or chemoresistant ALL). Imatinib was then continuously administered until stem cell transplantation (SCT). Overall, complete remission (CR) and BCR-ABL real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) negativity rates were 96% and 29%, respectively. All of the 22 CR patients (100%) with a donor actually received allogeneic SCT in first CR. At 18 months, the estimated cumulative incidence of relapse, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 30%, 51%, and 65%, respectively. These 3 end points compared very favorably with results obtained in the pre-imatinib LALA-94 trial. This study confirms the value of the combined approach and encourages prospective trials to define the optimal chemotherapy that has to be combined with imatinib and to carefully reevaluate the place of allogeneic SCT in this new context. PMID:17062730

  1. Predictive Factors of Lapatinib and Capecitabine Activity in Patients with HER2-Positive, Trastuzumab-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from the Italian Retrospective Multicenter HERLAPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Stefania; Inno, Alessandro; Rossi, Valentina; Turazza, Monica; Fiorio, Elena; Fabi, Alessandra; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Foglietta, Jennifer; Santini, Daniele; Pavese, Ida; Pellegrino, Arianna; Zambelli, Alberto; Vici, Patrizia; Leonardi, Vita; Barni, Sandro; Saracchini, Silvana; Bogina, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Fabiana; Duranti, Simona; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Background There are no validated predictive markers for lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Methods Data of 148 consecutive patients treated with lapatinib and capecitabine from March 2007 to December 2013 were collected from 13 Italian institutions. Estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank test. The association of clinicopathological variables and the outcome was studied by binary logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results At a median follow-up of 41 months, median PFS and OS were 7 and 21 months, respectively. Patents with a PFS longer than 7 months had a significantly longer OS, compared with patients with a PFS equal to or shorter than 7 months (36 vs 15 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the benefit of lapatinib-based therapy in terms of PFS and OS was significantly associated with time-to-progression (TTP) on prior first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. In particular, each additional month on first-line trastuzumab based therapy was associated with a reduction in hazard of progression and death after the initiation of lapatinib-based therapy of 2% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions A longer TTP to first line trastuzumab seems to predict a prolonged PFS and OS with subsequent lapatinib and capecitabine. PMID:27224517

  2. Positively Charged Oligo[Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Scaffold Implantation Results in a Permissive Lesion Environment after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Esmaeili Rad, Melika; Grahn, Peter J.; Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Schmeichel, Ann M.; Isaq, Nasro A.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF+) scaffolds loaded with Schwann cells bridge spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions and support axonal regeneration in rat. The regeneration achieved is not sufficient for inducing functional recovery. Attempts to increase regeneration would benefit from understanding the effects of the scaffold and transplanted cells on lesion environment. We conducted morphometric and stereological analysis of lesions in rats implanted with OPF+ scaffolds with or without loaded Schwann cells 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after thoracic spinal cord transection. No differences were found in collagen scarring, cyst formation, astrocyte reactivity, myelin debris, or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) accumulation. However, when scaffold-implanted animals were compared with animals with transection injuries only, these barriers to regeneration were significantly reduced, accompanied by increased activated macrophages/microglia. This distinctive and regeneration permissive tissue reaction to scaffold implantation was independent of Schwann cell transplantation. Although the tissue reaction was beneficial in the short term, we observed a chronic fibrotic host response, resulting in scaffolds surrounded by collagen at 8 weeks. This study demonstrates that an appropriate biomaterial scaffold improves the environment for regeneration. Future targeting of the host fibrotic response may allow increased axonal regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25891264

  3. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  4. Definitive Results of a Phase III Adjuvant Trial Comparing Three Chemotherapy Regimens in Women With Operable, Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The NSABP B-38 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Sandra M.; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E.; Rastogi, Priya; Atkins, James N.; Donnellan, Paul P.; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Azar, Catherine A.; Robidoux, André; Polikoff, Jonathan A.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Biggs, David D.; Levine, Edward A.; Zapas, John L.; Provencher, Louise; Northfelt, Donald W.; Paik, Soonmyung; Costantino, Joseph P.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wolmark, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Anthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion. Results There were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). Conclusion Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed. PMID:23940225

  5. Source apportionments of PM2.5 organic carbon using molecular marker Positive Matrix Factorization and comparison of results from different receptor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jongbae; Dulger, Muaz; Olson, Michael R.; McGinnis, Jerome E.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Matsunaga, Aiko; Sioutas, Constantinos; Schauer, James J.

    2013-07-01

    Four hundred fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples collected over a 1-year period at two sites in the Los Angeles Basin were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and organic molecular markers. The results were used in a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model to obtain daily, monthly and annual average source contributions to PM2.5 OC. Results of the PMF model showed similar source categories with comparable year-long contributions to PM2.5 OC across the sites. Five source categories providing reasonably stable profiles were identified: mobile, wood smoke, primary biogenic, and two types of secondary organic carbon (SOC) (i.e., anthropogenic and biogenic emissions). Total primary emission factors and total SOC factors contributed approximately 60% and 40%, respectively, to the annual-average OC concentrations. Primary sources showed strong seasonal patterns with high winter peaks and low summer peaks, while SOC showed a reverse pattern with highs in the spring and summer in the region. Interestingly, smoke from forest fires which occurred episodically in California during the summer and fall of 2009 was identified and combined with the primary biogenic source as one distinct factor to the OC budget. The PMF resolved factors were further investigated and compared to a chemical mass balance (CMB) model and a second multi-variant receptor model (UNMIX) using molecular markers considered in the PMF. Good agreement between the source contribution from mobile sources and biomass burning for three models were obtained, providing additional weight of evidence that these source apportionment techniques are sufficiently accurate for policy development. However, the CMB model did not quantify primary biogenic emissions, which were included in other sources with the SOC. Both multivariate receptor models, the PMF and the UNMIX, were unable to separate source contributions from diesel and gasoline engines.

  6. Prevalence and trends of markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human Immunodeficiency virus in Argentine blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in blood donors of 27 transfusion centers covering the whole country over a period of eight years (2004-2011). Serologic screening assays for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV were performed in all centers and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 2 out of the 27 centers. Results The 2,595,852 samples tested nationwide from 2004 to 2011 showed that the prevalence of HBsAg decreased from 0.336% to 0.198% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HBc from 2.391% to 2.007% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HCV from 0.721% to 0.460%, (p < 0.0001) and that of anti-HIV from 0.208% to 0.200 (p = 0.075). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was unevenly distributed among the different regions of the country. Two out of 74,838 screening- negative samples were positive in NAT assays (1 HIV-RNA and 1 HCV-RNA); moreover, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA were detected in 60.29, 24.54 and 66.67% of screening-positive samples of the corresponding assays. As regards donors age, positive HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA donors were significantly older than healthy donors (46.6, 50.5 and 39.5 y respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Argentina has a low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in blood donors, with a decreasing trend for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV but not for anti-HIV over the last 8 years. The uneven distribution of transfusion-transmitted infections prevalence among the different regions of the country highlights the need to implement regional awareness campaigns and prevention. The discrepancy between samples testing positive for screening assays and negative for NAT assays highlights the problem of blood donors who test repeatedly reactive in screening assays but are not confirmed as positive upon further testing. The

  7. A study of the observed shift in the peak position of olivine Raman spectra as a result of shock induced by hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Kuebler et al. () identified variations in olivine Raman spectra based on the composition of individual olivine grains, leading to identification of olivine composition from Raman spectra alone. However, shock on a crystal lattice has since been shown to result in a structural change to the original material, which produces a shift in the Raman spectra of olivine grains compared with the original unshocked olivine (Foster et al. ). This suggests that the use of the compositional calculations from the Raman spectra, reported in Kuebler et al. (), may provide an incorrect compositional value for material that has experienced shock. Here, we have investigated the effect of impact speed (and hence peak shock pressure) on the shift in the Raman spectra for San Carlos olivine (Fo91) impacting Al foil. Powdered San Carlos olivine (grain size 1-10 μm) was fired at a range of impact speeds from 0.6 to 6.1 km s-1 (peak shock pressures 5-86 GPa) at Al foil to simulate capture over a wide range of peak shock pressures. A permanent change in the Raman spectra was found to be observed only for impact speeds greater than ~5 km s-1. The process that causes the shift is most likely linked to an increase in the peak pressure produced by the impact, but only after a minimum shock pressure associated with the speed at which the effect is first observed (here 65-86 GPa). At speeds around 6 km s-1 (peak shock pressures ~86 GPa), the shift in Raman peak positions is in a similar direction (red shift) to that observed by Foster et al. () but of twice the magnitude.

  8. A study of the observed shift in the peak position of olivine Raman spectra as a result of shock induced by hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    Kuebler et al. (2006) identified variations in olivine Raman spectra based on the composition of individual olivine grains, leading to identification of olivine composition from Raman spectra alone. However, shock on a crystal lattice has since been shown to result in a structural change to the original material, which produces a shift in the Raman spectra of olivine grains compared with the original unshocked olivine (Foster et al. 2013). This suggests that the use of the compositional calculations from the Raman spectra, reported in Kuebler et al. (2006), may provide an incorrect compositional value for material that has experienced shock. Here, we have investigated the effect of impact speed (and hence peak shock pressure) on the shift in the Raman spectra for San Carlos olivine (Fo91) impacting Al foil. Powdered San Carlos olivine (grain size 1-10 μm) was fired at a range of impact speeds from 0.6 to 6.1 km s-1 (peak shock pressures 5-86 GPa) at Al foil to simulate capture over a wide range of peak shock pressures. A permanent change in the Raman spectra was found to be observed only for impact speeds greater than ~5 km s-1. The process that causes the shift is most likely linked to an increase in the peak pressure produced by the impact, but only after a minimum shock pressure associated with the speed at which the effect is first observed (here 65-86 GPa). At speeds around 6 km s-1 (peak shock pressures ~86 GPa), the shift in Raman peak positions is in a similar direction (red shift) to that observed by Foster et al. (2013) but of twice the magnitude.

  9. Transsexual patients' psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Todarello, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of psychiatric diseases/symptoms in transsexual patients and to compare psychiatric distress related to the hormonal intervention in a one year follow-up assessment. We investigated 118 patients before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We used the SCID-I to determine major mental disorders and functional impairment. We used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for evaluating self-reported anxiety and depression. We used the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) for assessing self-reported global psychological symptoms. Seventeen patients (14%) had a DSM-IV-TR axis I psychiatric comorbidity. At enrollment the mean SAS score was above the normal range. The mean SDS and SCL-90-R scores were on the normal range except for SCL-90-R anxiety subscale. When treated, patients reported lower SAS, SDS and SCL-90-R scores, with statistically significant differences. Psychiatric distress and functional impairment were present in a significantly higher percentage of patients before starting the hormonal treatment than after 12 months (50% vs. 17% for anxiety; 42% vs. 23% for depression; 24% vs. 11% for psychological symptoms; 23% vs. 10% for functional impairment). The results revealed that the majority of transsexual patients have no psychiatric comorbidity, suggesting that transsexualism is not necessarily associated with severe comorbid psychiatric findings. The condition, however, seemed to be associated with subthreshold anxiety/depression, psychological symptoms and functional impairment. Moreover, treated patients reported less psychiatric distress. Therefore, hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect on transsexual patients' mental health. PMID:24275005

  10. Detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in oral fluid specimens and its contribution to positive results in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Ross, Wayne; Coulter, Cynthia; Adams, Laura; Rana, Sumandeep; Vincent, Michael; Soares, James

    2006-09-01

    The detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in oral fluid specimens is described, and its contribution to an immunoassay for the detection of cannabinoids is investigated. Oral fluid specimens, screened using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA), were carried forward to confirmation for both tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC-COOH using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and fifty-three specimens were analyzed, of which 143 screened positive for cannabinoids. Ninety-five (66.4%) of these specimens were positive for both THC and THC-COOH; 14 (9.7%) were positive for THC-COOH only, and 27 (18.8%) were positive for THC only. The GC-MS assay for the detection of THC-COOH in oral fluid was linear to 160 pg/mL with a limit of quantitation of 2 pg/mL. The detection of the marijuana metabolite, THC-COOH, in 76.2% of oral fluid specimens screening positive for cannabinoids is reported. As a potential defense against passive exposure claims, proposed SAMHSA regulations may require the simultaneous collection of a urine sample when oral fluid samples are used. The detection of the metabolite, THC-COOH, is a significant alternative to this approach because its presence in oral fluid minimizes the argument for passive exposure to marijuana in drug testing cases. PMID:16959132

  11. Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; François-Souquière, Sandrine; Deleplancque, Luc; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Njouom, Richard; Rouet, François

    2016-01-01

    Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010–2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%–2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%–3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%–7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%–10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB. PMID:26764909

  12. Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; François-Souquière, Sandrine; Deleplancque, Luc; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Njouom, Richard; Rouet, François

    2016-01-01

    Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010-2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%-2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%-10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB. PMID:26764909

  13. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  14. Hepatitis B virus reactivation and efficacy of prophylaxis with lamivudine in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giaccone, Luisa; Festuccia, Moreno; Marengo, Andrea; Resta, Isabel; Sorasio, Roberto; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Fiore, Francesca; Boccadoro, Mario; Rizzetto, Mario; Bruno, Benedetto; Marzano, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Patients previously infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) undergoing an allograft and recipients from HBV carrier donors are at risk of posttransplant viral reactivation. The role of prophylaxis with lamivudine remains unclear. One hundred seventeen patients, with a median age of 52 years (20-67 years), with various hematologic malignancies transplanted between 1999 and 2007 entered the study. Eighty-seven recipients negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antihepatitis B core antigen antibodies (anti-HBc), and HBV-DNA with HBsAg and HBV-DNA negative donors were defined as at low risk of HBV reactivation, whereas all the remaining 30 patients were defined as at high risk. Patients at high risk transplanted in 2005 or after received lamivudine to prevent HBV reactivation as per the Italian guidelines by the Associazione Italiana per lo Studio del Fegato (AISF). Patients at low risk did not experience HBV reactivation/hepatitis. Among the recipients at high risk, 11 of 25 anti-HBc positive, those HBsAg positive (2 of 2) or negative but transplanted from HBsAg positive donors (3 of 3) were treated with lamivudine. None of these developed HBV reactivation/hepatitis after a median follow-up of 40 months (17-55 months). Hepatitis developed in 3 anti-HBc positive untreated patients conditioned with a reduced-intensity regimen. Hepatitis B was not observed in recipients at low risk, transplanted from HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive or negative donors. Lamivudine was effective in controlling reactivation in: HBsAg positive recipients, in patients transplanted from HBsAg positive donors and in HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive recipients, who showed a significant risk of reactivation if not given prophylaxis (NCT 00876148). PMID:20060484

  15. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  16. Intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine results in an increased number of tyrosine hydroxylase immune-positive cells in the rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Wachter, B; Caradonna, S; Gittinger, K; Schläger, A; Küppers, E

    2014-11-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) results in increased proliferation and de-differentiation of rat cortical astrocytes into progenitor-like cells 4 days after lesion (Wachter et al., 2010). To find out if these cells express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, we performed immunohistochemistry in the rat cortex following intraventricular injection of 6-OHDA. Four days after injection we demonstrated a strong emergence of TH-positive (TH(+)) somata in the cortices of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. The number of TH(+) cells in the cortex of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals was 15 times higher than in sham-operated animals, where virtually no TH(+) somata occurred. Combining TH immunohistochemistry with classical Nissl stain yielded complete congruency, and ∼45% of the TH(+) cells co-expressed calretinin, which indicates an interneuron affiliation. There was no co-staining of TH with other interneuron markers or with glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or the neural stem/progenitor marker Nestin, nor could we find co-localization with the proliferation marker Ki67. However, we found a co-localization of TH with glial progenitor cell markers (Sox2 and S100β) and with polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), which has been shown to be expressed in immature, but not recently generated cortical neurons. Taken together, this study seems to confirm our previous findings with respect to a 6-OHDA-induced expression of neuronal precursor markers in cells of the rat cortex, although the TH(+) cells found in this study are not identical with the potentially de-differentiated astrocytes described recently (Wachter et al., 2010). The detection of cortical cells expressing the catecholaminergic key enzyme TH might indicate a possible compensatory role of these cells in a dopamine-(DA)-depleted system. Future studies are needed to determine

  17. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  18. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in The Netherlands in 1996 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Hahné, S J M; De Melker, H E; Kretzschmar, M; Mollema, L; Van Der Klis, F R; Van Der Sande, M A B; Boot, H J

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to assess differences in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in The Netherlands between 1996 and 2007, and to identify risk factors for HBV infection in 2007. Representative samples of the Dutch population in 1996 and 2007 were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV-DNA. In 2007, the weighted anti-HBc prevalence was 3·5% (95% CI 2·2-5·5) and the HBsAg prevalence was 0·2% (95% CI 0·1-0·4). In indigenous Dutch participants, the anti-HBc prevalence was lower in 2007 than in 1996 (P=0·06). First-generation migrants (FGMs) had a 13-fold greater risk of being HBsAg- and/or HBV-DNA-positive than indigenous Dutch participants. In indigenous Dutch participants, risk factors for anti-HBc positivity were older age and having received a blood product before 1990. In FGMs, being of Asian origin was a risk factor. In second-generation migrants, having a foreign-born partner and injecting drug use were risk factors. FGMs are the main target group for secondary HBV prevention in The Netherlands. PMID:22078095

  20. [(18) F]-Fluorodeoxy-d-glucose uptake-positive seborrhoeic keratosis on positron emission tomography may result from high expression of glucose transporter.

    PubMed

    Kariya, T; Kato, Y; Kanzaki, A; Kanda, Y; Ohara, T; Tsuboi, R

    2016-07-01

    [(18) F]-Fluorodeoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is known to be highly accurate in differentiating benign lesions from malignant lesions. In rare cases, benign tumours, viral infections and sarcoidosis of the skin have been reported to show FDG uptake, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here we report the first documented case of seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) showing increased FDG uptake. FDG PET-CT can be used to detect enhanced glycolysis of tumour cells by measuring increased levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs) indicative of higher glucose uptake. GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in this case was compared with that in PET-negative SK and two normal skin samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with paraffin-embedded tissue. The expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 was higher in PET-positive SK than in PET-negative SK or normal skin. More specifically, the expression of GLUT3 was observed only in the PET-positive case. This study revealed that high GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in SK might be associated with the uptake of FDG. PMID:26801868

  1. Point-of-Care Testing in Bathhouses: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Receiving a Positive Preliminary HIV Test Result.

    PubMed

    Genoway, Shyla; Caine, Vera; Singh, Ameeta E; Estefan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With a call to increase the accessibility of HIV testing, point-of-care testing for HIV is being readily adopted, but little attention has been paid to the experiences of people being tested at HIV point-of-care sites. Some testing environments, such as bathhouses, promote testing for HIV in higher-risk groups. In this narrative inquiry study we explored the experiences of people testing positive for HIV through point-of-care while at a bathhouse. Three narrative threads for reconsidering the practice were identified: (a) seeing complexities, understanding testing decisions in relation to time, place, and social context; (b) recognizing the impact and significance of secret and silent stories; and (c) tentative and tension-filled connections to care. It is important to understand testing experiences across time, place, and in diverse social contexts. These experiences are embedded within the larger life histories of people and raise questions about adequate support, follow-up, and counseling. PMID:26900014

  2. Adjuvant treatment of node-positive breast cancer with adriamycin-cyclophosphamide with or without radiation therapy: interim results of an ongoing clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Salmon, S E; Allen, H; Giordano, G F; Davis, S; Chase, E; Moon, T E; Heusinkveld, R S

    1982-01-01

    During 1974-1980, 138 women with node-positive stage II breast cancer were treated with either eight courses of adriamycin-cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy (82 patients) or AC chemotherapy plus comprehensive regional radiotherapy (56 patients). The overall relapse-free survival of the treated patients was significantly superior (P less than 0.001) to a comparable group of women who underwent surgery alone. This effect of adjuvant therapy was clearly manifest in all groups of patients irrespective of nodal involvement or menopausal status. To date, relapse-free survival for patients receiving AC compared to AC plus radiotherapy is not different (P = 0.7). In summary, wer have demonstrated that a brief 6-month course of adjuvant chemotherapy with AC can significantly reduce the recurrence rate in women with stage II breast cancer. PMID:7036279

  3. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  4. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  5. 75 FR 22813 - Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 29519), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same title. FDA... Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test Results for Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen (Anti... Hepatitis B Core Antigen (Anti- HBc),'' dated May 2010. The guidance document provides recommendations...

  6. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  7. Prevalence and determinants of prone sleeping position in infants: results from two cross-sectional studies on risk factors for SIDS in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlaud, M; Eberhard, C; Trumann, B; Kleemann, W J; Poets, C F; Tietze, K W; Schwartz, F W

    1999-07-01

    The authors investigated whether there was a decline in infants sleeping prone and other modifiable risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Germany, where, as in some other countries, no nationwide intervention campaign against the prone sleeping position had been initiated. Data were obtained from parents by mailed questionnaires in two cross-sectional studies in 1991 (n = 3,330) and 1995 (n = 3,124). Prevalence of prone sleeping decreased from 37.6% to 8.7% (p < 0.05) in the German population and from 44.1% to 32.0% (p < 0.05) in the Turkish immigrant population. Parents who laid their infants prone in 1995 were less likely to follow advice from physicians, public media, and other parents (relative risks < 0.5, p < 0.05) and were more likely to have a low educational level, to be <20 years old, to be single parents, to have two or more children, to be raised in West Germany, or to be of Turkish ethnicity. Although the information on prone sleeping being a risk factor for SIDS became known among the population, these data suggest that subgroup-specific public intervention campaigns may be needed to reduce the prevalence of prone sleeping even further in those countries where no nationwide campaign has been initiated. PMID:10400554

  8. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  9. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  10. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  11. Possible Positive Results of the Current Fiscal Crisis in Higher Education. Panel Session: Learning to Live on Less--The Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calais, Mary Jane

    The increasing use of management techniques may be viewed as a beneficial result of the financial problems currently being experienced by many community colleges. The college budget should be goal-oriented and the basis for a good management system. When properly used as a planning technique, the budget can become a vehicle for considering and…

  12. When Library Surveys Result in Positive Action: A Success Story. A Report of a Library Survey at the University of Tennessee/Chattanooga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murgai, Sarla R.

    This report presents the results of a 1996 survey of library users at the Lupton Library at the University of Tennessee/Chattanooga that was designed to determine the needs of library clientele, identify areas of strength, and establish goals for the future. Comments of the faculty are reported related to staff, materials, computers, facilities,…

  13. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning. PMID:19184497

  14. A Recombinant Multiepitope Protein for Hepatitis B Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marilen Queiroz; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; dos Santos, José Carlos; Soares, Marcus Vinicius; de Nóbrega, Yanna C.; Álvares, Alice da Cunha Morales; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a liver inflammation caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be diagnosed in clinical stage by hepatitis B core antibody from IgM class (anti-HBcIgM). Hepatitis B core antibody from IgG class (Anti-HBcIgG) appears quickly after IgM, reaching high titers in chronic hepatitis, and remains even after cure. Since hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) is the first antibody identified and sometimes the only marker detected during the course of infection, it can be used both to indicate HBV acute infection (anti-HBc-IgM) and to identify individuals who have come into contact with the virus (anti-HBc-IgG). In this work we propose a recombinant hepatitis B core multiepitope antigen (rMEHB) to be used for diagnosis of hepatitis B. For this purpose, a synthetic gene coding for rMEHB was designed and cloned into vector pET21a with a 6xHis tag at the C-terminal. Time course induction in E. coli showed an induced protein with an apparent molecular mass of ~21 kDa. Protein purification was performed by a single step with affinity chromatography Ni-NTA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated rMEHB as a thermal stable protein at pH 7.0 and 8.0. In these conditions rMEHB was successfully used to perform an enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) with positive and negative sera. PMID:24294596

  15. The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade at high positive incidence angle. 1: Experimental techniques and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made using a one-component laser Doppler velocimeter in the boundary layer and near wake about a double circular arc, compressor blade in cascade. The measurements were made at a chord Reynolds number of 500,000. Boundary layer measurements on the pressure surface indicate a transition region over the last 40% of the chord. A small separation bubble near the leading edge of the suction surface results in an immediate transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The non-equilibrium turbulent boundary layer separates near the trailing edge of the suction surface. Similarity of the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer ceases to exist in the separated region. Also, similarity does not hold in the near-wake region, a region which includes negative mean velocities because of the separation near the trailing edge on the suction surface.

  16. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert; Rees, Chris A.; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff; Kazembe, Peter N.; Kim, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. Methods A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected program data. Results Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5,293/5,615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics, and 49.4% (6,871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71), and inadequate number of HIV counselors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Conclusions Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardized PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure, and human resources. PMID:26806378

  17. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  18. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage. PMID:27165342

  19. Implementation of Departmental Quality Strategies Is Positively Associated with Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Study in 73 Hospitals in 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the amount of time and resources invested in implementing quality programs in hospitals, few studies have investigated their clinical impact and what strategies could be recommended to enhance its effectiveness. Objective To assess variations in clinical practice and explore associations with hospital- and department-level quality management systems. Design Multicenter, multilevel cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Seventy-three acute care hospitals with 276 departments managing acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture, and stroke in seven countries. Intervention None. Measures Predictor variables included 3 hospital- and 4 department-level quality measures. Six measures were collected through direct observation by an external surveyor and one was assessed through a questionnaire completed by hospital quality managers. Dependent variables included 24 clinical practice indicators based on case note reviews covering the 4 conditions (acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture and stroke). A directed acyclic graph was used to encode relationships between predictors, outcomes, and covariates and to guide the choice of covariates to control for confounding. Results and Limitations Data were provided on 9021 clinical records by 276 departments in 73 hospitals. There were substantial variations in compliance with the 24 clinical practice indicators. Weak associations were observed between hospital quality systems and 4 of the 24 indicators, but on analyzing department-level quality systems, strong associations were observed for 8 of the 11 indicators for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical indicators supported by higher levels of evidence were more frequently associated with quality systems and activities. Conclusions There are significant gaps between recommended standards of care and clinical practice in a large sample of hospitals. Implementation of department-level quality strategies was significantly

  20. Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning is not only related to genomic DNA compaction but also to other biological functions. After the chromatin is digested by micrococcal nuclease, nucleosomal (nucleosome-bound) DNA fragments can be sequenced and mapped on the genomic DNA sequence. Due to the development of modern DNA sequencing technology, genome-wide nucleosome mapping has been performed in a wide range of eukaryotic species. Comparative analyses of the nucleosome positions have revealed that the nucleosome is more frequently formed in exonic than intronic regions, and that most of transcription start and translation (or transcription) end sites are located in nucleosome linker DNA regions, indicating that nucleosome positioning influences transcription initiation, transcription termination, and gene splicing. In addition, nucleosomal DNA contains guanine and cytosine (G + C)-rich sequences and a high level of cytosine methylation. Thus, the nucleosome positioning system has been conserved during eukaryotic evolution.

  1. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  2. Persistence of Anti-HBs Among Palestinian Medical Students After 18 - 22 Years of Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B infection is a global public health problem affecting various sectors in the society. Vaccination is the first line measure to prevent the disease. Objectives: To assess the persistence of anti-HBs marker among medical students after 18 - 22 of vaccination as an indicator for Hepatitis B virus vaccine efficacy. Patients and Methods: In this study, 249 Palestinian medical students vaccinated at birth, 1, and 6 months of age using Engerix™-B starting from 1992 were studied. About 58% (144/249) of the students were Palestinians holding Israeli citizenship, while 42% (105/249) were Palestinians from the West Bank. Students were tested serologically for anti-HBs, as a marker for vaccine-induced immunity. Results: Over 75% (188/248) of students had levels of anti-HBs greater than 10 mIU/mL indicating immunity and protection. Five cases had positive results for anti-HBc indicating exposure to HBV infection; however, none of these cases showed any sign of HBV-DNA indicating effective clearance of the virus by the vaccine. Around 57% of the study group had anti-HBs level of 100 - 1000 mIU/mL. No significant association was found between anti-HBs level and age, sex, locality and level of anti-HBc (P > 0.05). The students were aware of different aspects of hepatitis B infection regarding the virus, symptoms, prevention and mode of transmission. Conclusions: The Palestinian and Israeli official policies to give a booster dose for risk groups like medical students at anti-HBs level below 10 mIU/mL should continue to ensure absolute protection. The currently-used vaccine and its time program cleared virus from students believed to have been exposed to the virus during their lifetime. PMID:26834785

  3. Suboptimal Detection of Influenza Virus in Adults by the Directigen Flu A+B Enzyme Immunoassay and Correlation of Results with the Number of Antigen-Positive Cells Detected by Cytospin Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Marie L.; Ferguson, David

    2003-01-01

    To provide 24-h influenza diagnosis for adults presenting to the emergency department, the Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in the chemistry laboratory during the night shift. Nasopharyngeal swabs were retested by cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence (DFA; SimulFluor respiratory screen) when the virology laboratory opened. The influenza EIA detected 16 influenza A virus infections, whereas cytospin-enhanced DFA detected 31 influenza A virus infections as well as 3 respiratory syncytial virus, 2 adenovirus, and 1 parainfluenza virus infections. A positive EIA result usually correlated with 50 or more influenza virus cells positive by DFA. PMID:12843105

  4. Durability of Antibody Response Against Hepatitis B Virus in Healthcare Workers Vaccinated as Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Abdalla, Adil; Rivera, Elenita; Zhao, Xiongce; Werner, Jens M.; Liang, T. Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Rehermann, Barbara; Ghany, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Follow-up studies of recipients of hepatitis B vaccine from endemic areas have reported loss of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in a high proportion of persons vaccinated at birth. In contrast, the long-term durability of antibody in persons vaccinated as adults in nonendemic areas is not well defined. We aimed to assess the durability of anti-HBs among healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated as adults and response to a booster among those without protective levels of antibody. Methods. Adult HCWs aged 18–60 at the time of initial vaccination were recruited. All were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and anti-HBs level. HCWs with anti-HBs <12 mIU/mL were offered a booster and levels were measured 1, 7, and 21 days afterward. Results. Anti-HBs levels were <12 mIU/mL in 9 of 50 (18%), 13 of 50 (26%), and 14 of 59 (24%) HCWs 10–15, 16–20, and >20 years postvaccination, respectively, (P = ns). Four HCWs were anti-HBc positive; none had HBsAg. By logistic regression, older age at vaccination was the only predictor of inadequate anti-HBs level (P = .0005). Thirty-four of 36 subjects with inadequate anti-HBs levels received a booster and 32 (94%) developed levels >12 mIU/mL within 3 weeks. Conclusions. Anti-HBs levels decrease after 10–31 years and fall below a level considered protective in approximately 25% of cases. The rapid and robust response to a booster vaccine suggests a long-lasting amnestic response. Hepatitis B vaccination provides long-term protection against hepatitis B and booster vaccination does not appear to be necessary in HCWs. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01182311. PMID:25389254

  5. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  6. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-01

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health. PMID:26857411

  7. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  8. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  9. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  10. Living positively as HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Garraty, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    A nursing student records a brief biography of a Zambian nurse and certified midwife living with HIV/AIDS while shadowing the nurse during an undergraduate cross-cultural course in Macha, Zambia in January 2009. The nurse strives to live positively, educating, encouraging, and empowering others. PMID:21294466

  11. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk

  12. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  13. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  14. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  15. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  16. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  17. Molecular basis of an adult form of Sandhoff disease: substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 505 of the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase results in a labile enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, P A; Ponne, N J; Bikker, H; Baas, F; Vianney de Jong, J M

    1993-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of GM2 ganglioside due to mutations in the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. Hexosaminidase activity is negligible in infantile Sandhoff disease whereas residual activity is present in juvenile and adult forms. Here we report the molecular basis of the first described adult form of Sandhoff disease. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNA indicated the absence of chromosomal deletions in the gene encoding the beta-chain. Northern analysis of RNA from cultured fibroblasts demonstrated that at least one of the beta-chain alleles was transcribed into normal-length mRNA. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA prepared from poly-adenylated RNA showed that only one point mutation was present, consisting of a G-->A transition at nucleotide position 1514. This mutation changes the electric charge at amino acid position 505 by substitution of glutamine for arginine in a highly conserved part of the beta-chain, present even in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The nucleotide transition generated a new restriction site for DdeI, which was present in only one of the alleles of the patient. Reverse transcription of mRNA followed by restriction with DdeI resulted in complete digestion at the mutation site, demonstrating that the second allele was of an mRNA-negative type. Transfection of COS cells with a cDNA construct containing the mutation but otherwise the normal sequence resulted in the expression of a labile form of beta-hexosaminidase. These results show that the patient's is a genetic compound, and that the lability of beta-hexosaminidase found in this form of Sandhoff disease is based on a single nucleotide transition. PMID:8357844

  18. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  19. Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, E; Suprianto, S; McBroom, J; Currie, B J; Anstey, N M

    2001-03-01

    A problem with rapid Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection tests for malaria is the persistence of antigen in blood after the disappearance of asexual-stage parasitemia and clinical symptoms, resulting in false-positive (FP) test results following treatment. The ICT P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test detects both HRP2 and a panmalarial antigen (PMA) found in both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. To examine posttreatment antigen persistence with this test and whether persistent sexual-stage forms (gametocytes) are a cause of FP tests after treatment, we compared serial antigen test results with microscopy results from patients symptomatic with P. falciparum malaria in Indonesia for 28 days following treatment with chloroquine (CQ; n = 66), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; n = 36), and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART + SP; n = 15). Persistent FP antigenemia following SP treatment occurred in 29% (HRP2) and 42% (PMA) of the patients on day 7 and in 10% (HRP2) and 23% (PMA) on day 14. The high rates of persistent HRP2 and PMA antigenemia following CQ and SP treatment were strongly associated with the presence of gametocytemia, with the proportion with gametocytes on day 7 posttreatment being significantly greater in those with FP results than in those with true-negative PMA and HRP2 results. Gametocyte frequency on day 14 post-SP treatment was also greater in those with FP PMA results. Following SP treatment, PMA persisted longer than HRP2, giving an FP diagnosis of P. vivax in up to 16% of patients on day 14, with all FP P. vivax diagnoses having gametocytemia. In contrast, PMA was rapidly cleared following ART + SP treatment in association with rapid clearance of gametocytemia. Gametocytes appear to be an important cause of persistent posttreatment panmalarial antigenemia in areas of endemicity and may also contribute in part to persistent HRP2 antigenemia following treatment. PMID:11230422

  20. Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in Japan: Efficacy of Nucleos(t)ide Analogues for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Shingo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Sakaida, Emiko; Ohwada, Chikako; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Takeda, Yusuke; Mimura, Naoya; Iseki, Tohru; Wu, Shuang; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; Saito, Kengo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 413 recipients with hematologic malignancies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between June 1986 and March 2013. Recipients with antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and/or to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were regarded as experiencing previous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Clinical data of these recipients were reviewed from medical records. We defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase in serum HBV DNA from nadir as HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive recipients, and also defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase or re-appearance of HBV DNA and/or HBsAg as HBV reactivation in HBsAg-negative recipients. In 5 HBsAg-positive recipients, 2 recipients initially not administered with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) experienced HBV reactivation, but finally all 5 were successfully controlled with NUCs. HBV reactivation was observed in 11 (2.7%) of 408 HBsAg-negative recipients; 8 of these were treated with NUCs, and fortunately none developed acute liver failure. In 5 (6.0%) of 83 anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive recipients, HBV reactivation occurred. None of 157 (0%) recipients without HBsAg, anti-HBs or anti-HBc experienced HBV reactivation. In HSCT recipients, HBV reactivation is a common event in HBsAg-positive recipients, or in HBsAg-negative recipients with anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs. Further attention should be paid to HSCT recipients with previous exposure to HBV. PMID:25421241

  1. Prospective Clinical Utility Study of the Use of the 21-Gene Assay in Adjuvant Clinical Decision Making in Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Results From the SWITCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Pivot, Xavier B.; Jacot, William; Naman, Hervé L.; Spaeth, Dominique; Misset, Jean-Louis; Largillier, Rémy; Sautiere, Jean-Loup; de Roquancourt, Anne; Pomel, Christophe; Rouanet, Philippe; Rouzier, Roman; Penault-Llorca, Frederique M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The 21-gene Oncotype DX Recurrence Score assay is a validated assay to help decide the appropriate treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), early-stage breast cancer (EBC) in the adjuvant setting. The choice of adjuvant treatments might vary considerably in different countries according to various treatment guidelines. This prospective multicenter study is the first to assess the impact of the Oncotype DX assay in the French clinical setting. Methods. A total of 100 patients with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative EBC, and node-negative (pN0) disease or micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes (pN1mi) were enrolled. Treatment recommendations, physicians’ confidence before and after knowing the Recurrence Score value, and physicians’ perception of the assay were recorded. Results. Of the 100 patients, 95 were evaluable (83 pN0, 12 pN1mi). Treatment recommendations changed in 37% of patients, predominantly from chemoendocrine to endocrine treatment alone. The proportion of patients recommended chemotherapy decreased from 52% pretest to 25% post-test. Of patients originally recommended chemotherapy, 61% were recommended endocrine treatment alone after receiving the Recurrence Score result. For both pN0 and pN1mi patients, post-test recommendations appeared to follow the Recurrence Score result for low and high values. Physicians’ confidence improved significantly. Conclusion. These are the first prospective data on the impact of the Oncotype DX assay on adjuvant treatment decisions in France. Using the assay was associated with a significant change in treatment decisions and an overall reduction in chemotherapy use. These data are consistent with those presented from European and non-European studies. Implications for Practice: This study shows that in estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative early breast cancer (either node-negative or with micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes

  2. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  3. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. PMID:27559984

  4. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  5. Lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between trastuzumab and carboplatin in the presence of docetaxel: results from a phase Ib study in patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally advanced inoperable solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Stephen; Gordon, Michael S; Redfern, Charles H; Trudeau, Caroline; Xu, Na; Han, Kelong; Lum, Bert L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction (DDI) between trastuzumab and carboplatin and to evaluate the potential effect of trastuzumab on the electrocardiogram QT interval. Here, we report the results of the PK DDI assessment and an interim safety analysis. Patients with metastatic or locally advanced, inoperable, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancer received docetaxel and carboplatin on cycle 1, day 1 and then on day 1 of each subsequent 3-weekly treatment cycle. Trastuzumab was administered by intravenous infusion, with an accelerated loading dose on cycle 1, day 2 and cycle 1, day 8, and then a maintenance dose on day 1 of each subsequent 3-weekly treatment cycle. Blood was collected at various time points to assess free (unbound) plasma carboplatin and serum trastuzumab PK. The study enrolled 59 patients. Carboplatin concentrations in the presence and absence of trastuzumab were similar, as demonstrated by the geometric mean ratios for PK parameters, which were close to 1.0 (no effect). The observed trastuzumab concentrations were similar to the values predicted by population PK modelling on the basis of a prediction-corrected visual predictive check, computed using the actual sampling time. In this interim safety analysis, 84.5% of patients had experienced adverse events of grade three or higher, the most common of which were hematologic and as expected. The results suggest that there is no clinically relevant PK DDI between carboplatin and trastuzumab. The safety profile of trastuzumab plus carboplatin and docetaxel was consistent with the known safety profile of this combination. PMID:25643049

  6. Precise optical positions of radio sources in the FK 4-system. II - Results from 28 sources on the northern hemisphere and a preliminary comparison of the optical-radio reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vegt, C.; Gehlich, U. K.

    1982-09-01

    Precise optical positions of 28 optical counterparts of extragalactic radio sources in the northern hemisphere have been derived using different long focus telescopes. The source positions are referred to the FK 4-system by the AGK 3 RN reference star catalogue as a primary reference frame; a system of secondary reference stars of intermediate brightness mυ = 12-14 has been obtained from the 23-cm astrograph of the Hamburg Observatory. A preliminary comparison of the optical and quasi absolute radio reference frame has been performed using a provisional averaged catalogue of radio positions. Significant systematic differences with local amplitudes up to 0".2 have been found, mainly in declination.

  7. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  8. A novel intronic splice site deletion of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain results in expression of a dysfunctional protein and T-cell-positive X-linked Severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Gray, P E A; Logan, G J; Alexander, I E; Poulton, S; Roscioli, T; Ziegler, J

    2015-02-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is caused by mutations in the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain and classically presents in the first 6 months of life with predisposition to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. In most instances, affected individuals are lymphopenic with near complete absence of T cells and NK cells. We report a boy who presented at 12 months of age with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and a family history consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. He had a normal lymphocyte count including the presence of T cells and a broad T-cell-receptor diversity, as well as normal surface expression of the common gamma chain (CD132) protein. He however had profound hypogammaglobulinaemia, and IL-2-induced STAT5 phosphorylation was absent. Sequencing of IL-2RG demonstrated a 12-base pair intronic deletion close to the canonical splice site of exon 5, which resulted in a variety of truncated IL2RG mRNA species. A review of the literature identified 4 other patients with T-cell-positive X-SCID, with the current patient being the first associated with an mRNA splicing defect. This case raises the question of how a dysfunctional protein incapable of mediating STAT5 phosphorylation might nonetheless support T-cell development. Possible explanations are that STAT5-mediated signal transduction may be less relevant to IL7-receptor-mediated T-cell development than are other IL7R-induced intracellular transduction pathways or that a low level of STAT5 phosphorylation, undetectable in the laboratory, may be sufficient to support some T-cell development. PMID:25443657

  9. Postoperative dose-dense sequential versus concomitant administration of epirubicin and paclitaxel in patients with node-positive breast cancer: 5-year results of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group HE 10/00 phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Gogas, Helen; Dafni, Urania; Karina, Maria; Papadimitriou, Christos; Batistatou, Anna; Bobos, Mattheos; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Eleftheraki, Anastasia G; Timotheadou, Eleni; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Christos; Markopoulos, Christos; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Samantas, Epaminontas; Kosmidis, Paris; Stathopoulos, George P; Karanikiotis, Charisios; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Fountzilas, George

    2012-04-01

    To explore the impact of dose intensity (DI) in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer, a randomized phase III trial was conducted comparing postoperative dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)in high-risk breast cancer patients. From Oct 2000 to June 2005, 1,121 node-positive patients were randomized to dose-dense sequential epirubicin 110 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol Myers-Squibb, Princeton, NJ) 250 mg/m(2) (group A), or concurrent epirubicin 83 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel 187 mg/m(2) (group B), both followed by three cycles of "intensified" combination chemotherapy with CMF. By protocol design total cumulative dose and duration of treatment were identical in both groups. Dose intensity of epirubicin and paclitaxel was double in the dose-dense arm. Prophylactic treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was given with the dose-dense treatments. Disease-free survival (DFS) was the primary endpoint. At a median follow-up of 76 months, 253 patients (23%) had documented disease relapse (123 vs. 130 in groups A and B, respectively) and 208 deaths (101, group A and 107, group B) had been observed. The 5-year DFS rate of 74 and 74% and OS rate of 86 and 85% were observed for group A and group B, respectively. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the two treatment groups (P = 0.78 and P = 0.45 for DFS and OS, respectively). Safety analysis results showing that both regimens were well tolerated and safe have been previously published (Fountzilas et al. Ann Oncol 2008). No DFS or OS benefit from the dose-dense sequential epirubicin and paclitaxel was detected when compared to the concurrent administration of the same drugs. No additional safety issues were raised with long-term follow-up. PMID:22187126

  10. Serological markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with HIV/AIDS and active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito B; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Barreto, Silvana; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima Pessoa Militão

    2016-06-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife. J. Med. Virol. 88:996-1002, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26580855

  11. [Mammaplasty: the "love position"].

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Paraskevas, A; Lantieri, L

    2004-02-01

    The authors describe a new position of the patient that enables the surgeon to perform a bilateral and synchronous mammaplasty, without switching sides. The patient is first raised in the sitting position, then the thigh and leg holders of the operating table are spread out to a 45-60 degrees angle. The surgeon stands in between the thighs, where he faces the chest and can operate on the breasts. The entire operation is performed by the surgeon, approaching both breasts simultaneously without the need for switching positions. The direct and central access, along with the continuing visual control of the shaping, turns the operation into a simple and faster one with better control of the cosmetic result. PMID:15013529

  12. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  13. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  14. p53-independent activation of the hdm2-P2 promoter through multiple transcription factor response elements results in elevated hdm2 expression in estrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Monika; Darley, Matthew; Primrose, John N; Blaydes, Jeremy P

    2003-05-15

    The negative-regulatory feedback loop between p53 and hdm2 forms part of a finely balanced regulatory network of proteins that controls cell cycle progression and commitment to apoptosis. Expression of hdm2, and its mouse orthologue mdm2, is known to be induced by p53, but recent evidence has demonstrated mdm2 expression can also be regulated via p53-independent pathways. However the p53 independent mechanisms that control transcription of the human hdm2 gene have not been studied. Differential levels of hdm2 mRNA and protein expression have been reported in several types of human malignancy, including breast cancers in which hdm2 expression correlates with positive estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) status. Experimental models have demonstrated that hdm2 overexpression can promote breast cancer development. Here, we show that the elevated level of hdm2 protein in ERalpha(+ve) breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 and T47D is because of transcription from the p53-inducible P2 promoter of hdm2. The P2 promoter is inactive in ERalpha(-ve) cell lines such as SKBr3. Hdm2-P2 promoter activity in T47D cells is independent of p53, as well as of known regulators of the mouse mdm2-P2 promoter, including ERalpha and ras-raf-mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We show that hdm2-P2 activity in T47D cells is dependent on the integrity of both an evolutionarily conserved composite binding site for AP1 and ETS family transcription factors (AP1-ETS) and a nonconserved upstream (nnGGGGC)(5) repeat sequence. Lack of hdm2-P2 activity in ERalpha(-ve) cells is shown to be a consequence of reduced transcriptional activation through the AP1-ETS element. Overexpression of ETS2 in SKBr3 cells reconstitutes AP1-ETS element-dependent hdm2-P2 promoter activity, resulting in increased levels of hdm2 protein in the cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that the elevated levels of hdm2 expression reported

  15. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  16. Prophylactic antiviral therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in hepatitis B virus patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Jia-Lu; Zou, Wai-Yi; Xu, Duo-Rong; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the timing, safety and efficacy of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: This prospective study recruited a total of 57 patients diagnosed with malignant hematological diseases and HBV infection at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 2006 and 2013. The patients were classified as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive or HBsAg-negative/ antiHBc-positive. Patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogues. Patients underwent allo-HSCT when serum HBV DNA was < 103 IU/mL. Following allo-HSCT, antiviral therapy was continued for 1 year after the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy. A total of 105 patients who underwent allo-HSCT and had no HBV infection were recruited as controls. The three groups were compared for incidence of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), drug-induced liver injury, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, death and survival time. RESULTS: A total of 29 of the 41 subjects with chronic GVHD exhibited extensive involvement and 12 exhibited focal involvement. Ten of the 13 subjects with chronic GVHD in the HBsAg(-)/hepatitis B core antibody(+) group exhibited extensive involvement and 3 exhibited focal involvement. Five of the 10 subjects with chronic GVHD in the HBsAg(+) group exhibited extensive involvement and 5 exhibited focal involvement. The non HBV-infected group did not differ significantly from the HBsAg-negative/antiHBc-positive and the HBsAg-positive groups which were treated with nucleoside analogues in the incidence of graft-vs-host disease (acute GVHD; 37.1%, 46.9% and 40%, respectively; P = 0.614; chronic GVHD; 39%, 40.6% and 40%, respectively; P = 0.98), drug-induced liver injury (25.7%, 18.7% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.7), death (37.1%, 40.6% and 52%, respectively; P = 0.4) and survival times (P = 0.516). One

  17. [HCV prevalence in health workers].

    PubMed

    Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A

    1999-01-01

    The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401

  18. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  19. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  20. Seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among participants of an Asian health fair in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Stephen; Ford, Jo-Ann; Lau, Kirby; Marquez, Vladimir; Guan, Marisa; Klassen, Carolyn; Chan, Jessica; Kwan, WC Peter; Krajden, Mel; Yoshida, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, in Canada, but varying rates have been reported in different populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalences of HBV and HCV among attendees of an Asian health fair in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia, as well as to correlate questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status to serological profiles. METHODS: Attendees at an Asian health fair were invited to participate in the present study on a voluntary basis. They provided answers to a questionnaire including ethnicity and vaccination status. Blood was then drawn for HBV and HCV serology. Active HBV was defined as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive while HCV seroprevalence was defined as HCV antibody reactive. Previous exposure to HBV was defined as HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positive and HBsAg negative. Nonimmunity was defined as anti-HBc negative and HBV surface antibody negative. Only those with correct demographic information matched to serological results were included in the study. RESULTS: There were 192 consenting attendees of the fair, of whom 112 were included in the study. Of the participants, 91% were Chinese. Active HBV infection was found in three participants (2.7% [95% CI 0.6% to 7.6%]) and HCV infection was found in two participants (1.8% [95% CI 0.2% to 6.3%]). More than 40% of participants had been previously exposed to HBV (42% [95% CI 33% to 51%]). Almost 20% demonstrated nonimmunity to HBV (19% [95% CI 12% to 27%]). There was significant discordance when questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status were compared with serological profiles. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalences of HBV and HCV in this cohort were 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively – higher than nationally reported rates. Our results highlight that the lack of knowledge of HBV infection and vaccination status remains a significant clinical issue in the Asian community of British Columbia. PMID

  1. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  2. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  3. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  4. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  5. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection is associated with gastric cancer in China: an endemic area of both diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, X-L; Qiu, M-Z; Jin, Y; Huang, Y-X; Wang, R-Y; Chen, W-W; Wang, D-S; Wang, F; Luo, H-Y; Zhang, D-S; Wang, F-H; Li, Y-H; Xu, R-H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was demonstrated to be a risk factor of several cancers of the digestive system. In addition, liver cirrhosis, which could possibly result from chronic HBV infection, was associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer. However, the association of HBV infection and gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods: A retrospective case–control study with 580 cases and 580 controls matched for age, sex and year of diagnosis was conducted. The associations between gastric cancer and HBV infection were explored with univariate and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positively associated with gastric cancer (AOR (95% CI): 1.49 (1.06–2.10)). This association remained significant in patients without family history of gastric cancer (AOR (95% CI): (1.06–2.11)). For HBsAg-negative population, being anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative, which possibly indicated occult HBV infection, was also found to have some associations with gastric cancer. In addition, some synergistic effects between HBV infection and blood type A in gastric cancer were identified. Conclusions: The HBV infection was positively related with gastric cancer, especially for patients without family history of gastric cancer. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship. PMID:25695484

  7. Imatinib use immediately before stem cell transplantation in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) Study Ph+ALL04

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itaru; Kodama, Yuichi; Sato, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Keisuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Motohiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Saito, Akiko M; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of imatinib into chemotherapeutic regimens has improved the prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL). We investigated a role of imatinib immediately before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Children with Ph+ALL were enrolled on JPLSG Ph+ALL 04 Study within 1 week of initiation of treatment for ALL. Treatment regimen consisted of Induction phase, Consolidation phase, Reinduction phase, 2 weeks of imatinib monotherapy phase, and HSCT phase (Etoposide+CY+TBI conditioning). Minimal residual disease (MRD), the amount of BCR–ABL transcripts, was measured with the real-time PCR method. The study was registered in UMIN-CTR: UMIN ID C000000290. Forty-two patients were registered and 36 patients (86%) achieved complete remission (CR). Eight of 17 patients (47%) who had detectable MRD at the beginning of imatinib monotherapy phase showed disappearance or decrease in MRD after imatinib treatment. Consequently, 26 patients received HSCT in the first CR and all the patients had engraftment and no patients died because of complications of HSCT. The 4-year event-free survival rates and overall survival rates among all the 42 patients were 54.1 ± 7.8% and 78.1 ± 6.5%, respectively. Four of six patients who did achieve CR and three of six who relapsed before HSCT were salvaged with imatinib-containing chemotherapy and subsequently treated with HSCT. The survival rate was excellent in this study although all patients received HSCT. A longer use of imatinib concurrently with chemotherapy should eliminate HSCT in a subset of patients with a rapid clearance of the disease. PMID:25641907

  8. Imatinib use immediately before stem cell transplantation in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) Study Ph(+) ALL04.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itaru; Kodama, Yuichi; Sato, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Keisuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Motohiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Saito, Akiko M; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-05-01

    Incorporation of imatinib into chemotherapeutic regimens has improved the prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL). We investigated a role of imatinib immediately before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Children with Ph(+) ALL were enrolled on JPLSG Ph(+) ALL 04 Study within 1 week of initiation of treatment for ALL. Treatment regimen consisted of Induction phase, Consolidation phase, Reinduction phase, 2 weeks of imatinib monotherapy phase, and HSCT phase (Etoposide+CY+TBI conditioning). Minimal residual disease (MRD), the amount of BCR-ABL transcripts, was measured with the real-time PCR method. The study was registered in UMIN-CTR: UMIN ID C000000290. Forty-two patients were registered and 36 patients (86%) achieved complete remission (CR). Eight of 17 patients (47%) who had detectable MRD at the beginning of imatinib monotherapy phase showed disappearance or decrease in MRD after imatinib treatment. Consequently, 26 patients received HSCT in the first CR and all the patients had engraftment and no patients died because of complications of HSCT. The 4-year event-free survival rates and overall survival rates among all the 42 patients were 54.1 ± 7.8% and 78.1 ± 6.5%, respectively. Four of six patients who did achieve CR and three of six who relapsed before HSCT were salvaged with imatinib-containing chemotherapy and subsequently treated with HSCT. The survival rate was excellent in this study although all patients received HSCT. A longer use of imatinib concurrently with chemotherapy should eliminate HSCT in a subset of patients with a rapid clearance of the disease. PMID:25641907

  9. Prospective long-term minimal residual disease monitoring using RQ-PCR in RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive acute myeloid leukemia: results of the French CBF-2006 trial.

    PubMed

    Willekens, Christophe; Blanchet, Odile; Renneville, Aline; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Pautas, Cécile; Guieze, Romain; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude; Boissel, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, the prognostic value of early minimal residual disease assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most important prognostic factor, but how long-term minimal residual disease monitoring may contribute to drive individual patient decisions remains poorly investigated. In the multicenter CBF-2006 study, a prospective monitoring of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples was performed every 3 months and every year, respectively, for 2 years following intensive chemotherapy in 94 patients in first complete remission. A complete molecular remission was defined as a (RUNX1-RUNX1T1/ABL1)×100 ≤ 0.001%. After the completion of consolidation therapy, a bone marrow complete molecular remission was observed in 30% of the patients, but was not predictive of subsequent relapse. Indeed, 8 patients (9%) presented a positive bone marrow minimal residual disease for up to 2 years of follow-up while still remaining in complete remission. Conversely, a peripheral blood complete molecular remission was statistically associated with a lower risk of relapse whatever the time-point considered after the completion of consolidation therapy. During the 2-year follow-up, the persistence of peripheral blood complete molecular remission was associated with a lower risk of relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 8.2%), while molecular relapse confirmed on a subsequent peripheral blood sample predicted hematological relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 86.9%) within a median time interval of 3.9 months. In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, minimal residual disease monitoring on peripheral blood every 3 months allows for the prediction of hematological relapse, and to identify patients who could potentially benefit from intervention therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID #NCT00428558). PMID:26635039

  10. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Elite Assay and the Panther-System for Individual NAT Screening of Blood, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, Tissue and Organ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. Methods ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Results Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p < 0.001) which included non-heart-beating (‘cadaveric’) donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. Conclusion The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors.

  11. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  12. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  13. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  14. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  15. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  16. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  17. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  18. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  19. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  20. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  1. Optical positions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurs, E. J. A.

    1984-04-01

    Optical positions are calculated for 26 active galaxies (mainly Markarian dn Arakelian objects), using the plate-measuring apparatus at Leiden Observatory on the O plates of the Palomar Sky Survey and applying AGK-3 data in the reductions. The results are presented in a table and have accuracy 0.5 arcsec; a comparison with the positions determined by Clements (1981, 1983) for 19 objects reveals a possible offset of -0.28 arcsec in the right-ascension determinations.

  2. JASMINE position reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Jasmine Working Group

    We introduce a Japanese plan of infrared space astrometry JASMINE-project operating at z-band whose central wavelength is 0 9 micron JASMINE is the satellite Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration which will measure the distances and apparent motions of stars in the Milky Way with yet unprecedented precision It will measure parallaxes positions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec year for stars brighter than z 14mag JASMINE can observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge components of our Galaxy which are hidden by the interstellar dust extinction in optical bands Number of stars with sigma pi 0 1 in the direction of the Galactic central bulge is about 1000 times larger than those observed in optical bands where pi is a parallax and sigma is an error of the parallax With the completely new map of the Milky Way it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy Presently JASMINE is in a development phase with a target launch date around 2015 We adopt the following instrument design of JASMINE in order to get the accurate positions of many stars We adopt a 3-mirrors optical system modified Korsch system with a primary mirror of 1m On the astro-focal plane we put dozens of new type of CCDs for z-band to get a wide field of view The accurate measurements of the astrometric parameters requires the instrument line-of-sight highly stability and the opto-mechanical highly stability of the payload in the JASMINE

  3. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  4. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  5. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  6. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positivity was collected in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Results indicated that economic pressure was indirectly associated with adolescent positivity through parental positivity. Economic pressure was negatively associated with parent positivity, whereas parental positivity was positively associated with parenting. Moreover, parental positivity and parenting were both related to positivity in adolescence. Results suggest that personal resources linked to a positive outlook can foster nurturant parenting, even in times of economic strain. Such parenting seems to positively influence adolescent development into emerging adulthood. PMID:25678730

  7. Serology based disease status of Pakistani population infected with Hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Soahil Zahoor; Malik, Salman Akbar; Naeem, Asif; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Angez, Mehar; Khan, Anis; Butt, Javed Aslam

    2007-01-01

    Background The infection rate of hepatitis B virus is continuously increasing in Pakistan. Therefore, a comprehensive study of epidemiological data is the need of time. Methods A total of 1300 individuals were screened for HBV infection markers including HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBcAg. The association of these disease indicators was compared with patients' epidemiological characteristics like age, socio-economic status and residential area to analyze and find out the possible correlation among these variables and the patients disease status. Results 52 (4%) individuals were found positive for HBsAg with mean age 23.5 ± 3.7 years. 9.30%, 33.47% and 12% individuals had HBeAg, antibodies for HBsAg, and antibodies for HBcAg respectively. HBsAg seropositivity rate was significantly associated (p = 0.03) with the residing locality indicating high infection in rural areas. Antibodies titer against HBsAg decreased with the increasing age reflecting an inverse correlation. Conclusion Our results indicate high prevalence rate of Hepatitis B virus infection and nationwide vaccination campaigns along with public awareness and educational programs are needed to be practiced urgently. PMID:17597512

  8. "Positive Discipline": Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four articles in this special section discuss (1) ideas for making discipline a positive experience for child care staff and children (Karen Stephens); (2) scenarios illustrating the power of adult messages to children (Karen Stephens); (3) classroom environments that facilitate positive discipline (Marjorie K. Kostelnik); and (4) strategies for…

  9. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  10. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  11. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  12. Gender differences in hepatitis C seroprevalence and suboptimal vaccination and hepatology services uptake amongst substance misusers.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Muchandidemba; Williams, Hugh; Hill, Samuel L; Tibble, Jeremy; Verma, Sumita

    2012-11-01

    Injecting drug users are the principal at risk group for blood borne viruses. The aim was to assess the feasibility of screening substance misusers for blood borne viruses, and to offer appropriate vaccinations/referral to hepatology services. This was a nurse led prospective 6-month study based at a large Substance Misuse Service in south east England. Of the 196 consecutive individuals assessed, 81 were eligible for HBV immunization of whom only 33.3% completed a vaccination course. Prevalence of positive serological markers were: anti-HBc 14.4%, HBsAg 1.5%, and HCV antibody 37.9%. Compared to men, women were more likely to accept blood borne virus testing (83.3% vs. 62.3%), have ever injected (89.6% vs. 76.3%), overdose (54.2% vs. 23.6%), be anti-HBc positive (27.5% vs. 8.8%), drink alcohol above national recommended guidelines (41.7% vs. 25.7%), and have a positive HCV serology (55% vs. 30.4%) (P ≤ 0.05 for all). Of the 73 individuals identified with a positive HBsAg and or HCV antibody, only 14 (19.1%) were known to hepatology services and 8 (20%) of those eligible subsequently accepted a specialist referral. In conclusion, serological markers for blood borne viruses remain high in substance misusers (anti-HBc 14.4%, HCV antibody 37.9%), with women more likely to be positive. Overall, only 33.3% and 20%, respectively, complete HBV vaccination and accept a hepatology referral. A multidisciplinary approach is paramount to address both the blood borne viruses and the substance misuse and realignment of hepatitis services to Substance Misuse Services may offer such a strategy. PMID:22997076

  13. Absence of Correlation between IL-28B Gene Polymorphisms and the Clinical Presentation of Chronic Hepatitis B in an Amazon Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Conde, Simone Regina Souza; Rocha, Luciana L.; Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Soares Monteiro, Julius Caesar Mendes; Fonseca Filgueiras, Nathália Karla; de Almeida Lins, Pedro Alves; Silva dos Santos, Bruna Tereza; Bonfim Freitas, Felipe; da Silva Graça, Ednelza; Demachki, Sâmia; Ferreira de Araújo, Marialva Tereza; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the prevalence of the IL-28B polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 in chronic hepatitis B patients from a case study in Eastern Amazonia. Methods. In total, 65 chronically infected HBV patients and 97 healthy subjects who were anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive (control group) were evaluated between May 2011 and December 2012. The groups of patients were designated as inactive carriers, chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis based on clinical, pathological, biochemical, hematological, and virological variables. The patients were genotyped using quantitative real-time PCR. Results. The frequencies of the rs12979860 polymorphism were similar between the infected group (32.3% CC, 41.5% CT, and 26.2 TT) and the control population (35% CC, 47.4% CT, and 17.6% TT), and the frequencies of the rs8099917 polymorphism (7.7% GG, 35.4% GT, and 56.9% TT versus 7.2% GG, 35.1% GT, and 57.7% TT) were also similar in both groups. The associations between the rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and the clinical manifestations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. In conclusion, these polymorphisms had a similar distribution between infected and control groups, indicating that they were not associated with susceptibility and the clinical evolution of hepatitis B in the examined population. PMID:24817780

  14. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  15. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  16. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients. PMID:24992542

  17. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; González Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries. PMID:26315766

  18. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  19. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  20. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  1. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  2. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  3. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  4. The positivity scale.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-09-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure positivity, defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college participants. In Study 2, the unidimensionality of the P Scale was corroborated with confirmatory factor analysis in 2 independent samples (N₁ = 322; N₂ = 457). In Study 3, P Scale invariance across sexes and its relations with self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, positive negative affect, depression, and the Big Five provided further evidence of the internal and construct validity of the new measure in a large community sample (N = 3,589). In Study 4, test-retest reliability of the P Scale was found in a sample of college students (N = 262) who were readministered the scale after 5 weeks. In Study 5, measurement invariance and construct validity of P Scale were further supported across samples in different countries and cultures, including Italy (N = 689), the United States (N = 1,187), Japan (N = 281), and Spain (N = 302). Psychometric findings across diverse cultural context attest to the robustness of the P Scale and to positivity as a basic disposition. PMID:22250591

  5. Automated stereotactic positioning system.

    PubMed

    Goerss, S J; Kelly, P J; Kall, B A

    1987-01-01

    An automated stereotactic machine has been interfaced to a surgical computer to complete a totally interactive surgical system capable of locating tumor volumes. Stepper motors, activated by the host computer, drive a three-dimensional slide to position the patient's head with respect to a fixed arc, locating the surgical target. Linear encoders on each axis create a closed-loop positioning system and a digital display for visual inspection of the slide's position. The 160-mm arc directs all instrumentation to its isocenter, regardless of the two angular settings, providing maximum freedom in selecting a safe trajectory to the target. Phantom test points compatible with computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging were repeatedly scanned to determine the overall system accuracy, which approached 0.6 mm, depending on the spatial resolution of the image. This stereotactic device may be used to perform stereotactic laser craniotomies, biopsies, 192Ir implants for interstitial radiation, third ventriculostomies and functional procedures. PMID:3329830

  6. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  7. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  8. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  9. Head and neck position sense.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    fails to be appropriately integrated in the CNS, errors in head position may occur, resulting in an inaccurate reference for HNPS, and conversely if neck proprioceptive information is inaccurate, then control of head position may be affected. The cerebellum and cortex also play a role in control of head position, providing feed-forward and modulatory influences depending on the task requirements. Position-matching tasks have been the most popular means of testing position sense in the cervical spine. These allow the appreciation of absolute, constant and variable errors in positioning and have been shown to be reliable. The results of such tests indicate that errors are relatively low (2-5 degrees). It is apparent that error is not consistently affected by age, a finding similar to studies undertaken in peripheral joints. Furthermore, the range of motion in which subjects are tested does not consistently affect accuracy in a predictable manner. However, it is evident that impairments in position sense are observed in individuals who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and individuals with chronic head and neck pain of non-traumatic origin (e.g. cervical spondylosis). While researchers advocate comprehensive retraining protocols, which include eye and neck motion targeting tasks and coordination exercises, as well as co-contraction exercises to reduce such impairments, some studies show that more general exercises and manipulation may be of benefit. Overall, there is limited information concerning the efficacy of treatment programmes. PMID:18201114

  10. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  11. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  12. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  13. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  14. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  15. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  16. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  17. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  18. Positive Attitude Toward Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethalto Community Unit District 8, IL.

    Project Positive Attitude Toward Learning (PATL) grew out of an identified need by the Bethalto Community Unit No. 8 schools to improve student self-concept and attitudes toward school. The basic approach used in project PATL is to change teacher behavior which, in turn, causes change to take place in student behavior. The mechanism for affecting…

  19. Positive Discipline. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane

    Understanding why children do not behave the way they used to, and why both controlling and overly-permissive discipline styles are ineffective, is the first step for parents and teachers who are facing child-discipline problems. This book describes a program of positive discipline principles aimed at assisting parents and teachers in…

  20. A Positive Report Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Sally G.

    A high school English teacher found that one easy way to keep the idea of positive reinforcement foremost in her mind when she works with students was to use writing portfolios. A Portfolio Assessment project was designed in which portfolios were used in two sophomore and two junior regular English classes. A flexible plan was developed for using…

  1. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  2. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer.

  3. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  4. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  5. The Teacher's Social Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziiatdinova, Fliura Gazizovna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a survey conducted in the Tatar Republic of the Soviet Union involving over 800 teachers, students, and parents. Reports that the study investigated opinions about teachers' social position. Indicates widespread agreement concerning the teaching profession's low prestige. Explores reasons for the profession's low prestige through an…

  6. Variation in natural head position and establishing corrected head position.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A L; Sampson, W J; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Corrected head position (CHP) has been simulated by using the Frankfurt horizontal (FH) for over 100 years but FH varies between individuals. Because CHP is biologically relevant for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, orthognathic surgical planning, and art, this study examined relationships between head position and selected cephalometric planes. Natural head position cephalograms of Aboriginal Australians and two contemporary samples from private orthodontic practices were analysed. Each sample comprised 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The Aboriginal Australian sample comprised longitudinal data (T1 early adolescent, T2 late adolescent, and T3 adult), enabling examination of natural head position (NHP) reproducibility over a period of approximately 8 years. Results of reproducibility differences revealed an absolute mean=2.9°, range=-7.9° to 8.2°, and standard deviation=3.6°. Stable basicranial line (SBL), neutral horizontal axis (NHA), FH, palatal plane (P plane), and Krogman-Walker plane (KW plane) demonstrated near parallelism and their mean angulations from the true horizontal (HOR) ranged between -4.6° and 2.4°. While NHP is not consistently reproducible at the individual level, the combined use of multiple planes such as SBL, P plane, and KW plane enables a more consistent CHP to be achieved. PMID:24785580

  7. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Dong, Guang-Chang

    2004-07-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm, we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption algorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown. PMID:15495308

  8. Video image position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, W.; Anderson, F. L.; Kortegaard, B. L.

    1990-04-01

    The present invention generally relates to the control of video and optical information and, more specifically, to control systems utilizing video images to provide control. Accurate control of video images and laser beams is becoming increasingly important as the use of lasers for machine, medical, and experimental processes escalates. In AURORA, an installation at Los Alamos National Laboratory dedicated to laser fusion research, it is necessary to precisely control the path and angle of up to 96 laser beams. This invention is comprised of an optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  9. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  10. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  11. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  12. SPA: Solar Position Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) calculates the solar zenith and azimuth angles in the period from the year -2000 to 6000, with uncertainties of +/- 0.0003 degrees based on the date, time, and location on Earth. SPA is implemented in C; in addition to being available for download, an online calculator using this code is available at http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/spa.html.

  13. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  14. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  15. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  16. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  17. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  18. Positional information, in bits

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448

  19. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  20. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  1. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis. PMID:27245718

  2. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  3. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  4. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions priormore » to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.« less

  5. False-Positive Results in a Recombinant Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Nucleocapsid-Based Western Blot Assay Were Rectified by the Use of Two Subunits (S1 and S2) of Spike for Detection of Antibody to SARS-CoV

    PubMed Central

    Maache, Mimoun; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Rajoharison, Alain; Perret, Magali; Berland, Jean-Luc; Pouzol, Stéphane; Bagnaud, Audrey; Duverger, Blandine; Xu, Jianguo; Osuna, Antonio; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), a Western blot assay was performed by using a panel of 78 serum samples obtained, respectively, from convalescent-phase patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (30 samples) and from healthy donors (48 samples). As antigen for detection of SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N) showed high sensitivity and strong reactivity with all samples from SARS-CoV patients and cross-reacted with all serum samples from healthy subjects, with either those obtained from China (10 samples) or those obtained from France (38 serum samples), giving then a significant rate of false positives. Specifically, our data indicated that the two subunits, S1 (residues 14 to 760) and S2 (residues 761 to 1190), resulted from the divided spike reacted with all samples from SARS-CoV patients and without any cross-reactivity with any of the healthy serum samples. Consequently, these data revealed the nonspecific nature of N protein in serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV compared with the S1 and S2, where the specificity is of 100%. Moreover, the reported results indicated that the use of one single protein as a detection antigen of SARS-CoV infection may lead to false-positive diagnosis. These may be rectified by using more than one protein for the serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV. PMID:16522785

  6. Revised position on natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    At the 2000 Fall Meeting in December, the AGU Council reaffirmed a revised version of AGU's position statement, “Meeting the Challenges of Natural Hazards.” This position was first adopted in 1996. The revised version (see accompanying text box) contains the same message as the original, but in concise language more easily understood by policy-makers and other non-scientists.The statement calls for more research in the geophysical processes to help understand the nature of natural hazards. However, it also clearly indicates that research alone will not improve the ability of society to withstand a natural disaster. Multidisciplinary approaches involving groups as disparate as builders, insurers, and relief organizations are required to improve mitigation efforts worldwide. The policy statement also emphasizes the need to communicate the results of scientific research to the public, especially those communities situated in areas particularly susceptible to extreme natural hazards.

  7. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llope, W. J.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Asselta, K.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Butterworth, J.; Camarda, T.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Dong, X.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Hammond, J.; Judd, E.; McDonald, D. L.; Perkins, C.; Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J.; Schambach, J. J.; Soja, R.; Xin, K.; Yang, C.

    2014-09-01

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

  8. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  9. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  10. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  11. Positional Information, in bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.

  12. Hepatitis B virus reactivation after withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei Ping; Wang, Xiao Pei; Zheng, Wen; Ping, Ling Yan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Gui Qiang; Song, Yu Qin; Zhu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The exact incidence and severity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy (delayed HBV reactivation) is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 107 newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with HBV infection who received chemotherapy. The median time from the cessation of antitumor therapy to the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy was 6.1 months. The incidence of delayed HBV reactivation was 21.7% in HBsAg-positive group and 0 in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive group (P < 0.001). No HBV-related fulminant hepatitis or hepatitis-related death occurred. The multivariate analysis showed that female gender and lengthy cycles of chemotherapy (>8 cycles) were independent risk factors of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients. In conclusion, prophylactic antiviral therapy could be withdrawn 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients. However, a longer course of prophylactic antiviral drug administration may be an optimal option to prevent delayed HBV reactivation for HBsAg-positive patients. PMID:26727044

  13. Hepatitis B prevalence and treatment needs among Tibetan refugees residing in India.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kathleen; Palmo, Trinley; Wangchuk, Tsering; Solomon, Sunil; Dierberg, Kerry; Hoffmann, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Untreated chronic hepatitis B can lead to liver failure and/or liver cancer. These complications can be avoided through prevention with vaccination or treatment of disease. To inform health policy for the Tibetan community in India, we conducted study of hepatitis B prevalence and treatment needs. We conducted a cross-sectional study over 3 months of 2013. Households were randomly selected for participation via a satellite map; one boarding school and one residential monastery were also included. Participants were asked questions and a whole blood sample was collected for HBsAg assay. Participants with a positive HBsAg result were tested for hepatitis B e antigen, ALT, and AST. Participants with a negative HBsAg result were tested for anti-hepatitis B core antibodies. We recruited 2,769 participants; of which 247 (8.9%) were positive for HBsAg. Participants more likely to have a positive HBsAg result were those born in Tibet (12.4%) and aged 30-59 years old. Of those with a positive HBsAg result, 60.7% were positive for hepatitis B e antigen 7% of whom fit into a likely treatment-needed category; the others fit into management categories requiring repeat ALT testing with or without liver fibrosis assessment. Among participants negative for HBsAg, 52.9% from household sampling had anti-HBc antibodies. We identified a high endemicity of chronic hepatitis B in a Tibetan community in India. Resource appropriate approaches are needed for managing chronic hepatitis B in settings such as this one. J. Med. Virol. 88:1357-1363, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26822932

  14. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  15. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  16. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  17. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  18. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy. PMID:21393967

  19. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  20. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  1. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  2. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  3. [Positive skin test and age

    PubMed

    Forte, W C; Júnior, F F; Filho, W D; Shibata, E; Henriques, L S; Mastroti, R A; Guedes, M da S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: We observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool). We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11 months; Group III: 4 to 8 years and 11 months; and Group IV: 9 to 15 years. We used the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The total significant differences between these groups were: I to II = 5; II to III = 5; II to IV = 5; III to IV = 6; I to III = 10; and I to IV = 10. CONCLUSION: Skin test reactivity is acquired progressively with age, and can be observed as early as at 12 months. Reactivity is significantly more positive from the age of 4 on. PMID:14647601

  4. Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    CAO, LI-HAU; ZHAO, PEI-LI; LIU, ZHI-MIN; SUN, SHAO-CHUN; XU, DONG-BO; ZHANG, JI-DONG; SHAO, MEI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs in inhibiting father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Nucleoside analogs compete with HBV DNA polymerase substrate to inhibit DNA polymerase, thus preventing the replication of HBV DNA. A case group and control group were recruited for the study. Between March 2006 and March 2012 at the Liver Disease Center of Qinhuangdao Third Hospital, a total of 201 couples were recruited for the case group. In each case, the father tested positive the following HBV markers: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibodies against the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and HBV DNA. In total, 189 male patients presented with abnormal liver function (94.0%; 189/201). Prior to pregnancy, all the males in the case group were required to test negative for HBV DNA and exhibit normal liver function, while the females were required to test positive for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). In total, 188 couples comprised the control group. The couples were recruited between March 2006 and March 2012 in the Prenatal Clinic of Qinhuangdao Women's and Children's Hospital. The fathers tested positive for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc and HBV DNA. With regard to the females, HBsAg tests were all negative and anti-HBs tests were positive. In the case group, there were no HBsAg-positive or HBV DNA-positive newborns, while anti-HBs tests were all positive; thus, the father-to-infant HBV vertical transmission was successfully inhibited. In the control group, 147/188 newborns tested positive for anti-HBs at birth, accounting for 78.2%. In addition, 28 newborns were positive for HBV DNA (14.9%), and 19 newborns tested positive for HBsAg (10.1%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to these parameters. However, no statistically significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, birth height, 1- and 8-min

  5. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  6. SQUID position sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Rodney

    1996-11-01

    I describe the development of an inductance position sensor for the STEP (satellite test of the equivalence principle) accelerometer. I have measured the inductance (with an experimental error of 0.5%) of a single-turn thin-film niobium pick-up coil as a function of the distance from a thin-film niobium disc (both at 4.2 K and superconducting). The circular pick-up coil had a diameter of 4 cm with a track width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img1. The disc (mock test mass) had a diameter of 4 cm. The distance range between the coil and disc was set by the range of a low-temperature differential capacitance sensor: 0 - 2 mm with a resolution of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img2. The full range of the low-temperature translation stage was 0 - 4 mm. The inductance was measured using an LCR meter in a four-wire configuration. The measured inductance was compared to the inductance of a circular loop above a superconducting plane. Due to the fact that the thin-film disc is of finite size, the calculation differed from experiment by as much as 12%. I have also calculated the inductance by segmenting the thin-film niobium disc into 500 concentric rings (each with a width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img3). A discrepancy between calculation and experiment of approximately 3% was found.

  7. [Strategies for preventing de novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation (II)].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castroagudín, Javier

    2014-07-01

    Although active immunization against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) through vaccination constitutes a fundamental strategy in the prevention of infection by this virus, it is not effective in isolation for preventing de novo HBV infections in recipients of liver grafts from core antigen antibody (anti-HBc) positive donors. In this situation, the risk of developing de novo hepatitis B depends on the recipient's serological status. It has been shown that, for vaccinated patients and in the absence of prophylaxis with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues and/or hyperimmune gamma globulin, the prevalence and cumulative incidence of HBV infection after transplantation is an intermediate risk. The absence of a surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) titer cutoff considered protective, the gradual reduction of these titers after vaccination, the presence of false positives for anti-HBs in patients undergoing infusion of blood products and escape mutations of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could explain this lack of efficacy. For this reason, it is recommended that vaccination protocols be implemented universally, along with the follow-up of the level of protection in patients with cirrhosis, adding prophylaxis with analogues when receiving a graft from an anti-HBc-positive donor. Clinical and serological surveillance alone can be considered for patients with anti-HBs levels greater than 200 mUI/mL after vaccination. PMID:25087712

  8. A potential association between exposure to hepatitis B virus and small bowel adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M.; Mehta, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has never been described as a risk factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma, although infection is a known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. From May 2009 to December 2014, we implemented an institution-wide screening program for hepatitis B viral serologies prior to starting chemotherapy. Evidence of exposure [hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity] was highest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (21.1%), followed by small bowel cancer (12.5%). The small bowel adenocarcinoma cases with anti-HBc positivity were reviewed. Special attention was paid to known risk factors for small bowel cancers. One patient had a diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). However, the other patients had no genetic syndromes, history of inflammatory bowel disease or other chronic inflammation to explain their risk. We postulate exposure to bile acids, tumorigenesis of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and/or damage to the intestinal mucosa secondary to HBV exposure/infection as potential mechanisms for development of small bowel adenocarcinoma. More research is warranted to further elucidate this association. PMID:27284484

  9. A potential association between exposure to hepatitis B virus and small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Mehta, Mamta; Ludwig, Emmy

    2016-06-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has never been described as a risk factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma, although infection is a known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. From May 2009 to December 2014, we implemented an institution-wide screening program for hepatitis B viral serologies prior to starting chemotherapy. Evidence of exposure [hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity] was highest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (21.1%), followed by small bowel cancer (12.5%). The small bowel adenocarcinoma cases with anti-HBc positivity were reviewed. Special attention was paid to known risk factors for small bowel cancers. One patient had a diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). However, the other patients had no genetic syndromes, history of inflammatory bowel disease or other chronic inflammation to explain their risk. We postulate exposure to bile acids, tumorigenesis of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and/or damage to the intestinal mucosa secondary to HBV exposure/infection as potential mechanisms for development of small bowel adenocarcinoma. More research is warranted to further elucidate this association. PMID:27284484

  10. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calmy, A; van Delden, C; Giostra, E; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, C; Elkrief, L; Vionnet, J; Berney, T

    2016-08-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidrug-resistant viruses. Five months after transplantation, HIV viremia remains undetectable. This observation supports the inclusion of appropriate HIV-positive donors for transplants specifically allocated to HIV-positive recipients. PMID:27109874

  11. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  12. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  13. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  14. DONUT results

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Tomoko

    2008-02-21

    The DONUT experiment succeeded in observing tau-neutrino CC interactions for the first time in 2000. The analysis using total sample is presented in this paper, based on 3.5x10{sup 17} protons on target. The number of identified {nu}{sub {tau}} CC interactions is 9 from 581 neutrino interactions located in the emulsion. The result of the first measurement of {nu}{sub {tau}} CC cross section is consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model.

  15. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  16. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  17. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  18. Precise Point Positioning in the Airborne Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for positioning in the airborne mode such as in navigation as a supplementary system and for geo-referencing of cameras in mapping and surveillance by aircrafts and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is an attractive positioning approach based on processing of un-differenced observations from a single GPS receiver. It employs precise satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections. These data can be obtained via the internet from several sources, e.g. the International GNSS Service (IGS). The data can also broadcast from satellites, such as via the LEX signal of the new Japanese satellite system QZSS. The PPP can achieve positioning precision and accuracy at the sub-decimetre level. In this paper, the functional and stochastic mathematical modelling used in PPP is discussed. Results of applying the PPP method in an airborne test using a small fixed-wing aircraft are presented. To evaluate the performance of the PPP approach, a reference trajectory was established by differential positioning of the same GPS observations with data from a ground reference station. The coordinate results from the two approaches, PPP and differential positioning, were compared and statistically evaluated. For the test at hand, positioning accuracy at the cm-to-decimetre was achieved for latitude and longitude coordinates and doubles that value for height estimation.

  19. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  20. Screening and evaluation of chronic and occult Hepatitis B in chemo – radiotherapy patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meidani, Mohsen; Rostami, Mojtaba; Hemmati, Simin; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Mohammad; Emadi, Maryam; Ghasemian, Rasoul; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) and its complications is one of the most serious problems of the health system in many parts of the world. In the present study, we will assess chronic and occult HBV and isolated anti-Hepatitis B core antigen whose screening and evaluation is not routine in different populations. Materials and Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted on 213 patients undergoing chemotherapy - radiotherapy referred to the hematology - oncology clinics of Isfahan, Iran in 2012. In order to determine the serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbSAg), Hepatitis B Antigen and Antibody (HBCAb), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALK.P), venous blood samples were obtained. If the HBCAb sample was positive, another sample of the serum was sent to the laboratory to perform polymerase chain reaction and to determine viral load. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.7 ± 9 years, with an age range of 27 -73 years; 98 (46%) and 115 (54%) cases were male and female, respectively, with mean age of 51.9 ± 8.3 and 44.1 ± 8.1 years, and there was no significant difference (P < 0.001). The mean level of liver enzymes including AST, ALT and ALK.P were 34.2 ± 36.02, 38.9 ± 47.1 and 252.1 ± 234.7, respectively. Two cases were HbSAg positive (0.9%) and six cases were HBCAb positive (2.8%) and HbSAg negative. Three cases had a high viral load at the rate of starting treatment among positive anti-HBC patients. Conclusion: Because occult hepatitis is investigated less commonly in routine studies, it seems that screening and evaluating its prevalence is useful in the management of patients.

  1. Occurrence and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grotz, W; Rasenack, J; Benzing, T; Berthold, H; Peters, T; Walter, E; Schollmeyer, P; Rump, L C

    1998-06-01

    A 28-year-old woman was kidney transplanted. She had an inapparent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection 2 years previously. At the time of transplantation she was hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe and anti-HCV antibody positive and her transaminase activities were within the normal range. The donor of the kidney allograft was HBV negative. Twelve weeks after transplantation a life-threatening liver failure occurred with a rapid rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to 1427 U/l and a decrease of the prothrombin time to 25% of normal value. Anti-HBs had become negative, anti-HBc and anti-HBe titers had decreased. HBsAg became positive, associated with a HBV DNA of 3 x 10(8) genome equivalents/ml. Azathioprine and prednisone were withdrawn and foscarnet therapy was started. This therapy led to a decrease of ALT activity associated with an elimination of HBsAg and HBV DNA. Eight months after transplantation liver function tests were within the normal range. Graft rejection did not occur despite low or intermittent cessation of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:9696436

  2. Universal immunization of infants with low doses of a low-cost, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Schoub, B. D.; Matai, U.; Singh, B.; Blackburn, N. K.; Levin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of universal vaccination against viral hepatitis B in South Africa among 18-month-old rural children. METHODS: Children were immunized with a course of low-dose (1.5 microg), plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and blood samples from the children were tested for three hepatitis B markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-HBc. FINDINGS: One year after vaccination, a protective anti-HBs antibody titre of at least 10 IU/l was present in 669/769 (87.0%) of blood serum samples tested. Only 3/756 children (0.4%) were HBsAg positive and a fourth child was anti-HBc positive (HBsAg negative). This is a marked decrease compared to the hepatitis B prevalences reported in previous studies. Among rural migrant mine-workers, for example, HBsAg prevalence was 9.9%, and was 10.1% among children 0-6 years of age in the Eastern Cape Province. CONCLUSION: The low-dose, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine, which is affordable to most developing countries, was very successful in controlling endemic hepatitis B infection, where the virus is predominantly spread by horizontal transmission among infants and young children. PMID:12075363

  3. Response of health care workers with isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen to hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chiarakul, Supawadee; Eunumjitkul, Krissana; Vorapimol, Ar-Reerat; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chimparlee, Nitinan; Poovorawan, Yong

    2011-07-01

    Isolated hepatitis B core antibody (antiHBc) without hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or hepatitis B surface antibody (antiHBs) is found during routine screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers. Isolated antiHBc may indicate immunity against HBV or occult infection. To determine the immune response of health care workers (HCWs) with isolated antiHBc, HCWs were divided into two groups. A single dose of recombinant hepatitis B (HB) vaccine was administered to HCWs with isolated antiHBc (n = 36) and healthy HCWs (n = 20) seronegative for HBsAg, antiHBc and antiHBs. One month later, the subjects were tested for antiHBs. Twenty-one of 36 HCW (58.3%) in the antiHBc group had antiHBs, while only 1 of 20 HCW (5.0%) in the seronegative control group had a detectable antiHBs titer exceeding 10 mIU/ml. The antiHBs response in HCWs with antiHBc was significantly higher than in the seronegative group. The subjects' sera were tested for HBV DNA by nested PCR. Of those with antiHBc, 4 had detectable HBV DNA (occult HBV infection). None of these 4 responded to the vaccine. Therefore, the response elicited by a single dose of HB vaccine administered to patients with antiHBc may serve as an indicator of occult HBV infection. PMID:22299465

  4. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  5. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  6. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  7. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  8. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  9. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  10. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  11. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  12. Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslade, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

  13. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  14. Positional asphyxia: reflection on 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Maura; De Donno, Antonio; Vitale, Leonardo; Introna, Francesco

    2003-09-01

    Positional asphyxia, a fatal condition arising because of the adoption of particular body positions, causing mechanical interference with pulmonary ventilation, can occur in various circumstances that are likely to come under the observation of the specialist in legal medicine (work, car accidents, torture, kidnapping, etc.). It is difficult to diagnose the cause of death in such cases because they generally present with an aspecific anatomopathologic picture. In some situations, positional asphyxia can be hard to distinguish from asphyxia because of chest compression. The main difference is in the way the event occurred: whether the particular position causing the asphyxia had been adopted by choice or by compulsion or necessity when an extrinsic mechanical action would result in traumatic asphyxia. The diagnosis of positional asphyxia is essentially based on 3 criteria: the body position must obstruct normal gas exchange, it must be impossible to move to another position, and other causes of natural or violent death must be excluded. To illustrate the main physiopathologic and diagnostic causes of positional asphyxia, the authors report 2 cases taken from the records of events that came under the observation of the Medico-Legal Sector of Bari University Hospital throughout the last 10 years. PMID:12960668

  15. [Funktionsoberarzt. Pseudo-title or meaningful position?].

    PubMed

    Histing, T; Burkhardt, M; Rollmann, M; Menger, M D; Pohlemann, T

    2014-06-01

    The position of the Funktionsoberarzt ("functioning senior physician") is to date not specified. Nevertheless, in the majority of hospitals the position exists, although the function and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Frequently, it is thought that the position represents a consultant who works independently, but who is still supported by experienced colleagues to achieve the full qualification for a senior physician. In contrast, others indicate that the position represents a consultant who works as a senior physician with all responsibilities, but without an established post and without the corresponding reimbursement. A critical disadvantage of the position is that frequently the duties of both a resident and senior physician must be managed. Rotation between the two functions results in a higher workload, and the lack of identity and acceptance may lead to frustration. Therefore, we feel that the position is only meaningful if the Funktionsoberarzt works exclusively as a senior physician who is supported for complex surgeries and decisions by more experienced colleagues. In addition, the position should only be temporary and the time period for the position should be defined in advance. PMID:24903505

  16. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  17. Positive affect and psychobiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes are independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes. PMID:20097225

  18. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Krause, Stefan; Krause, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false-positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications. PMID:23407830

  19. Piezoresistive position microsensors with ppm-accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Shulev, Assen; Stavreva, Galina; Todorov, Vencislav

    2015-05-01

    In this article, the relation between position accuracy and the number of simultaneously measured values, such as coordinates, has been analyzed. Based on this, a conceptual layout of MEMS devices (microsensors) for multidimensional position monitoring comprising a single anchored and a single actuated part has been developed. Both parts are connected with a plurality of micromechanical flexures, and each flexure includes position detecting cantilevers. Microsensors having detecting cantilevers oriented in X and Y direction have been designed and prototyped. Experimentally measured results at characterization of 1D, 2D and 3D position microsensors are reported as well. Exploiting different flexure layouts, a travel range between 50μm and 1.8mm and sensors' sensitivity in the range between 30μV/μm and 5mV/μm@ 1V DC supply voltage have been demonstrated. A method for accurate calculation of all three Cartesian coordinates, based on measurement of at least three microsensors' signals has also been described. The analyses of experimental results prove the capability of position monitoring with ppm-(part per million) accuracy. The technology for fabrication of MEMS devices with sidewall embedded piezoresistors removes restrictions in strong improvement of their usability for position sensing with a high accuracy. The present study is, also a part of a common strategy for developing a novel MEMS-based platform for simultaneous accurate measurement of various physical values when they are transduced to a change of position.

  20. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  1. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  2. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  3. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    PubMed

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection. PMID:26685699

  4. Combined GPS and GALILEO instantaneous precise positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, P.; Paziewski, J.; Stepniak, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides results of the research aimed at precise positioning using single-epoch GPS and Galileo observations. The main goal was to develop algorithms that allow obtaining reliable centimeter-level position when using just a single epoch of pseudorange and carrier phase GPS and Galileo data in a single functional model. The presented algorithms are based on relative precise positioning using double-differenced observations in both single baseline and network mode. Fast and reliable ambiguity resolution is the key for rapid and single-epoch precise positioning. In order to support ambiguity resolution using small amount of data, special emphasis was put on mitigation of ionospheric and tropospheric delays. The functional model was based on constrained least squares estimation. The LAMBDA method was applied for ambiguity resolution and a multi-criteria statistical tests are used for ambiguity validation. These algorithms were implemented in GINPOS software developed at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The results of combined GPS+Galileo processing were compared to the solutions obtained using GPS-only and Galileo-only data. Since there are just two test Galileo satellites on orbit, Spirent multi-GNSS simulator was used to obtain Galileo and GPS signals. The processed baselines reached up to 35-70 km. The results based on the simulated data show that even though single-epoch precise positioning is possible with GPS only, adding Galileo data increases availability and reliability of the user position.

  5. Dynamically positioned Derrick Barge and position measuring equipment for Lena guyed tower installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziems, L.D.; Kan, W.C.; Neudorfer, M.L.; Stidston, E.S.B.

    1984-05-01

    A dynamic positioning (DP) system was installed on Brown and Root's derrick barge Atlas I and successfully used during the Lena guyed tower guying system installation. Modular design and onshore testing of the components resulted in rapid DP system installation and commissioning. Only minor DP equipment problems were experienced throughout the guying system installation. A long-baseline acoustic positioning system was used to measure the positions of the anchor piles, clump weights, and jacket during the Lena installation. The system provided relative position measurement accuracies on the order of + or - 5 feet in 1000 feet of water.

  6. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  7. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states. PMID:20431711

  8. Observed positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, J.; Szczodrowska-Kozar, B.

    Photographic positions were determined for the six minor planets Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Flora, Eunomia, and Melromene, the observations being made from the Wroclaw Astronomical Observatory between February 1981 and February 1982. Tabulated data include UT of the observation, epoch-1950 topocentric positions, standard deviation of a reference star, the number of reference stars, and the exposure time. The AGK3, SAO, and Perth 70 catalogs were used for reference star positions.

  9. Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Genotypes of HBV in HIV-Infected Patients in the Northeast Region of Colombia: High Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B and F3 Subgenotype Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Amorocho, Henry; Castellanos-Domínguez, Yeny Zulay; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Velandia-Cruz, Sindi Alejandra; Becerra-Peña, Jeysson Andrey; Farfán-García, Ana Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HIV-positive patients are commonly co-infected with HBV due to shared routes of transmission. Objectives Our aim was to determine the risk factors, prevalence, genotypes, and mutations of the Surface S gene of HBV, and occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among patients infected with HIV in a northeastern Colombian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 275 HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic in Bucaramanga, Colombia during 2009–2010. Blood samples were collected and screened for serological markers of HBV (anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg) through ELISA assay. Regardless of their serological profile, all samples were tested for the HBV S gene by nested-PCR and HBV genotypes were determined by phylogenetic inference. Clinical records were used to examine demographic, clinical, virological, immunological and antiretroviral therapy (ART) variables of HIV infection. Results Participants were on average 37±11 years old and 65.1% male. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was 12% (95%CI 8.4–16.4) of which 3.3% had active HBV infection and 8.7% OBI. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was associated with AIDS stage and ART treatment. Sequence analysis identified genotype F, subgenotype F3 in 93.8% of patients and genotype A in 6.2% of patients. A C149R mutation, which may have resulted from failure in HBsAg detection, was found in one patient with OBI. Conclusions The present study found a high prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection with an incidence of OBI 2.6-fold higher compared to active HBV infection. These findings suggest including HBV DNA testing to detect OBI in addition to screening for HBV serological markers in HIV patients. PMID:25462190

  10. Uav Onboard GPS in Positioning Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Kamarudin, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point's establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  11. Positive practice overcorrection: the effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction.

    PubMed

    Carey, R G; Bucher, B

    1983-01-01

    The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task. Off-task behavior, correct responses, and approximate responses were all observed. Off-task behavior received positive practice. The short and long practice durations (30 seconds and 3 minutes) produced equally rapid reduction of off-task behavior and acquisition of correct object-placement performance. Over sessions, much less time was required for positive practice when the short practice duration was used. Approximate responses, which also avoided positive practice, occurred at low rates relative to correct responding. Negative side effects were observed to occur primarily during sessions with long positive practice. These results indicate that use of short durations of positive practice can reduce the practice time required and negative side effects, with no loss of training effectiveness either for reducing inappropriate behavior or increasing a desired alternative behavior. PMID:6833163

  12. Precise CCD positions of Apophis in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Peng, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Meng, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    298 CCD observations during the year 2013 have been reduced to derive the precise positions of near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis. The observations were made by the 2.4-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory over 10 nights. The position and proper motion errors of the reference stars in the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue 4 (UCAC4) star catalogue are corrected by using the newest correction table provided by Farnocchia et al. The geometric distortion of the field of view is also derived from the unbiased star positions in UCAC4 and removed. The theoretical position of Apophis was retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons system. Our results show that the mean O-Cs (observed minus computed) are 0.016 and 0.034 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively. The dispersions of our observations are estimated at 0.041 and 0.045 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively.

  13. Vertical positioning surveillance by magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. S.; Lopes, C.; Pinto, O. O.; Nunes, C. D.; Borges, M. F.; Strohaecker, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work purpose is to create a positioning automated system of a tailstock to perform impact resistance tests on silicone mammary implants. This system is capable to measure and oversight the positioning through interrelation between three main components: programmable logic controller, human-machine interface and magnetostrictive transducer. Together, these components form an operational closed loop that ensures an appropriate positioning for the impact device. The paper describes how the closed loop works and also the algorithm implemented in the programmable logic controller which surveys the positioning. As a last topic, the paper presents the operator work on the machine's operation in conjunction with human-machine interface. The results were satisfactory and in accordance with the limits determined on ABNT NBR ISO 14607 for this method of tests.

  14. Large area position sensitive β-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaintraub, S.; Hass, M.; Edri, H.; Morali, N.; Segal, T.

    2015-03-01

    A new conceptual design of a large area electron detector, which is position and energy sensitive, was developed. This detector is designed for beta decay energies up to 4 MeV, but in principle can be re-designed for higher energies. The detector incorporates one large plastic scintillator and, in general, a limited number of photomultipliers (7 presently). The current setup was designed and constructed after an extensive Geant4 simulation study. By comparison of a single hit light distribution between the various photomultipliers to a pre-measured accurate position-response map, the anticipated position resolution is around 5 mm. The first benchmark experiments have been conducted in order to calibrate and confirm the position resolution of the detector. The new method, results of the first test experiments and comparison to simulations are presented.

  15. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-12-15

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 {mu}m. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 {mu}m used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer.

  16. Sub-milliarcsecond determination of pole position using Global Positioning System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.; Dong, Danan; King, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of pole-position variations from the analysis of 23 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data continuously collected with a globally distributed, 21-station network is discussed. The comparison of the estimated pole positions from these data with results from 11 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments conducted during this same interval yields weighted root-mean-square differences about the mean differences of 0.5 mas for both X- and Y-pole position estimates from an analysis using single-day arcs, and 1.0 and 0.8 mas from an analysis using three weekly multiday arcs. These results are of sufficient quality that GPS could provide an alternative technique to VLBI and satellite laser ranging for regular monitoring of high-time-resolution variations in the position of the earth's rotation axis.

  17. Characteristics of Foreign-Born Persons in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study: Implications for Screening Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Francesco; Moradpour, Darius; Müllhaupt, Beat; Moriggia, Alberto; Estill, Janne; Keiser, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Background Switzerland recommends individuals who originate from high-prevalence countries to be screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, not all these persons are equally at risk. We thus aimed to describe the number and characteristics of persons with HCV infection born outside of Switzerland. Methods We compared characteristics of anti-HCV-positive individuals in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study (SCCS) and of HCV cases reported to the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH), with those of the general population in Switzerland. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) and persons who do not inject drugs (non-PWID) were compared by age groups for different countries of origin (represented by ≥1% of participants in the SCCS or FOPH). Results We included 4,199 persons from the SCCS and 26,610 cases from the FOPH. Both groups had similar characteristics. In both data sources non-PWID were more frequent in foreign-born than in Swiss-born persons (63% versus 34% in the SCCS). The only subgroup with a clearly higher proportion both in the SCCS and FOPH than in the general population were persons over 60 years from Italy and Spain, with a 3.7- and 2.8-fold increase in the SCCS. These persons were non-PWID (99%), less frequently HIV- and anti-HBc positive and more often female than PWID from Italy and Spain; cirrhosis at enrolment was frequent (31%). Their HCV genotypes were consistent with those observed in elderly non-PWID of their birth countries. In the FOPH a higher proportion than in the general population was also seen for cases from Georgia and Russia. Conclusion The identification of subgroups in which HCV infection is particularly frequent might allow for better targeting HCV screening among foreign-born persons in Switzerland and elsewhere. PMID:27227332

  18. Serostatus for vaccine-preventable diseases in residents at Melbourne Juvenile Justice Centre.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S C; Ogilvie, E; Veit, F; Crofts, N

    1998-08-01

    There are concerns in Australia about inadequate rates of childhood immunisation, an important preventive measure to reduce infectious diseases. The population passing through the Melbourne Juvenile Justice Centre (MJJC) comes from a background at high risk for inadequate immunisation and outbreaks can occur in residential institutions. MJJC residents were invited to participate in a study by completing a medical officer-administered risk behaviour questionnaire and/or giving a blood sample. Ninety residents completed the questionnaire; 83 gave blood samples. Sera were tested for measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis A, B and C markers using standard commercial assays. Diphtheria and tetanus were tested with an ELISA in a public health laboratory familiar in the technique. Sixty four per cent (53/83) of participants were non-immune to at least one component of MMR and 44.6% (37/83) non-immune to either tetanus or diphtheria. Despite 61.1% of participants reporting injecting drug use, only 28.2% had protective levels of anti-HBs, 6.1% were positive for anti-HBc (2.4% equivocal), 22.9% were anti-HCV positive and 9.6% had markers of exposure to hepatitis A virus. These results show suboptimal levels of immunity in this institutional setting with the potential for disease outbreaks. Many residents miss adolescent school-based programs for immunisation because of truancy and early school leaving. Despite considerable risk of blood-borne viruses, many MJJC residents are inadequately vaccinated against hepatitis B. PMID:9744212

  19. Immunological effects of a 10-μg dose of domestic hepatitis B vaccine in adults*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing-jing; Dai, Xue-wei; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Shen, Ling-zhi; Chen, Yong-di; Li, Qian; Ren, Wen; Liu, Ying; Yao, Jun; Li, Lan-juan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the immunological effects of three types of domestic 10-μg/dose hepatitis B vaccines in adults compared with a foreign vaccine, and to provide scientific evidence in support of adult hepatitis B vaccination. Methods: Adults from five counties (Deqing, Changxing, Nanxun, Wuxing, Anji) in Huzhou City, Shaoxing County and Tongxiang County, Zhejiang Province, China were selected. Blood samples were taken to assess serum HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Adults, aged 16 to 49 years and who were anti-HBs negative at baseline, received hepatitis B immunizations at 0, 1, and 6 months. Anti-HBs levels were assessed one month after the third and final vaccination. Results: A total of 1 872 adults were immunized and the average positive rate was 89.5%. Four types of hepatitis B vaccine were used, including three from Chinese companies (Shenzhen Kangtai, Dalian High-Tech, and North China Pharmaceutical) and one from a UK company (GlaxoSmithKline). Their seroconversion rates were 81.67%, 95.05%, 89.64%, and 86.81%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the anti-HBs positive conversion rates of the four types (P<0.005) but the seroconversion rates among the different vaccines were not significantly different (χ 2=2.123, P=0.145). The average anti-HBs geometric mean titers (GMTs) of non-immune adults immunized with each of the four vaccines were 177.28, 473.23, 246.13, and 332.20 mIU/ml, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the GMTs between the three types of domestic vaccine and the foreign vaccine (t=−1.575, P=0.116). Conclusions: Domestic recombinant hepatitis B vaccines can achieve immunization effects comparable to those of a foreign vaccine. PMID:23125088

  20. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  1. A Blueprint for Positive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Saf Lerman

    1991-01-01

    With support and education from various sources, parents can be introduced to positive, nonhurtful, constructive approaches to child rearing that permit children to grow in an environment which nurtures the body, soul, and mind. The article presents guidelines for positive parenting that teach children to look to adults for support. (SM)

  2. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  3. Positioning Vise for Crystal Cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, F. C.; Morgan, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Vise manipulates brittle crystals, such as lithium fluoride, so they are in proper position for cleaving. Vise allows crystals as thin as 2 millimeters or less positioned so that cleaved without breakage. Vise holds workpiece firmly but gently. Bushings, shafts and adjusting screw designed to move jaws smoothly and uniformly with great tactile sensitivity.

  4. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  5. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  6. Position sensors for segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain

    2004-09-01

    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.

  7. [Psychogenic tremor: a positive diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Redondo, L; Morgado, Y; Durán, E

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders are a daily challenge for the neurologist. A mistake in its recognition may have important consequences for the patients. As a result, the diagnosis must be considered very carefully in clinical practice. However, psychogenic movement disorders are not unusual, are mainly tremors, and a wrong diagnosis is common. Psychogenic is an unspecific term that usually masks the real mental disorder, and should be called somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression, anxiety and histrionic personality disorder, although the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis does not preclude a psychogenic cause. The diagnosis may often be difficult and should be made by an expert neurologist. Organic movement disorders must be excluded after a detailed neurological history, examination, and appropriate diagnostic studies. Psychogenic tremor is not only a diagnosis of exclusion, it can be diagnosed positively by its neurological signs, mainly: variability in frequency and amplitude, bilateral and sudden onset, non-progressive with frequent remissions, absence of finger, tongue or face tremor and coactivation of antagonistic muscles. Several tests can be useful in diagnosis, such as: accelerometry, EMG and response to placebo or suggestion. The treatment requires close cooperation between the medical team and patient. The problem must never be minimised and early diagnosis and treatment must be attempted. PMID:20388461

  8. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel

    2002-04-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (eiS) rather than imaginary-time e-S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model.

  9. Overview of HERMES results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hulse, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    The HERMES experiment has collected a wealth of deep-inelastic scattering data using the 27.6 GeV polarized lepton beam at HERA and various pure gas targets, both unpolarized and polarized. This allowed for a series of diverse and unique measurements. Among them are measurements that provide information on the threedimensional structure of the nucleon, both in momentum space and in position space. Results of measurements of exclusive ω production on an unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon target, sensitive to the distribution in transverse-position and longitudinalmomentum space, are discussed as well as the three-dimensional extraction of azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, sensitive to twist-2 and twist-3 distributions in three-dimensional momentum space.

  10. Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A.; Palmieri, Rosa; Bellelli, Guglielmo; Raes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a “concrete/imagery” vs. “abstract/verbal” processing style was compared. In Study 2, a “concrete/imagery,” “abstract/verbal,” and “comparative/verbal” processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information. PMID:25806003

  11. Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A; Palmieri, Rosa; Bellelli, Guglielmo; Raes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a "concrete/imagery" vs. "abstract/verbal" processing style was compared. In Study 2, a "concrete/imagery," "abstract/verbal," and "comparative/verbal" processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant's tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information. PMID:25806003

  12. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  13. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; de Souza, Denise ER; Petry, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials. PMID:17986330

  14. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  15. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. PMID:24055116

  16. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides. PMID:26076327

  17. Navstar/Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananda, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed to provide highly precise position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere in the area of the Earth and at any time. The GPS, when fully operational, will consist of 18 satellites in six orbital planes. Any GPS user, by receiving and processing the radio signals from the satellite network can instantaneously determine navigation information to an accuracy of about 15 m in position and 0.1 m/s in velocity. The GPS is compared with other systems such as Loran-C, Omega, TACAN and Transit.

  18. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies. PMID:22149077

  19. Advantages to the use of rodent hepadnavirus core proteins as vaccine platforms.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Jean-Noel; Peterson, Darrell; Lee, Byung O; Maruyama, Toshiyuki; Chen, Antony; Sallberg, Matti; Garduño, Fermin; Goldstein, Phillip; Hughes, Janice; Jones, Joyce; Milich, David

    2007-02-19

    The hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) has been proposed as a useful particulate carrier platform for poorly immunogenic peptidic and carbohydrate B cell epitopes. However, biochemical and immunologic impediments have plagued this technology. Specifically, the "assembly" problem characterized by the low yield of unstable hybrid particles resulting from the insertion of foreign sequences and the "pre-existing immunity" problem due to the fact that the HBcAg is derived from a human pathogen have limited the development of this carrier technology. As a means of addressing the "pre-existing immunity" problem we have used the core proteins from the rodent hepdnaviruses. A number of advantages to the use of the rodent hepadnaviral core proteins as opposed to the HBcAg for vaccine design were defined including: equal or superior immunogenicity at the T and B cell levels; the use of the rodent core proteins does not compromise the anti-HBc diagnostic assay; the efficacy of the rodent core proteins as vaccine carriers will not be limited by pre-existing anti-HBc antibodies that are present in previously and currently HBV-infected persons; and the HBcAg-specific tolerance present in HBV chronic carriers can be circumvented by the use of the rodent core proteins. PMID:17178179

  20. Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evaluation of population immunity levels? A study of measles, rubella and hepatitis B in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Nokes, D. J.; Enquselassie, F.; Nigatu, W.; Vyse, A. J.; Cohen, B. J.; Brown, D. W.; Cutts, F. T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the suitability of using oral-fluid samples for determining the prevalence of immunity to vaccine-preventable infections. METHODS: Paired blood and oral-fluid samples were obtained from 853 individuals of all ages from a rural Ethiopian community. Oral fluid around the gums was screened for measles- and rubella-specific antibodies using enhanced IgG antibody capture (GAC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and for anti-HBc antibodies using a prototype GACELISA. IgG antibodies in serum to measles, rubella and HBc were determined using commercial ELISAs. FINDINGS: Relative to serum, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 98% and 87% for measles, 79% and 90% for rubella, and 43% and 87% for anti-HBc. These assay characteristics yielded population prevalence estimates from oral fluid with a precision equal to that of serum for measles (all ages) and rubella (ages < 20 years). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oral fluid could have the potential to replace serum in IgG antibody prevalence surveys. Further progress requires assessment of variation in assay performance between populations as well as the availability of standardized, easy to use assays. PMID:11477961

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in general population in Madagascar: evidence for different epidemiological patterns in urban and in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Boisier, P.; Rabarijaona, L.; Piollet, M.; Roux, J. F.; Zeller, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    To describe the features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Madagascar, a randomized sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken in the general population > or = 1 year old of two provinces which represents 45% of the total population. In the 921 sera tested, the prevalence of HBV markers was 20.5% for HBsAg, 38.2% for anti-HBc and 6.9% for HBeAg. HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence rates were significantly higher in males. A large difference in HBsAg prevalence was observed between urban (5.3%) and rural areas (26.0%). The same contrast in prevalence was noticed for the other HBV markers. In rural areas, HBV infection was more frequently acquired early in infancy, which suggests predominantly perinatal or postnatal transmission. The presence of HBV markers was not significantly associated with a history of blood transfusion, surgery or parenteral injection. High infectivity carriers represented 5.3% and the overall frequency of chronic carriers was 10.4%. These results place Madagascar among areas of high endemicity. PMID:8760960

  2. Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1 : 62482, 1 : 30821, and 1 : 47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. PMID:25346858

  3. An iterative subaperture position correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Weng-Hou; Lin, Po-Chih; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-08-01

    The subaperture stitching interferometry is a technique suitable for testing high numerical-aperture optics, large-diameter spherical lenses and aspheric optics. In the stitching process, each subaperture has to be placed at its correct position in a global coordinate, and the positioning precision would affect the accuracy of stitching result. However, the mechanical limitations in the alignment process as well as vibrations during the measurement would induce inevitable subaperture position uncertainties. In our previous study, a rotational scanning subaperture stitching interferometer has been constructed. This paper provides an iterative algorithm to correct the subaperture position without altering the interferometer configuration. Each subaperture is first placed at its geometric position estimated according to the F number of reference lens, the measurement zenithal angle and the number of pixels along the width of subaperture. By using the concept of differentiation, a shift compensator along the radial direction of the global coordinate is added into the stitching algorithm. The algorithm includes two kinds of compensators: one for the geometric null with four compensators of piston, two directional tilts and defocus, and the other for the position correction with the shift compensator. These compensators are computed iteratively to minimize the phase differences in the overlapped regions of subapertures in a least-squares sense. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method works to the position accuracy of 0.001 pixels for both the single-ring and multiple-ring configurations. Experimental verifications with the single-ring and multiple-ring data also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. Impedance based automatic electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Miklody, Daniel; Hohne, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The position of electrodes in electrical imaging and stimulation of the human brain is an important variable with vast influences on the precision in modeling approaches. Nevertheless, the exact position is obscured by many factors. 3-D Digitization devices can measure the distribution over the scalp surface but remain uncomfortable in application and often imprecise. We demonstrate a new approach that uses solely the impedance information between the electrodes to determine the geometric position. The algorithm involves multidimensional scaling to create a 3 dimensional space based on these impedances. The success is demonstrated in a simulation study. An average electrode position error of 1.67cm over all 6 subjects could be achieved. PMID:26736345

  5. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... toes, crossing a boundary, or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might need ... lot of negative feelings such as fear, sadness, anger, frustration, or stress. Building a daily positivity habit ...

  6. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  7. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  8. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  9. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  10. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  11. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... these issues. What Are the Alternative Treatments For Sleep Apnea? Lifestyle change including weight loss and exercise can help to improve sleep apnea and its related health problems. Sleep positioning and ...

  12. Positivity of the English Language

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  13. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients' positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients' symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants' age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients' illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  14. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients’ positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients’ symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants’ age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients’ illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  15. Reactivation of Hepatitis B with Reappearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen After Chemotherapy and Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Palmore, Tara N.; Shah, Neeral L.; Loomba, Rohit; Borg, Brian B.; Lopatin, Uri; Feld, Jordan J.; Khokhar, Farooq; Lutchman, Glen; Kleiner, David E.; Young, Neal S.; Childs, Richard; Barrett, A. John; Liang, T. Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Heller, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may reactivate in the setting of immune suppression, although the frequency and consequences of HBV reactivation are not well known. We report six patients who experienced loss of serologic markers of hepatitis B immunity and reappearance of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum due to a variety of acquired immune deficiencies. Methods Between 2000 and 2005, six patients with reactivation of hepatitis B were seen in consultation by the Liver Diseases Branch at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health. The course and outcome of these six patients were reviewed. Results All six patients developed reappearance of HBsAg and evidence of active liver disease after stem cell transplantation (n=4), immunosuppressive therapy (n=1) or change in HIV antiretroviral regimen (n=1) despite having antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) or antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) without HBsAg before. All six patients developed chronic hepatitis B, two patients transmitted hepatitis B to their spouses, and one patient developed cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatitis B reactivation was frequently missed or delayed and often required interruption of the therapy for the underlying condition. None of the patients received antiviral prophylaxis against HBV reactivation. Conclusions Serologic evidence of recovery from hepatitis B infection does not preclude its reactivation after immunosuppression. Screening for serologic evidence of hepatitis B and prophylaxis of those with positive results using nucleoside analogue antiviral therapy should be provided to individuals in whom immunosuppressive therapy is planned. PMID:19577007

  16. Reflection positivity in simplicial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Within the context of piecewise linear manifolds we establish reflection positivity with a Hilbert action given in terms of the Regge curvature and a cosmological term. Using this positivity a Hilbert space for a quantum theory is constructed and some field operators and observables are given. The set-up allows to introduce time reversal though no time exists. All constructions are non-perturbative.

  17. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  18. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  19. Pennsylvania's No Child Left Behind. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is meant to highlight key issues some believe would improve the implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) for all Pennsylvania schools and students. NCLB has already undergone several midcourse corrections as the law is implemented across the nation. Additional refinements are anticipated, and as a result, this position paper…

  20. Efficacy and effectiveness of infant vaccination against chronic hepatitis B in the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (1986–90) and in the nationwide immunisation program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gambian infants were not routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) before 1986. During 1986–90 the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) allocated 125,000 infants, by area, to vaccination or not and thereafter all infants were offered the vaccine through the nationwide immunisation programme. We report HBV serology from samples of GHIS vaccinees and unvaccinated controls, and from children born later. Methods During 2007–08, 2670 young adults born during the GHIS (1986-90) were recruited from 80 randomly selected villages and four townships. Only 28% (753/2670) could be definitively linked to their infant HBV vaccination records (255 fully vaccinated, 23 partially vaccinated [1–2 doses], 475 not vaccinated). All were tested for current HBV infection (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]) and, if HBsAg-negative, evidence of past infection (HBV core-protein antibody [anti-HBc]). HBsAg-positive samples (each with two age- and sex-matched HBsAg-negative samples) underwent liver function tests. In addition, 4613 children born since nationwide vaccination (in 1990-2007) were tested for HBsAg. Statistical analyses ignore clustering. Results Comparing fully vaccinated vs unvaccinated GHIS participants, current HBV infection was 0.8% (2/255) vs 12.4% (59/475), p < 0.0001, suggesting 94% (95% CI 77-99%) vaccine efficacy. Among unvaccinated individuals, the prevalence was higher in males (p = 0.015) and in rural areas (p = 0.009), but adjustment for this did not affect estimated vaccine efficacy. Comparing fully vaccinated vs unvaccinated participants, anti-HBc was 27.4% (70/255) vs 56.0% (267/475), p < 0.00001. Chronic active hepatitis was not common: the proportion of HBsAg-positive subjects with abnormal liver function tests (ALT > 2 ULN) was 4.1%, compared with 0.2% in those HBsAg-negative. The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus was low (0.5%, 13/2592). In children born after the end of GHIS, HBsAg prevalence has