Sample records for anti-treponema pallidum antibodies

  1. Validation of Serological Testing for Anti-Treponema pallidum from Postmortem Blood on the Siemens-BEP®-III Automatic System

    PubMed Central

    Kalus, Ulrich; Wilkemeyer, Ina; Pruss, Axel; Caspari, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Infectious disease marker testing is obligatory for the release of human tissue for transplantation. Most CE-marked tests are not validated for postmortem blood. In a previous study we have validated the testing for anti-HIV-1/2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-HBc. Here, we present the validation of testing for antibodies against T. pallidum, which is the last marker obligatory for tissue release for transplantation. Methods 17 samples of postmortem sera and 10 samples of both pre-und postmortem sera were obtained from cornea donors and tested for anti-T. pallidum on the Siemens-BEP-III-System. These sera were spiked with anti-T. pallidum-positive standard sera in concentrations which give low- and high-positive results at the respective dilution. Results Two of the unspiked postmortem sera were false-positive most likely due to intense hemolysis (free hemoglobin > 50 mg/dl). Of the 25 negative postmortem sera, none of the spiked samples was false-negative after 0, 24 and 60 h. Conclusion There is no indication that postmortem samples give false-negative or false-positive results with the test system and test kits used in cases of low hemolysis. The procedure described might serve as a model for validating other test kits on postmortem samples. PMID:24474889

  2. Monoclonal antibody analysis of specific antigenic similarities among pathogenic Treponema pallidum subspecies.

    PubMed Central

    Marchitto, K S; Jones, S A; Schell, R F; Holmans, P L; Norgard, M V

    1984-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies directed against a 47,000-dalton immunodominant surface-exposed antigen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols) were isolated. These monoclonal antibodies cross-reacted with analogous 47,000-dalton antigens of two other virulent treponemes, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (Bosnia A), as determined by radioimmunoassay and immunoblot analyses. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that the 47,000-dalton antigen of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum was a surface-associated cellular component. Surface binding assays and immunoelectron microscopic studies also suggested that the analogous 47,000-dalton antigenic component of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue may not have been oriented toward the bacterial surface in the same way as the T. pallidum subsp. pallidum antigen or that the relevant antigenic determinant(s) may not have been exposed to the outer surface in the same way. The significance of this antigen relative to its apparent conservation among pathogenic treponemes and its possible diagnostic and vaccinogenic potentials are discussed. Images PMID:6381311

  3. Treponema pallidum Major Sheath Protein Homologue Tpr K Is a Target of Opsonic Antibody and the Protective Immune Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Centurion-Lara; Christa Castro; Lynn Barrett; Caroline Cameron; Maryam Mostowfi; Wesley C. Van Voorhis; Sheila A. Lukehart

    Summary We have identified a family of genes that code for targets for opsonic antibody and protective immunity in T. pallidum subspecies pallidum using two different approaches, subtraction hybrid- ization and differential immunologic screening of a T. pallidum genomic library. Both ap- proaches led to the identification of a polymorphic multicopy gene family with predicted amino acid homology to the

  4. Validation of Serological Tests for the Detection of Antibodies Against Treponema pallidum in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295

  5. Validation of Serological Tests for the Detection of Antibodies Against Treponema pallidum in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295

  6. Validation of the INNO-LIA Syphilis Kit as a Confirmatory Assay for Treponema pallidum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Anne; Vanneste, Lies; Cardinaels, Martine; Sablon, Erwin; Samson, Isabelle; De Bosschere, Katrien; Hulstaert, Frank; Zrein, Maan

    2000-01-01

    The commercially available diagnostic tests for syphilis are mostly based on the use of extracted antigens of Treponema pallidum. Pronounced cross-reactivities with other spirochete antigens are often reported. The aim of this study was to validate a novel multiparametric assay (the assay performed with the kit) INNO-LIA Syphilis for the confirmation of syphilis antibodies in a set of 840 documented human serum samples. All serum samples were previously tested at the French World Health Organization reference center for venereal diseases (Institute Alfred Fournier, Paris, France), with a consensus result provided for each sample. The study was conducted in two phases, with each phase involving a validation set (500 well-documented serum samples) and an exploratory set (340 serum samples) of serum samples, respectively. By measuring the sensitivity and specificity, we compared the result of the new assay with the consensus result on the basis of the results of a variable number of classical serological methods and clinical information when available. A sensitivity of 99.6% (95% confidence internal [CI], 98.5 to 99.9%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.1 to 99.9%) were found for the new line immunoassay. Six of seven samples with indeterminate results by classical serology tested positive with the INNO-LIA Syphilis kit. This single multiparametric assay provides reliable confirmatory diagnostic information that must currently be obtained by the performance and interpretation of results of a combination of serological assays. PMID:10618090

  7. Estimation of the local production of antibodies to Treponema pallidum in the central nervous system of patients with neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Müller, F; Moskophidis, M

    1983-04-01

    In 76% of 149 patients with neurosyphilis local production of treponema-specific IgG antibodies in the central nervous system (CNS) was determined by estimating the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-serum ratio of TPHA-IgG titre per mg total IgG. With this formula synthesis of treponema-specific IgG antibodies in the CNS could be detected independently of the function of the blood-CSF barrier. A selective increase of total IgG in the CSF was not found in all cases. Forty-three patients with adequately treated or spontaneously resolved syphilis without clinical evidence of involvement of the CNS by Treponema pallidum served as controls. PMID:6339001

  8. Serodiagnosis of Syphilis: Antibodies to Recombinant Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd Proteins Are Sensitive and Specific Indicators of Infection by Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Schmidt, Bruno; Schriefer, Martin; Cameron, Caroline E.

    2003-01-01

    Syphilis serodiagnosis relies on a combination of nonspecific screening tests (antilipoidal antibodies) and Treponema pallidum-specific tests (anti-T. pallidum antibodies). We studied a group of six recombinant T. pallidum antigens for their sensitivities and specificities with sera from individuals with syphilis (n = 43), relapsing fever (n = 8), Lyme disease (n = 8), and leptospirosis (n = 9) and from uninfected individuals (n = 15). Three recombinant proteins, Tp0155, Tp0483, and Tp0751, demonstrated sensitivity values that ranged from 28 to 42%. In contrast, three other recombinant proteins exhibited the following sensitivity and specificity values: Tp0453, 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity; Tp92 (Tp0326), 98% sensitivity and 97% specificity; and Gpd (Tp0257), 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd also were recognized by sera from individuals with early primary syphilis that were nonreactive with the antilipoidal Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test. The reactivities of syphilis patient sera with Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd were proportional to the titers of these sera with the treponemal test MHA-TP (microhemagglutination assay for T. pallidum). Thus, the recombinant T. pallidum antigens Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd show promise as diagnostic antigens in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based assay. PMID:12904373

  9. Serodiagnosis of syphilis: antibodies to recombinant Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd proteins are sensitive and specific indicators of infection by Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Barrett, Lynn K; Lukehart, Sheila A; Schmidt, Bruno; Schriefer, Martin; Cameron, Caroline E

    2003-08-01

    Syphilis serodiagnosis relies on a combination of nonspecific screening tests (antilipoidal antibodies) and Treponema pallidum-specific tests (anti-T. pallidum antibodies). We studied a group of six recombinant T. pallidum antigens for their sensitivities and specificities with sera from individuals with syphilis (n = 43), relapsing fever (n = 8), Lyme disease (n = 8), and leptospirosis (n = 9) and from uninfected individuals (n = 15). Three recombinant proteins, Tp0155, Tp0483, and Tp0751, demonstrated sensitivity values that ranged from 28 to 42%. In contrast, three other recombinant proteins exhibited the following sensitivity and specificity values: Tp0453, 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity; Tp92 (Tp0326), 98% sensitivity and 97% specificity; and Gpd (Tp0257), 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd also were recognized by sera from individuals with early primary syphilis that were nonreactive with the antilipoidal Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test. The reactivities of syphilis patient sera with Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd were proportional to the titers of these sera with the treponemal test MHA-TP (microhemagglutination assay for T. pallidum). Thus, the recombinant T. pallidum antigens Tp0453, Tp92, and Gpd show promise as diagnostic antigens in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based assay. PMID:12904373

  10. Evaluation of a new particle gel immunoassay for determination of antibodies against Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bruno L

    2004-06-01

    A new particle gel immunoassay (DiaMed AG, Cressier sur Morat, Switzerland) with three recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens was evaluated with serum samples from patients with syphilis (n = 124) and patients without syphilis (n = 490). It proved to be a simple, rapid (20 min), and useful test with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 91.9, 99.8, 99.2, and 98%, respectively. PMID:15184485

  11. Expression of Treponema pallidum Antigens in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walfield, Alan M.; Hanff, Philip A.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1982-04-01

    Treponema pallidum DNA was cloned in a bacteriophage. Clones were screened for expression of Treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radio-immunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A. One clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...treponemal sources and that are used in the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), the Treponema pallidum ...T.P.I.), and other treponemal tests used to identify antibodies to Treponema pallidum directly from infecting...

  13. Immunization of rabbits with Spirochaeta aurantia does not induce resistance to Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Graves, S; Drummond, L; Strugnell, R

    1984-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with viable Spirochaeta aurantia, a free-living, facultative anaerobic spirochete that is similar in some biochemical characteristics to Treponema pallidum, a parasitic, microaerophilic spirochete. Single and multiple immunizations with living S. aurantia, with or without Freund's incomplete adjuvant, Freund's complete adjuvant, or heat-killed T. pallidum, were carried out over a four-month period. Living S. aurantia was neither toxic nor virulent for rabbits. Immunized rabbits produced a high level of agglutinating antibody to S. aurantia but no antibody to T. pallidum, as determined by the T. pallidum hemagglutination test. Immunized rabbits were challenged with multiple intradermal inoculations of 100 viable T. pallidum (Nichols strain) and compared to unimmunized rabbits similarly infected. Immunization with S. aurantia did not protect against T. pallidum infection. Thus S. aurantia appears not to be suitable as a potential vaccine against infection with T. pallidum. PMID:6369574

  14. Usefulness in clinical practice of a point-of-care rapid test for simultaneous detection of nontreponemal and Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies in patients suffering from documented syphilis.

    PubMed

    Guinard, Jérôme; Prazuck, Thierry; Péré, Hélène; Poirier, Claire; LeGoff, Jérôme; Boedec, Erwan; Guigon, Aurélie; Day, Nesrine; Bélec, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    The usefulness of a point-of-care immunochromatographic dual test for the simultaneous detection of both nontreponemal and Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies (Chembio Diagnostics Systems Inc., Medford, NY, USA) was assessed in various situations related to syphilis, by reference to conventional syphilis serology. Thawed sera were obtained from 100 adults including 36 primary syphilis, 6 secondary syphilis, 6 re-infection, 9 recently-treated syphilis, and 43 old syphilis. Doubtful reactivities for the treponemal line were considered positive; doubtful reactivities for the nontreponemal line were considered positive only when the treponemal line was present. The sensitivity, the specificity, and its concordance to gold standard serology of treponemal line were high, around 90%. The sensitivity of nontreponemal line was 96.3%, its specificity 76.7%, and its concordance 83.4%. In conclusion, the dual rapid test from Chembio Diagnostics Systems Inc. is useful for rapid point-of-care diagnosis in the various situations encountered with patients suffering from syphilis. PMID:23999937

  15. Characterization of outer membranes isolated from Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Radolf, J D; Robinson, E J; Bourell, K W; Akins, D R; Porcella, S F; Weigel, L M; Jones, J D; Norgard, M V

    1995-01-01

    Previous freeze-fracture electron microscopy (EM) studies have shown that the outer membrane (OM) of Treponema pallidum contains sparse transmembrane proteins. One strategy for molecular characterization of these rare OM proteins involves isolation of T. pallidum OMs. Here we describe a simple and extremely gentle method for OM isolation based upon isopycnic sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation of treponemes following plasmolysis in 20% sucrose. Evidence that T. pallidum OMs were isolated included (i) the extremely low protein/lipid ratio of the putative OM fraction, (ii) a paucity of antigenic and/or biochemical markers for periplasmic, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytosolic compartments, and (iii) freeze-fracture EM demonstrating that the putative OMs contained intramembranous particles highly similar in size and density to those in native T. pallidum OMs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the OMs contained a relatively small number of treponemal proteins, including several which did not appear to correspond to previously characterized T. pallidum antigens. Interestingly, these candidate rare OM proteins reacted poorly with syphilitic sera as determined by both conventional immunoblotting and enhanced chemiluminescence. Compared with whole cells, T. pallidum OMs were deficient in cardiolipin, the major lipoidal antigen reactive with antibodies in syphilitic sera. Also noteworthy was that other lipoidal constituents of OMs, including the recently discovered glycolipids, did not react with human syphilitic sera. These latter observations suggest that the poor antigenicity of virulent T. pallidum is a function of both the lipid composition and the low protein content of its OM. PMID:7591054

  16. Case of Secondary Syphilis Presenting with Unusual Complications: Syphilitic Proctitis, Gastritis, and Hepatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Eisuke; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Okame, Michio; Sato, Hidenori; Imai, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shoichi; Tsurita, Giichiro; Oyaizu, Naoki; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Fujii, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    We report the first known case of syphilis with simultaneous manifestations of proctitis, gastritis, and hepatitis. The diagnosis of syphilitic proctitis and gastritis was established by the demonstration of spirochetes with anti-Treponema pallidum antibody staining in biopsy specimens. Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis completely resolved after 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy. PMID:21998411

  17. Footprint of Positive Selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Genome Sequences Suggests Adaptive Microevolution of the Syphilis Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Jeffrey, Brendan M.; Le, Hoavan T.; Molini, Barbara J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and compared to the Nichols genome, available since 1998. Initial comparative analysis suggested the presence of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 103 small (?3 nucleotides) indels, and 1 large (1204 bp) insertion in the Chicago genome with respect to the Nichols genome. To confirm the above findings, Sanger sequencing was performed on most loci carrying differences using DNA from Chicago and the Nichols strain used in the original T. pallidum genome project. A majority of the previously identified differences were found to be due to errors in the published Nichols genome, while the accuracy of the Chicago genome was confirmed. However, 20 SNPs were confirmed between the two genomes, and 16 (80.0%) were found in coding regions, with all being of non-synonymous nature, strongly indicating action of positive selection. Sequencing of 16 genomic loci harboring SNPs in 12 additional T. pallidum strains, (SS14, Bal 3, Bal 7, Bal 9, Sea 81-3, Sea 81-8, Sea 86-1, Sea 87-1, Mexico A, UW231B, UW236B, and UW249C), was used to identify “Chicago-“ or “Nichols -specific” differences. All but one of the 16 SNPs were “Nichols-specific”, with Chicago having identical sequences at these positions to almost all of the additional strains examined. These mutations could reflect differential adaptation of the Nichols strain to the rabbit host or pathoadaptive mutations acquired during human infection. Our findings indicate that SNPs among T. pallidum strains emerge under positive selection and, therefore, are likely to be functional in nature. PMID:22720110

  18. Polypeptides of Treponema pallidum: progress toward understanding their structural, functional, and immunologic roles. Treponema Pallidum Polypeptide Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, S J

    1993-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis, is unusual in a number of respects, including its small genome size, inability to grow under standard in vitro culture conditions, microaerophilism, apparent paucity of outer membrane proteins, structurally complex periplasmic flagella, and ability to evade the host immune responses and cause disease over a period of years to decades. Many of these attributes are related ultimately to its protein content. Our knowledge of the activities, structure, and immunogenicity of its proteins has been expanded by the application of recombinant DNA, hybridoma, and structural fractionation techniques. The purpose of this monograph is to summarize and correlate this new information by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody reactivity, sequence data, and other properties as the bases of polypeptide identification. The protein profiles of the T. pallidum subspecies causing syphilis, yaws, and endemic syphilis are virtually indistinguishable but differ considerably from those of other treponemal species. Among the most abundant polypeptides are a group of lipoproteins of unknown function that appear to be important in the immune response during syphilitic infection. The periplasmic flagella of T. pallidum and other spirochetes are unique with regard to their protein content and ultrastructure, as well as their periplasmic location. They are composed of three core proteins (homologous to the other members of the eubacterial flagellin family) and a single, unrelated sheath protein; the functional significance of this arrangement is not understood at present. Although the bacterium contains the chaperonins GroEL and DnaK, these proteins are not under the control of the heat shock regulon as they are in most organisms. Studies of the immunogenicity of T. pallidum proteins indicate that many may be useful for immunodiagnosis and immunoprotection. Future goals in T. pallidum polypeptide research include continued elucidation of their structural locations and functional activities, identification and characterization of the low-abundance outer membrane proteins, further study of the immunoprotective and immunodiagnostic potential of T. pallidum proteins, and clarification of the roles of treponemal proteins in pathogenesis. Images PMID:8246847

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum, the

    E-print Network

    Salzberg, Steven

    spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, identified unique and common genes a phylogenetically ancient and distinct bacterial group. Both T. pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, the caus- ative in the host environment. Comparison of the T. pallidum and B. burgdorferi ge- nomes (8) allows assessment

  20. The Treponema pallidum immobilization test

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Hans Aage; Reyn, Alice

    1956-01-01

    The authors first discuss the principle of the Treponema pallidum immobilization (TPI) test, considered both as a qualitative and as a quantitative test, and then various specific aspects of passage of the Nichols strain of treponeme in rabbit testes. A number of important technical details and modifications in the test procedure are then reviewed, and the clinical value of the test is discussed. The sensitivity of the TPI test is considerably greater than that of the serological tests for syphilis more usually performed, and its specificity is also remarkably high. However, it is stressed that, at the present stage of development, the greatest value of the TPI test lies in its use as an excellent aid to diagnosis rather than as a test of cure. PMID:13329850

  1. Flagellins, but Not Endoflagellar Sheath Proteins, of Treponema pallidum and of Pathogen-Related Oral Spirochetes Are Glycosylated

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, C.

    1998-01-01

    Glycosylation of the flagellar core proteins (FlaBs) was detected in Treponema pallidum Nichols and in the type or reference strains of seven oral Treponema species. In several nonmotile strains of oral treponemes, the FlaBs were undetectable by both antibody and glycan staining. In contrast, a spontaneous low-motility variant of T. vincenti£i-related strain RitzA, OMZ 305A, lacked the flagellar sheath protein (FlaA) and the two glycan-staining FlaB bands of the wild type, but antibody labeling revealed a novel FlaB band with a lower relative molecular weight. A ca. 38-kDa component of isolated endoflagella of T. vincentii OMZ 800 was identified on Western blots as FlaA by monoclonal antibody (MAb) H9-2, which specifically labels the 37-kDa FlaA protein of T. pallidum. Glycan and H9-2 labeling patterns similar to those of T. pallidum were observed in whole-cell extracts of T. medium G7201 and of 10 strains classified as T. vincentii and as two T. vincentii-related taxons. These four groups were thus identified as cultivable pathogen (T. pallidum)-related oral spirochetes as defined by labeling with MAb H9-2. No H9-2 MAb-reactive component could be detected in T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. pectinovorum, and the three subspecies of T. socranskii. PMID:9826350

  2. Sequence Diversity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum tprK in Human Syphilis Lesions and Rabbit-Propagated Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca E. LaFond; Arturo Centurion-Lara; Charmie Godornes; Anne M. Rompalo; Wesley C. Van Voorhis; Sheila A. Lukehart

    2003-01-01

    The tprK gene of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, belongs to a 12-member gene family and encodes a protein with a predicted cleavable signal sequence and predicted transmembrane domains. Except for the Nichols type strain, all rabbit-propagated isolates of T. pallidum examined thus far are comprised of mixed populations of organisms with heterogeneous tprK sequences.

  3. Flagellins, but Not Endoflagellar Sheath Proteins, of Treponema pallidum and of Pathogen-Related Oral Spirochetes Are Glycosylated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. WYSS

    Glycosylation of the flagellar core proteins (FlaBs) was detected in Treponema pallidum Nichols and in the type or reference strains of seven oral Treponema species. In several nonmotile strains of oral treponemes, the FlaBs were undetectable by both antibody and glycan staining. In contrast, a spontaneous low-motility variant of T. vincenti£i-related strain RitzA, OMZ 305A, lacked the flagellar sheath protein

  4. Penicillin-binding proteins and peptidoglycan of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Radolf, J D; Moomaw, C; Slaughter, C A; Norgard, M V

    1989-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) were characterized by using [3H]penicillin G and a conjugate consisting of ampicillin and 125I-labeled Bolton-Hunter reagent. Both antibiotics specifically radiolabeled proteins with molecular masses of 94, 80, 63, and 58 kilodaltons (kDa); 125I-labeled Bolton-Hunter reagent-ampicillin also radiolabeled several polypeptides with lower molecular masses. The 94- and 58-kDa proteins demonstrated the highest binding affinities for [3H]penicillin G and were radiolabeled at concentrations of 8 and 40 nM, respectively. Radiolabeling of PBPs was detectable after 1 min of incubation in 1 microM [3H]penicillin G and was nearly maximal within 10 min. The rapidity of penicillin binding contrasted with the observation that only 40% of virulent treponemes became immobilized during prolonged incubation in vitro with a much higher concentration (1 mM) of unlabeled penicillin. Two lines of evidence indicated that most, if not all, of the PBPs are integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins: (i) preincubation of organisms in 0.1% Triton X-100 solubilized nearly all of the outer membranes but did not affect radiolabeling of PBPs, and (ii) except for the 80-kDa protein, the PBPs partitioned into the detergent phase following extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. The presence of peptidoglycan in T. pallidum was confirmed by the detection of muramic acid in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, proteinase K-resistant residue obtained from Triton X-114-extracted organisms. Images PMID:2647634

  5. Similarity between the 38-kilodalton lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum and the glucose/galactose-binding (MglB) protein of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P S; Akins, D R; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery that abundant and immunogenic lipoproteins constitute the integral membrane proteins of Treponema pallidum has prompted efforts to investigate their importance in the physiology and ultrastructure of the organism and in immune responses during infection. Earlier studies identified a 38-kDa lipoprotein of T. pallidum believed to be specific to the pathogen. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies generated against the 38-kDa lipoprotein of T. pallidum reacted with cognate 37-kDa molecules in the nonpathogens Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, and Treponema refringens. Cloning and expression of the 38-kDa-lipoprotein gene of T. pallidum in Escherichia coli revealed that the recombinant product displayed a slightly larger (39-kDa) apparent molecular mass but remained reactive with anti-38-kDa-protein monoclonal antibodies. The recombinant product was processed and acylated in E. coli. DNA and amino acid sequence analyses indicated an open reading frame encoding 403 amino acids, with the first 25 amino acids corresponding to a leader peptide terminated by a signal peptidase II processing site of Val-Val-Gly-Cys. The predicted mature protein is 378 amino acids in length with a deduced molecular weight of 40,422 (excluding acylation). Southern blotting failed to demonstrate in nonpathogenic treponemes genomic sequences homologous with the 38-kDa-lipoprotein gene of T. pallidum. Computer analysis revealed that the 38-kDa lipoprotein of T. pallidum had 34.2% identity and 58.9% similarity with the glucose/galactose-binding protein (MglB) of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, of the 19 amino acids of MglB involved in carbohydrate binding, the 38-kDa lipoprotein had identity with 11. These studies have allowed the first putative functional assignment (carbohydrate binding) to a T. pallidum integral membrane protein. Recognition of this potential physiological role for the 38-kDa lipoprotein underscores the possibility that the membrane biology of T. pallidum may more closely resemble that of gram-positive organisms, which also utilize lipoproteins as anchored transporters, than that of gram-negative bacteria to which T. pallidum often is analogized. Images PMID:8132345

  6. Demonstration of rare protein in the outer membrane of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum by freeze-fracture analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, E M; Zampighi, G A; Blanco, D R; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1989-09-01

    The surface of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the etiologic agent of syphilis, appears antigenically inert and lacks detectable protein, as judged by immunocytochemical and biochemical techniques commonly used to identify the outer membrane (OM) constituents of gram-negative bacteria. We examined T. pallidum by freeze-fracture electron microscopy to visualize the architecture of its OM. Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter (T. phagedenis Reiter), a nonpathogenic host-associated treponeme, and Spirochaeta aurantia, a free-living spirochete, were studied similarly. Few intramembranous particles interrupted the smooth convex and concave fracture faces of the OM of T. pallidum, demonstrating that the OM of this organism is an unusual, nearly naked lipid bilayer. In contrast, the concave fracture face of the OM of S. aurantia was densely covered with particles, indicating the presence of abundant integral membrane proteins, a feature shared by typical gram-negative organisms. The concentration of particles in the OM concave fracture face of T. phagedenis Reiter was intermediate between those of T. pallidum and S. aurantia. Similar to typical gram-negative bacteria, the OM convex fracture faces of the three spirochetes contained relatively few particles. The unique molecular architecture of the OM of T. pallidum can explain the puzzling in vitro properties of the surface of the organism and may reflect a specific adaptation by which treponemes evade the host immune response. PMID:2670902

  7. Antibody

    MedlinePLUS

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  8. Antibody

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

    2005-04-04

    Antibody: A blood protein that is produced in response to and counteracts an antigen. Antibodies are produced in response to disease and help the body fight against the particular disease. In this way, antibodies help the body develop an immunity to disease.

  9. Rapid Treponema pallidum Clearance from Blood and Ulcer Samples following Single Dose Benzathine Penicillin Treatment of Early Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08x107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20–56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies. PMID:25700164

  10. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies. PMID:25700164

  11. Biology of Treponema pallidum: Correlation of Functional Activities With Genome Sequence Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Norris; David L. Cox; George M. Weinstock

    Aspects of the biology of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, the agent of syphilis, are examined in the context of a century of experimental studies and the recently determined genome sequence. T. pallidum and a group of closely related pathogenic spirochetes have evolved to become highly invasive, persistent pathogens with little toxigenic activity and an inability to survive outside the mammalian

  12. Treponema pallidum distribution patterns in mucocutaneous lesions of primary and secondary syphilis: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ezquerra, Gemma; Fernandez-Casado, Alex; Barco, Dídac; Jucglà, Anna; Juanpere-Rodero, Núria; Manresa, Josep Maria; de Almeida, Luis Miguel Soares; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Barranco, Carles; Lloreta, Josep; Requena, Luis; Pujol, Ramon M

    2009-05-01

    To study the different patterns of Treponema pallidum distribution in primary and secondary syphilis, 34 biopsy specimens of 8 patients with primary and 26 with secondary syphilis were assessed. Histopathological features, silver stain, and immunohistochemical T pallidum polyclonal antibody expression were investigated. The number and distribution of spirochetes were evaluated, and ultrastructural studies were performed. Spirochetes were identified with Warthin-Starry stain in 17 specimens (4/8 primary and 13/26 secondary syphilis), whereas immunohistochemical analysis disclosed spirochetes in 29 (8/8 primary and 21/26 secondary syphilis). In secondary syphilis, an epitheliotropic pattern characterized by abundant spirochetes in the lower mucosa/epidermis in an intercellular distribution was observed. In contrast, primary syphilis exhibited a mixed epitheliotropic and vasculotropic pattern further manifested by treponemes surrounding the vascular walls. These differences were statistically significant. Ultrastructural examination confirmed these results. Immunohistochemistry shows greater sensitivity when compared with Warthin-Starry staining. The immunohistochemical pattern of T pallidum distribution may permit the diagnostic differentiation of primary from secondary syphilis. PMID:19157499

  13. Topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-09-01

    The topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been studied using Nissl staining in conjunction with myelin staining, enzyme reactivity to acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase, and immunoreactivity to parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, and neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). All those components of the striatum and pallidum found in eutherian mammals could also be identified in the echidna's brain, with broad chemoarchitectural similarities to those regions in eutherian brains also apparent. There was a clear chemoarchitectural gradient visible with parvalbumin immunoreactivity of neurons and fibers, suggesting a subdivision of the echidna caudatoputamen into weakly reactive rostrodorsomedial and strongly reactive caudoventrolateral components. This may, in turn, relate to subdivision into associative versus sensorimotor CPu and reflect homology to the caudate and putamen of primates. Moreover, the chemoarchitecture of the echidna striatum suggested the presence of striosome-matrix architecture. The morphology of identified neuronal groups (i.e., parvalbumin, calbindin, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive) in the echidna striatum and pallidum showed many similarities to those seen in eutherians, although the pattern of distribution of calbindin immunoreactive neurons was more uniform in the caudatoputamen of the echidna than in therians. These observations indicate that the same broad features of striatal and pallidal organization apply across all mammals and suggest that these common features may have arisen before the divergence of the monotreme and therian lineages. PMID:18821282

  14. Effects of molecular oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, and antioxidants upon in vitro replication of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D L; Riley, B; Chang, P; Sayahtaheri, S; Tassell, S; Hevelone, J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various concentrations of dithiothreitol, molecular oxygen, and several antioxidants upon the in vitro replication of Treponema pallidum were studied. The optimal dithiothreitol concentration was between 0.65 and 1.62 mM, and the optimum oxygen concentration was 3.0% +/- 0.5% in both the presence and absence of additional antioxidants. It was discovered that the reduced sulfhydryl concentration and the oxidation-reduction potential of the medium were stabilized after 5 days. The water-soluble antioxidants cobalt chloride, cocarboxylase, mannitol, and histidine were individually tested for their ability to increase treponemal growth in vitro. The optimum concentrations for these antioxidants were 21 nM, 4.3 nM, 0.55 mM, and 0.23 mM, respectively. When combined at these concentrations, the mixture of antioxidants stimulated the in vitro replication of T. pallidum. The number of treponemes in cultures with the antioxidants averaged a 59-fold increase, compared with a 43-fold increase in cultures lacking the antioxidants. It was further demonstrated that histidine and mannitol were the most critical components of this mixture. Catalase and superoxide dismutase were investigated for their ability to promote the growth and maintain viability of T. pallidum in tissue culture. The optimum concentrations for these enzymes were 10,000 U/liter and 25,000 U/liter, respectively. When these enzymes and the above antioxidants were combined and added to a chemically reduced modified Eagle medium, the treponemes increased an average of 70-fold, compared with an average of 35-fold in cultures lacking them. Furthermore, this medium, T. pallidum culture medium, supported the replication of T. pallidum at oxygen concentrations from 5 to 7% with little loss in yield or viability. The lipid-soluble antioxidants vitamin A and vitamin E acetate were also shown to enhance the in vitro growth of T. pallidum in this medium. PMID:2285317

  15. Detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum from Skin Lesions, Serum, and Cerebrospinal Fluid in an Infant with Congenital Syphilis after Clindamycin Treatment of the Mother during Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Woznicová, Vladana; Šmajs, David; Wechsler, Dan; Mat?jková, Petra; Flasarová, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    We report here a case of congenital syphilis in a newborn after clindamycin treatment in pregnancy. Using PCR detection of tmpC (TP0319) and DNA sequencing of the genes TP0136 and TP0548, DNA sequences identical to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain SS14 were detected in the infant's skin lesions, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:17151205

  16. A redescripton of Lyrosoma pallidum (Eschscholtz) and distributional range extension of Lyrosoma Mannerheim (Coleoptera, Agyrtidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, In-Seong; Sikes, Derek; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A redescription with illustrations of the species Lyrosoma pallidum and a key to the Korean species of the family Agyrtidae are provided. New distributional data, including a range extension, of the two Lyrosoma Mannerheim species are presented. Lyrosoma pallidum (Eschscholtz) is recorded for the first time in Korea. PMID:24146551

  17. Whole Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, Strain Mexico A, Suggests Recombination between Yaws and Syphilis Strains

    PubMed Central

    P?trošová, Helena; Zobaníková, Marie; ?ejková, Darina; Mikalová, Lenka; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Chen, Lei; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M.; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, and Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The TPA Mexico A strain was isolated in 1953 from male, with primary syphilis, living in Mexico. Attempts to cultivate TPA Mexico A strain under in vitro conditions have revealed lower growth potential compared to other tested TPA strains. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome sequence of the TPA Mexico A strain was determined using the Illumina sequencing technique. The genome sequence assembly was verified using the whole genome fingerprinting technique and the final sequence was annotated. The genome size of the Mexico A strain was determined to be 1,140,038 bp with 1,035 predicted ORFs. The Mexico A genome sequence was compared to the whole genome sequences of three TPA (Nichols, SS14 and Chicago) and three TPE (CDC-2, Samoa D and Gauthier) strains. No large rearrangements in the Mexico A genome were found and the identified nucleotide changes occurred most frequently in genes encoding putative virulence factors. Nevertheless, the genome of the Mexico A strain, revealed two genes (TPAMA_0326 (tp92) and TPAMA_0488 (mcp2-1)) which combine TPA- and TPE- specific nucleotide sequences. Both genes were found to be under positive selection within TPA strains and also between TPA and TPE strains. Conclusions/Significance The observed mosaic character of the TPAMA_0326 and TPAMA_0488 loci is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between TPA and TPE strains during simultaneous infection of a single host suggesting horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies. PMID:23029591

  18. TprC/D (Tp0117/131), a Trimeric, Pore-Forming Rare Outer Membrane Protein of Treponema pallidum, Has a Bipartite Domain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star; Caimano, Melissa J.; Karanian, Carson; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been a longstanding objective of syphilis researchers. We recently developed a consensus computational framework that employs a battery of cellular localization and topological prediction tools to generate ranked clusters of candidate rare OMPs (D. L. Cox et al., Infect. Immun. 78:5178–5194, 2010). TP0117/TP0131 (TprC/D), a member of the T. pallidum repeat (Tpr) family, was a highly ranked candidate. Circular dichroism, heat modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning, and liposome incorporation confirmed that full-length, recombinant TprC (TprCFl) forms a ?-barrel capable of integrating into lipid bilayers. Moreover, TprCFl increased efflux of terbium-dipicolinic acid complex from large unilamellar vesicles and migrated as a trimer by blue-native PAGE. We found that in T. pallidum, TprC is heat modifiable, trimeric, expressed in low abundance, and, based on proteinase K accessibility and opsonophagocytosis assays, surface exposed. From these collective data, we conclude that TprC is a bona fide rare OMP as well as a functional ortholog of Escherichia coli OmpF. We also discovered that TprC has a bipartite architecture consisting of a soluble N-terminal portion (TprCN), presumably periplasmic and bound directly or indirectly to peptidoglycan, and a C-terminal ?-barrel (TprCC). Syphilitic rabbits generate antibodies exclusively against TprCC, while secondary syphilis patients fail to mount a detectable antibody response against either domain. The syphilis spirochete appears to have resolved a fundamental dilemma arising from its extracellular lifestyle, namely, how to enhance OM permeability without increasing its vulnerability to the antibody-mediated defenses of its natural human host. PMID:22389487

  19. Membrane topology of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J D; Bourell, K W; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1995-01-01

    A critical issue regarding the molecular architectures of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, the agents of venereal syphilis and Lyme disease, respectively, concerns the membrane topologies of their major lipoprotein immunogens. A related question is whether these lipid-modified membrane proteins form intramembranous particles during freeze fracture electron microscopy. To address these issues, native borrelial and treponemal lipoproteins were reconstituted into liposomes of diverse composition. The importance of the covalently associated lipids for membrane association of lipoproteins was revealed by the observation that nonlipidated recombinant forms of both B. burgdorferi OspA and the T. pallidum 47-kDa immunogen (Tpp47) showed very weak or no binding to model bilayer vesicles. In contrast to control liposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin or bovine rhodopsin, two well-characterized transmembrane proteins, none of the lipoprotein-liposomes contained particles when examined by freeze fracture electron microscopy. To extend these findings to prokaryotic lipoproteins with relatively amphiphilic polypeptides, similar experiments were conducted with a recombinant nonlipidated form of Escherichia coli TraT, a lipoprotein which has putative transmembrane domains. The nonlipidated TraT oligomers bound vesicles derived from E. coli lipids but, surprisingly, did not form particles in the freeze-fractured liposomes. These findings support (i) a proposed topology of spirochetal lipoproteins in which the polypeptide is extrinsic to the membrane surface and (ii) the contention that particles visualized in freeze-fractured spirochetal membranes represent poorly characterized transmembrane proteins. PMID:7790053

  20. Sensitive detection of Treponema pallidum by using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Burstain, J M; Grimprel, E; Lukehart, S A; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive assay for Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of veneral syphilis, based upon the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 658-bp portion of the gene encoding the 47-kDa membrane immunogen was amplified, and the PCR products were probed by DNA-DNA hybridization with a 496-bp fragment internal to the amplitifed DNA. The assay detected approximately 0.01 pg of purified T. pallidum DNA, and positive results were obtained routinely from suspensions of treponemes calculated to contain 10 or more organism and from some suspensions calculated to contain a single organism. Specific PCR products were obtained for the closely related agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, but not with human DNA or DNAs from other spirochetes (including Borrelia burgdoferi), skin microorganisms, sexually transmitted disease pathogens, and central nervous system pathogens. T. pallidum DNA was detected in serum, cerebrospinal fluids, and amniotic fluids from syphilis patients but not in in nonsyphilitic controls. T. pallidum DNA was also amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue. The diagnosis of syphillis by using PCR may become a significant addition to the diagnostic armamentarium and a valuable technique for the investigation of syphilis pathogenesis. PMID:1993770

  1. Sensitive detection of Treponema pallidum by using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Burstain, J M; Grimprel, E; Lukehart, S A; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive assay for Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of veneral syphilis, based upon the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 658-bp portion of the gene encoding the 47-kDa membrane immunogen was amplified, and the PCR products were probed by DNA-DNA hybridization with a 496-bp fragment internal to the amplitifed DNA. The assay detected approximately 0.01 pg of purified T. pallidum DNA, and positive results were obtained routinely from suspensions of treponemes calculated to contain 10 or more organism and from some suspensions calculated to contain a single organism. Specific PCR products were obtained for the closely related agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, but not with human DNA or DNAs from other spirochetes (including Borrelia burgdoferi), skin microorganisms, sexually transmitted disease pathogens, and central nervous system pathogens. T. pallidum DNA was detected in serum, cerebrospinal fluids, and amniotic fluids from syphilis patients but not in in nonsyphilitic controls. T. pallidum DNA was also amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue. The diagnosis of syphillis by using PCR may become a significant addition to the diagnostic armamentarium and a valuable technique for the investigation of syphilis pathogenesis. Images PMID:1993770

  2. Pulse radiolysis studies on superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum

    E-print Network

    Nivière, V; Fontecave, M; Houée-Levin, C

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are small metalloenzymes, which catalyze reduction of O2*- to H2O2. The reaction of the enzyme from Treponema pallidum with superoxide was studied by pulse radiolysis methods. The first step is an extremely fast bi-molecular reaction of the ferrous center with O2, with a rate constant of 6 x 10 (8) M(-1) s(-1). A first intermediate is formed which is converted to a second one with a slower rate constant of 4800 s(-1). This latter value is 10 times higher than the corresponding one previously reported in the case of SOR from Desulfoarculus baarsii. The reconstituted spectra for the two intermediates are consistent with formation of transient iron-peroxide species.

  3. Unique lipid composition of Treponema pallidum (Nichols virulent strain).

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H M; Yang, T K; Jenkin, H M

    1979-01-01

    The lipid composition of Treponema pallidum (Nichols virulent strain) was determined after purification of the organisms from the infected testes of corticosteroid-treated rabbits by differential centrifugation, filtration through Nuclepore membranes, and sedimentation in Hypaque density gradients. The total lipids were comprised of 32.2% neutral lipids, mainly cholesterol, and 67.8% phospholipids consisting of phosphatidylcholine (32.1%), sphingomyelin (14.8%), cardiolipin (13.0%), phosphatidylethanolamine (6.2%), phosphatidylinositol-serine (1.2%), and lysophosphatidylcholine (0.4%). Monoglycosyldiglyceride, a glycolipid comprising 25 to 50% of thetotal lipid of all Treponema previously examined, was not detected. The fatty acid composition was similar but quntitatively distinct from that of the infected testes tissue. Images PMID:381199

  4. 21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3820 Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  8. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0136 Protein Is Heterogeneous among Isolates and Binds Cellular and Plasma Fibronectin via its NH2-Terminal End

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Wujian; Molini, Barbara J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Giacani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Adherence-mediated colonization plays an important role in pathogenesis of microbial infections, particularly those caused by extracellular pathogens responsible for systemic diseases, such as Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of syphilis. Among T. pallidum adhesins, TP0136 is known to bind fibronectin (Fn), an important constituent of the host extracellular matrix. To deepen our understanding of the TP0136-Fn interaction dynamics, we used two naturally-occurring sequence variants of the TP0136 protein to investigate which region of the protein is responsible for Fn binding, and whether TP0136 would adhere to human cellular Fn in addition to plasma Fn and super Fn as previously reported. Fn binding assays were performed with recombinant proteins representing the two full-length TP0136 variants and their discrete regions. As a complementary approach, we tested inhibition of T. pallidum binding to Fn by recombinant full-length TP0136 proteins and fragments, as well as by anti-TP0136 immune sera. Our results show that TP0136 adheres more efficiently to cellular Fn than to plasma Fn, that the TP0136 NH2-terminal conserved region of the protein is primarily responsible for binding to plasma Fn but that binding sites for cellular Fn are also present in the protein’s central and COOH-terminal regions. Additionally, message quantification studies show that tp0136 is highly transcribed during experimental infection, and that its message level increases in parallel to the host immune pressure on the pathogen, which suggests a possible role for this protein in T. pallidum persistence. In a time where syphilis incidence is high, our data will help in the quest to identify suitable targets for development of a much needed vaccine against this important disease. PMID:25793702

  9. Fibronectin Binding to the Treponema pallidum Adhesin Protein Fragment rTp0483 on Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Matthew T.; Abney, Morgan B.; Cameron, Caroline E.; Knecht, Marc; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Anderson, Kimberly W.

    2012-01-01

    Past work has shown that Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, binds host fibronectin (FN). FN and other host proteins are believed to bind to rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of T. pallidum, and it is postulated that this interaction may facilitate cell attachment and mask antigenic targets on the surface. This research seeks to prepare a surface capable of mimicking the FN binding ability of T. pallidum in order to investigate the impact of FN binding with adsorbed Tp0483 on the host response to the surface. By understanding this interaction it may be possible to develop more effective treatments for infection and possibly mimic the stealth properties of the bacteria. Functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on0 gold were used to investigate rTp0483 and FN adsorption. Using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) rTp0483 adsorption and subsequent FN adsorption onto rTp0483 was determined to be higher on negatively charged carboxylate-terminated self-assembled monolayers (?COO? SAMs) compared to the other surfaces analyzed. Kinetic analysis of rTp0483 adsorption using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) supported this finding. Kinetic analysis of FN adsorption using SPR revealed a multi-step event, where the concentration of immobilized rTp0483 plays a role in FN binding. An examination of relative QCM dissipation energy compared to the shift in frequency showed a correlation between the physical properties of adsorbed rTp0483 and SAM surface chemistry. In addition, AFM images of rTp0483 on selected SAMs illustrated a preference of rTp0483 to bind as aggregates. Adsorption on ?COO? SAMs was more uniform across the surface, which may help further explain why FN bound more strongly. rTp0483 antibody studies suggested the involvement of amino acids 274–289 and 316–333 in binding between rTp0483 to FN, while a peptide blocking study only showed inhibition of binding with amino acids 316–333. Finally, surface adsorbed rTp0483 with FN bound significantly less anti-RGD and gelatin compared to FN adsorbed directly to ?COO? SAMs indicating that one or both binding regions may play a role in binding between rTp0483 and FN. PMID:22175441

  10. Isolation of the outer membranes from Treponema pallidum and Treponema vincentii.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, D R; Reimann, K; Skare, J; Champion, C I; Foley, D; Exner, M M; Hancock, R E; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1994-01-01

    The outer membranes from Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and Treponema vincentii were isolated by a novel method. Purified outer membranes from T. pallidum and T. vincentii following sucrose gradient centrifugation banded at 7 and 31% (wt/wt) sucrose, respectively. Freeze fracture electron microscopy of purified membrane vesicles from T. pallidum and T. vincentii revealed an extremely low density of protein particles; the particle density of T. pallidum was approximately six times less than that of T. vincentii. The great majority of T. vincentii lipopolysaccharide was found in the outer membrane preparation. The T. vincentii outer membrane also contained proteins of 55 and 65 kDa. 125I-penicillin V labeling demonstrated that t. pallidum penicillin-binding proteins were found exclusively with the protoplasmic cylinders and were not detectable with purified outer membrane material, indicating the absence of inner membrane contamination. Isolated T. pallidum outer membrane was devoid of the 19-kDa 4D protein and the normally abundant 47-kDa lipoprotein known to be associated with the cytoplasmic membrane; only trace amounts of the periplasmic endoflagella were detected. Proteins associated with the T. pallidum outer membrane were identified by one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis using gold staining and immunoblotting. Small amounts of strongly antigenic 17- and 45-kDa proteins were detected and shown to correspond to previously identified lipoproteins which are found principally with the cytoplasmic membrane. Less antigenic proteins of 65, 31 (acidic pI), 31 (basic pI), and 28 kDa were identified. Compared with whole-organism preparations, the 65- and the more basic 31-kDa proteins were found to be highly enriched in the outer membrane preparation, indicating that they may represent the T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins. Reconstitution of solubilized T. pallidum outer membrane into lipid bilayer membranes revealed porin activity with two estimated channel diameters of 0.35 and 0.68 nm based on the measured single-channel conductances in 1 M KCl of 0.40 and 0.76 nS, respectively. Images PMID:7928971

  11. Runting syndrome in neonatal rabbits infected with Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Festenstein, H.; Abrahams, C.; Bokkenheuser, V.

    1967-01-01

    Infection of rabbits with Treponema pallidum prior to the 2nd week of life usually resulted in progressive runting leading to death about the 7th–13th week of age. The severity of the disease could be evaluated at any particular time by the percentage weight retardation. In this small series there was a suggestion that the runting index (R.I.) and the presence or absence of reagins might correlate with the prognosis of the disease. Weight retardation of more than 25% and a R.I. of less than 0·81 were usually associated with irreversible, pathological processes refractory to penicillin therapy. The disease occurred in degrees of severity. There was a mild form with a R.I. of about 0·90, reactive Malpighian corpuscles and increased number of histiocytic like cells in the spleen but with normal thymuses. A moderate form was described with a R.I. of about 0·81 and partial depletion of lymphocytes in the spleen with predominance of histiocytic like cells. The thymuses were normal. A severe form was characterized by a R.I. of 0·65–0·76, depletion of lymphocytes and increased number of histiocytic like cells in both spleen and thymus. The possibility that the syphilitic runting syndrome in baby rabbits is the result of a direct, or indirect action of the treponemes on the lymphatic system is advanced. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:5340664

  12. Distribution of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities among Treponema pallidum and other spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Austin, F E; Barbieri, J T; Corin, R E; Grigas, K E; Cox, C D

    1981-08-01

    Representative members of Spirochaetales were surveyed for their content of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase activities. Only Leptospira exhibited peroxidase activity. Obligately anaerobic cultivable Treponema and Spirochaeta possessed no SOD or peroxidative capabilities. Upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Spirochaeta aurantia, Borrelia hermsi, and five Leptospira biflexa serovars showed SOD activity associated with one electrophoretic band which was inhibited by H2O2, suggesting that they were iron-containing dismutases. These spirochetes could be distinguished by differences in relative mobilities of their SODs. SOD activity, but not catalase activity, was induced aerobically in S. aurantia. All Leptospira interrogans serovars and two L. biflexa serovars lacked significant SOD activity. These SOD-deficient strains of Leptospira, with one exception, possessed high levels of catalase activity. The Nichols strain of virulent Treponema pallidum possessed SOD and catalase activities, but lacked peroxidase activity. The SOD in T. pallidum exhibited two electrophoretic bands containing copper and zinc, and its relative mobility was identical to that of purified rabbit SOD. Immunization of sheep with purified rabbit SOD resulted in antiserum which inhibited both rabbit SOD and T. pallidum SOD assayed by spectrophotometric analysis or activity staining following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In agarose gel diffusion, precipitin lines of identity were observed between purified rabbit SOD and cell extracts of T. pallidum. These data indicated that the SOD activity detected in T. pallidum was host derived. PMID:7024127

  13. Genome Analyses of T. pallidum and B. burgdorferi 387 Genome Analyses of Spirochetes: A Study of the

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    of the Protein Structures, Functions and Metabolic Pathways in Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi *For, whose genomes have been sequenced. Among these organisms, Borrelia burgdorferi (Fraser et al., 1997Genome Analyses of T. pallidum and B. burgdorferi 387 Genome Analyses of Spirochetes: A Study

  14. Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Kristin N.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Armelagos, George J.; Knauf, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains. PMID:23284649

  15. Performance Evaluation of the Elecsys Syphilis Assay for the Detection of Total Antibodies to Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Martin; Hunjet, Andrea; Gleich, Michael; Imdahl, Roland; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Schennach, Harald; Chaiwong, Kriangsak; Sakuldamrongpanich, Tasanee; Turhan, Ajda; Sertöz, Rüchan; Wolf, Eva; Mayer, Wolfgang; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lan Lan; Semprini, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard, and diagnosis therefore usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the treponemal Elecsys syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples, i.e., when syphilis is suspected or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay were compared head to head with those of other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and were assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations, the Elecsys syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 99.57 to 100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false-positive samples were identified. PMID:25355799

  16. Performance evaluation of the Elecsys syphilis assay for the detection of total antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Enders, Martin; Hunjet, Andrea; Gleich, Michael; Imdahl, Roland; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Schennach, Harald; Chaiwong, Kriangsak; Sakuldamrongpanich, Tasanee; Turhan, Ajda; Sertöz, Rüchan; Wolf, Eva; Mayer, Wolfgang; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lan Lan; Semprini, Simona; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard, and diagnosis therefore usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the treponemal Elecsys syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples, i.e., when syphilis is suspected or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay were compared head to head with those of other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and were assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations, the Elecsys syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 99.57 to 100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false-positive samples were identified. PMID:25355799

  17. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis. PMID:23945159

  18. Treponema phagedenis encodes and expresses homologs of the Treponema pallidum TmpA and TmpB proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Yelton, D B; Limberger, R J; Curci, K; Malinosky-Rummell, F; Slivienski, L; Schouls, L M; van Embden, J D; Charon, N W

    1991-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the genes from Treponema phagedenis Kazan 5 encoding proteins homologous to the TmpA and TmpB proteins of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols (hereafter referred to as T. pallidum). Although previous reports suggested that the TmpA and TmpB proteins were specific for T. pallidum, we found that homologs for both were expressed in T. phagedenis Kazan 5 and Reiter. The TmpA protein from T. phagedenis contained the consensus sequence that bacterial lipoproteins require for posttranslational modification and subsequent proteolytic cleavage by signal peptidase II and showed 42% amino acid sequence identity with the TmpA protein from T. pallidum. The TmpB proteins of T. phagedenis and T. pallidum had similar amino acid sequences at their amino- and carboxy-terminal ends. The central portions of both of these proteins contained four repeats of the amino acid sequence EAARKAAE. The TmpB protein from T. phagedenis had an additional amino acid sequence repeat (consensus sequence KAAKE/D) that was not found in the TmpB protein from T. pallidum; this repeat was most remarkable, as it occurred 17 times in succession. These repeated amino acid sequences probably created an extensive alpha-helix region within the TmpB proteins. As with T. pallidum, the stop codon of the T. phagedenis tmpA gene overlapped the start codon of its tmpB gene. Northern blot analysis showed that the T. phagedenis tmpA and tmpB genes were probably transcribed into a single 2.5-kb mRNA molecule. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis demonstrated that both proteins were expressed by T. phagedenis. The high degree of amino acid sequence conservation seen with the TmpA and TmpB proteins from two different Treponema species suggests that they may play crucial roles in the biology of these organisms. Images PMID:1894368

  19. HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum infections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) pose a major health risk in Cameroon given the high prevalence of such pathogens and increased demands for blood donations in the local communities. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of commonly encountered TTIs among blood donors and transfusion-related complications among recipients in an urban center of Cameroon. Methods A total of 477 blood donors and 83 blood recipients were recruited by consecutive sampling at the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala (LHD), Cameroon. Serum samples from blood donors were tested by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and/or using various Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for presence of Hepatits B (HBV) viral antigens, and antibodies to human immunodeficiency (HIV-1/2), Hepatits B (HCV) and Treponema pallidum. Recipient’s medical records were also analyzed for possible transfusion-associated complications. Results The male/female sex ratio of the blood donors was 4/1 with a mean age of 30.2 (Sd?=?8.3) years. Of all blood donors, 64/467 (13.7%) were infected by at least one of the four TTIs. Infected volunteer donors represented 8.3% while infected family donors comprised 14.3% of the donor population. The prevalence of HCV, HIV, HBV and T. pallidum were 1.3%, 1.8%, 3.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. More than half of the blood recipients were female (78.3%) and the mean age was 20.6 (SD?=?16.1) years. The causes of severe anemia indicative of transfusion in recipients varied with wards (postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean section, uterine or cervical lacerations, abortions, urinary tract infections, severe malaria, vaso-occlusive attacks, wounds and gastrointestinal bleeding). The most frequent complications were chills and hematuria, which represented 46.1% of all observed complications. Other complications such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice, sudden diarrhea, anxiety, tachycardia, or hyperthermia were also found in recipients. Three cases of deaths occurred during the study, including a girl of less than one year. Conclusion This study confirms the presence of blood-borne infectious diseases in blood donors at the LHD, identifying T. pallidum as the greatest threat to blood safety in the region, and hematuria as the most common immunological complications in blood recipients. PMID:24517107

  20. Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Strains Nichols and SS14: Correction of Sequencing Errors Resulted in Increased Separation of Syphilis Treponeme Subclusters

    PubMed Central

    Strouhal, Michal; ?ejková, Darina; Zobaníková, Marie; Mikalová, Lenka; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The genomes of TPA strains Nichols and SS14 were resequenced using the 454 and Illumina sequencing methods that have a combined average coverage higher than 90x. In the TPA strain Nichols genome, 134 errors were identified (25 substitutions and 109 indels), and 102 of them affected protein sequences. In the TPA SS14 genome, a total of 191 errors were identified (85 substitutions and 106 indels) and 136 of them affected protein sequences. A set of new intrastrain heterogenic regions in the TPA SS14 genome were identified including the tprD gene, where both tprD and tprD2 alleles were found. The resequenced genomes of both TPA Nichols and SS14 strains clustered more closely with related strains (i.e. strains belonging to same syphilis treponeme subcluster). At the same time, groups of Nichols-like and SS14-like strains were found to be more distantly related. Conclusion/Significance We identified errors in 11.5% of all annotated genes and, after correction, we found a significant impact on the predicted proteomes of both Nichols and SS14 strains. Corrections of these errors resulted in protein elongations, truncations, fusions and indels in more than 11% of all annotated proteins. Moreover, it became more evident that syphilis is caused by treponemes belonging to two separate genetic subclusters. PMID:24058545

  1. Molecular differentiation of Treponema pallidum subspecies in skin ulceration clinically suspected as yaws in Vanuatu using real-time multiplex PCR and serological methods.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Danavall, Damien; Taleo, Fasihah; Pillay, Allan; Ye, Tun; Nachamkin, Eli; Kool, Jacob L; Fegan, David; Asiedu, Kingsley; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ballard, Ronald C; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ?59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area. PMID:25404075

  2. Evidence that TP_0144 of Treponema pallidum Is a Thiamine-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Tu, Youbin; Wang, Song-Mei; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Li, Chunhao

    2015-04-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active form of thiamine (also known as vitamin B1), is an essential cofactor for several important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and therefore, it is required for all living organisms. We recently found that a thiamine-binding protein (TDE_0143) is essential for the survival of Treponema denticola, an important bacterial pathogen that is associated with human periodontitis. In this report, we provide experimental evidence showing that TP_0144, a homolog of TDE_0143 from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum, is a thiamine-binding protein that has biochemical features and functions that are similar to those of TDE_0143. First, structural modeling analysis reveal that both TDE_0143 and TP_0144 contain a conserved TPP-binding site and share similar structures to the thiamine-binding protein of Escherichia coli. Second, biochemical analysis shows that these two proteins bind to TPP with similar dissociation constant (Kd) values (TDE_0143, Kd of 36.50 nM; TP_0144, Kd of 32.62 nM). Finally, heterologous expression of TP_0144 in a ?TDE_0143 strain, a previously constructed TDE_0143 mutant of T. denticola, fully restores its growth and TPP uptake when exogenous thiamine is limited. Collectively, these results indicate that TP_0144 is a thiamine-binding protein that is indispensable for T. pallidum to acquire exogenous thiamine, a key nutrient for bacterial survival. In addition, the studies shown in this report further underscore the feasibility of using T. denticola as a platform to study the biology and pathogenicity of T. pallidum and probably other uncultivable treponemal species as well. PMID:25605310

  3. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Early atrophy of pallidum and accumbens nucleus in Huntington’s disease

    E-print Network

    Jeroen Grond; Raymund A. C. Roos; Track-hd Investigator Group; T. P. Acharya; H. Johnson; D. R. Langbehn; R. I. Scahill; S. J. Tabrizi; M. A. Buchem; J. Grond

    Ó The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract In Huntington’s disease (HD) atrophy of the caudate nucleus and putamen has been described many years before clinical manifestation. Volume changes of the pallidum, thalamus, brainstem, accumbens nucleus, hippocampus, and amygdala are less well investigated, or reported with contradicting results. The aim of our study is to provide a more precise view of the specific atrophy of the subcortical grey matter structures in different stages of Huntington’s disease, and secondly to investigate how this influences the clinical manifestations. All TRACK-HD subjects underwent standardised T1-weighted 3T MRI scans encompassing 123 manifest HD (stage 1, n = 77; stage 2, n = 46), 120 premanifest HD (close to onset n = 58, far from onset n = 62) and 123 controls. Using FMRIB’s FIRST and SIENAX tools the accumbens nucleus, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and whole brain Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5768-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  4. Structural, bioinformatic, and in vivo analyses of two Treponema pallidum lipoproteins reveal a unique TRAP transporter

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Goldberg, Martin; Schuck, Peter; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, the bacterial agent of syphilis, is predicted to encode one tripartite ATP- independent periplasmic transporter (TRAP-T). TRAP-Ts typically employ a periplasmic substrate-binding protein (SBP) to deliver the cognate ligand to the transmembrane symporter. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes encoding the putative TRAP-T components from T. pallidum, tp0957 (the SBP) and tp0958 (the symporter) are in an operon with an uncharacterized third gene, tp0956. We determined the crystal structure of recombinant Tp0956; the protein is trimeric and perforated by a pore. Part of Tp0956 forms an assembly similar to those of “tetratricopeptide repeat” (TPR) motifs. The crystal structure of recombinant Tp0957 was also determined; like the SBPs of other TRAP-Ts, there are two lobes separated by a cleft. In these other SBPs, the cleft binds a negatively charged ligand. However, the cleft of Tp0957 has a strikingly hydrophobic chemical composition, indicating that its ligand may be substantially different and likely hydrophobic. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant versions of Tp0956 and Tp0957 established that these proteins associate avidly. This unprecedented interaction was confirmed for the native molecules using in vivo cross-linking experiments. Finally, bioinformatic analyses suggested that this transporter exemplifies a new subfamily of TPR-protein associated TRAP transporters (TPATs) that require the action of a TPR-containing accessory protein for the periplasmic transport of a potentially hydrophobic ligand(s). PMID:22306465

  5. Comparison of the locomotor activating effects of bicuculline infusions into the preoptic area and ventral pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.; Schwartz, Zachary M.; Lavezzi, Heather N.; Yetnikoff, Leora; Parsley, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory locomotion in the rodent is robustly activated by unilateral infusions into the basal forebrain of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline and picrotoxin. The present study was carried out to better localize the neuroanatomical substrate(s) underlying this effect. To accomplish this, differences in total locomotion accumulated during a 20 minute test period following bicuculline versus saline infusions in male Sprague-Dawley rats were calculated, rank ordered and mapped on a diagram of basal forebrain transposed from immunoprocessed sections. The most robust locomotor activation was elicited by bicuculline infusions clustered in rostral parts of the preoptic area. Unilateral infusions of bicuculline into the ventral pallidum produced an unanticipatedly diminutive activation of locomotion, which led us to evaluate bilateral ventral pallidal infusions, and these also produced only a small activation of locomotion, and, interestingly, a non-significant trend toward suppression of rearing. Subjects with bicuculline infused bilaterally into the ventral pallidum also exhibited persistent bouts of abnormal movements. Bicuculline infused unilaterally into other forebrain structures, including the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, sublenticular extended amygdala and sublenticular substantia innominata, did not produce significant locomotor activation. Our data identify the rostral preoptic area as the main substrate for the locomotor activating effects of basal forebrain bicuculline infusions. In contrast, slight activation of locomotion and no effect on rearing accompanied unilateral and bilateral ventral pallidal infusions. Implications of these findings for forebrain processing of reward are discussed. PMID:23423460

  6. Evaluation of Macrolide Resistance and Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Patients with Syphilis in Taiwan: a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lee, Nan-Yao; Huang, Wen-Chi; Wu, Bing-Ru; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liang, Shiou-Haur; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Wu, Pei-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Studies of macrolide resistance mutations and molecular typing using the newly proposed enhanced typing system for Treponema pallidum isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Between September 2009 and December 2011, we conducted a survey to detect T. pallidum using a PCR assay using clinical specimens from patients with syphilis at six major designated hospitals for HIV care in Taiwan. The T. pallidum strains were genotyped by following the enhanced molecular typing methodology, which analyzed the number of 60-bp repeats in the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene, T. pallidum repeat (tpr) polymorphism, and the sequence of base pairs 131 to 215 in the tp0548 open reading frame of T. pallidum. Detection of A2058G and A2059G point mutations in the T. pallidum 23S rRNA was performed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). During the 2-year study period, 211 clinical specimens were obtained from 136 patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA was isolated from 105 (49.8%) of the specimens, with swab specimens obtained from chancres having the highest yield rate (63.2%), followed by plasma (49.4%), serum (35.7%), and cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous fluid (18.2%) specimens. Among the 40 fully typed specimens, 11 subtypes of T. pallidum were identified. Subtype 14f/f (18 isolates) was the most common isolates, followed by 14f/c (3), 14b/c (3), and 14k/f (3). Among the isolates examined for macrolide resistance, none had the A2058G or A2059G mutation. In conclusion, we found that type 14 f/f was the most common T. pallidum strain in this multicenter study on syphilis in Taiwan and that none of the isolates exhibited 23S rRNA mutations causing resistance to macrolides. PMID:22518868

  7. The primate ventral pallidum encodes expected reward value and regulates motor action

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Motor actions are facilitated when expected reward value is high. It is hypothesized that there are neurons that encode expected reward values to modulate impending actions and potentially represent motivation signals. Here we present evidence suggesting that the ventral pallidum (VP) may participate in this process. We recorded single neuronal activity in the monkey VP using a saccade task with a direction-dependent reward bias. Depending on the amount of the expected reward, VP neurons increased or decreased their activity tonically until the reward was delivered, for both ipsiversive and contraversive saccades. Changes in expected reward values were also associated with changes in saccade performance (latency and velocity). Furthermore, bilateral muscimol-induced inactivation of the VP abolished the reward-dependent changes in saccade latencies. These data suggest that the VP provides expected reward value signals that are used to facilitate or inhibit motor actions. PMID:23177966

  8. Identification and transcriptional analysis of a Treponema pallidum operon encoding a putative ABC transport system, an iron-activated repressor protein homolog, and a glycolytic pathway enzyme homolog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Hardham; Lola V. Stamm; Stephen F. Porcella; Jonathan G. Frye; Natalie Y. Barnes; Jerrilyn K. Howell; Stacey L. Mueller; Justin D. Radolf; George M. Weinstock; Steven J. Norris

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized a 5.2-kilobase (kb) putative transport related operon (tro) locus of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain) (Tp) encoding six proteins: TroA, TroB, TroC, TroD, TroR and Phosphoglycerate mutase (Pgm). Four of these gene products (TroA–TroD) are homologous to members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of bacterial transport proteins. TroA (previously identified as Tromp1) has significant sequence

  9. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao-Yi; Berridge, Kent C

    2014-11-01

    Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense 'disgust reactions' (e.g. gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here, we aimed to map forebrain candidates more precisely, to identify where either local neuronal damage (excitotoxin lesions) or local pharmacological inactivation (muscimol/baclofen microinjections) caused rats to show excessive sensory disgust reactions to sucrose. Our study compared subregions of the nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, lateral hypothalamus, and adjacent extended amygdala. The results indicated that the posterior half of the ventral pallidum was the only forebrain site where intense sensory disgust gapes in response to sucrose were induced by both lesions and temporary inactivations (this site was previously identified as a hedonic hotspot for enhancements of sweetness 'liking'). By comparison, for the nucleus accumbens, temporary GABA inactivations in the caudal half of the medial shell also generated sensory disgust, but lesions never did at any site. Furthermore, even inactivations failed to induce disgust in the rostral half of the accumbens shell (which also contains a hedonic hotspot). In other structures, neither lesions nor inactivations induced disgust as long as the posterior ventral pallidum remained spared. We conclude that the posterior ventral pallidum is an especially crucial hotspot for producing excessive sensory disgust by local pharmacological/lesion dysfunction. By comparison, the nucleus accumbens appears to segregate sites for pharmacological disgust induction and hedonic enhancement into separate posterior and rostral halves of the medial shell. PMID:25229197

  10. Recombinant Treponema pallidum Protein Tp0965 Activates Endothelial Cells and Increases the Permeability of Endothelial Cell Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Li; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Qian-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant Treponema pallidum protein Tp0965 (rTp0965), one of the many proteins derived from the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, shows strong immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of rTp0965 on the endothelial barrier. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with rTp0965 resulted in increased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. These increases contributed to the adhesion and chemataxis of monocytes (THP-1 cells) to HUVECs preincubated with rTp0965. In addition, rTp0965 induced reorganization of F-actin and decreased expression of claudin-1 in HUVECs. Interestingly, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway protected against rTp0965-induced higher endothelial permeability as well as transendothelial migration of monocytes. These data indicate that Tp0965 protein may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:25514584

  11. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations. PMID:23802452

  12. Morphological alterations in the caudate, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amanmeet; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Popuri, Karteek; McKeown, Martin J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Like many neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical symptoms of Parkinsons disease (PD) do not manifest until significant progression of the disease has already taken place, motivating the need for sensitive biomarkers of the disease. While structural imaging is a potentially attractive method due to its widespread availability and non-invasive nature, global morphometric measures (e.g., volume) have proven insensitive to subtle disease change. Here we use individual surface displacements from deformations of an average surface model to capture disease related changes in shape of the subcortical structures in PD. Data were obtained from both the University of British Columbia (UBC) [n = 54 healthy controls (HC) and n = 55 Parkinsons disease (PD) patients] and the publicly available Parkinsons Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) [n = 137 (HC) and n = 189 (PD)] database. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was used to register target segmentation labels (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus) to a set of segmentation labels defined on the average-template. The vertex-wise surface displacements were significantly different between PD and HC in thalamic and caudate structures. However, overall displacements did not correlate with disease severity, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The results from this study suggest disease-relevant shape abnormalities can be robustly detected in subcortical structures in PD. Future studies will be required to determine if shape changes in subcortical structures are seen in the prodromal phases of the disease.

  13. Evidence for a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein gene (mcp1) that encodes a putative sensory transducer in virulent Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, K E; Porcella, S F; Popova, T G; Norgard, M V

    1997-01-01

    The clinical and histopathological manifestations of syphilis and the invasive behavior of Treponema pallidum in tissue culture systems reflect the propensity for treponemes to migrate through skin, hematogenously disseminate, and invade targeted tissues. Treponemal motility is believed to be essential to this process and thereby an important facet of syphilis pathogenesis. By analogy with other bacterial pathogens, it is plausible that treponemal motility and tissue invasion are modulated by sensory transduction events associated with chemotactic responses. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence in T. pallidum of accessory molecules typically associated with sensory transduction events involving methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Intrinsic radiolabeling of T. pallidum in vitro with L-[methyl-3H] methionine revealed one methylated treponemal polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a highly conserved C-terminal domain within Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli MCPs was used in Southern blotting of T. pallidum DNA to identify and subsequently clone a putative T. pallidum MCP gene (mcp1). Computer analyses predicted a near-consensus promoter upstream of mcp1, and primer extension analysis employing T. pallidum RNA revealed a transcriptional initiation site. T. pallidum mcp1 encoded a 579-amino-acid (64.6-kDa) polypeptide which was highly homologous to at least 69 other known or putative sensory transducer proteins, with the highest degrees of homology existing between the C terminus of mcp1 and the C-terminal (signaling) domains of the other bacterial MCPs. Other salient features of Mcp1 included (i) six potential membrane-spanning domains at the N terminus, (ii) two predicted alpha-helical coiled coil regions containing at least three putative methylation sites, and (iii) homologies with two ligand-binding domains (LI-1 and LI-2) of the E. coli MCPs Trg and Tar. This study is the first to provide both metabolic and genetic evidence for an MCP sensory transducer in T. pallidum. The combined findings prompt key questions regarding the relationship(s) among sensory transduction, regulation of endoflagellar rotation, and chemotactic responses (in particular, the role of glucose) during virulence expression by T. pallidum. PMID:9125550

  14. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked to an increased risk ...

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  16. Differential roles of ventral pallidum subregions during cocaine self-administration behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Ma, Sisi; Barker, David J.; Megehee, Laura; Striano, Brendan M.; Ralston, Carla M.; Fabbricatore, Anthony T.; West, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is necessary for drug-seeking behavior. VP contains ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) subregions which receive projections from the nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. To date, no study has investigated the behavioral functions of the VPdl and VPvm subregions. To address this issue, we investigated whether changes in firing rate (FR) differed between VP subregions during four events: approaching toward, responding on, or retreating away from a cocaine-reinforced operandum, and a cocaine-associated cue. Baseline FR and waveform characteristics did not differ between subregions. VPdl neurons exhibited a greater change in FR compared to VPvm neurons during approaches toward, as well as responses on, the cocaine-reinforced operandum. VPdl neurons were more likely to exhibit a similar change in FR (direction and magnitude) during approach and response than VPvm neurons. In contrast, VPvm firing patterns were heterogeneous, changing FRs during approach or response alone, or both. VP neurons did not discriminate cued behaviors from uncued behaviors. No differences were found between subregions during the retreat and no VP neurons exhibited patterned changes in FR in response to the cocaine-associated cue. The stronger, sustained FR changes of VPdl neurons during approach and response may implicate VPdl in the processing of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior via projections to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. In contrast, heterogeneous firing patterns of VPvm neurons may implicate VPvm in facilitating mesocortical structures with information related to the sequence of behaviors predicting cocaine self-infusions via projections to mediodorsal thalamus and ventral tegmental area. PMID:22806483

  17. The first crystal structure of class III superoxide reductase from Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Teresa; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Bonifácio, Cecília; Auchère, Françoise; Raleiras, Patrícia; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G; Romão, Maria João

    2006-07-01

    Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a metalloprotein containing a non-heme iron centre, responsible for the scavenging of superoxide radicals in the cell. The crystal structure of Treponema pallidum (Tp) SOR was determined using soft X-rays and synchrotron radiation. Crystals of the oxidized form were obtained using poly(ethylene glycol) and MgCl2 and diffracted beyond 1.55 A resolution. The overall architecture is very similar to that of other known SORs but TpSOR contains an N-terminal domain in which the desulforedoxin-type Fe centre, found in other SORs, is absent. This domain conserves the beta-barrel topology with an overall arrangement very similar to that of other SOR proteins where the centre is present. The absence of the iron ion and its ligands, however, causes a decrease in the cohesion of the domain and some disorder is observed, particularly in the region where the metal would be harboured. The C-terminal domain exhibits the characteristic immunoglobulin-like fold and harbours the Fe(His)4(Cys) active site. The five ligands of the iron centre are well conserved despite some disorder observed for one of the four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The participation of a glutamate as the sixth ligand of some of the iron centres in Pyrococcus furiosus SOR was not observed in TpSOR. A possible explanation is that either X-ray photoreduction occurred or there was a mixture of redox states at the start of data collection. In agreement with earlier proposals, details in the TpSOR structure also suggest that Lys49 might be involved in attraction of superoxide to the active site. PMID:16791639

  18. Antibody engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo Jeong Hong; Sun Taek Kim

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been used as diagnostic and analytical reagents since hybridoma technology was invented\\u000a in 1975. In recent years, antibodies have become increasingly accepted as therapeutics for human diseases, particularly for\\u000a cancer, viral infection and autoimmune disorders. An indication of the emerging significance of antibody-based therapeutics\\u000a is that over a third of the proteins currently undergoing clinical trials

  19. Identification and sequences of the Treponema pallidum fliM', fli Y, fliP, fliQ, fliR and flhB' genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Hardham; Jonathan G. Frye; Lola V. Stamm

    1995-01-01

    Information regarding the biology and virulence attributes of Treponema pallidum (Tp) is limited due to the lack of genetic exchange mechanisms and the inability to continuously cultivate this spirochete. We have utilized TnphoA mutagenesis of a Tp genomic DNA library in Escherichia coli (Ec) to identify genes encoding exported proteins, a subset of which are likely to be important in

  20. Molecular Characterization of Syphilis in Patients in Canada: Azithromycin Resistance and Detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in Whole-Blood Samples versus Ulcerative Swabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene E. Martin; Raymond S. W. Tsang; Karen Sutherland; Peter Tilley; Ron Read; Barbara Anderson; Colleen Roy; Ameeta E. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Although detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood specimens of syphilis patients has been reported, it is uncertain at what stage of the disease such specimens are most suitable for the molecular diagnosis of syphilis. Also, few studies have directly compared the different gene targets for routine laboratory diagnostic usage in PCR assays. We examined 87 specimens from 68 patients

  1. A Novel  Lactamase Activity from a Penicillin-binding Protein of Treponema pallidum and Why Syphilis Is Still Treatable with Penicillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Cha; Akihiro Ishiwata; Shahriar Mobashery

    2004-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is sensitive to penicillins. Yet, an abundant membrane- bound protein of this organism, Tp47, turns over peni- cillins. It is shown herein that the turnover process is a hydrolytic reaction that results in the corresponding penicilloates, products that have their -lactam bonds hydrolyzed. This is the reaction of -lactamases, bona fide resistance enzymes

  2. Seroprevalence survey of Egyptian tourism workers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum infections: association of hepatitis C virus infections with specific regions of Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, N M; Gomatos, P J; Rodier, G R; Wierzba, T F; Darwish, A; Khashaba, S; Arthur, R R

    1996-08-01

    Blood samples from 740 Egyptian Nationals working in the tourism industry at two sites in the South Sinai governorate were screened for markers of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Treponema pallidum. Study subjects included 467 individuals from a rural seashore tourist village and 273 persons at two hotels in a well-established resort town. Subjects' ages ranged from 15 to 70 years; 99.3% were male. The prevalence of serologic markers for currently asymptomatic or past HBV infection alone was 20.7% (n = 153), of markers for past or chronic HCV infection alone was 7.4% (n = 55), and of markers for both HBV and HCV was 6.9% (n = 51). Of the 204 individuals positive for anti-HBV core antibody, 12 (5.9%) were also positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Two individuals (0.3%) had a serologic market suggestive of an active syphilitic infection. No subject was found to be HIV-seropositive. History of prior injections and number of injections were associated with infection with HCV. Primary residence in the Nile delta and valley areas where schistosomiasis is highly endemic, was also a statistically significant risk factor for HCV, but not HBV infection. PMID:8780457

  3. Assessment of the Kinetics of Treponema pallidum Dissemination into Blood and Tissues in Experimental Syphilis by Real-Time Quantitative PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Rathi, Asha; Michael, Nelson L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the size and kinetics of treponemal burdens in blood and tissues during acquired or experimental syphilitic infection. We used real-time quantitative PCR to measure Treponema pallidum DNA levels in rabbits infected intratesticularly with the prototype Nichols strain. At the outset, we performed a series of in vitro blood spiking experiments to determine the effect of blood processing procedures on the distribution of treponemes in various blood components. T. pallidum DNA levels in plasma and whole blood were approximately 10-fold higher than those in serum and more than 200-fold greater than those in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Ten rabbits were inoculated intratesticularly with doses of treponemes ranging from 4 × 107 to 2 × 108 organisms. In five rabbits, T. pallidum DNA levels were measured sequentially in serum, plasma, whole blood, and PBMCs until sacrifice at peak orchitis, at which time brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and testicles were harvested; blood and organs were also harvested at orchitis from the other five rabbits. T. pallidum DNA was detected in plasma within 24 h postinfection. Treponeme levels in whole blood and blood components increased significantly with the development of peak orchitis. Overall, levels in serum and PBMCs were lower than those in plasma and whole blood; this disparity was particularly marked at early time points. Significantly greater numbers of spirochetes were found in the spleen than in liver, kidney, or brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Our findings highlight the remarkable capacity of T. pallidum to disseminate from the site of infection to blood and tissues, and they identify the spleen as a prime target for treponemal invasion. PMID:17438037

  4. Broad specificity AhpC-like peroxiredoxin and its thioredoxin reductant in the sparse antioxidant defense system of Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Parsonage, Derek; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Sun, Yongcheng; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which Treponema pallidum (Tp), the causative agent of syphilis, copes with oxidative stress as it establishes persistent infection within its obligate human host. The Tp genomic sequence indicates that the bacterium’s antioxidant defenses do not include glutathione and are limited to just a few proteins, with only one, TP0509, offering direct defense against peroxides. Although this Tp peroxiredoxin (Prx) closely resembles AhpC-like Prxs, Tp lacks AhpF, the typical reductant for such enzymes. Functionally, TpAhpC resembles largely eukaryotic, nonAhpC typical 2-Cys Prx proteins in using thioredoxin (Trx, TP0919) as an efficient electron donor and exhibiting broad specificity toward hydroperoxide substrates. Unlike many of the eukaryotic Prxs, however, TpAhpC is relatively resistant to inactivation during turnover with hydroperoxide substrates. As is often observed in typical 2-Cys Prxs, TpAhpC undergoes redox-sensitive oligomer formation. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that TpTrx and TpAhpC are present at very high levels (over 100 and 300 ?M, respectively) in treponemes infecting rabbit testes; their redox potentials, at -242 ± 1 and -192 ± 2 mV, respectively, are consistent with the role of TpTrx as the cellular reductant of TpAhpC. Transcriptional analysis of select antioxidant genes confirmed the presence of high mRNA levels for ahpC and trx which diminish greatly when spirochetes replicate under in vitro growth conditions. Thus, T. pallidum has evolved an extraordinarily robust, broad-spectrum AhpC as its sole mechanism for peroxide defense to combat this significant threat to treponemal growth and survival during infection. PMID:20304799

  5. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2. Can thyroid antibody testing be done in my doctor's office? Though a blood sample may be ... gov. Accessed August 2012. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  6. Identification of homologs for thioredoxin, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase in outer membrane fractions from Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Shevchenko, D V; Akins, D R; Robinson, E J; Li, M; Shevchenko, O V; Radolf, J D

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we characterized candidate rare outer membrane (OM) proteins with apparent molecular masses of 19, 27, 38, and 38.5 kDa, which had been identified previously in OM fractions from Treponema pallidum (J. D. Radolf et al., Infect. Immun. 63:4244-4252, 1995). Using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences, a probe for the 19-kDa candidate was PCR amplified and used to screen a T. pallidum genomic library in Lambda Zap II. The corresponding gene (tlp) encoded a homolog for periplasmic thioredoxin-like proteins (Tlp), which reduce c-type cytochromes. A degenerate oligonucleotide derived from the N terminus of the 27-kDa protein was used to PCR amplify a duplex probe from a T. pallidum genomic library in pBluescript II SK+. With this probe, the corresponding gene (ppiB) was identified and found to code for a presumptive periplasmic cyclophilin B-type peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiB). We postulate that PpiB assists the folding of proteins within the T. pallidum periplasmic space. The N terminus of the 38-kDa candidate was blocked to Edman degradation. However, internal sequence data revealed that it was basic membrane protein (Bmp), a previously characterized, signal peptidase I-processed protein. Triton X-114 phase partitioning revealed that despite its name, Bmp is hydrophilic and therefore likely to be periplasmic. The final candidate was also blocked to Edman degradation; as before, a duplex probe was PCR amplified with degenerate primers derived from internal sequences. The corresponding gene (glpQ) coded for a presumptively lipid-modified homolog of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Based upon findings with other treponemal lipoproteins, the hydrophilic GlpQ polypeptide is thought to be anchored by N-terminal lipids to the periplasmic leaflet(s) of the cytoplasmic membrane and/or OM. The discovery of T. pallidum periplasmic proteins with potentially defined functions provides fresh insights into a poorly understood aspect of treponemal physiology. At the same time, however, these findings also raise important issues regarding the use of OM preparations for identifying rare OM proteins of T. pallidum. PMID:9317025

  7. Evaluation of Two Immunoblot Assays and a Western Blot Assay for the Detection of Antisyphilis Immunoglobulin G Antibodies ?

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ryan J.; Litwin, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, two immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoblot assays and one IgG Western blot assay were compared to the rapid plasma reagin test (RPR), the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA). The agreement levels of the Viramed, Virotech, and MarDx assays were 97.0%, 96.4%, and 99.4%, and the agreements of samples inconclusive by FTA-ABS and resolved by TP-PA were 91.7%, 83.3%, and 69.4%, respectively. PMID:19940043

  8. Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Zobaníková, Marie; ?ejková, Darina; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Lei; Giacani, Lorenzo; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2014-01-01

    Background T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East. The strain Bosnia A was isolated in 1950 in Bosnia, southern Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome of the Bosnia A strain was amplified and sequenced using the pooled segment genome sequencing (PSGS) method and a combination of three next-generation sequencing techniques (SOLiD, Roche 454, and Illumina). Using this approach, a total combined average genome coverage of 513× was achieved. The size of the Bosnia A genome was found to be 1,137,653 bp, i.e. 1.6–2.8 kbp shorter than any previously published genomes of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes. Conserved gene synteny was found in the Bosnia A genome compared to other sequenced syphilis and yaws treponemes. The TEN Bosnia A genome was distinct but very similar to the genome of yaws-causing T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains. Interestingly, the TEN Bosnia A genome was found to contain several sequences, which so far, have been uniquely identified only in syphilis treponemes. Conclusions/Significance The genome of TEN Bosnia A contains several sequences thought to be unique to TPA strains; these sequences very likely represent remnants of recombination events during the evolution of TEN treponemes. This finding emphasizes a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome. PMID:25375929

  9. Introduction to Antibodies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a thorough overview of the fundamentals of antibodies. The site starts with an introduction to antigens and antibodies, antibody production and titer including practical information.

  10. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Sangeeta; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Pujani, Mukta; Jain, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL), not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group) in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group). Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi's blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082) of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV) and 6.63% (44/663) donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more). Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the TPHA seropositivity correlated with higher HIV and HCV seropositivity and the same correlation has been observed by several other studies also. In view of these observations, we propose that testing for syphilis by more sensitive and specific treponemal markers like TPHA rather than VDRL, rapid plasma reagin tests; as TPHA also has the added advantage of picking up all the high risk donors, whereas, VDRL picks up only currently infected donors. Moreover, TPHA should be continued as a marker of high risk behavior especially in high prevalence areas like India where we don’t have universal access to markers like nucleic acid amplification technique. PMID:25161350

  11. Europium Nanoparticle-Based High Performing Immunoassay for the Screening of Treponemal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Talha, Sheikh M.; Hytönen, Jukka; Westhorpe, Adam; Kumar, Sushil; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (Tp) is the causative agent of syphilis which mainly spreads through sexual contact, blood transfusion and perinatal route. In order to curtail the spread of the infection and to clinically manage the disease, timely, accurate and reliable diagnosis is very important. We have developed an immunoassay for the detection of treponemal antibodies in human serum or plasma samples. In vivo biotinylated and non-biotinylated versions of the recombinant antigen were designed by the fusion of three Tp-specific antigens namely Tp15, Tp17 and Tp47. These fusion antigens were expressed in E. coli and purified using single-step metal affinity chromatography. Biotinylated fusion antigen immobilized on streptavidin coated plate was used to capture the treponemal antibodies and the non-biotinylated antigen coated on europium nanoparticles was used as tracer. Assays with two different incubation times of 10 min and 1 h were developed, and following the incubation the europium fluorescence was measured using time-resolved fluorometry. The developed time-resolved fluorometric (TRF) immunoassays were evaluated with in-house and commercial serum/plasma sample panels. For well-established treponemal antibodies positive or negative samples, the sensitivity of TRF immunoassay with 10 min incubation time was 97.4%, and of TRF immunoassay with 1 h incubation time was 98.7%, and the specificities of both the TRF immunoassays were 99.2%. For the samples with discordant results with the reference assays, both the TRF immunoassays showed better specificity than the Enzygnost syphilis enzyme immunoassay as a screening test. The two different incubation times did not have any significant effect on the signal to cutoff (S/Co) ratios obtained with the two immunoassays (p?=?0.06). Our results indicate that the developed immunoassay with a short incubation time of 10 min has the potential to be used in clinical laboratories and in blood-bank settings as a screening test for treponemal antibodies. PMID:24386329

  12. Recently Added Antibodies

    Cancer.gov

    Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

  13. Increasing Endocannabinoid Levels in the Ventral Pallidum Restores Aberrant Dopamine Neuron Activity in the Subchronic PCP Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, David D; Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as THC are reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic PCP model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate anesthetized rats we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats. Interestingly endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity. Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity. PMID:25539511

  14. [Monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Koyama, K

    1988-08-01

    Since the first successful application of somatic cell fusion by Kohler and Milstein to generate hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), this hybridoma technique has been widely applied for production of Mabs against a wide variety of antigens. In the lecture, general procedures for establishment of hybridomas and characteristic properties of Mabs were briefly explained and followed by presentation of our clinical studies using Mabs produced in our laboratory to hCG, sperm and tumor cells. 1. Monoclonal antibodies to hCG. Three hybridomas (5D4, 6E4, 2F8) were established by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3U1) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with partially purified hCG. Mabs were obtained either from hybridoma culture media or from ascites of mice inoculated the hybridoma cells intraperitoneally. Three Mabs obtained were all IgG1 and each had a unique binding specificity to hCG, hCG-beta, hCG-alpha and LH. They were applied for development of specific, sensitive and easy to perform hCG assays. A reverse passive hemagglutination assay of urinary hCG with a sensitivity of 12.5 IU/l and a sandwich-enzyme immunoassay of serum hCG with a sensitivity of 0.1 mIU/ml were presented. 2. Monoclonal antibodies to human spermatozoa. For elucidation of mechanisms for induction of auto- or iso-sperm immunization and infertility by antisperm antibodies, antigen analysis of seminal components was essential. For this purpose, several Mabs with strong sperm immobilizing (SI) and agglutinating (SA) activities were generated in mice, rats and humans and the corresponding antigens were analysed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3075226

  15. Enhanced Extracellular Glutamate and Dopamine in the Ventral Pallidum of Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats after Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Heidi; Nurmi, Harri; Raivio, Noora; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of ventral pallidal opioidergic mechanisms in the control of ethanol intake by studying the effects of acute administration of morphine on the levels of GABA, glutamate, and dopamine in the ventral pallidum. The study was conducted using the alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) and alcohol-avoiding Alko Non-Alcohol (ANA) rat lines that have well-documented differences in their voluntary ethanol intake and brain opioidergic systems. Therefore, examination of neurobiological differences between the lines is supposed to help to identify the neuronal mechanisms underlying ethanol intake, since selection pressure is assumed gradually to lead to enrichment of alleles promoting high or low ethanol intake, respectively. The effects of an acute dose of morphine (1 or 10?mg/kg s.c.) on the extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the ventral pallidum were monitored with in vivo microdialysis. The concentrations of GABA and glutamate in the dialyzates were determined with a high performance liquid chromatography system using fluorescent detection, while electrochemical detection was used for dopamine. The levels of glutamate in the rats injected with morphine 1?mg/kg were significantly above the levels found in the controls and in the rats receiving morphine 10?mg/kg. Morphine 10?mg/kg also increased the levels of dopamine. Morphine could not, however, modify the levels of GABA. The rat lines did not differ in any of the effects of morphine. The data suggest that the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in the ventral pallidum may mediate some effects of morphine. Since there were no differences between the AA and ANA lines, the basic hypothesis underlying the use of the genetic animal model suggests that the effects of morphine detected probably do not underlie the different intake of ethanol by the lines and contribute to the control of ethanol intake in these animals. PMID:25653621

  16. Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Mikalová, Lenka; Norris, Steven J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three TPE strains (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier) were determined using next-generation sequencing techniques. TPE genome sequences were compared to four genomes of TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, SS14, Chicago). The genome structure was identical in all three TPE strains with similar length ranging between 1,139,330 bp and 1,139,744 bp. No major genome rearrangements were found when compared to the four TPA genomes. The whole genome nucleotide divergence (dA) between TPA and TPE subspecies was 4.7 and 4.8 times higher than the observed nucleotide diversity (?) among TPA and TPE strains, respectively, corresponding to 99.8% identity between TPA and TPE genomes. A set of 97 (9.9%) TPE genes encoded proteins containing two or more amino acid replacements or other major sequence changes. The TPE divergent genes were mostly from the group encoding potential virulence factors and genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Conclusions/Significance Hypothetical genes, with genetic differences, consistently found between TPE and TPA strains are candidates for syphilitic treponemes virulence factors. Seventeen TPE genes were predicted under positive selection, and eleven of them coded either for predicted exported proteins or membrane proteins suggesting their possible association with the cell surface. Sequence changes between TPE and TPA strains and changes specific to individual strains represent suitable targets for subspecies- and strain-specific molecular diagnostics. PMID:22292095

  17. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) PRINT Download PDF Description The immune system ... Autoimmune diseases can be treated. What is an antibody or ANA? Antibodies develop in our immune system ...

  18. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    A test for platelet-associated antibodies shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. ... need this test when you have a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It is used to detect antibodies ...

  19. Reagents Data Portal Antibodies

    Cancer.gov

    NCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit.

  20. ANTIBODY FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Uhr, Jonathan W.; Baumann, Joyce B.

    1961-01-01

    Diphtheria toxoid-antitoxin precipitates formed in antitoxin excess can prepare guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits for a secondary type of antitoxin response. Priming may occur without the development of detectable serum antibody. In rats, toxoid-antitoxin precipitates are more efficient than "free" toxoid in priming, whereas in guinea pigs, the magnitude of the anamnestic response varies with the precipitate employed. The possibility that priming is due to "free" antigen released from the specific precipitate rather than the precipitate itself is discussed. The anamnestic antitoxin response can be inhibited by passive antitoxin, but less efficiently than primary antitoxin formation. Partial suppression of the secondary antitoxin response was accomplished by injection of excess horse antitoxin as long as 4 days after reimmunization with toxoid. The importance of these findings for the understanding of passive-active immunization in the human is discussed. PMID:13779028

  1. The TP0796 lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum is a bimetal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase with a potential role in flavin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V

    2013-04-19

    Treponema pallidum, an obligate parasite of humans and the causative agent of syphilis, has evolved the capacity to exploit host-derived metabolites for its survival. Flavin-containing compounds are essential cofactors that are required for metabolic processes in all living organisms, and riboflavin is a direct precursor of the cofactors FMN and FAD. Unlike many pathogenic bacteria, Treponema pallidum cannot synthesize riboflavin; we recently described a flavin-uptake mechanism composed of an ABC-type transporter. However, there is a paucity of information about flavin utilization in bacterial periplasms. Using a discovery-driven approach, we have identified the TP0796 lipoprotein as a previously uncharacterized Mg(2+)-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase within the ApbE superfamily. TP0796 probably plays a central role in flavin turnover by hydrolyzing exogenously acquired FAD, yielding AMP and FMN. Biochemical and structural investigations revealed that the enzyme has a unique bimetal Mg(2+) catalytic center. Furthermore, the pyrophosphatase activity is product-inhibited by AMP, indicating a possible role for this molecule in modulating FMN and FAD levels in the treponemal periplasm. The ApbE superfamily was previously thought to be involved in thiamine biosynthesis, but our characterization of TP0796 prompts a renaming of this superfamily as a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp). TP0796 is the first structurally and biochemically characterized FAD pyrophosphate enzyme in bacteria. This new paradigm for a bacterial flavin utilization pathway may prove to be useful for future inhibitor design. PMID:23447540

  2. THE PRESERVATION OF VIRULENT TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AND TREPONEMA PERTENUE IN THE FROZEN STATE; WITH A NOTE ON THE PRESERVATION OF FILTRABLE VIRUSES.

    PubMed

    Turner, T B

    1938-01-01

    1. A simple method for freezing and maintaining tissue specimens in a mixture of solid carbon dioxide and 95 per cent ethyl alcohol at a temperature approximating -78 degrees C. is described. 2. When frozen and maintained at this temperature Treponema pallidum and Treponema pertenue, upon thawing, exhibited normal morphology and motility and their virulence for rabbits was not appreciably altered after periods of at least 1 year. This applied to a number of different strains of each organism. The infectivity of material in which treponemes were scant was maintained as well as of material in which they were abundant. 3. At temperatures of -10 degrees C. and -20 degrees C. syphilis treponemes did not survive as long as 2 months. Death of the organism occurred not at the time of freezing but during the maintenance period. 4. Treponemes did not commonly survive freezing and desiccation, although one lot of dried material which contained T. pallidum was infective for rabbits 1 day after desiccation. 5. The viruses of human influenza, yellow fever, and spontaneous encephalomyelitis of mice when frozen and maintained at -78 degrees C. showed substantially the same titer after 6 months as before freezing. 6. Certain practical applications of the method are suggested. PMID:19870710

  3. [Clinical value of antibody titers to Borrelia burgdorferi and titer course in neurologic disease pictures].

    PubMed

    Mauch, E; Vogel, P; Kornhuber, H H; Hähnel, A

    1990-02-01

    Over a period of 3 years, antibody titres against Borrelia burgdorferi in serum were determined for 492 patients with a wide spectrum of neurological diseases. Using the ELISA technique, we found elevated titres against Borrelia burgdorferi in about 20% of these patients. Cranial nerve paresis was often the leading symptom of an acute Neuroborreliosis. In a number of cases the diagnosis was indicated only by an elevated IgG titre in the patient's serum, or a decrease in the titre level following antibiotic treatment. The IgG titres are, however, unsuitable for control of therapy. Non-specific parameters of inflammation such as blood sedimentation rate (BSC), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum-electrophoresis or leucocyte count are also unsuitable in evaluating the therapeutic effect or for confirming the diagnosis. The most important diagnostic criterion is the demonstration of Borrelian antibodies, synthesised locally in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A spirochaete index above 2 suggests autochthonous intrathecal antibody production. This procedure corresponds to the determination of intrathecally produced Treponema pallidum antibodies in neurolues from quantitative TPHA values and total IgG in serum and CSF (ITpA Index according to Prange). PMID:2181331

  4. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science. PMID:22244834

  5. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO WHOLE-CELL AND RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN COTTONTAIL RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Norris, Steven J.; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) captured in New York, New York, USA and Millbrook, New York, USA, during 1985–86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, or VlsE) during different seasons, but there was no reactivity to outer surface protein (Osp)A or OspB. Seventy-six of the 102 sera (75%) analyzed were reactive with one or more of the antigens; 61 of the positive samples (80%) reacted to whole-cell antigens, followed by results for the p35 (58%, 44/76), VlsE (43%, 33/76), and p37 (29%, 22/76) antigens. Fifty-eight sera (76%) contained antibodies to the VlsE or p35 antigens with or without reactivity to whole-cell antigens. High antibody titers (?1:2,560) recorded for 52 sera indicate robust antibody production. In analyses for IgM antibodies in an ELISA containing whole-cell antigens, there were 30 positive sera; titers ranged from 1:160 to 1:640. There was minimal cross-reactivity when rabbit antisera to Treponema pallidum or four serovars of Leptospira interrogans were screened against B. burgdorferi antigens. Based on more-specific results, VlsE and p35 antigens appear to be useful markers for detecting possible B. burgdorferi infections. PMID:22247369

  6. Serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, Louis A; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) captured in New York, New York, USA and Millbrook, New York, USA, during 1985-86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, or VlsE) during different seasons, but there was no reactivity to outer surface protein (Osp)A or OspB. Seventy-six of the 102 sera (75%) analyzed were reactive with one or more of the antigens; 61 of the positive samples (80%) reacted to whole-cell antigens, followed by results for the p35 (58%, 44/76), VlsE (43%, 33/76), and p37 (29%, 22/ 76) antigens. Fifty-eight sera (76%) contained antibodies to the VlsE or p35 antigens with or without reactivity to whole-cell antigens. High antibody titers (?1:2,560) recorded for 52 sera indicate robust antibody production. In analyses for IgM antibodies in an ELISA containing whole-cell antigens, there were 30 positive sera; titers ranged from 1:160 to 1:640. There was minimal cross-reactivity when rabbit antisera to Treponema pallidum or four serovars of Leptospira interrogans were screened against B. burgdorferi antigens. Based on more-specific results, VlsE and p35 antigens appear to be useful markers for detecting possible B. burgdorferi infections. PMID:22247369

  7. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... treatable. ^ Back to top 3. Can I get antibodies from donating blood? No, you will not be ...

  8. GE Healthcare Antibody Purification

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    GE Healthcare Antibody Purification Handbook GE Healthcare imagination at work agination at work from GE Healthcare #12;Antibody Purification Handbook #12; Handbook 18-1037-46 AD Contents Introduction

  9. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  10. Antibodies, viruses and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Burton

    2002-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

  11. Biobarcodes: Antibodies and Nanosensors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-04

    In this activity/demo, learners investigate biobarcodes, a nanomedical technology that allows for massively parallel testing that can assist with disease diagnosis. Learners define antibodies and learn how each antibody binds to a unique protein. Learners also discover how biobarcoding uses nanoparticles, antibodies, DNA and magnetism to detect diseases earlier than we could detect before. Learners assemble a jigsaw puzzle that models how biobarcodes work.

  12. RSV antibody test

    MedlinePLUS

    Respiratory syncytial virus antibody test; RSV serology ... Breese HC. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandel, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of ...

  13. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-01

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice. PMID:24721669

  14. Antibodies in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...

  15. The antibody mining toolbox

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1–2 million reads can be accomplished in 10–15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

  16. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  17. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  18. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  19. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 ... looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). An ...

  20. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew Rm

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  1. Antibody engineering for cancer therapy

    E-print Network

    Yeung, Yik Andy

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies targeting various tumor-associated antigens have been developed successfully to treat cancer. In this Thesis, novel antibodies and antibody-conjugate against two tumor antigens, AF-20 antigen and human aspartyl ...

  2. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Red blood cell antibodies are proteins produced by the ...

  3. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    PubMed

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described. PMID:24168292

  4. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy. PMID:24491987

  5. The Transition from Closed to Open Conformation of Treponema pallidum Outer Membrane-associated Lipoprotein TP0453 Involves Membrane Sensing and Integration by Two Amphipathic Helices*

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Amit; Zhu, Guangyu; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Eggers, Christian H.; Mulay, Vishwaroop; Anand, Arvind; McArthur, Fiona A.; Romano, Fabian B.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Heuck, Alejandro P.; Malkowski, Michael G.; Radolf, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular architecture and composition of the outer membrane (OM) of Treponema pallidum (Tp), the noncultivable agent of venereal syphilis, differ considerably from those of typical Gram-negative bacteria. Several years ago we described TP0453, the only lipoprotein associated with the inner leaflet of the Tp OM. Whereas polypeptides of other treponemal lipoproteins are hydrophilic, non-lipidated TP0453 can integrate into membranes, a property attributed to its multiple amphipathic helices (AHs). Furthermore, membrane integration of the TP0453 polypeptide was found to increase membrane permeability, suggesting the molecule functions in a porin-like manner. To better understand the mechanism of membrane integration of TP0453 and its physiological role in Tp OM biogenesis, we solved its crystal structure and used mutagenesis to identify membrane insertion elements. The crystal structure of TP0453 consists of an ?/?/?-fold and includes five stably folded AHs. In high concentrations of detergent, TP0453 transitions from a closed to open conformation by lateral movement of two groups of AHs, exposing a large hydrophobic cavity. Triton X-114 phase partitioning, liposome floatation assay, and bis-1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate binding revealed that two adjacent AHs are critical for membrane sensing/integration. Using terbium-dipicolinic acid complex-loaded large unilamellar vesicles, we found that TP0453 increased efflux of fluorophore only at acidic pH. Gel filtration and cross-linking experiments demonstrated that one AH critical for membrane sensing/insertion also forms a dimeric interface. Based on structural dynamics and comparison with Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins LprG and LppX, we propose that TP0453 functions as a carrier of lipids, glycolipids, and/or derivatives during OM biogenesis. PMID:21965687

  6. HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and Treponema pallidum Infections in a Sample of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Caroline C.; Georg, Ingebourg; Lampe, Elisabeth; Lewis, Lia; Morgado, Mariza G.; Nicol, Alcina F.; Pinho, Adriana A.; Salles, Regina C. S.; Teixeira, Sylvia L. M.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Gomes, Selma A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are more vulnerable to blood-borne infections and/or sexually-transmitted infections (STI). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalences of mono and co-infections of HIV-1 and other blood-borne/STIs in a sample of MSM in Campinas, Brazil. Methods Responding Driven Sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment of MSM. Serum samples collected from 558 MSM were analyzed for the presence of serological markers for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and T. pallidum infections. Results The highest prevalences of infection in serum samples were found for HPV-16 and 18 (31.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Approximately 8% of the study population showed infection with HIV-1, and within that group, 27.5% had recently become infected with HIV-1. HBV infection and syphilis were detected in 11.4% and 10% of the study population, respectively, and the rates of HTLV and HCV infection were 1.5% and 1%, respectively. With the exception of HTLV, all other studied infections were usually found as co-infections rather then mono-infections. The rates of co-infection for HCV, HPV-18, and HIV-1 were the highest among the studied infections (100%, 83%, and 85%, respectively). Interestingly, HTLV infection was usually found as a mono-infection in the study group, whereas HCV was found only as a co-infection. Conclusions The present findings highlight the need to educate the MSM population concerning their risk for STIs infections and methods of prevention. Campaigns to encourage vaccination against HBV and HPV could decrease the rates of these infections in MSM. PMID:25083768

  7. Antibody Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... my positive antibody test suggests I may have celiac disease, how do I find out for sure? If ... For more information contact the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at 773.702.7593 or www.CeliacDisease. ...

  8. Enzyme inhibition by antibodies.

    PubMed

    Arnon, R

    1975-01-01

    The interest in the inhibition of enzymes by their specific antibodies stems mainly from the fact that these systems can serve as suitable models in the study of neutralization of biologically active molecules in general. The interaction of enzymes with their specific antibodies generally leads to a reduction in their enzymatic activity. The mechanism of this inhibition is rarely a direct combination of the antibodies with the catalytic site, but is rather due to steric hindrance, namely, barring the access to the active site. In several systems the mechanism of the antibody effect is by conformational changes which it induces on the enzyme. In these cases, the interaction with the antibody may result either in inhibition or in enhancement of the enzymatic activity. In every instance, however, the effect of the antibody is dependent on its narrow specificity, namely, on the regions of the enzyme to which it is directed. The extent of inhibition or enhancement is, therefore, a reflection of the nature and distribution of the various antigenic determinants on the enzyme molecule. Antibodies specific exclusively to defined regions of an enzyme molecule can be prepared. This has been performed for both lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease by two procedures: a) Selective separation of the relevant antibodies from the anti-enzyme serum by an immunoadsorbent containing a particular immunologically active fragment of the enzyme. b) The use of an isolated antigenic fragment of the enzyme, or a conjugate of it, for immunization. The antibodies thus prepared, specific toward a unique defined region of the lysozyme molecule (residues 60-83, denoted "loop") recognize the structural conformation of the fragment and are reactive with the intact enzyme molecule. Furthermore, a chemically synthesized loop-like derivative was proved immunologically identical with the natural fragment, and when forming a part of a completely synthetic conjugate, elicited conformation-specific antibodies, reactive with native lysozyme. These findings are relevant to the topic of an immunological approach to fertility control from two different viewpoints: In the first place they are informative regarding the specific inhibition by antibodies of sperm enzymes which partake in the fertilization process. Secondly, they encourage the synthetic approach for induction of an immune response toward hormones which are crucial in fertilization or implantation. PMID:47683

  9. HLA antibody analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Zeevi; Alin Girnita; Rene Duquesnoy

    2006-01-01

    The clinical relevance of humoral allosensitization has gained a lot of attention in the last few years. An increasing number\\u000a of studies have demonstrated adverse graft survival in patients who have either preformed or post-transplant-developed anti-HLA\\u000a antibodies. The detection of HLA antibodies and the specificity analysis have evolved over time from primarily cell-based\\u000a to solid-phase methods, including the availability of

  10. STUDIES ON HUMAN ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1969-01-01

    Human antibodies to blood group A substance were purified by absorption on columns of insoluble polyleucyl hog blood group A + H substance and eluted first with N-acetylgalactosamine and then with an A active reduced pentasaccharide ARL0.52. The ?M and ?G antibodies in these eluates were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The antibodies were studied for their relative capacities to be inhibited by various blood group A active oligosaccharides. Antibodies eluted by the N-acetylgalactosamine could be inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine, as well as by lower concentrations of A active tri- and pentasaccharides, while those eluted by the pentasaccharide ARL0.52 could only be inhibited by the two oligosaccharides, but not by N-acetylgalactosamine, indicating that the N-acetylgalactosamine eluate had more antibodies with smaller size combining sites than the ARL0.52 eluate. Measurements by equilibrium dialysis gave values ranging from 2 x 103 to 1 x 105 M–1 and the values obtained with the ARL0.52 eluate were somewhat higher than those with the GalNAc eluate. Only one of three anti-A sera had ?M anti-A in the ARL0.52 eluate, while all three had ?M in the N-acetylgalactosamine eluate. Data on the precipitating, hemagglutinating, complement fixing, hemolytic properties of the eluted antibodies, and of their content of ? and ? light chains are given. PMID:5778788

  11. IDIOTYPY OF RABBIT ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques; Michel, Mauricette

    1969-01-01

    Sera of rabbits immunized against Salmonella typhi have been studied for the idiotypy of certain of their components, i.e., the property of these components to possess an antigenic specificity which is different in individual rabbits, and which varies with the antigens against which these rabbits have been immunized. The reagent used (precipitating anti-idiotypic sera) have been prepared by injecting rabbits with bacteria agglutinated by anti-S. typhi sera (immunizing sera) as was done in the first observations by the authors of the phenomenon in the rabbit. These first observations have been confirmed and extended. In contrast to allotypy, the anti-idiotypic sera precipitate the corresponding immunizing sera, but not the sera taken in the immunizing rabbits prior to their immunization against S. typhi, nor the immunizing sera absorbed with the somatic antigen of S. typhi, demonstrating that idiotypes are antibodies. The idiotypic specificities of the antibodies of one rabbit against S. typhi are not detected in the antibodies of the same rabbit against another noncross-reacting Salmonella (S. tranoroa) and vice versa; nor are they detected in the anti-pneumococcal antibodies of the same rabbit. Each anti-idiotypic serum fails to precipitate anti-S. typhi sera of rabbits other than the immunizing one except for certain extremely faint reactions, the significance of which has not been established. The idiotypic specificities of anti-S. typhi antibodies of three rabbits were not found in anti-S. typhi antibodies of their parents. This lack of a sign of hereditary transmission of idiotypic specificities contrasts with allotypy. The apparent role of random chance in the determinism of the idiotypic patterns or of the idiotypic determinants has been discussed. Unless it were admitted that antibodies with similar functions do not exist in different individuals, idiotypy apparently adds an order of magnitude to the antibody variability which had been previously envisaged. In one given individual, the heterogeneity of the idiotypic specificities seems to be less extended than that of the antibody functions. The possible relationships between these two levels of molecular variability and between the corresponding levels of cellular variability have been discussed. PMID:4390062

  12. Are Treponema pallidum Specific Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis Accurate Enough for Screening in Resource Limited Settings? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP) specific reference standards. Methods Five electronic databases (1980–2012) were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit. Results In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i) Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21), ii) SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50), iii) VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57), and iv) Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100), ii) Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29), iii) SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53), and iv) Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66). In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i) Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70), ii) SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61), iii) Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13), and iv) VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96), ii) VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98), iii) SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33), and iv) Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74). Conclusions Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening for syphilis. PMID:23468842

  13. nkx2.1 and nkx2.4 genes function partially redundant during development of the zebrafish hypothalamus, preoptic region, and pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Martha; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    During ventral forebrain development, orthologs of the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.1 control patterning of hypothalamus, preoptic region, and ventral telencephalon. However, the relative contributions of Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.4 to prosencephalon development are poorly understood. Therefore, we analyzed functions of the previously uncharacterized nkx2.4-like zgc:171531 as well as of the presumed nkx2.1 orthologs nkx2.1a and nkx2.1b in zebrafish forebrain development. Our results show that zgc:171531 and nkx2.1a display overlapping expression patterns and a high sequence similarity. Together with a high degree of synteny conservation, these findings indicate that both these genes indeed are paralogs of nkx2.4. As a result, we name zgc:171531 now nkx2.4a, and changed the name of nkx2.1a to nkx2.4b, and of nkx2.1b to nkx2.1. In nkx2.1, nkx2.4a, and nkx2.4b triple morpholino knockdown (nkx2TKD) embryos we observed a loss of the rostral part of prosomere 3 and its derivative posterior tubercular and hypothalamic structures. Furthermore, there was a loss of rostral and intermediate hypothalamus, while a residual preoptic region still develops. The reduction of the ventral diencephalon was accompanied by a ventral expansion of the dorsally expressed pax6, revealing a dorsalization of the basal hypothalamus. Within the telencephalon we observed a loss of pallidal markers, while striatum and pallium are forming. At the neuronal level, nkx2TKD morphants lacked several neurosecretory neuron types, including avp, crh, and pomc expressing cells in the hypothalamus, but still form oxt neurons in the preoptic region. Our data reveals that, while nkx2.1, nkx2.4a, and nkx2.4b genes act partially redundant in hypothalamic development, nkx2.1 is specifically involved in the development of rostral ventral forebrain including the pallidum and preoptic regions, whereas nkx2.4a and nkx2.4b control the intermediate and caudal hypothalamus. PMID:25520628

  14. Polyclonal antibodies against fusaproliferin.

    PubMed

    Monti, S M; Fogliano, V; Randazzo, G; Peluso, G; Logrieco, A; Ritieni, A

    1999-01-01

    Fusaproliferin (FP), a toxic metabolite of the world-wide maize pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium subglutinans, was recently found to be a natural contaminant of maize. Its toxic activity on haematopoietic human cell lines and its teratogenic effects on chicken embryos has been recently proved. Therefore a sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive screening test to detect FP in agricultural commodities is necessary to protect human health. FP-hemiglutarate conjugated to modified bovine serum albumin was synthesized, characterized, and used as an antigen for raising polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits. Indirect and competitive ELISA and immunoblotting analyses were performed to determine antibody specificity towards the mycotoxin. The determination of 10 micrograms of free FP/mL was achieved using antibodies purified by means of affinity chromatography on a FP-lysine-Sepharose column. This unsatisfactory detection limit is due to high background values; thus, this method is not competitive with traditional UV-HPLC methods. PMID:10349720

  15. An Antibody Molecule

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin Raff

    1998-07-01

    An antibody molecule. (A) Schematic drawing of a typical antibody molecule. As indicated, this protein is Y-shaped and has two identical binding sites for its antigen, one on either arm of the 3Y.2 The protein is composed of four polypeptide chains (two identical heavy chains and two identical and smaller light chains) held together by disulfide bonds. Each chain is made up of several different domains, here shaded either blue or gray. The antigen-binding site is formed where a heavy chain variable domain (VH) and a light chain variable domain (VL) come close together. These are the domains that differ most in their sequence and structure in different antibodies. (B) Ribbon drawing of a light chain showing the parts of the VL domain most closely involved in binding to the antigen in red; these contribute half of the fingerlike loops that fold around each of the antigen molecules in (A).

  16. Assessments of antibody biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Patrick M; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Balthasar, Joseph P

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are in use for several disease conditions, and have generally shown excellent clinical benefit, in large part due to their high specificity and affinity for target proteins. As this therapeutic class continues to grow in size, improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling mAb biodistribution and protein binding may be expected to allow better prediction of safety and efficacy. Due to the large size and polarity of antibodies, rates of mAb distribution and elimination are typically much slower than those reported for small molecule drugs. Additionally, high affinity interaction with target proteins will often influence mAb pharmacokinetics, leading to complex, nonlinear tissue distribution and elimination. In this report, we summarize key determinants of mAb disposition, methods for assessing antibody exposure and protein binding, and model-based approaches that may be utilized to predict mAb pharmacokinetics. PMID:25707961

  17. Immune Regulatory Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wolchok, Jedd D.; Yang, Arvin S.; Weber, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, new insights into the mechanisms by which T-cell activation and proliferation are regulated have led to the identification of checkpoint proteins that either up- or down-modulate T-cell reactivity. In the presence of active malignancy, pathophysiologic inhibition of T-cell activity may predominate over stimulation. A number of antibodies have been generated that can block inhibitory checkpoint proteins or promote the activity of activating molecules. In murine models, their use alone or with a vaccine strategy has resulted in regression of poorly immunogenic tumors and cures of established tumors. The prototypical immune regulatory antibodies are those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, a molecule present on activated T cells. In this review, the preclinical rationale and clinical experience with 2 anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibodies are extensively discussed, demonstrating that abrogation of an immune inhibitory molecule can result in significant regression of tumors and long-lasting responses. The unique kinetics of antitumor response and the characteristic immune-related side effects of ipilimumab are also discussed. This clinical efficacy of this promising antitumor agent has been evaluated in 2 randomized phase III trials, whose results are eagerly awaited. Programmed death (PD)-1 is another immune inhibitory molecule against which an abrogating human antibody has been prepared. Initial preclinical testing with anti–PD-1 and anti–PD-L1 has shown encouraging results. Stimulatory molecules such as CD40, 41-BB, and OX-40 are also targets for antibody binding and activation, not blockade, and early dose ranging trials with antibodies against all 3 have shown that they can mediate regression of tumors, albeit with their own spectrum of side effects that are different from those that occur with abrogation of immune inhibition. PMID:20693841

  18. Antibody-Antigen Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cann, Alan.

    The experimental protocol in this Web site is just one of many microbiology resources provided by the University of Leicester. The procedure guides students in finding the antibody concentration of a test antiserum and the number of antibody binding sites on an antigen molecule. A results graph and correct answers to the required calculations are given, providing the option of performing a virtual experiment in lieu of an actual one. This activity is probably most appropriate for high school and undergraduate level biology labs.

  19. The Art of Making Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headon, Denis R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

  20. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePLUS

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  1. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Virus Antibody Prevalence in

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    . No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection) was detected for the first time in the United States in dead American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and a disease surveillance sys- tem that used dead crows was established (1,2). Serologic surveys to determine

  3. Monoclonal antibodies in haematopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Grignani, F.; Martelli, M.F.; Mason, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Oncogene (c-myc, c-myb) amplification in acute myelogenous leukaemia; Ultrastructural characterization of leukaemic cells with monoloclonal antibodies; Origin of B-cell malignancies; Immunohistology of gut lymphomas; and Spurious evidence of lineage infidelity in monocytic leukaemia.

  4. Antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1988-06-28

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

  5. Her2 Monoclonal Antibodies, Antibody Drug Conjugates, and Site Specific Antibody Conjugate Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADC) can demonstrate high efficacy as cancer therapeutics, however, much more can be done to improve their efficacy and safety profile. Site-specific antibody drug conjugation is a promising way to do this.

  6. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-09-29

    Abstract Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:25264572

  7. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Plückthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

  8. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially. PMID:22277519

  9. Targeting antibodies to the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Schüngel, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of research consortia are now focused on generating antibodies and recombinant antibody fragments that target the human proteome. A particularly valuable application for these binding molecules would be their use inside a living cell, e.g., for imaging or functional intervention. Animal-derived antibodies must be brought into the cell through the membrane, whereas the availability of the antibody genes from phage display systems allows intracellular expression. Here, the various technologies to target intracellular proteins with antibodies are reviewed. PMID:21099369

  10. Commercial antibodies and their validation.

    PubMed

    Voskuil, Jla

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist's requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  11. Commercial antibodies and their validation

    PubMed Central

    Voskuil, JLA

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  12. Chemically programmed antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rader, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Due to their unlimited chemical diversity, small molecules can rival monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with respect to specificity and affinity for target molecules. However, key pharmacological properties of mAbs remain unmatched by small molecules. Chemical programming strategies have been developed for site-specific and covalent conjugation of small molecules to mAbs with unique reactivity centers. In addition to blending favorable features of small molecules and mAbs, chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) are economically attractive because they utilize the same mAb for an almost unlimited number of target molecule specificities, reducing manufacturing costs and shortening drug discovery and development time. Preclinical studies and clinical trials have begun to demonstrate the broad utility of cpAbs for the treatment and prevention of human diseases. PMID:24630478

  13. QUANTITATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Daugharty, Harry; Hopper, John E.; MacDonald, A. Bruce; Nisonoff, Alfred

    1969-01-01

    Specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies of the IgG class from individual rabbits were used to elicit anti-idiotypic antibodies in recipient rabbits. Allotypes of each donor and recipient were matched. When polymerized antibodies were used for immunization, more than 80% of the recipients responded with the formation of antibodies that precipitated the monomeric donor antibody. Percentages of precipitable molecules in the donor antibody population (D) varied from 4 to 56. As little as 4% was readily detectable by the Ouchterlony method or precipitin test. Specificity of the reaction was tested by double diffusion in agar gel against a panel of purified antibenzoate antibodies from 14 heterologous rabbits and, quantitatively, in three systems by measurement of the extent of coprecipitation of heterologous, radiolabeled antibenzoate antibodies. No cross-reactions were observed. Reactions were shown to be attributable to antibenzoate antibodies in the donor serum, and contributions of allotypic reactions were excluded. In three systems investigated quantitatively, and in one studied qualitatively, two recipients of the same donor antibody produced anti-antibody that reacted with essentially the same subfraction of the donor antibody population. The findings that only a portion of the D population is immunogenic, and that the same subfraction is frequently immunogenic in different recipients, suggest that the immunogenic population comprises a limited number of homogeneous groups of antibody molecules. This is supported by the small number of bands usually observed by the Ouchterlony technique. Quantitative methods of analysis should provide an approach to the study of cell populations producing antibodies of a particular idiotype. PMID:5347693

  14. AID in antibody perfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Vallur; M. Yabuki; E. D. Larson; N. Maizels

    2007-01-01

    .  Expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) genes undergo alterations in sequence and genomic structure in order to optimize antibody function.\\u000a A single B cellspecific factor, activation-induced deaminase (AID), initiates these changes by deamination of cytosine to\\u000a uracil. Uracil in DNA is encountered commonly, and conserved pathways are responsible for its faithful repair. However, at\\u000a the Ig loci of B cells, AID-initiated damage is

  15. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cucurull, Elena; Gharavi, Azzudin E.; Menon, Yamini; Wilson, Wendell A.

    2003-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a recently defined autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent vascular thromboses or recurrent pregnancy morbidity; these features are linked to the presence in blood of autoantibodies against negatively charged phospholipids or phospholipid-binding proteins. Thrombosis can occur in any tissue, in veins, arteries, or the microvasculature. Pregnancy morbidity in APS includes miscarriages or premature birth. Criteria that define the major clinical and laboratory features of APS were published in 1999. In patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and prior thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity, there is a high risk of recurrence that persists as long as antiphospholipid antibodies occur in blood. This risk for recurrence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity is greatly reduced by preventive anticoagulant therapy. Patients presenting with thrombosis in APS are initially managed in much the same way as are patients with vascular thrombosis owing to other causes. However, in patients with APS, high-intensity anticoagulation is usually needed to prevent recurrences of thrombosis. Thrombosis in APS is often multifactorial, as with non-APS thrombosis. Therefore, in all patients with APS, other reversible risk factors for thrombosis should be sought. The pregnancy outcome of women with APS who have had prior miscarriages is greatly improved by treatment during pregnancy with a combination of heparin and low-dose aspirin. PMID:12686010

  16. High frequency of the 23S rRNA A2058G mutation of Treponema pallidum in Shanghai is associated with a current strategy for the treatment of syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haikong; Li, Kang; Gong, Weimin; Yan, Limeng; Gu, Xin; Chai, Ze; Guan, Zhifang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2015-01-01

    The preferred drugs for the treatment of syphilis, benzathine and procaine penicillin, have not been available in Shanghai for many years, and currently, the incidence of syphilis is increasing. Alternative antibiotics for patients with syphilis during the benzathine and procaine penicillin shortage include macrolides. The failure of macrolide treatment in syphilis patients has been reported in Shanghai, but the reason for this treatment failure remains unclear. We used polymerase chain reaction technology to detect a 23S rRNA A2058G mutation in Treponema pallidum in 109 specimens from syphilis patients. The use of azithromycin/erythromycin in the syphilis patients and the physicians' prescription habits were also assessed based on two questionnaires regarding the use of macrolides. A total of 104 specimens (95.4%) were positive for the A2058G mutation in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene, indicating macrolide resistance. A questionnaire provided to 122 dermatologists showed that during the penicillin shortage, they prescribed erythromycin and azithromycin for 8.24±13.95% and 3.21±6.37% of their patients, respectively, and in the case of penicillin allergy, erythromycin and azithromycin were prescribed 15.24±22.89% and 7.23±16.60% of the time, respectively. A second questionnaire provided to the syphilis patients showed that 150 (33.7%), 106 (23.8%) and 34 (7.6%) individuals had used azithromycin, erythromycin or both, respectively, although the majority did not use the drugs for syphilis treatment. Our findings suggest that macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is widespread in Shanghai. More than half of the syphilis patients had a history of macrolide use for other treatment purposes, which may have led to the high prevalence of macrolide resistance. Physicians in China are advised to not use azithromycin for early syphilis.

  17. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  18. Antibody Therapy for Pediatric Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Vedi, Aditi; Ziegler, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing cure rates for pediatric leukemia, relapsed disease still carries a poor prognosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel targeted therapies are currently being investigated in an attempt to reduce adverse events and improve survival outcomes. Antibody therapies represent a form of targeted therapy that offers a new treatment paradigm. Monoclonal antibodies are active in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are currently in Phase III trials. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the next generation of antibodies where a highly potent cytotoxic agent is bound to an antibody by a linker, resulting in selective targeting of leukemia cells. ADCs are currently being tested in clinical trials for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and ALL. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibodies are a construct whereby each antibody contains two binding sites, with one designed to engage the patient’s own immune system and the other to target malignant cells. BiTE antibodies show great promise as a novel and effective therapy for childhood leukemia. This review will outline recent developments in targeted agents for pediatric leukemia including monoclonal antibodies, ADCs, and BiTE antibodies. PMID:24795859

  19. Antibody biodistribution coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhaval K.; Betts, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue vs. plasma concentration profiles have been generated from a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of monoclonal antibody (mAb). Based on the profiles, we hypothesized that a linear relationship between the plasma and tissue concentrations of non-binding mAbs could exist; and that the relationship may be generally constant irrespective of the absolute mAb concentration, time, and animal species being analyzed. The hypothesis was verified for various tissues in mice, rat, monkey, and human using mAb or antibody-drug conjugate tissue distribution data collected from diverse literature. The relationship between the plasma and various tissue concentrations was mathematically characterized using the antibody biodistribution coefficient (ABC). Estimated ABC values suggest that typically the concentration of mAb in lung is 14.9%, heart 10.2%, kidney 13.7%, muscle 3.97%, skin 15.7%, small intestine 5.22%, large intestine 5.03%, spleen 12.8%, liver 12.1%, bone 7.27%, stomach 4.98%, lymph node 8.46%, adipose 4.78%, brain 0.351%, pancreas 6.4%, testes 5.88%, thyroid 67.5% and thymus is 6.62% of the plasma concentration. The validity of using the ABC to predict mAb concentrations in different tissues of mouse, rat, monkey, and human species was evaluated by generating validation data sets, which demonstrated that predicted concentrations were within 2-fold of the observed concentrations. The use of ABC to infer tissue concentrations of mAbs and related molecules provides a valuable tool for investigating preclinical or clinical disposition of these molecules. It can also help eliminate or optimize biodistribution studies, and interpret efficacy or toxicity of the drug in a particular tissue. PMID:23406896

  20. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O. (Hoag Cancer Center, Newport Beach, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references.

  1. Vitiligo Antibodies Are Not Directed to Tyrosinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Xie; Dunlu Chen; Diane Jiao; Jean-Claude Bystryn

    1999-01-01

    Background: Patients with vitiligo have a markedly in- creased incidence of antibodies to melanocytes, re- ferred to as vitiligo antibodies. Antibodies to tyrosinase have been reported in some patients with vitiligo, sug- gesting that vitiligo antibodies may be directed to this en- zyme. However, there is considerable controversy as to the frequency with which these antibodies occur, and, hence, about

  2. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miraldi, F. (University Hospital of Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Several antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been described and two have been used in radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy in patients. MoAb 3F8 is a murine IgG3 antibody specific for the ganglioside GD2. Radioiodine-labeled 3F8 has been shown to specifically target human neuroblastoma in patients, and radioimmunoimaging with this agent has provided consistently high uptakes with tumor-to-background ratios of greater than or equal to 10:1. Radioimmunotherapy has been attempted with both MoAb 3F8 and MoAb UJ13A, and although encouraging results have been obtained, dosimetry data and tissue dose response information for these agents is lacking, which impedes the development of such therapy. 124I, a positron emitter, can be used with 3F8 in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to provide dosimetry information for radioimmunotherapy. The tumor radiation dose response from radiolabeled MoAb also can be followed with PET images with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scanning of neuroblastoma tumors. Results to date indicate that radioimmunoimaging has clinical use in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and the potential for radioimmunotherapy for this cancer remains high.48 references.

  3. Laboratory testing for platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Nahla M; Smock, Kristi J

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory testing for immune-mediated thrombocytopenias involves identification and classification of antibodies present in patient sera or attached to patient platelets. This article summarizes the available types of platelet antibody testing and applications in disorders such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, multiple platelet transfusion refractoriness, immune thrombocytopenia, and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:23757218

  4. Prospects for immunotherapeutic proteolytic antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Xin Zhou; Sangeeta Karle; Hiroaki Taguchi; Stephanie Planque; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Sudhir Paul

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are suitable for therapeutic applications by virtue of their excellent target binding characteristics (specificity, affinity) and long half-life in vivo. Catalytic antibodies (CAbs) potentially represent a new generation of therapeutics with enhanced antigen inactivation capability. Here, we describe prospects for development of therapeutic CAbs to the envelope protein gp120 of HIV. The strategy consists of exploiting the natural

  5. Antiphospholipid antibodies and infertility.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, C B; de Jesus, G R

    2014-10-01

    Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility. PMID:25228713

  6. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will be limited. Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... antibody? 1. Can the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibody test be done in my doctor’s office? No. ...

  7. Endogenous Antibodies for Tumor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Barrie S.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Darcy, David G.; Smith, Peter T.; Williams, Andrew R.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Johnson, Linda K.; Gönen, Mithat; Simon, Joel S.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of cancer immunology has provided diagnostic and therapeutic instruments through serum autoantibody biomarkers and exogenous monoclonal antibodies. While some endogenous antibodies are found within or surrounding transformed tissue, the extent to which this exists has not been entirely characterized. We find that in transgenic and xenograft mouse models of cancer, endogenous gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) is present at higher concentration in malignantly transformed organs compared to non-transformed organs in the same mouse or organs of cognate wild-type mice. The enrichment of endogenous antibodies within the malignant tissue provides a potential means of identifying and tracking malignant cells in vivo as they mutate and diversify. Exploiting these antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is possible through the use of agents that bind endogenous antibodies. PMID:24875800

  8. Micromechanical antibody sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Jacobson, K. Bruce (Oak Ridge, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Kennel, Stephen J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor apparatus is provided using a microcantilevered spring element having a coating of a detector molecule such as an antibody or antigen. A sample containing a target molecule or substrate is provided to the coating. The spring element bends in response to the stress induced by the binding which occurs between the detector and target molecules. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers.

  9. Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2011-12-15

    Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

  10. Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays promise to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The original technology for printing ELISA microarray chips and capturing antibodies on slides was derived from the DNA microarray field. However, due to the need to maintain antibody structure and function when immobilized, surface chemistries used for DNA microarrays are not always appropriate for ELISA microarrays. In order to identify better surface chemistries for antibody capture, a number of commercial companies and academic research groups have developed new slide types that could improve antibody function in microarray applications. In this review we compare and contrast the commercially available slide chemistries, as well as highlight some promising recent advances in the field.

  11. Anticentromere antibody in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, A; Peserico, A; Glorioso, S; Fiocco, U; Rossi, L; Gambari, P; Todesco, S

    1986-10-01

    Using metaphase chromosome spreads as substrate for indirect immunofluorescence technic, we observed anticentromere antibody in three of twenty-five patients affected with various clinical forms of localized scleroderma. Anticentromere antibody is generally considered a serologic marker of the CREST syndrome, a more benign subset of systemic sclerosis. However, none of the three anticentromere antibody-positive patients with localized scleroderma had Raynaud's phenomenon, acrosclerosis, or any signs or symptoms of systemic disease; on physical and laboratory examination, they showed only typical cutaneous features of localized scleroderma: two showed linear scleroderma, and one showed localized morphea. A 2-year 8-month follow-up of two patients did not disclose any clinical evidence of systemic sclerosis. The occurrence of anticentromere antibody in patients with localized scleroderma seems to offer supportive evidence that a relationship exists between localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. PMID:3534010

  12. Antibodies to Polynucleotides: Distribution in Human Serums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Koffler; R. I. Carr; V. Agnello; T. Fiezi; H. G. Kunkel

    1969-01-01

    Hemagglutination procedures were used to determine the distribution of antibodies to native DNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded RNA. Antibodies to all three polynucleotides were found in a high percentage of the serums of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Antibodies to native DNA occurred almost exclusively in serums of patients in the active stages of systemic lupus erythematosus, whereas antibodies to

  13. Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin

    Cancer.gov

    Mesothelin is a cell surface protein that is naturally expressed at very low levels, but that is significantly increased in aggressive tumors such as mesotheliomas, and pancreatic and ovarian tumors. Therefore, mesothelin is an excellent candidate for tumor-targeted immunotherapeutics. However, the only antibodies against mesothelin that are currently available for clinical trials are of murine origin. The use of these antibodies may be limited by their potential to elicit adverse immune responses in patients with repeated doses.

  14. Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Dyall-Smith, Mike L.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the haloarchaeal genera Halosarcina and Halogeometricum (family Halobacteriaceae) are closely related to each other and show 96.6–98?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This is higher than the accepted threshold value (95?%) to separate two genera, and a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach of all four members of the two genera was conducted to clarify their relationships. Polar lipid profiles indicated that Halogeometricum rufum RO1-4T, Halosarcina pallida BZ256T and Halosarcina limi RO1-6T are related more to each other than to Halogeometricum borinquense CGMCC 1.6168T. Phylogenetic analyses using the sequences of three different genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB? and EF-2) strongly supported the monophyly of these four species, showing that they formed a distinct clade, separate from the related genera Halopelagius, Halobellus, Haloquadratum, Haloferax and Halogranum. The results indicate that the four species should be assigned to the same genus, and it is proposed that Halosarcina pallida and Halosarcina limi be transferred to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov. (type strain, BZ256T?=?KCTC 4017T?=?JCM 14848T) and Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. (type strain, RO1-6T?=?CGMCC 1.8711T?=?JCM 16054T). PMID:24097833

  15. Antibodies to watch in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry’s progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the “Antibodies to watch” series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration’s Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  16. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.W. Jr.; Mojzisik, C.M.; Hinkle, G.H. Jr.; Sampsel, J.; Siddiqi, M.A.; Tuttle, S.E.; Sickle-Santanello, B.; Colcher, D.; Thurston, M.O.; Bell, J.G.

    1988-11-01

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery.

  17. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS] [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  18. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zafir-Lavie, I; Michaeli, Y; Reiter, Y

    2007-05-28

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullets' to a modern age 'guided missile'. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field of recombinant DNA, protein engineering and cancer biology have let us gain insight into many cancer-related mechanisms. Moreover, novel techniques have facilitated tools allowing unique distinction between malignantly transformed cells, and regular ones. This understanding has paved the way for the rational design of a new age of pharmaceuticals: monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Antibodies can select antigens on both a specific and a high-affinity account, and further implementation of these qualities is used to target cancer cells by specifically identifying exogenous antigens of cancer cell populations. The structure of the antibody provides plasticity resonating from its functional sites. This review will screen some of the many novel antibodies and antibody-based approaches that are being currently developed for clinical applications as the new generation of anticancer agents. PMID:17530025

  19. Antibodies to watch in 2015.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of recombinant antibody therapeutics is robust and dynamic. As of early December 2014, a total of 6 such products (vedolizumab, siltuximab, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, blinatumomab) were granted first marketing approvals in 2014. As discussed in this perspective on antibodies in late-stage development, the outlook for additional approvals, potentially still in 2014 and certainly in 2015, is excellent as marketing applications for 7 antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, evolocumab, mepolizumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, blinatumomab, necitumumab) are undergoing a first regulatory review in the EU or US. Of the 39 novel mAbs currently in Phase 3 studies, a marketing application for one (alirocumab) may be submitted in late 2014, and marketing application submissions for at least 4 (reslizumab, ixekizumab, ocrelizumab, obiltoxaximab) are expected in 2015. Other 'antibodies to watch' are those in Phase 3 studies with estimated primary completion dates in late 2014 or 2015, which includes 13 for non-cancer indications (brodalumab, bimagrumab, bococizumab, MABp1, gevokizumab, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, tildrakizumab, guselkumab, epratuzumab, combination of actoxumab + bezlotoxumab, romosozumab) and 2 (racotumomab and clivatuzumab tetraxetan) undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer. In addition to the novel antibody therapeutics mentioned, biosimilar infliximab and biosimilar trastuzumab are 'antibodies to watch' in 2015 because of their potential for entry into the US market and regulatory review, respectively. PMID:25484055

  20. Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama V HH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. J. van der Linden; L. G. J. Frenken; B. de Geus; M. M. Harmsen; R. C. Ruuls; W. Stok; L. de Ron; S. Wilson; P. Davis; C. T. Verrips

    1999-01-01

    Antigen specific llama VHH antibody fragments were compared to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. The llama VHH antibody fragments and the mouse monoclonal antibodies investigated were shown to be highly specific for the protein antigen hCG or the hapten antigen RR-6. The affinity of the interaction between monovalent llama VHH antibody fragments and

  1. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  2. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  3. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  4. Emerging antibody-based products.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Kevin J; Morton, Josh; Hume, Steve; Hiatt, Ernie; Bratcher, Barry; Klimyuk, Victor; Hiatt, Andrew; Pauly, Michael; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-based products are not widely available to address many global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity, and long manufacturing lead times. There are now tremendous opportunities to address these industrialization challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in plant virus-based transient expression. This review focuses on some antibody-based products that are in preclinical and clinical development, and have scaled up manufacturing and purification (mg of purified mAb/kg of biomass). Plant virus-based antibody products provide lower upfront cost, shorter time to clinical and market supply, and lower cost of goods (COGs). Further, some plant virus-based mAbs may provide improvements in pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy. PMID:22772797

  5. Antibodies to watch in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The transitions of antibody therapeutics to late-stage clinical development, regulatory review and the market are proceeding at a rapid pace in 2013. Since late 2012, two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics (itolizumab, trastuzumab emtansine) received their first approvals, first marketing applications for three mAbs (vedolizumab, ramucirumab, obinutuzumab) were submitted to regulatory agencies, and five mAbs (brodalumab, MABp1, moxetumomab pasudotox, tildrakizumab, rilotumumab) entered their first Phase 3 studies. The current total of commercially-sponsored antibody therapeutics undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies is 30. Recently announced study results for farletuzumab, naptumomab estafenatox, and tabalumab indicate that clinical endpoints were not met in some Phase 3 studies of these product candidates. PMID:23727858

  6. Controlling chemical reactivity with antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Yonkovich, S.; Kochersperger, L. (Affymax Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1993-04-16

    The remarkable specificity of an antibody molecule has been used to accomplish highly selective functional group transformations not attainable by current chemical methods. An antibody raised against an amine-oxide hapten catalyzes the reduction of a diketone to a hydroxyketone with greater than 75:1 regioselectivity for one of two nearly equivalent ketone moieties. The antibody-catalyzed reaction is highly stereoselective, affording the hydroxyketone in high enantiomeric excess. Similarly, the reduction of ketones containing branched and aryl substituents, including the highly symmetrical 1-nitrophenyl-3-phenyl-2-propanone, was enantioselective. The simple strategy presented herein may find general applicability to the regio- and stereoselective reduction of a broad range of compounds. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Antibody separation by hydrophobic charge induction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto

    2002-08-01

    Hydrophobic charge induction chromatography using 4-mercapto-ethyl-pyridine as the ligand is an effective method for the separation of antibodies from a variety of feedstocks. Antibodies are adsorbed in physiological conditions without preliminary concentration. Desorption occurs when the pH is lowered, thus inducing an ionic charge of the same sign to the ligand and the antibody. Antibody capture conditions are compatible with crude samples in terms of pH, conductivity, binding capacity and expression level. The final purity of the antibody is feedstock dependent, but can reach levels of purity as high as 98%. Examples of antibody separation are given and ligand structure information discussed. PMID:12127280

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. 866...866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. ...Identification. An antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system...

  10. 9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. 113.452 Section 113.452 ...AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae...

  11. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  12. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  13. Towards a carbon nanotube antibody sensor

    E-print Network

    Bojö, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer-protein A complexes for optically reporting antibody concentration via a change in near infrared fluorescent emission after antibody binding. SWNT have ...

  14. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Zafir-Lavie; Y Michaeli; Y Reiter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's ‘magic bullets’ to a modern age ‘guided missile’. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field

  15. Mating antibody phage display with proteomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hust; Stefan Dübel

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies are central to mastering the next main task of ‘postgenomic’ research: that is, to understand gene function by analysing the proteome. This analysis of more than 90?000 human gene products requires high-throughput methods for antibody generation. In contrast to animal-based methods, in vitro selection systems using recombinant antibodies offer this capability. Antibody phage display, the most commonly used contemporary

  16. A monoclonal antibody against PMEL.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fangyuan; Xu, Zhenjie; Chen, Hongdong; Wang, Xin; Cui, Jihong; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Xie, Xin

    2014-10-01

    PMEL, also known as Pmel17 or gp100, is a melanocyte-specific glycoprotein that is essential for the formation of stage II melanosomes. As it has a highly restricted expression pattern in normal tissues and a transient presence on the cell surface, PMEL is believed to be a potential target for antibody drug conjugate therapy in some pigmentary diseases. The production of a high specificity and high affinity monoclonal antibody against human PMEL was helpful for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PMEL were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant PMEL-GST fusion protein. Three mAbs (A3F, G11B, and J7E) with a titer of 1:6000, 1:10,000, and 1:3000, respectively, were obtained. Immunoglobulin subclass assay revealed that A3F was IgG2b, G11B was IgG1, and J7E was IgG2a. Specificity analysis by Western blotting demonstrated that A3F and J7E cross-reacted with GPNMB or LAMP; however, G11B reacted with PMEL only. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that G11B could bind human PMEL antigen in normal skin. Flow cytometry assay demonstrated that G11B could bind to the surface of PMEL positive melanoma cells but not PMEL negative cells. Taken together, these results show that this G11B provides a useful tool for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study in some pigmentary diseases. PMID:25118787

  17. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  18. Induction and detection of antibodies to squalene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R Matyas; Nabila M Wassef; Mangala Rao; Carl R Alving

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antigen coated on hydrophobic polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) membranes is described for detecting antibodies that bind to squalene (SQE). Because of the prior lack of availability of validated antibodies to SQE, positive controls for the assay were made by immunization with formulations containing SQE to create monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that reacted with SQE. Among eight

  19. Original article Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio) AK Siwicki C Vergnet J Charlemagne M Dunier decreased until day 28. monoclonal antibody / ELISA / ELISPOT / antibody-secreting cells / Cyprinus carpio suite. anticorps monoc/ona//EL/S/Cyprinus carpio

  20. Production of therapeutic antibodies with controlled fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yamane-Ohnuki, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    The clinical success of therapeutic antibodies is demonstrated by the number of antibody therapeutics that have been brought to market and the increasing number of therapeutic antibodies in development. Recombinant antibodies are molecular-targeted therapeutic agents and represent a major new class of drugs. However, it is still very important to optimize and maximize the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies, in part to help lower the cost of therapeutic antibodies by potentially reducing the dose or the duration of treatment. Clinical trials using therapeutic antibodies fully lacking core fucose residue in the Fc oligosaccharides are currently underway, and their remarkable physiological activities in humans in vivo have attracted attention as next-generation therapeutic antibody approaches with improved efficacy. Thus, an industrially applicable antibody production process that provides consistent yields of fully non-fucosylated antibody therapeutics with fixed quality has become a key goal in the successful development of next-generation therapeutic agents. In this article, we review the current technologies for production of therapeutic antibodies with control of fucosylation of the Fc N-glycans. PMID:20065644

  1. Bispecific antibody conjugates in therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Cao; Laura Lam

    2003-01-01

    Bispecific monoclonal antibodies have drawn considerable attention from the research community due to their unique structure against two different antigens. The two-arm structure of bsMAb allows researchers to place a therapeutic agent on one arm while allowing the other to specifically target the disease site. The therapeutic agent can be a drug, toxin, enzyme, DNA, radionuclide, etc. Furthermore, bsMAb may

  2. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  3. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  4. Distinction between MOG antibody-positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurelio; Waters, Patrick J.; Jorge, Frederico M. de Haidar; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Apostolos-Pereira, Samira Luisa; Talim, Natalia; Simm, Renata Faria; Lino, Angelina Maria Martins; Misu, Tatsuro; Leite, Maria Isabel; Aoki, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical features among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, or seronegativity for both antibodies. Methods: Sera from patients diagnosed with NMOSD in 1 of 3 centers (2 sites in Brazil and 1 site in Japan) were tested for MOG and AQP4 antibodies using cell-based assays with live transfected cells. Results: Among the 215 patients with NMOSD, 7.4% (16/215) were positive for MOG antibodies and 64.7% (139/215) were positive for AQP4 antibodies. No patients were positive for both antibodies. Patients with MOG antibodies represented 21.1% (16/76) of the patients negative for AQP4 antibodies. Compared with patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients who were seronegative, patients with MOG antibodies were more frequently male, had a more restricted phenotype (optic nerve more than spinal cord), more frequently had bilateral simultaneous optic neuritis, more often had a single attack, had spinal cord lesions distributed in the lower portion of the spinal cord, and usually demonstrated better functional recovery after an attack. Conclusions: Patients with NMOSD with MOG antibodies have distinct clinical features, fewer attacks, and better recovery than patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients seronegative for both antibodies. PMID:24415568

  5. MAPs: a database of modular antibody parts for predicting tertiary structures and designing affinity matured antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The de novo design of a novel protein with a particular function remains a formidable challenge with only isolated and hard-to-repeat successes to date. Due to their many structurally conserved features, antibodies are a family of proteins amenable to predictable rational design. Design algorithms must consider the structural diversity of possible naturally occurring antibodies. The human immune system samples this design space (2 1012) by randomly combining variable, diversity, and joining genes in a process known as V-(D)-J recombination. Description By analyzing structural features found in affinity matured antibodies, a database of Modular Antibody Parts (MAPs) analogous to the variable, diversity, and joining genes has been constructed for the prediction of antibody tertiary structures. The database contains 929 parts constructed from an analysis of 1168 human, humanized, chimeric, and mouse antibody structures and encompasses all currently observed structural diversity of antibodies. Conclusions The generation of 260 antibody structures shows that the MAPs database can be used to reliably predict antibody tertiary structures with an average all-atom RMSD of 1.9 Å. Using the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody CH65 and anti-HIV antibody 4E10 as examples, promising starting antibodies for affinity maturation are identified and amino acid changes are traced as antibody affinity maturation occurs. PMID:23718826

  6. Recombinant bispecific antibodies for cellular cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dafne; Kontermann, Roland E

    2007-08-01

    Bispecific antibodies recognizing two different antigens present on different cells have been developed for cellular cancer therapy in which cytotoxic effector cells are recruited to tumor cells. Initial studies with bispecific antibodies have not reached satisfactory clinical endpoints, mainly due to low efficacy, Fc-mediated side effects and immunogenicity. This has resulted in a declining interest in bispecific antibodies for cancer therapy. However, growing knowledge in effector cell biology and the implementation of antibody engineering technologies has led to a revival and the development of novel or improved strategies. Various recombinant bispecific antibodies have demonstrated efficacy in vitro andin vivo, with the first recombinant antibody molecule currently in clinical trials for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. PMID:17694444

  7. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  8. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-06-21

    Mepanipyrim is an anilinopyrimidine fungicide used worldwide for crop protection. With the aim of developing useful immunoreagents for mepanipyrim immunoanalysis, two new functionalized derivatives were prepared and antibodies were generated. Affinity and specificity were assessed by direct and indirect competitive ELISA using homologous and heterologous conjugates. Although all antibodies were selective for the target analyte, the immunizing hapten structure was revealed as a determinant for high-affinity antibody production (IC(50) = 3 nM). PMID:23666476

  9. Analysis of anticholesterol antibodies using hydrophobic membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacinta Aniagolu; Glenn M. Swartz; Jan Dijkstra; John W. Madsen; Jennifer J. Raney; Shawn J. Green

    1995-01-01

    An analytical immunoblotting procedure and a serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the characterization of antibodies to cholesterol are described. Hydrophobic membranes consisting of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are used to immobilize cholesterol for immunodetection by anti-sterol antibodies. To determine whether antibodies to cholesterol were induced after immunization with liposomal cholesterol, we separated total lipid extracts of very-low density lipoproteins by

  10. Anticardiolipin antibodies: isotype distribution and phospholipid specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E Gharavi; E N Harris; R A Asherson; G R Hughes

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative isotype specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the distribution of immunoglobulin isotypes and phospholipid specificities of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies in 40 patients with one or more of the following 'antiphospholipid (anti-PL) antibody associated clinical complications'--namely, thrombosis, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia. Twelve of 40 patients had IgG, IgM, and IgA anti-CL antibodies. Ten patients had IgG and

  11. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Rader

    \\u000a Since the approval of rituximab (Rituxan®) for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) in 1997, nine additional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been\\u000a approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. Currently, more than 1,300 clinical studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov investigate\\u000a mAb therapy of cancer, including more than 150 phase III clinical trials. In concert with their clinical acceptance, mAbs\\u000a in

  12. Interferon-Beta: Neutralizing Antibodies, Binding Antibodies, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deisenhammer, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies to interferon-beta (IFNb) may occur during treatment with this drug and can be measured at several levels, the totality of antibodies referred to as antidrug antibodies (ADA) or binding antibodies, and in case of interference with the drug activity referred to as neutralizing antibodies (NAB). Antibodies can also interfere with the biological activity of IFNb as measured by pharmacodynamic markers. To get a complete picture of the interference between IFNb as a drug and the ADA, all the 3 above levels need to be considered. Furthermore, the interaction of these biomarkers changes over time with a shift of antibody properties with respect to immunoglobulin subtypes, affinity, and titers of antibodies. In case of persistent NAB, the clinical benefit of IFNb in the treatment of multiple sclerosis is abolished. In this report, the current knowledge on these issues will be reviewed. The data have been presented at a meeting in Coral Gables, Florida on April 18-21, 2012. PMID:25493961

  13. Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: Selection of hapten and antibody selectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many antibodies to sulfonamides have been generated, immunoassays based on the current available antibodies for large multi-sulfonamide screening programs have properties dependent on the immunizing hapten structure and have always suffered from high selectivity for individual sulfonamides....

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies as Diagnostics; an Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use. PMID:20582184

  15. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  16. Circulating thyroid antibodies in congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ilicki, A; Larsson, A; Karlsson, F A

    1991-01-01

    The role of maternal thyroid antibodies in congenital hypothyroidism is controversial. We have analysed serum thyroid antibodies in patients and their mothers. In a bioassay, antibodies interacting with thyroid cells were analysed by measuring of TSH-stimulated cAMP production in a rat thyroid cell line, FRTL5. Serum antibodies against the TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were determined by radioreceptor assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The bioassay was performed with IgG preparations from 89 mothers of children with congenital hypothyroidism. Analyses for TSH receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase/thyroglobulin antibodies were performed on 144 and 118 sera of newborn patients respectively. No evidence of an increased prevalence of thyroid antibodies was found on comparison with controls. One infant had transient neonatal hyperthyrotropinaemia because of TSH receptor blocking antibodies transferred from the mother. Our data indicate that, apart from transplacental transfer of TSH receptor antibodies, maternal immunoglobulins have a limited role in the aetiology of congenital thyroid dysfunction. PMID:1659767

  17. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  18. Idiotypic Regulation of the Immune System by the Induction of Antibodies against Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Urbain; M. Wikler; J. D. Franssen; C. Collignon

    1977-01-01

    Anticarbohydrate antibodies (Ab1) were isolated from a rabbit hyperimmunized with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and injected into allotype-matched rabbits in order to obtain specific anti-iodiotypic antibodies (Ab2). Ab2 was isolated by means of a Sepharose column coupled to the anticarbohydrate antibodies and was injected into two allotype-matched rabbits. These latter rabbits produced specific anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) probably sharing idiotypic specificities with Ab1.

  19. Engineered antibody fragments and the rise of single domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Holliger; Peter J Hudson

    2005-01-01

    With 18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) products currently on the market and more than 100 in clinical trials, it is clear that engineered antibodies have come of age as biopharmaceuticals. In fact, by 2008, engineered antibodies are predicted to account for >30% of all revenues in the biotechnology market. Smaller recombinant antibody fragments (for example, classic monovalent antibody fragments (Fab, scFv))

  20. Generation of hapten-specific recombinant antibodies: antibody phage display technology: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. BRICHTA; M. HNILOVA; T. VISKOVIC

    2005-01-01

    Production of antibodies has been revolutionized by the development of modern molecular biology methods for the expression of recombinant DNA. Phage display technology represents one of the most powerful tools for production and selection of recombinant antibodies and has been recognized as a valuable alternative way for the preparation of antibodies of a desired specificity. In comparison to poly- and

  1. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...

  2. Modulation of transferrin receptor expression and function by anti-transferrin receptor antibodies and antibody fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Lesley, J.; Schulte, R. (Salk Inst., San Diego, CA (United States)); Woods, J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1989-05-01

    It has been suggested that effects of anti-transferrin receptor antibodies o cell growth and receptor expression are the result of varying degrees of receptor crosslinking by bi- and multivalet binding agents. In order to study this question directly, the authors have cultured murine lymphoma cells in mon- and divalent fragments from IgG and IgM monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor antibodies and in intact antibodies. The studies presented here demonstrate that effects of antibody binding on transferrin receptor distribution, metabolism, and function depend, at least in part, on antibody valence, and therefore on the degree of crosslinking of receptors by antibody. They found that monovalent antibody fragments did not significantly alter cell growth, receptor surface expression, intracellular localization, or degradation. Divalent antibody caused a uniform down-regulation of cell-surface receptor expression, which was accompanied by increased degradation only when antibody Fc was present. Normal receptor cycling apparently continued, despite the reduction in surface expression. Culture in multivalent IgM antibody, however, resulted in accumulation of antibody-complexed receptor on the cell surface without internalization and caused profound inhibition of cell growth. Thus, they show two mechanisms by which different degrees of antibody crosslinking can influence transferrin receptor function: by receptor down-regulation and blocking internalization.

  3. ANTIBODY TITRATION PROTOCOL NOTE: When titrating an antibody for use in flow cytometry, you should

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ANTIBODY TITRATION PROTOCOL NOTE: When titrating an antibody for use in flow cytometry, you should attempt to titrate it under the same conditions in which it will be used during your experimental cell're titrating. You should titrate each new vial of antibody you receive in your lab, even if you've used

  4. Vibriobactin Antibodies: A Vaccine Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; McManis, James S.; Wiegand, Jan; Green, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    A new target strategy in the development of bacterial vaccines, the induction of antibodies to microbial outer membrane ferrisiderophore complexes, is explored. A vibriobactin (VIB) analogue, with a thiol tether, 1-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5,9-bis[[(4S,5R)-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-4-oxazolyl]carbonyl]-14-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-1,5,9,14-tetraazatetradecane, was synthesized and linked to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antigenicity of the VIB microbial iron chelator conjugates and their iron complexes was evaluated. When mice were immunized with the resulting OVA-VIB conjugate, a selective and unequivocal antigenic response to the VIB hapten was observed; IgG monoclonal antibodies specific to the vibriobactin fragment of the BSA and OVA conjugates were isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development. PMID:19492834

  5. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Deerenberg, C.; Arpanius, V.; Daan, S.; Bos, N.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression. Here we provide support for a third potential mechanism: reduced immunocompetence as a consequence of adaptive reallocation of resources in times of increased energetic demand. In captive zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, reproductive effort was manipulated through brood size. Enhanced effort was found to affect the production of antibodies towards sheep red blood cells. In addition, activity of zebra finches was manipulated independently of parental care. Experimentally increased daily workloads in activity reward schedules also suppressed antibody production. Thus, we show that not just the reproductive state, but the increased activity that accompanies reproduction is associated with immunocompetence. This mechanism may be sufficient to explain the increased parasitism observed in reproducing animals. We suggest that reduced immunocompetence as a consequence of increased reproductive effort may be an important pathway for the life history cost of reproduction.

  6. Asthma and antibodies to pneumococcal virulence proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Jung, Ji A; Briles, David E.; Kita, Hirohito; Tsigrelis, Constantine; Juhn, Young J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported that asthmatics had lower anti-serotype-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody levels than non-asthmatics, and T-helper 2 (Th2)-immune profile was associated with suboptimal pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Our objective was to determine the influence of asthma status on anti-pneumococcal protein antigen antibody levels. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 16 children and adults with asthma and 14 subjects without asthma. Asthma was ascertained by predetermined criteria. Serum IgG antibody levels to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC), pneumococcal choline-binding protein A (PcpA), and pneumolysin (PLY) were measured by ELISA assays. These antibody levels were compared between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Th2-immune profile was determined by IL-5 secretion from PBMCs cultured with house dust mite (HDM) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at day seven. The correlation between the anti-pneumococcal antibody levels and Th2-HDM and SEB-responsive immune profile was assessed. Results Of the 30 subjects, 16 (53%) were male and the median age was 26 years. There were no significant differences in anti-PspA, anti-PspC, anti-PcpA, and anti-PLY antibody levels between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Th2-immune profile was inversely correlated with anti-PspC antibody levels (r= ?0.53, p=0.003). This correlation was significantly modified by asthma status (r= ?0.74, p=0.001 for asthmatics vs. r= ?0.06, p=0.83 for non-asthmatics). Other pneumococcal protein antibodies were not correlated with Th2-immune profile. Conclusion No significant differences in anti-pneumococcal protein antigen antibody levels between asthmatics and non-asthmatics were found. Asthma status is an important effect modifier determining the negative influence of Th2-immune profile on anti-PspC antibody levels. PMID:23749296

  7. IBC’s 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    PubMed Central

    Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Wuellner, Ulrich; Zizlsperger, Nora; Zhou, Yu; Tavares, Daniel; Berger, Sven; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; Proetzel, Gabriele; Yong, May; Begent, Richard H.J.; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3–6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 2, 2012 focused on intellectual property issues that impact antibody engineering. The Antibody Engineering Conference was composed of six sessions held December 3–5, 2012: (1) From Receptor Biology to Therapy; (2) Antibodies in a Complex Environment; (3) Antibody Targeted CNS Therapy: Beyond the Blood Brain Barrier; (4) Deep Sequencing in B Cell Biology and Antibody Libraries; (5) Systems Medicine in the Development of Antibody Therapies/Systematic Validation of Novel Antibody Targets; and (6) Antibody Activity and Animal Models. The Antibody Therapeutics conference comprised four sessions held December 4–5, 2012: (1) Clinical and Preclinical Updates of Antibody-Drug Conjugates; (2) Multifunctional Antibodies and Antibody Combinations: Clinical Focus; (3) Development Status of Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies; and (4) Modulating the Half-Life of Antibody Therapeutics. The Antibody Society’s special session on applications for recording and sharing data based on GIATE was held on December 5, 2012, and the conferences concluded with two combined sessions on December 5–6, 2012: (1) Development Status of Early Stage Therapeutic Antibodies; and (2) Immunomodulatory Antibodies for Cancer Therapy. PMID:23575266

  8. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies.

  9. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond Sw; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:25798160

  10. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  11. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  12. 7th Annual European Antibody Congress 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 7th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapin Ltd., was again held in Geneva, Switzerland, following on the tradition established with the 4th EAC. The 2011 version of the EAC was attended by nearly 250 delegates who learned of the latest advances and trends in the global development of antibody-based therapeutics. The first day focused on advances in understanding structure-function relationships, choosing the best format, glycoengineering biobetter antibodies, improving the efficacy and drugability of mAbs and epitope mapping. On the second day, the discovery of novel targets for mAb therapy, clinical pipeline updates, use of antibody combinations to address resistance, generation and identification of mAbs against new targets and biosimilar mAb development were discussed. Antibody-drug conjugates, domain antibodies and new scaffolds and bispecific antibodies were the topics of the third day. In total, nearly 50 speakers provided updates of programs related to antibody research and development on-going in the academic, government and commercial sectors. PMID:22453093

  13. 8th Annual European Antibody Congress 2012

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alain; Carter, Paul J.; Gerber, Hans-Peter; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.; Wurch, Thierry; Junutula, Jagath R.; Kontermann, Roland E; Mabry, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The 8th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapin Ltd., was again held in Geneva, Switzerland, following on the tradition established with the 4th EAC. The new agenda format for 2012 included three parallel tracks on: (1) naked antibodies; (2) antibody drug conjugates (ADCs); and (3) bispecific antibodies and alternative scaffolds. The meeting started and closed with three plenary lectures to give common background and to share the final panel discussion and conclusions. The two day event included case studies and networking for nearly 250 delegates who learned of the latest advances and trends in the global development of antibody-based therapeutics. The monoclonal antibody track was focused on understanding the structure-function relationships, optimization of antibody design and developability, and processes that allow better therapeutic candidates to move through the clinic. Discussions on novel target identification and validation were also included. The ADC track was dedicated to evaluation of the ongoing success of the established ADC formats alongside the rise of the next generation drug-conjugates. The bispecific and alternative scaffold track was focused on taking stock of the multitude of bispecific formats being investigated and gaining insight into recent innovations and advancements. Mechanistic understanding, progression into the clinic and the exploration of multispecifics, redirected T cell killing and alternative scaffolds were extensively discussed. In total, nearly 50 speakers provided updates of programs related to antibody research and development on-going in the academic, government and commercial sectors. PMID:23493119

  14. Hepatitis Bs antibody in alcoholic cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Mills; T H Pennington; P Kay; R N MacSween; G Watkinson

    1979-01-01

    Sera from patients with chronic liver disease were tested for antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen by radioimmunoassay. The antibody was found in 25% of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and in 52% when alcoholic cirrhosis was associated with portal hypertension, these results being significantly higher than in a matched control population. Other forms of chronic liver disease did not differ

  15. Bivalent antibody phage display mimics natural immunoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chingwei V. Lee; Sachdev S. Sidhu; Germaine Fuh

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a system for displaying bivalent antibody fragments on M13 bacteriophage in a manner that effectively mimics the binding behavior of natural antibodies. In the “bivalent display” format, two copies of antigen binding sites are displayed on the coat of a single phage particle. Bivalent display was first achieved by the insertion of a dimerization domain,

  16. Flow cytometric screening of aldolase catalytic antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunbo Shim; Amelie Karlström; Sofia M Touami; Roberta P Fuller; Carlos F Barbas III

    2004-01-01

    High-throughput screening of cells expressing active catalytic antibody clones by flow cytometry is described. A fluorogenic retro-aldol retro-Michael substrate was designed and synthesized with incorporation of a chloromethyl moiety for intracellular retention. Hybridoma or transfected mammalian cells expressing catalytic antibody molecules could be rapidly isolated.

  17. Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiping Wei; Julie M. Decker; Shuyi Wang; Huxiong Hui; John C. Kappes; Xiaoyun Wu; Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez; Maria G. Salazar; J. Michael Kilby; Michael S. Saag; Natalia L. Komarova; Martin A. Nowak; Beatrice H. Hahn; Peter D. Kwong; George M. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of HIV-specific antibodies. The

  18. Mechanisms of Neonatal Mucosal Antibody Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following an abrupt transition at birth from the sterile uterus to an environment with abundant commensal and pathogenic microbes, neonatal mammals are protected by maternal antibodies at mucosal surfaces. We show in mice that different antibody isotypes work in distinct ways to protect the neonatal...

  19. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kassis, A.I.; Khawli, L.A.

    1991-02-19

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabeled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody. No Drawings

  20. The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Antibody Scientific Committee

    Cancer.gov

    The Antibody Scientific Committee provides scientific insight and guidance to the National Cancer Institute's Antibody Characterization Program. Specifically the members of this committee evaluate request from the external scientific community for development and characterization of antibodies by the program.

  1. 42 CFR 493.865 - Standard; Antibody identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Standard; Antibody identification. 493.865 Section...These Tests § 493.865 Standard; Antibody identification. (a) Failure to... (e) Failure to identify the same antibody in two consecutive or two out of...

  2. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kassis, Amin I. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Khawli, Leslie A. (Newton Centre, MA)

    1991-01-01

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabelled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody immunological test system is a...

  4. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries. PMID:25214212

  5. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial...antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification...antibody immunological test system is a device that consists...antimitochondrial antibodies in human serum. The measurements...produced against the body's own...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial...antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification...antibody immunological test system is a device that consists...antimitochondrial antibodies in human serum. The measurements...produced against the body's own...

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Detection of pancreatic cancer using antibody

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Detection of pancreatic cancer using antibody microarray-based serum protein profiling proteome analysis / Oncopro- teomics / Pancreatic cancer / Recombinant antibody microarrayFv antibody microarray in an attempt to classify sera derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients versus

  8. Synthetic Antibodies for Reversible Cell Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-mediated cell recognition plays a critical role in various biological and biomedical applications. However, strong antibody-cell interactions can lead to the difficulty of separating antibodies from the bound cells in a simple and non-destructive manner, which is often necessary to numerous applications such as cell sorting or separation. Thus, this thesis research is aimed to create an antibody-like nanomaterial with the function of reversible cell recognition It was hypothesized that nucleic acid aptamer and dendrimer could be used as fundamental structural components to develop an antibody-like nanomaterial. The aptamer functions as the binding site of an antibody; the dendrimer is used as a robust, defined nano-scaffold to support the aptamer and to carry small molecules (e.g., fluorophores). To test this hypothesis, a novel method was first developed to discover the essential nucleotides of full-length aptamers to mimic the binding sites of antibodies. The essential nucleotides were further conjugated with a dendrimer to synthesize a monovalent aptamer-dendrimer nanomaterial. The results clearly showed that the essential nucleotides could maintain high affinity and specificity after tethered on dendrimer surface. To further test the hypothesis that antibody-like nanomaterials can be rationally designed to acquire the capability of reversible cell recognition, an aptamer that was selected at 0 °C was used as a model to synthesize a "Y-shaped" nanomaterial by conjugating two aptamers to the same dendrimer. The results showed that the nanomaterial-cell interaction could be affected by the distance between two binding aptamers. In addition, the "Y-shaped" antibody-like nanomaterial could bind target cells more strongly than its monovalent control. Importantly, the strong cell-nanomaterial interaction could be rapidly reversed when the temperature was shifted from 0 °C to 37 °C. In summary, we developed a synthetic antibody that can not only mimic the functional structure and cell recognition capability of antibodies, but also possess specific features that natural antibodies do not possess. This study has opened a new avenue for developing synthetic antibodies and has also advanced the understanding of the functionality of multivalent nanomaterials. This novel synthetic antibody holds great potential for various biological and biomedical applications such as cell separation.

  9. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  10. Viral antibodies in coyotes from California.

    PubMed

    Cypher, B L; Scrivner, J H; Hammer, K L; O'Farrell, T P

    1998-04-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV) were determined among 152 coyotes (Canis latrans) at the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRC; California, USA) from 1985 to 1990. Overall prevalence of antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV was 66%, 37%, and 68%, respectively. Prevalence of CPV and CDV varied significantly among years. Antibody prevalence did not differ between sexes for any disease, but did vary significantly among age classes and was lowest for pups (< 1-yr-old). Among pups, antibody prevalence increased with age for all three diseases. Coyotes are a potential source of viral exposure for endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but variation in coyote abundance did not appear to influence antibody prevalence among kit foxes. PMID:9577772

  11. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs. PMID:25197051

  12. Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.; Suzuki, M.; Adachi, S.

    1983-04-01

    Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The antibody activity of antibody was not affected by irradiation at an irradiation dose of below 8 MR and low temperatures. Immobilization of peroxidase-labeled anti-rabbit IgG goat IgG, anti-peroxidase, peroxidase, and anti-alpha-fetoprotein was carried out with hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers. The activity of the immobilized enzyme-labeled antibody membranes varied with the thickness of the membranes and increased with decreasing membrane thickness. The activity of the immobilized antibody particles was varied by particle size. Immobilized anti-alpha-fetoprotein particles and membranes can be used for the assay of alpha-fetoprotein by the antigen-antibody reaction, such as a solid-phase sandwich method with high sensitivity.

  13. Clinical considerations for biosimilar antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Biosimilar agents are approximate copies of branded biologic therapies. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in the European Union in 2006, fifteen additional agents have been approved by the European Medicines Agency, including two biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Biosimilar mAbs represent a distinct class given their large molecular size, complex protein structure, and post-translational modifications. While guidelines have been established for the development, approval, and use of biosimilars, further scrutiny and discussion is necessary to fully understand their potential impact on clinical outcomes. This review takes a critical look at the structural complexity of biosimilar mABs, the feasibility of indication extrapolation, the impact of product variability on immunogenicity, the importance of comprehensive pharmacovigilance, and the potential for ongoing pharmacoeconomic impact.

  14. Multidimensional Glycan Arrays for Enhanced Antibody Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yalong; Campbell, Christopher; Li, Qian; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Carbohydrate-binding antibodies play a critical role in basic and clinical research. Monoclonal antibodies that bind glycans are used to measure carbohydrate expression, and serum antibodies to glycans can be important elements of the immune response to pathogens and vaccines. Carbohydrate antigen arrays, or glycan arrays, have emerged as powerful tools for the high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Our group has focused on the development and application of neoglycoprotein arrays, a unique array format wherein carbohydrates are covalently attached to a carrier protein prior to immobilization on the surface. The neoglycoprotein format permits variations of glycan structure, glycan density, and neoglycoprotein density on a single array. The focus of this study was on the effects of neoglycoprotein density on antibody binding. First, we evaluated binding of five monoclonal antibodies (81FR2.2, HE-195, HE-193, B480, and Z2A) to the blood group A antigen and found that neoglycoprotein density had a substantial effect on recognition. Next, we profiled serum antibodies in 15 healthy individuals and showed that inclusion of multiple neoglycoprotein densities helps distinguish different subpopulations of antibodies. Finally, we evaluated immune responses induced by a prostate cancer vaccine and showed that variations in neoglycoprotein density enable one to detect antibody responses that could not be detected otherwise. Neoglycoprotein density is a useful element of diversity for evaluating antibody recognition and, when combined with variations in glycan structure and glycan density, provides multidimensional glycan arrays with enhanced performance for monoclonal antibody development, biomarker discovery, and vaccine optimization. PMID:20711537

  15. Progress towards recombinant anti-infective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Sutherland, Jamie N.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    The global market for monoclonal antibody therapeutics reached a total of $11.2 billion in 2004, with an impressive 42% growth rate over the previous five years and is expected to reach ~$34 billion by 2010. Coupled with this growth are stream-lined product development, production scale-up and regulatory approval processes for the highly conserved antibody structure. While only one of the 21 current FDA-approved antibodies, and one of the 38 products in advanced clinical trials target infectious diseases, there is increasing academic, government and commercial interest in this area. Synagis, an antibody neutralizing respiratory syncitial virus (RSV), garnered impressive sales of $1.1 billion in 2006 in spite of its high cost and undocumented effects on viral titres in human patients. The success of anti-RSV passive immunization has motivated the continued development of anti-infectives to treat a number of other infectious diseases, including those mediated by viruses, toxins and bacterial/fungal cells. Concurrently, advances in antibody technology suggest that cocktails of several monoclonal antibodies with unique epitope specificity or single monoclonal antibodies with broad serotype specificity may be the most successful format. Recent patents and patent applications in these areas will be discussed as predictors of future anti-infective therapeutics. PMID:19149692

  16. Therapeutic potential of monovalent monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, S. P.; Waldmann, H.

    1984-03-01

    One therapeutic use for monoclonal antibody technology1 is the elimination of categories of unwanted cells by virtue of their distinct cell surface antigens. The efficiency of cell destruction by complement lysis or opsonization depends on a number of factors such as antibody specificity and isotype as well as certain properties of the target antigen2. In some instances cells can escape destruction by redistributing and eventually losing the antigen-antibody complexes from their surface3,4. This process, known as antigenic modulation, generally depends on bivalent antibody binding. Starting from the observation that rabbit antisera can be made more effective at killing tumour cells if they are first rendered univalent by limited proteolysis, we have now prepared a number of monovalent rat monoclonal antibodies to human cell-surface antigens. We find that these antibodies are no longer able to bring about modulation of their target antigens and have an enhanced facility for lysis with human complement. These special properties should greatly increase the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies.

  17. The influence of bortezomib on donor specific antibody reduction in patients with antibody mediated rejection.

    PubMed

    Hardinger, Karen L; Murillo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Renal allograft biopsy is the gold standard for monitoring and diagnosing antibody mediated rejection (AMR), yet a biopsy is invasive, expensive, and may result in complications. Monitoring antibodies may aid in diagnosing and monitoring AMR, although many questions remain unanswered regarding the clinical utility of antibody monitoring. The purpose of this review is to examine the influence of bortezomib on reduction of donor specific antibody after AMR in renal transplant recipients. A retrospective review of patients was performed. Patients who received bortezomib after suffering AMR refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis from 2009 to 2011 were selected. Seven patients were identified. Three patients had antibodies tested after IVIG treatment with a mean antibody lowering of 29 percent from baseline. Five of the seven patients had antibodies tested after bortezomib treatment and the mean antibody reduction was 47 percent from baseline. Four patients were biopsied after treatment and all were C4d negative. The other three patients were not biopsied. Renal function improved in most patients. One patient returned to dialysis 16 months after transplant and treatment and another patient died with a functioning graft, due to pneumonia five months after transplant and treatment. In these seven cases, the use of intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, and bortezomib appear to decrease antibodies, improve renal function, and reverse histological markers for rejection. Long-term, prospective follow-up is warranted to determine the influence of bortezomib on donor antibody removal, histological changes, and graft survival. PMID:22755438

  18. Antibodies Against Three Forms of Urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Atassi, M. Zouhair

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies that bind to preselected regions of the urokinase molecule have been developed. These antibodies can be used to measure small quantities of each of three molecular forms of urokinase that could be contained in microsamples or conditioned media harvested from cultures of mammalian cells. Previously available antibodies and assay techniques do not yield both clear distinctions among, and measurements of, all three forms. Urokinase is a zymogen that is synthesized in a single-chain form, called ScuPA, which is composed of 411 amino acid residues (see figure). ScuPA has very little enzyme activity, but it can be activated in two ways: (1) by cleavage of the peptide bond lysine 158/isoleucine 159 and the loss of lysine 158 to obtain the high molecular-weight (HMW) form of the enzyme or (2) by cleavage of the bond lysine 135/lysine 136 to obtain the low-molecular-weight (LMW) form of the enzyme. The antibodies in question were produced in mice and rabbits by use of peptides as immunogens. The peptides were selected to obtain antibodies that bind to regions of ScuPA that include the lysine 158/isoleucine 159 and the lysine 135/lysine 136 bonds. The antibodies include monoclonal and polyclonal ones that yield indications as to whether either of these bonds is intact. The polyclonal antibodies include ones that preferentially bind to the HMW or LMW forms of the urokinase molecule. The monoclonal antibodies include ones that discriminate between the ScuPA and the HMW form. A combination of these molecular-specific antibodies will enable simultaneous assays of the ScuPA, HMW, and LMW forms in the same specimen of culture medium.

  19. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  20. Coeliac Disease-Associated Antibodies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sabiye; Gür, Günes; Topal, Firdevs; Topal, Fatih Esad; Alli, Nuran; Saritas, Ülkü

    2013-01-01

    Background The possible relationship between psoriasis and coeliac disease (CD) has been attributed to the common pathogenic mechanisms of the two diseases and the presence of antigliadin antibodies in patients has been reported to increase the incidence of CD. Objective The aim of this report was to study CD-associated antibodies serum antigliadin antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, anti-endomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA and to demonstrate whether there is an increase in the frequency of those markers of CD in patients with psoriasis. Methods Serum antigliadin antibody IgG and IgA, antiendomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA were studied in 37 (19 males) patients with psoriasis and 50 (23 males) healthy controls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsies were performed in patients with at least one positive marker. Results Antigliadin IgA was statistically higher in the psoriasis group than in the controls (p<0.05). Serological markers were found positive in 6 patients with psoriasis and 1 person from the control group. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all these persons, with biopsies collected from the duodenum. The diagnosis of CD was reported in only one patient with psoriasis following the pathological examination of the biopsies. Whereas one person of the control group was found to be positive for antigliadin antibody IgA, pathological examination of the duodenal biopsies obtain from this patient were found to be normal. Conclusion Antigliadin IgA prominently increases in patients diagnosed with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis should be investigated for latent CD and should be followed up. PMID:24003271

  1. Emerging antibody products and Nicotiana manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Andrew; Zeitlin, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Antibody based products are not widely available to address multiple global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity and long manufacturing lead times. Nicotiana-based manufacturing of antibody products may now begin to address these challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in transient expression and altered glycosylation pathways. This review provides examples of emerging antibody-based products (mucosal and systemic) that could be competitive and commercially viable when the attributes of Nicotiana-based manufacturing (large scale, versatile, rapid, low cost) are utilized. PMID:21358287

  2. Emerging antibody products and Nicotiana manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Kevin J; Hiatt, Andrew; Zeitlin, Larry

    2011-03-01

    Antibody based products are not widely available to address multiple global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity, and long manufacturing lead times. Nicotiana-based manufacturing of antibody products may now begin to address these challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in transient expression and altered glycosylation pathways. This review provides examples of emerging antibody-based products (mucosal and systemic) that could be competitive and commercially viable when the attributes of Nicotiana-based manufacturing (large scale, versatile, rapid, low cost) are utilized. PMID:21358287

  3. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  4. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  5. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  6. Reshaping Human Antibodies: Grafting an Antilysozyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeyen, Martine; Milstein, Cesar; Winter, Greg

    1988-03-01

    The production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology has proved difficult, and this has prompted the ``humanizing'' of mouse monoclonal antibodies by recombinant DNA techniques. It was shown previously that the binding site for a small hapten could be grafted from the heavy-chain variable domain of a mouse antibody to that of a human myeloma protein by transplanting the hypervariable loops. It is now shown that a large binding site for a protein antigen (lysozyme) can also be transplanted from mouse to human heavy chain. The success of such constructions may be facilitated by an induced-fit mechanism.

  7. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  8. Antiphospholipid antibodies: Paradigm in transition

    PubMed Central

    Horstman, Lawrence L; Jy, Wenche; Bidot, Carlos J; Ahn, Yeon S; Kelley, Roger E; Zivadinov, Robert; Maghzi, Amir H; Etemadifar, Masoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This is a critical review of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Most prior reviews focus on the aPL syndrome (APS), a thrombotic condition often marked by neurological disturbance. We bring to attention recent evidence that aPL may be equally relevant to non-thrombotic autoimmune conditions, notably, multiple sclerosis and ITP. Organization After a brief history, the recent proliferation of aPL target antigens is reviewed. The implication is that many more exist. Theories of aPL in thrombosis are then reviewed, concluding that all have merit but that aPL may have more diverse pathological consequences than now recognized. Next, conflicting results are explained by methodological differences. The lupus anticoagulant (LA) is then discussed. LA is the best predictor of thrombosis, but why this is true is not settled. Finally, aPL in non-thrombotic disorders is reviewed. Conclusion The current paradigm of aPL holds that they are important in thrombosis, but they may have much wider clinical significance, possibly of special interest in neurology. PMID:19154576

  9. Polynucleotides encoding anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Kehoe, John (Saint Davids, PA); Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-01-11

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... website will be limited. Search Help? Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... available for EBV? 1. How is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or infectious mononucleosis (mono) treated? Care ...

  11. Antibodies against the calcium-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Mei; Jensen, K.G.; Sjolund, R.D. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Krause, K.H.; Campbell, K.P. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Plant microsomes contain a protein clearly related to a calcium-binding protein, calsequestrin, originally found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, responsible for the rapid release and uptake of Ca{sup 2+} within the cells. The location and role of calsequestrin in plant cells is unknown. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to plant calsequestrin, mice were immunized with a microsomal fraction from cultured cells of Streptanthus tortuosus (Brassicaceae). Two clones cross-reacted with one protein band with a molecular weight equal to that of calsequestrin (57 kilodaltons) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. This band is able to bind {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and can be recognized by a polyclonal antibody against the canine cardiac muscle calsequestrin. Rabbit skeletal muscle calsequestrin cross-reacted with the plant monoclonal antibodies. The plant monoclonal antibodies generated here are specific to calsequestrin protein.

  12. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Nick S; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-06-01

    Despite available antivirals and vaccines, influenza continues to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Vaccination generally induces an effective, but strain-specific antibody response. As the virus continually evolves, new vaccines have to be administered almost annually when a novel strain becomes dominant. Furthermore, the sporadic emerging resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors among circulating strains suggests an urgent need for new therapeutic agents. Recently, several cross-reactive antibodies have been described, which neutralize an unprecedented spectrum of influenza viruses. These broadly neutralizing antibodies generally target conserved functional regions on the major influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). The characterization of their neutralization breadth and epitopes on HA could stimulate the development of new antibody-based antivirals and broader influenza vaccines. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Treatment of influenza: targeting the virus or the host." PMID:23583287

  13. New haptens and antibodies for ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhui; Liu, Meixuan; Shi, Weimin; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-09-15

    In this work, three unreported immunizing haptens of ractopamine (RAC) were synthesized and used to produce highly sensitive and specific polyclonal antibody. The spacer arms of haptens for coupling to protein carrier were located on different position of RAC with different length. High affinity polyclonal antibodies were obtained and characterized in terms of titer and sensitivity by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The best antibody employed in a heterologous competitive ELISA exhibited an IC50 value as low as 0.12ngmL(-1) and could not recognize other 10 ?-agonists including clenbuterol and salbutamol. The heterologous competitive ELISA was preliminary applied to swine urine and the results showed the new antibody was sufficiently sensitive and specific, and potentially used for the detection of RAC at trace level in real samples. PMID:25863617

  14. Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, B.; Honig, G.; Mader, S.; Brimberg, L.; Volpe, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases currently affect 5–7% of the world's population; in most diseases there are circulating autoantibodies. Brain-reactive antibodies are present in approximately 2–3% of the general population but do not usually contribute to brain pathology. These antibodies penetrate brain tissue only early in development or under pathologic conditions. This restriction on their pathogenicity and the lack of correlation between serum titers and brain pathology have, no doubt, contributed to a delayed appreciation of the contribution of autoantibodies in diseases of the central nervous system. Nonetheless, it is increasingly clear that antibodies can cause damage in the brain and likely initiate or aggravate multiple neurologic conditions; brain-reactive antibodies contribute to symptomatology in autoimmune disease, infectious disease, and malignancy. PMID:23516983

  15. Antibody response to measles immunization in India*

    PubMed Central

    Job, J. S.; John, T. J.; Joseph, A.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody response to measles vaccine was measured in 238 subjects aged 6-15 months. Seroconversion rates ranged from 74% at 6 months of age to 100% at 13-15 months; the differences in age-specific rates were not statistically significant. The postimmunization antibody titres increased with increasing age of the vaccinee. Seroconversion rates and antibody titres in 49 subjects with grades I and II malnutrition were not significantly different from those in the 189 normal subjects. These results support the recommendation of 9 months as a satisfactory age for commencement of measles immunization in India. However, the highest antibody levels and seroconversion rates were obtained in children over 12 months of age. PMID:6334571

  16. Chemical biology: How to minimalize antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    The success of antibodies as pharmaceuticals has triggered interest in crafting much smaller mimics. A crucial step forward has been taken with the chemical synthesis of small molecules that recruit immune cells to attack cancer cells.

  17. Cost modeling for monoclonal antibody manufacturing

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Christina M. (Christina Margaret)

    2011-01-01

    The Novartis BioPharmOps division is responsible for manufacturing large molecule products, including monoclonal antibodies, for late stage clinical trials and commercial sales. The BioPharmOps site in Huningue, France is ...

  18. Use of monoclonal antibodies in the assay of hepatitis B core antigen and antibody.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Inoue, M; Yoshihara, N

    1984-08-01

    Hybridoma cells secreting antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (HBc Ag) were prepared. BALB/c mice were immunized with 0.2 ml of purified HBc Ag, and their spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma (P3U1) cells by means of polyethylene glycol 1000. Activities of antibodies against HBc Ag (anti-HBc) were tested by the immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) and reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) techniques. Hybridoma cells found to contain antibodies accounted for 26.5% by IAHA and 52.1% by RPHI, respectively. Among 32 monoclonal anti-HBc antibodies, 18 were found to be positive by both IAHA and RPHI, and the remaining 14 positive by RPHI only. After cloning, they were injected intraperitoneally into ascitic mice. The highest anti-HBc activity with an IAHA titer of 1:4 X 10(6) and with an RPHI titer of 1:1 X 10(5) was detected in this ascitic fluid. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RPHI with monoclonal antibody containing the highest anti-HBc activity were developed. All the sera in which anti-HBc was detected by IAHA and RPHI with polyclonal antibody were positive in EIA. RPHI titers obtained with monoclonal antibody were in good agreement with usual IAHA and RPHI titers obtained with polyclonal antibody. These results indicate that monoclonal antibody can be used in the HBc Ag and anti-HBc assay system. PMID:6396424

  19. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  20. Molecular Forces in Antibody Maturation Melik C. Demirel1

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    crystal structures (Fig. 1): (i) the unligated primary antibody 48G7 (PDB code 2rcs); (ii) the primary antibody with bound hapten (PDB code 1aj7); (iii) a closely-related secondary antibody, unligated (PDB code 1hkl); (iv) the secondary antibody, with bound hapten (PDB code 1gaf). The affinity of the secondary

  1. The current status of neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, F J; Daha, M R; van Es, L A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies in the past 10 years have demonstrated the occurrence of autoantibodies against cytoplasmic constituents in patients with vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. In this review the nomenclature of these antibodies is discussed and assays and clinical associations are summarized. Although the antigens involved are not completely identified, antibodies and T cells reactive with myeloid lysozomal enzymes may both play a significant role in pathogenesis. PMID:12412739

  2. Single domain camel antibodies: current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Muyldermans

    2001-01-01

    The antigen-binding capacity of the paired variable domains of an antibody is well established. The observation that the isolated heavy chains of anti-hapten antibodies retain some antigen-binding capacity in the absence of light chains led to attempts to obtain an even smaller antigen-binding unit in a VH format. Unfortunately, the poor solubility, the reduced affinity for the antigen and the

  3. Antibody Responses during Hepatitis B Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ciupe, Stanca M.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a DNA virus that infects liver cells and can cause both acute and chronic disease. It is believed that both viral and host factors are responsible for determining whether the infection is cleared or becomes chronic. Here we investigate the mechanism of protection by developing a mathematical model of the antibody response following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We fitted the model to data from seven infected adults identified during acute infection and determined the ability of the virus to escape neutralization through overproduction of non-infectious subviral particles, which have HBs proteins on their surface, but do not contain nucleocapsid protein and viral nucleic acids. We showed that viral clearance can be achieved for high anti-HBV antibody levels, as in vaccinated individuals, when: (1) the rate of synthesis of hepatitis B subviral particles is slow; (2) the rate of synthesis of hepatitis B subviral particles is high but either anti-HBV antibody production is fast, the antibody affinity is high, or the levels of pre-existent HBV-specific antibody at the time of infection are high, as could be attained by vaccination. We further showed that viral clearance can be achieved for low equilibrium anti-HBV antibody levels, as in unvaccinated individuals, when a strong cellular immune response controls early infection. PMID:25078553

  4. Working towards a consensus for antibody validation

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Peter D.; Min, Danxi; Leung, Mei Y.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial research antibodies are the most commonly used product in the life science tools market, and their applications represent a significant investment of time and resources for researchers. Frequently however, the quality of antibodies does not meet the expectations of consumers, causing loss of valuable time and money. This can delay research efforts and scientific discovery, or even lead to false, irreproducible results to be published in the scientific literature. This raises the question of whether there should be universal standards for validating antibodies.   During the 1 st International Antibody Validation Forum, hosted by St John’s Laboratory Ltd on October 15 th 2014 at Queen Mary University of London, scientists from academia and industry presented data highlighting quality issues arising from lack of antibody validation. While the forum identified significant current problems in the antibody market, it also discussed future opportunities for improved quality and transparency by encouraging data disclosure and data sharing. This article highlights the key issues and conclusions reached at the forum. PMID:25580232

  5. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  6. Anti Transglutaminase Antibodies Cause Ataxia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, Sabrina; Lorenzon, Andrea; Sblattero, Daniele; Florian, Fiorella; Stebel, Marco; Marzari, Roberto; Not, Tarcisio; Aeschlimann, Daniel; Ventura, Alessandro; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the presence of anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and anti-gliadin antibodies. Amongst the neurological dysfunctions associated with CD, ataxia represents the most common one. Methods We analyzed by immunohistochemistry, the anti-neural reactivity of the serum from 20 CD patients. To determine the role of anti-TG2 antibodies in ataxia, two anti-TG2 single chain variable fragments (scFv), isolated from a phage-display IgA antibody library, were characterized by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and injected in mice to study their effects on motor coordination. We found that 75% of the CD patient population without evidence of neurological involvement, has circulating anti-neural IgA and/or IgG antibodies. Two anti-TG2 scFvs, cloned from one CD patient, stained blood vessels but only one reacted with neurons. This anti-TG2 antibody showed cross reactivity with the transglutaminase isozymes TG3 and TG6. Intraventricular injection of the anti-TG2 or the anti-TG2/3/6 cross-reactive scFv provoked transient, equally intensive ataxia in mice. Conclusion The serum from CD patients contains anti-TG2, TG3 and TG6 antibodies that may potentially cause ataxia. PMID:20300628

  7. Fourth World Antibody-Drug Conjugate Summit

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alain; Lambert, John; Sun, Michael; Lin, Kedan

    2012-01-01

    The 4th World Antibody Drug Conjugate (WADC) Summit, organized by Hanson Wade was held on February 29?March 1, 2012 in Frankfurt, Germany, which was also the location for the Antibody Drug Conjugate Summit Europe held in February 2011. During the one year between these meetings, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have confirmed their technological maturity and their clinical efficacy in oncology. Brentuximab vedotin (ADCETRISTM) gained approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2011 and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) confirmed impressive clinical efficacy responses in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. During the 4th WADC meeting, antibody-maytansinoid conjugates were showcased by representatives of ImmunoGen (T-DM1, SAR3419, lorvotuzumab mertansine/IMGN801, IMGN529 and IMG853) and Biotest (BT-062). Data on antibody-auristatin conjugates were presented by scientists and clinicians from Seattle Genetics and Takeda (brentuximab vedotin), Pfizer (5T4-MMAF), Agensys/Astella (AGS-16M8F), Progenics (PSMA-ADC) and Genmab (anti-TF ADCs). Alternative payloads such as calicheamicins and duocarmycin used for preparation of ADCs were discussed by Pfizer and Synthon representatives, respectively. In addition, emerging technologies, including site-directed conjugation (Ambrx), a protein toxin as payload (Viventia), hapten-binding bispecific antibodies (Roche), and use of light activated drugs (Photobiotics), were also presented. Last but not least, progresses in solving Chemistry Manufacturing and Control, and pharmacokinetic issues were addressed by scientists from Genentech, Pfizer, Novartis and Pierre Fabre. PMID:22909934

  8. [Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Da-peng

    2012-10-01

    Small molecule antibodies are naturally existed and well functioned but not structurally related to the conventional antibodies. They are only composed of heavy protein chains or light chains, much smaller than common antibody. The first small molecule antibody, called Nanobody was engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids. Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, "immunoglobulin new antigen receptor"), from which single-domain antibodies called Vnar fragments can be obtained. In addition, free light chain (FLC) antibodies in human bodies are being developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Comparing to intact antibodies, common advantages of small molecule antibodies are with better solubility, tissue penetration, stability towards heat and enzymes, and comparatively low production costs. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanism of action of the Nanobody, IgNAR and FLC. PMID:23289139

  9. Cold denaturation of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Kristi L; Patapoff, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to undergo cold denaturation remains unexplored. In this study, the phenomenon of cold denaturation was investigated for a mAb, mAb1, through thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses. tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were recorded for the guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl)-induced unfolding of mAb1 at pH 6.3 at temperatures ranging from ?5 to 50°C. A three-state unfolding model incorporating the linear extrapolation method was fit to the fluorescence data to obtain an apparent free energy of unfolding, ?Gu, at each temperature. CD studies revealed that mAb1 exhibited polyproline II helical structure at low temperatures and at high GuHCl concentrations. the Gibbs-Helmholtz expression fit to the ?Gu versus temperature data from fluorescence gave a ?Cp of 8.0 kcal mol?1 K?1, a maximum apparent stability of 23.7 kcal mol?1 at 18°C, and an apparent cold denaturation temperature (TCD) of ?23°C. ?Gu values for another mAb (mAb2) with a similar framework exhibited less stability at low temperatures, suggesting a depressed protein stability curve and a higher relative TCD. Direct experimental evidence of the susceptibility of mAb1 and mAb2 to undergo cold denaturation in the absence of denaturant was confirmed at pH 2.5. thus, mAbs have a potential to undergo cold denaturation at storage temperatures near ?20°C (pH 6.3), and this potential needs to be evaluated independently for individual mAbs. PMID:20093856

  10. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Narinder Kaur; Bharucha, Z S; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2012-01-01

    The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay), and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4%) of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA) can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center. PMID:22623840

  11. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Narinder Kaur; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2012-01-01

    The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay), and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4%) of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA) can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center. PMID:22623840

  12. LOCALIZATION OF ANTIBODIES BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IN DEVELOPING ANTIBODY-PRODUCI NG CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. DE PETRIS; Luigi Devoto

    2009-01-01

    The development of antibody-producing cells in thc early stagcs of the sccondary or hypcr- immune response has becn studied with the electron microscope in lymph nodes of adult chinchilla rabbits immunized with fcrritin or apofcrritin. The intraccllular distribution of antifcrritin antibodies was determined in the lymph node cells at 1 to 5 days after a booster injcction, employing the labelling

  13. Antibody Response to Bacterial Antigens: Characteristics of Antibody Response to Somatic Antigens of Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Fukazawa, Y.; Shinoda, T.; Yomoda, T.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1970-01-01

    The character of the antibody response in the rabbit to Salmonella typhimurium somatic (O) antigen was similar to the response to each of several serotypes of Shigella flexneri O antigens, namely a predominance of production of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody. Lipopolysaccharide protein (LPSP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fractions of Salmonella O antigen differed significantly in both quantitative and qualitative aspects of their immunogenicity. LPSP elicited high levels of agglutinins and also induced the production of a significant amount of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody at a late period. LPS antigen elicited low levels of agglutinins which were exclusively IgM antibody. These results suggested that the chemical nature of the antigen is one important factor in the determination of the character of the antibody response. Further, it is suggested that the protein moiety of the O antigen complex is a carrier active in allowing induction of early IgM and of late IgG antibodies; in contrast, the lipid moiety may compete with this action of the carrier protein, thereby suppressing IgG antibody in the primary stage of the antibody-forming process. PMID:16557720

  14. Mechanisms of Allergen-Antibody Interaction of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Mechanisms of Allergen-Antibody Interaction of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 with Monoclonal is strongly associated with asthma, and involves the production of IgE antibodies against inhaled allergens. Reports of conformational epitopes on inhaled allergens are limited. The conformational epitopes for two

  15. Similar Idiotypic Specificities in Immunoglobulin Fractions with Different Antibody Functions or Even without Detectable Antibody Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Oudin; P. A. Cazenave

    1971-01-01

    Idiotypy has been studied in antibodies against a protein antigen: hen ovalbumin. Various fractions of antisera to hen ovalbumin have been compared from the standpoint of the idiotypic specificities found on the immunoglobulins that they contain. Idiotypic specificities were found to be common to (a) antibodies that were not eluted from the same immunoadsorben by the same MgCl2 concentration, but

  16. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. Results In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with production under serum free conditions increased the volumetric yield up to 10-fold to more than 140 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody. After vector optimization and process optimization the yield of an scFv-Fc antibody and a cytotoxic antibody-RNase fusion protein further increased 3-4-fold to more than 450 mg/L. Finally, an entirely new mammalian expression vector was constructed for single step in frame cloning of scFv genes from antibody phage display libraries. Transient expression of more than 20 different scFv-Fc antibodies resulted in volumetric yields of up to 600 mg/L and 400 mg/L in average. Conclusion Transient production of recombinant scFv-Fc antibodies in HEK293-6E in combination with optimized vectors and fed batch shake flasks cultivation is efficient and robust, and integrates well into a high-throughput recombinant antibody generation pipeline. PMID:23802841

  17. Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb): a compendium of antigen-antibody interactions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Raskar-Renuse, Snehal; Natekar-Kalantre, Girija; Saxena, Smita A

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb) is an immunoinformatics resource developed at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, and is available online at http://bioinfo.net.in/AgAbDb.htm. Antigen-antibody interactions are a special class of protein-protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen-antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen-antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs. It also helps in the identification of interacting residues and buried residues that constitute antibody-binding sites of protein and peptide antigens. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction Finder (AAIF), a program developed in-house, is used to compile the molecular interactions, viz. van der Waals interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen bonds. A module for curating water-mediated interactions has also been developed. In addition, various residue-level features, viz. accessible surface area, data on epitope segment, and secondary structural state of binding site residues, are also compiled. Apart from the PDB numbering, Wu-Kabat numbering and explicit definitions of complementarity-determining regions are provided for residues of antibodies. The molecular interactions can be visualized using the program Jmol. AgAbDb can be used as a benchmark dataset to validate algorithms for prediction of B-cell epitopes. It can as well be used to improve accuracy of existing algorithms and to design new algorithms. AgAbDb can also be used to design mimotopes representing antigens as well as aid in designing processes leading to humanization of antibodies. PMID:25048123

  18. Recombinant shark natural antibodies to thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Samuel F; Jensen, Ingvill; Ramsland, Paul A; Marchalonis, John J

    2005-01-01

    As cartilaginous fish are the vertebrates most distal from man to produce antibodies, fundamental information regarding conservation and variation of the antigen binding site should be gained by comparing the properties of antibodies directed against the same antigen from the two species. Since monoclonal cell lines cannot be generated using shark B cells, we isolated antigen binding recombinant single chain Fv antibodies (scFv) comprising of the complete variable regions from shark light and heavy chains. Thyroglobulin was used as the selecting antigen as both sharks and humans express natural antibodies to mammalian thyroglobulin in the absence of purposeful immunization. We report that recombinant sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) scFvs that bind bovine thyroglobulin consist of heavy chain variable regions (VH) homologous to those of the human VHIII subset and light chain variable regions (VL) homologous to those of the human Vlambda6 subgroup. The homology within the frameworks is sufficient to enable the building of three-dimensional models of the shark VH/VL structure using established human structures as templates. In natural antibodies of both species, the major variability lies in the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of both VH and VL. PMID:15954089

  19. Monoclonal antibody disulfide reduction during manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hutterer, Katariina M.; Hong, Robert W.; Lull, Jonathon; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Tian; Pei, Rex; Le, M. Eleanor; Borisov, Oleg; Piper, Rob; Liu, Yaoqing Diana; Petty, Krista; Apostol, Izydor; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing-induced disulfide reduction has recently been reported for monoclonal human immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies, a widely used modality in the biopharmaceutical industry. This effect has been tied to components of the intracellular thioredoxin reduction system that are released upon cell breakage. Here, we describe the effect of process parameters and intrinsic molecule properties on the extent of reduction. Material taken from cell cultures at the end of production displayed large variations in the extent of antibody reduction between different products, including no reduction, when subjected to the same reduction-promoting harvest conditions. Additionally, in a reconstituted model in which process variables could be isolated from product properties, we found that antibody reduction was dependent on the cell line (clone) and cell culture process. A bench-scale model using a thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase regeneration system revealed that reduction susceptibility depended on not only antibody class but also light chain type; the model further demonstrates that the trend in reducibility was identical to DTT reduction sensitivity following the order IgG1? > IgG1? > IgG2? > IgG2?. Thus, both product attributes and process parameters contribute to the extent of antibody reduction during production. PMID:23751615

  20. Antibody Phage Display Libraries: Contributions to Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela; de Macedo Brigido, Marcelo; Maranhao, Andrea Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of phage display technology, dating back to 1985, antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage surfaces have been used to identify specific binders for many different purposes, including the recognition of tumors. Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. Many phage display derived binders targeting important tumor markers have been identified. Selection directed to tumoral cells’ surfaces lead to the identification of unknown tumoral markers. Also the improvement of methods that require smaller amounts of cells has opened the possibility to use this approach on patient samples. Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. Many Ab molecules directly or indirectly targeting angiogenesis have been identified, and one of them, ramucirumab, has been tested in 27 phase I–III clinical trials in a broad array of cancers. Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. PMID:22754305

  1. Neuronal surface antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, Jenny J; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-09-01

    In the past few years, many autoimmune encephalitides have been identified, with specific clinical syndromes and associated antibodies against neuronal surface antigens. There is compelling evidence that many of these antibodies are pathogenic and most of these encephalitides are highly responsive to immunotherapies. The clinical spectra of some of these antibody-mediated syndromes, especially those reported in only a few patients, are evolving. Others, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, are well characterized. Diagnosis involves recognizing the specific syndromes and identifying the antibody in a patient's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum. These syndromes are associated with variable abnormalities in CSF, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. Treatment is often multidisciplinary and should be focused upon neutralizing the effects of antibodies and eliminating their source. Overlapping disorders have been noted, with some patients having more than one neurologic autoimmune disease. In other patients, viral infections such as herpes simplex virus encephalitis trigger robust antineuronal autoimmune responses. PMID:25369441

  2. Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

  3. Single Domain Intracellular Antibodies from Diverse Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Sewell, Helen; Waters, Simon; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Rabbitts, Terence H.

    2011-01-01

    Interfering intracellular antibodies are valuable for biological studies as drug surrogates and as potential macromolecular drugs per se. Their application is still limited because of the difficulty of acquisition of functional intracellular antibodies. We describe the use of the new intracellular antibody capture procedure (IAC3) to facilitate direct isolation of functional single domain antibody fragments using four independent target molecules (LMO2, TP53, CRAF1, and Hoxa9) from a set of diverse libraries. Initially, these have variability in only one of the three antigen-binding CDR regions of VH or VL and first round single domains are affinity matured by iterative randomization of the two other CDRs and reselection. We highlight the approach using a single domain binding to LMO2 protein. Our results show that interfering with LMO2 protein function demonstrates a role specifically in erythroid differentiation, confirm a necessary and sufficient function for LMO2 as a cancer therapy target in T-cell neoplasia and allowed for the first time production of soluble recombinant LMO2 protein by co-expression with intracellular domain antibodies. Co-crystallization of LMO2 and the anti-LMO2 VH protein was successful. These results demonstrate that this third generation IAC3 offers a robust toolbox for various biomedical applications and consolidates functional features of the LMO2 protein complex, which includes the importance of Lmo2-Ldb1 protein interaction. PMID:20980262

  4. Antibody-Specific Model of Amino Acid Substitution for Immunological Inferences from Alignments of Antibody Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mirsky, Alexander; Kazandjian, Linda; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are glycoproteins produced by the immune system as a dynamically adaptive line of defense against invading pathogens. Very elegant and specific mutational mechanisms allow B lymphocytes to produce a large and diversified repertoire of antibodies, which is modified and enhanced throughout all adulthood. One of these mechanisms is somatic hypermutation, which stochastically mutates nucleotides in the antibody genes, forming new sequences with different properties and, eventually, higher affinity and selectivity to the pathogenic target. As somatic hypermutation involves fast mutation of antibody sequences, this process can be described using a Markov substitution model of molecular evolution. Here, using large sets of antibody sequences from mice and humans, we infer an empirical amino acid substitution model AB, which is specific to antibody sequences. Compared with existing general amino acid models, we show that the AB model provides significantly better description for the somatic evolution of mice and human antibody sequences, as demonstrated on large next generation sequencing (NGS) antibody data. General amino acid models are reflective of conservation at the protein level due to functional constraints, with most frequent amino acids exchanges taking place between residues with the same or similar physicochemical properties. In contrast, within the variable part of antibody sequences we observed an elevated frequency of exchanges between amino acids with distinct physicochemical properties. This is indicative of a sui generis mutational mechanism, specific to antibody somatic hypermutation. We illustrate this property of antibody sequences by a comparative analysis of the network modularity implied by the AB model and general amino acid substitution models. We recommend using the new model for computational studies of antibody sequence maturation, including inference of alignments and phylogenetic trees describing antibody somatic hypermutation in large NGS data sets. The AB model is implemented in the open-source software CodonPhyML (http://sourceforge.net/projects/codonphyml) and can be downloaded and supplied by the user to ProGraphMSA (http://sourceforge.net/projects/prographmsa) or other alignment and phylogeny reconstruction programs that allow for user-defined substitution models. PMID:25534034

  5. Antibody-specific model of amino Acid substitution for immunological inferences from alignments of antibody sequences.

    PubMed

    Mirsky, Alexander; Kazandjian, Linda; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Antibodies are glycoproteins produced by the immune system as a dynamically adaptive line of defense against invading pathogens. Very elegant and specific mutational mechanisms allow B lymphocytes to produce a large and diversified repertoire of antibodies, which is modified and enhanced throughout all adulthood. One of these mechanisms is somatic hypermutation, which stochastically mutates nucleotides in the antibody genes, forming new sequences with different properties and, eventually, higher affinity and selectivity to the pathogenic target. As somatic hypermutation involves fast mutation of antibody sequences, this process can be described using a Markov substitution model of molecular evolution. Here, using large sets of antibody sequences from mice and humans, we infer an empirical amino acid substitution model AB, which is specific to antibody sequences. Compared with existing general amino acid models, we show that the AB model provides significantly better description for the somatic evolution of mice and human antibody sequences, as demonstrated on large next generation sequencing (NGS) antibody data. General amino acid models are reflective of conservation at the protein level due to functional constraints, with most frequent amino acids exchanges taking place between residues with the same or similar physicochemical properties. In contrast, within the variable part of antibody sequences we observed an elevated frequency of exchanges between amino acids with distinct physicochemical properties. This is indicative of a sui generis mutational mechanism, specific to antibody somatic hypermutation. We illustrate this property of antibody sequences by a comparative analysis of the network modularity implied by the AB model and general amino acid substitution models. We recommend using the new model for computational studies of antibody sequence maturation, including inference of alignments and phylogenetic trees describing antibody somatic hypermutation in large NGS data sets. The AB model is implemented in the open-source software CodonPhyML (http://sourceforge.net/projects/codonphyml) and can be downloaded and supplied by the user to ProGraphMSA (http://sourceforge.net/projects/prographmsa) or other alignment and phylogeny reconstruction programs that allow for user-defined substitution models. PMID:25534034

  6. Method for altering antibody light chain interactions

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL); Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins (Evanston, IL); Raffen, Rosemarie (Elmhurst, IL); Schiffer, Marianne (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  8. Method for preparation of single chain antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V. (New York, NY); Guo, Hong-fen (New York, NY)

    2012-04-03

    This invention provides a method for identifying cells expressing a target single chain antibody (scFv) directed against a target antigen from a collection of cells that includes cells that do not express the target scFv, comprising the step of combining the collection of cells with an anti-idiotype directed to an antibody specific for the target antigen and detecting interaction, if any, of the anti-idiotype with the cells, wherein the occurrence of an interaction identifies the cell as one which expresses the target scFv. This invention also provides a method for making a single chain antibody (scFv) directed against an antigen, wherein the selection of clones is made based upon interaction of those clones with an appropriate anti-idiotype, and heretofore inaccessible scFv so made. This invention provides the above methods or any combination thereof. Finally, this invention provides various uses of these methods.

  9. Generation of med28 specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min A; Cho, Jin Gu; Kim, Kwang-Il; Jo, Yeong Joon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk; Yang, Ho Bin; Park, Sang Gyu

    2015-02-01

    Med28 plays a role in transcription, signal transduction, and cell proliferation. The overexpression of med28 is associated with tumor progression in in vitro and in vivo models. Recently it has been reported that the elevated expression of med28 is associated with poor outcome in women with breast cancer. The expression level of med28 in in vitro and in vivo was examined by using anti-rabbit polyclonal antibody in previous reports. In this study, we report for the first time the generation and characterization of four monoclonal antibodies against med28 through immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemical analyses. These antibodies will be useful in detecting med28 in in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25723281

  10. Origin and pathogenesis of antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Celli, C M; Gharavi, A E

    1998-06-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are detected in the serum of patients with a variety of conditions, including autoimmune (systemic lupus erythematosus), infectious (syphilis, AIDS) and lymphoproliferative disorders (paraproteinemia, myeloma, lymphocytic leukemias). Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, recurrent fetal loss and other clinical complications are currently associated with a subgroup of aPL designating the antiphospholipid syndrome. In contrast, aPL from patients with infectious disorders are not associated with any clinical manifestation. These findings led to increased interest in the origin and pathogenesis of aPL. Here we present the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome and review the origin of aPL, the characteristics of experimentally induced aPL and their historical background. Within this context, we discuss the most probable pathogenic mechanisms induced by these antibodies. PMID:9698816

  11. THE MODIFICATION OF ANTIBODIES BY FORMALDEHYDE

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Stuart; Joffe, Eleanore W.

    1933-01-01

    Certain strains of bacteria which have only minimal zeta potentials over a wide range of pH, and upon which surface deposits can be formed, afford a favorable means of studying certain chemical and physical properties of the surface deposits. Films of specific antibody-globulin upon these bacteria possess basic groups which can combine with formaldehyde. Combination of these groups with HCHO under the conditions of the present experiments shifts the isoelectric point of the sensitizing film toward the acid side by about 0.6 to 0.8 pH unit, and reduces the agglutinating tendency of the sensitizing film. Antibodies may be formalinized before combination with antigen without marked change in their specific combining affinities. The properties of the sensitizing films are similar whether formol treatment occurs before or after the antigen-antibody combination. The nature of the basic groups has been discussed. PMID:19872752

  12. An immunosuppressive antibody-drug conjugate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongsheng E; Liu, Tao; Wang, Ying; Cao, Yu; Du, Jintang; Luo, Xiaozhou; Deshmukh, Vishal; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Lawson, Brian R; Tremblay, Matthew S; Young, Travis S; Kazane, Stephanie A; Wang, Feng; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-03-11

    We have developed a novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that can selectively deliver the Lck inhibitor dasatinib to human T lymphocytes. This ADC is based on a humanized antibody that selectively binds with high affinity to CXCR4, an antigen that is selectively expressed on hematopoietic cells. The resulting dasatinib-antibody conjugate suppresses T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell activation and cytokine expression with low nM EC50 and has minimal effects on cell viability. This ADC may lead to a new class of selective immunosuppressive drugs with improved safety and extend the ADC strategy to the targeted delivery of kinase inhibitors for indications beyond oncology. PMID:25699419

  13. Adsorption of monoclonal antibodies to glass microparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Matthew; Samuel, Fauna; Dong, Aichun; Wurth, Christine; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2011-01-01

    Microparticulate glass represents a potential contamination to protein formulations that may occur as a result of processing conditions or glass types. The effect of added microparticulate glass to formulations of three humanized antibodies was tested. Under the three formulation conditions tested, all three antibodies adsorbed irreversibly at near monolayer surface coverages to the glass microparticles. Analysis of the secondary structure of the adsorbed antibodies by infrared spectroscopy reveal only minor perturbations as a result of adsorption. Likewise, front-face fluorescence quenching measurements reflected minimal tertiary structural changes upon adsorption. In contrast to the minimal effects on protein structure, adsorption of protein to suspensions of glass microparticles induced significant colloidal destabilization and flocculation of the suspension. PMID:20575075

  14. Removal of Species Constraints in Antibody Detection ?

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison Jane; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Kosoy, Olga L.; Junna, Shilpa R.; Panella, Nicholas A.; Powers, Ann M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Nemeth, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    Serum antibodies from myriad species, particularly birds, can provide key information regarding the transmission and the expansion of the territory of emerging pathogens. Expedient antibody analysis is constrained by a lack of species-specific reagents, a deficiency potentially highlighted by the recent swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) outbreak. Available methodologies present difficulties that discourage thorough serologic monitoring of potential disease vectors or hosts. Rapid high-throughput procedures that combined serum amine labeling via biotinylation, contaminant removal, and microsphere-based immunoassays for antibodies to three arboviruses were developed. Agent-specific adaptations of this simple format should facilitate expanded surveillance and diagnostic capabilities regarding pathogens of human and veterinary importance. PMID:19923570

  15. Antibody-based biological toxin detection

    SciTech Connect

    Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  16. Proteomic Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies from Serum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the in vivo dynamics of the polyclonal antibody repertoire in serum, such as that which might arise in response to stimulation with an antigen, is difficult due to the presence of many highly similar immunoglobulin proteins, each specified by distinct B lymphocytes. These challenges have precluded the use of conventional mass spectrometry for antibody identification based on peptide mass spectral matches to a genomic reference database. Recently, progress has been made using bottom-up analysis of serum antibodies by nanoflow liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry combined with a sample-specific antibody sequence database generated by high-throughput sequencing of individual B cell immunoglobulin variable domains (V genes). Here, we describe how intrinsic features of antibody primary structure, most notably the interspersed segments of variable and conserved amino acid sequences, generate recurring patterns in the corresponding peptide mass spectra of V gene peptides, greatly complicating the assignment of correct sequences to mass spectral data. We show that the standard method of decoy-based error modeling fails to account for the error introduced by these highly similar sequences, leading to a significant underestimation of the false discovery rate. Because of these effects, antibody-derived peptide mass spectra require increased stringency in their interpretation. The use of filters based on the mean precursor ion mass accuracy of peptide-spectrum matches is shown to be particularly effective in distinguishing between “true” and “false” identifications. These findings highlight important caveats associated with the use of standard database search and error-modeling methods with nonstandard data sets and custom sequence databases. PMID:24684310

  17. Human antibody production in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Marianne; Osborn, Michael J; Ma, Biao; Hayre, Jasvinder; Avis, Suzanne; Lundstrom, Brian; Buelow, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Fully human antibodies from transgenic animals account for an increasing number of new therapeutics. After immunization, diverse human monoclonal antibodies of high affinity can be obtained from transgenic rodents, while large animals, such as transchromosomic cattle, have produced respectable amounts of specific human immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum. Several strategies to derive animals expressing human antibody repertoires have been successful. In rodents, gene loci on bacterial artificial chromosomes or yeast artificial chromosomes were integrated by oocyte microinjection or transfection of embryonic stem (ES) cells, while ruminants were derived from manipulated fibroblasts with integrated human chromosome fragments or human artificial chromosomes. In all strains, the endogenous Ig loci have been silenced by gene targeting, either in ES or fibroblast cells, or by zinc finger technology via DNA microinjection; this was essential for optimal production. However, comparisons showed that fully human antibodies were not as efficiently produced as wild-type Ig. This suboptimal performance, with respect to immune response and antibody yield, was attributed to imperfect interaction of the human constant region with endogenous signaling components such as the Ig?/? in mouse, rat or cattle. Significant improvements were obtained when the human V-region genes were linked to the endogenous CH-region, either on large constructs or, separately, by site-specific integration, which could also silence the endogenous Ig locus by gene replacement or inversion. In animals with knocked-out endogenous Ig loci and integrated large IgH loci, containing many human Vs, all D and all J segments linked to endogenous C genes, highly diverse human antibody production similar to normal animals was obtained. PMID:25467949

  18. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. PMID:24966245

  19. Anti-transferrin receptor antibody and antibody-drug conjugates cross the blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Friden, P.M.; Walus, L.R.; Musso, G.F.; Taylor, M.A.; Malfroy, B.; Starzyk, R.M. (Alkermes, Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Delivery of nonlipophilic drugs to the brain is hindered by the tightly apposed capillary endothelial cells that make up the blood-brain barrier. The authors have examined the ability of a monoclonal antibody (OX-26), which recognizes the rat transferrin receptor, to function as a carrier for the delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. This antibody, which was previously shown to bind preferentially to capillary endothelial cells in the brain after intravenous administration, labels the entire cerebrovascular bed in a dose-dependent manner. The initially uniform labeling of brain capillaries becomes extremely punctate {approximately} 4 hr after injection, suggesting a time-dependent sequestering of the antibody. Capillary-depletion experiments, in which the brain is separated into capillary and parenchymal fractions, show a time-dependent migration of radiolabeled antibody from the capillaries into the brain parenchyma, which is consistent with the transcytosis of compounds across the blood-brain barrier. Antibody-methotrexate conjugates were tested in vivo to assess the carrier ability of this antibody. Immunohistochemical staining for either component of an OX-26-methotrexate conjugate revealed patterns of cerebrovascular labeling identical to those observed with the unaltered antibody. Accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain parenchyma is greatly enhanced when the drug is conjugated to OX-26.

  20. Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Tumor Immunotherapy with Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Ursula J. E.; Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several therapeutic antibodies have been Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved. Although their mechanisms of action in vivo is not fully elucidated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is presumed to be a key effector function. A substantial role of ADCC has been demonstrated in vitro and in mouse tumor models. However, a direct in vivo effect of ADCC in tumor reactivity in humans remains to be shown. Several studies revealed a predictive value of Fc?RIIIa-V158F polymorphism in monoclonal antibody treatment, indicating a potential effect of ADCC on outcome for certain indications. Furthermore, the use of therapeutic antibodies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an interesting option. Studying the role of the Fc?RIIIa-V158F polymorphism and the influence of Killer-cell Immunoglobuline-like Receptor (KIR) receptor ligand incompatibility on ADCC in this approach may contribute to future transplantation strategies. Despite the success of approved second-generation antibodies in the treatment of several malignancies, efforts are made to further augment ADCC in vivo by antibody engineering. Here, we review currently used therapeutic antibodies for which ADCC has been suggested as effector function. PMID:23543707

  1. Natural killer cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in tumor immunotherapy with therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Ursula J E; Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several therapeutic antibodies have been Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved. Although their mechanisms of action in vivo is not fully elucidated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is presumed to be a key effector function. A substantial role of ADCC has been demonstrated in vitro and in mouse tumor models. However, a direct in vivo effect of ADCC in tumor reactivity in humans remains to be shown. Several studies revealed a predictive value of Fc?RIIIa-V158F polymorphism in monoclonal antibody treatment, indicating a potential effect of ADCC on outcome for certain indications. Furthermore, the use of therapeutic antibodies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an interesting option. Studying the role of the Fc?RIIIa-V158F polymorphism and the influence of Killer-cell Immunoglobuline-like Receptor (KIR) receptor ligand incompatibility on ADCC in this approach may contribute to future transplantation strategies. Despite the success of approved second-generation antibodies in the treatment of several malignancies, efforts are made to further augment ADCC in vivo by antibody engineering. Here, we review currently used therapeutic antibodies for which ADCC has been suggested as effector function. PMID:23543707

  2. Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potency.

    PubMed

    Schenkein, Jeremy G; Park, Saeyoung; Nahm, Moon H

    2008-10-01

    The primary mode of prevention of adult disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae is vaccination with anti-capsular polysaccharide vaccine; however, its effects are less in the targeted older population than in young persons. Few studies have examined the mechanism behind this limited effectiveness. We have measured antibody concentrations and opsonization titers for multiple serotypes amongst both old adults and young, healthy controls. To avoid specificity problems associated with pneumococcal antibody ELISA, we absorbed the serum samples with c-polysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide of 22F type. Antibody concentrations were found to be similar for six out of the seven tested serotypes, while opsonization titers were significantly higher in six out of seven serotypes in the younger population. Antibody potency, as measured by the ratio of opsonization titer to antibody concentration, was found to be significantly higher for the younger subjects for all serotypes. We conclude that, while all ages of adults make similar concentrations of antibodies in response to pneumococcal vaccine, the effectiveness of those antibodies is significantly reduced in the older adult population. PMID:18706464

  3. Effects of interferon on antibody formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the effects of interferon on primary and secondary antibody responses and of the relationship of interferon to other cytokines, or cell products, are presented. Dosage- and timing-dependent immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive activities of interferon are documented for mouse spleen cell cultures and for mice infected with murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3). A possibility that altered interferon production might lead to immunopathological disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, AIDS, arthritis, etc., is discussed. Latest technological developments are presented that indicate that interferon does apparently play a major role in the regulation of antibody responses.

  4. Hepatitis Bs antibody in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P R; Pennington, T H; Kay, P; MacSween, R N; Watkinson, G

    1979-01-01

    Sera from patients with chronic liver disease were tested for antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen by radioimmunoassay. The antibody was found in 25% of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and in 52% when alcoholic cirrhosis was associated with portal hypertension, these results being significantly higher than in a matched control population. Other forms of chronic liver disease did not differ from the control population. Hepatitis B virus infection might be a factor in determining which alcoholic patients go on to develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. PMID:512037

  5. Passive Immunization with Allergen-Specific Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Flicker; Elisabeth Gadermaier; Christoph Madritsch; Rudolf Valenta

    \\u000a The induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies has been identified as a major mechanism responsible for the reduction of\\u000a allergic inflammation in allergic patients treated by allergen-specific immunotherapy. Several studies suggest that allergen-specific\\u000a IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with allergens block mast cell and basophil degranulation, IgE-facilitated allergen\\u000a presentation to T cells and IgE production. The availability of recombinant allergens and

  6. Basic immunology of antibody targeted radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

    2006-10-01

    Antibody targeted radiotherapy brings an important new treatment modality to Radiation oncology clinic. Radiation dose to tumor and normal tissues are determined by a complex interplay of antibody, antigen, tumor, radionuclide, and host-related factors. A basic understanding of these immunologic and physiologic factors is important to optimally utilize this therapy in the clinic. Preclinical and clinical studies need to be continued to broaden our understanding and to develop new strategies to further improve the efficacy of this promising form of targeted therapy.

  7. The art of antibody process development.

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, David E; McCormick, Ellen L

    2008-07-01

    Biopharmaceutical drug development is an intricate path that spans a dozen years from discovery through registration. The development of a therapeutic antibody presents substantial challenges, particularly with respect to the creation and implementation of manufacturing process technologies. Process development and large scale biotherapeutic manufacturing is an art generally only practiced within industry. As a consequence, these technologies may be seen as something of a 'black box' by many in the medical community. This article provides insight into the current art of antibody process development leading to market entry of novel, life-saving medicines. PMID:18598918

  8. Antibodies for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been demonstrated to be effective in the research and clinical environments. Early uncertainties about molecular and treatment modalities now appear to have converged upon the systemic dosing of mixtures of human IgG1. Although multiple examples of high-potency monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) exist, significant difficulties were initially encountered in their discovery. This minireview describes historical and contemporary MAbs and highlights differences between the most potent MAbs, which may offer insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of CDI. PMID:24789799

  9. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted. PMID:12605725

  10. The natural antibody response to E. coli includes antibodies of the IgD class.

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, H F; Chambers, L; Maxwell, V; Matthews, J B; Jefferis, R

    1978-01-01

    Antibodies to E. coli of the IgM, IgG and IgA class are readily demonstrable in normal human serum. Using the sensitive red cell-linked antigen-antiglobulin system, it has been demonstrated that antibodies of the IgD class are also part of this normal response. The IgD antibody titre is low and often could only be demonstrated in partially purified IgD preparations. The availability of purified IgD paraproteins and their Fabdelta and Fcdelta fragments, as well as antisera specific for these fragments, allowed the necessary critical specificity controls to be performed. Images FIG. 2 PMID:346269

  11. Antibodies Act Jointly to Promote Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 September 2014 Antibodies Act Jointly to Promote Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Two types of antibody molecules act in concert to stimulate inflammation in ...

  12. Quantitative analysis of perivascular antibody distribution in solid tumors

    E-print Network

    Rhoden, John J. (John Joseph)

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and proteins derived from them are an emerging class of anticancer therapeutics that have shown efficacy in a range of blood and solid tumors. Antibodies targeting solid tumors face considerable ...

  13. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  14. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  15. Engineering aglycosylated antibody variants with immune effector functions

    E-print Network

    Sazinsky, Stephen L. (Stephen Lael)

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have emerged as a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of human disease, and in particular human cancer. While multiple mechanisms contribute to antibody efficacy, the engagement and ...

  16. Prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, R; Ravelli, A; De Gennaro, F; Neirotti, G; Montecucco, C; Martini, A

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies was evaluated in 70 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), in 25 adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis, in 42 healthy children and in 40 adult controls. Thirty seven (53%) patients with JCA were positive for IgG or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies, or both, and 30 (43%) for IgG anticardiolipin antibodies. In contrast, only seven (28%) adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis presented anticardiolipin antibodies, which were of IgG class in four (16%) cases. IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were negative in all control subjects while IgM anticardiolipin antibodies were detected in two (5%) children and in four (10%) adult controls. No correlations were found in patients with JCA between the presence or titres of anticardiolipin antibodies and various clinical or laboratory variables. No patient with anticardiolipin antibodies showed any feature of the anticardiolipin syndrome. PMID:1929580

  17. Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 induced by immunization

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Most neutralizing antibodies act at the earliest steps of viral infection and block interaction of the virus with cellular receptors to prevent entry into host cells. The inability to induce neutralizing antibodies to HIV has been a major obstacle to HIV vaccine research since the early days of the epidemic. However, in the past three years, the definition of a neutralizing antibody against HIV has been revolutionized by the isolation of extremely broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from HIV-infected individuals. Considerable hurdles remain for inducing neutralizing antibodies to a protective level after immunization. Meanwhile, novel technologies to bypass the induction of antibodies are being explored to provide prophylactic antibody-based interventions. This review addresses the challenge of inducing HIV neutralizing antibodies upon immunization and considers notable recent advances in the field. A greater understanding of the successes and failures for inducing a neutralizing response upon immunization is required to accelerate the development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:23401570

  18. CiteAb: a searchable antibody database that ranks antibodies by the number of times they have been cited

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research antibodies are used by thousands of scientists working in diverse disciplines, but it is common to hear concerns about antibody quality. This means that researchers need to carefully choose the antibodies they use to avoid wasting time and money. A well accepted way of selecting a research antibody is to identify one which has been used previously, where the associated data has been peer-reviewed and the results published. Description CiteAb is a searchable database which ranks antibodies by the number of times they have been cited. This allows researchers to easily find antibodies that have been used in peer-reviewed publications and the accompanying citations are listed, so users can check the data contained within the publications. This makes CiteAb a useful resource for identifying antibodies for experiments and also for finding information to demonstrate antibody validation. The database currently contains 1,400,000 antibodies which are from 90 suppliers, including 87 commercial companies and 3 academic resources. Associated with these antibodies are 140,000 publications which provide 306,000 antibody citations. In addition to searching, users can also browse through the antibodies and add their own publications to the CiteAb database. Conclusions CiteAb provides a new way for researchers to find research antibodies that have been used successfully in peer-reviewed publications. It aims to assist these researchers and will hopefully help promote progress in many areas of life science research. PMID:24528853

  19. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  20. Magic Bullets and Monoclonals: An Antibody Tale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margie Patlak (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

    2010-07-12

    FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. This most recent article describes the century of fundamental immunology research that led to todayÂ?s cutting edge monoclonal antibody therapies, used to treat millions of patients for several types of cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and infectious disease.

  1. Antibody profiling by Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS).

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Klimavicz, Caitlin M; Iadarola, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Technologies for comprehensively understanding and quantifying antibody profiles to autoantigens and infectious agents may yield new insights into disease mechanisms and may elucidate new markers to substratify disease with different clinical features and better understand pathogenesis. We have developed a highly quantitative method called Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) for profiling patient sera antibody responses to autoantigens and pathogen antigens associated with infection. Unlike ELISAs, the highly sensitive LIPS is easily implemented to survey humoral serological response profiles to different antigens in a universal format and produces dynamic antibody titer ranges up to 6 log(10) for some antigens. In these studies, quantitative profiling by LIPS of patient humoral responses against panels of antigens or even the entire proteome of some pathogens (i.e. HIV), is typically more informative than testing a single antigen by ELISA. In addition, LIPS also eliminates time and effort needed to produce highly purified antigens as well as the labor-intensive assay optimization steps needed for standard ELISAs. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the technical aspects of performing LIPS assays for readily profiling antibody responses to single or multiple antigens. PMID:19812534

  2. Antibody Profiling by Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS)

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Klimavicz, Caitlin M.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Technologies for comprehensively understanding and quantifying antibody profiles to autoantigens and infectious agents may yield new insights into disease mechanisms and may elucidate new markers to substratify disease with different clinical features and better understand pathogenesis. We have developed a highly quantitative method called Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) for profiling patient sera antibody responses to autoantigens and pathogen antigens associated with infection. Unlike ELISAs, the highly sensitive LIPS is easily implemented to survey humoral serological response profiles to different antigens in a universal format and produces dynamic antibody titer ranges up to 6 log10 for some antigens. In these studies, quantitative profiling by LIPS of patient humoral responses against panels of antigens or even the entire proteome of some pathogens (i.e. HIV), is typically more informative than testing a single antigen by ELISA. In addition, LIPS also eliminates time and effort needed to produce highly purified antigens as well as the labor-intensive assay optimization steps needed for standard ELISAs. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the technical aspects of performing LIPS assays for readily profiling antibody responses to single or multiple antigens. PMID:19812534

  3. Antibody-Catalyzed Degradation of Cocaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Landry; Kang Zhao; Ginger X.-Q. Yang; Michael Glickman; Taxiarchis M. Georgiadis

    1993-01-01

    Immunization with a phosphonate monoester transition-state analog of cocaine provided monoclonal antibodies capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of the cocaine benzoyl ester group. An assay for the degradation of radiolabeled cocaine identified active enzymes. Benzoyl esterolysis yields ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid, fragments devoid of cocaine's stimulant activity. Passive immunization with such an artificial enzyme could provide a treatment

  4. International intellectual property strategies for therapeutic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies need international patent protection as their markets expand to include industrialized and emerging countries. Because international intellectual property strategies are frequently complex and costly, applicants require sound information as a basis for decisions regarding the countries in which to pursue patents. While the most important factor is the size of a given market, other factors should also be considered. PMID:22123063

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against human cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Naujokat, Cord

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that display self-renewal and tumor initiation capacity and the ability to give rise to the heterogenous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs exhibit intrinsic mechanisms of resistance to modern cancer therapeutics, allowing them to survive current cancer therapies and to initiate tumor recurrence and metastasis. Various cell surface and transmembrane proteins expressed by CSCs, including CD44, CD47, CD123, EpCAM (CD326), CD133, IGF receptor I, and proteins of the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways have been identified. Recently, monoclonal antibodies and antibody constructs raised against these CSC proteins have shown efficacy against CSCs in human cancer xenograft mice, and some of them have demonstrated antitumor activity in clinical studies. Since current cancer therapies fail to eliminate CSCs, leading to cancer recurrence and progression, selective targeting of CSCs with monoclonal antibodies and antibody constructs may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. PMID:24762074

  6. Mutation specific antibodies: tool or dinosaur?

    PubMed

    von Deimling, Andreas; Sahm, Felix; Capper, David

    2012-09-01

    Mutation specific antibodies demonstrate the benefit of merging molecular findings with traditional diagnostic expertise. Whether this approach is of sustainable benefit has to be seen. Convincing data on colon carcinoma will be demonstrated at ESMO 2012 with the conclusion to screen patients for BRAFV600E for enrolment in an upcoming clinical trial combining BRAF and EGFR inhibitors. PMID:23006938

  7. Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Müller, V; Maintz, C; Hell, S; Ataseven, B

    2014-04-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

  8. Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Müller, V.; Maintz, C.; Hell, S.; Ataseven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

  9. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data.

  10. Developing recombinant antibodies for biomarker detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Miller, Keith D.; Kagen, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have an essential role in biomarker validation and diagnostic assays. A barrier to pursuing these applications is the reliance on immunization and hybridomas to produce mAbs, which is time-consuming and may not yield the desired mAb. We recommend a process flow for affinity reagent production that utilizes combinatorial protein display systems (eg, yeast surface display or phage display) rather than hybridomas. These systems link a selectable phenotype-binding conferred by an antibody fragment-with a means for recovering the encoding gene. Recombinant libraries obtained from immunizations can produce high-affinity antibodies (<10 nM) more quickly than other methods. Non-immune libraries provide an alternate route when immunizations are not possible, or when suitable mAbs are not recovered from an immune library. Directed molecular evolution (DME) is an integral part of optimizing mAbs obtained from combinatorial protein display, but can also be used on hybridoma-derived mAbs. Variants can easily be obtained and screened to increase the affinity of the parent mAb (affinity maturation). We discuss examples where DME has been used to tailor affinity reagents to specific applications. Combinatorial protein display also provides an accessible method for identifying antibody pairs, which are necessary for sandwich-type diagnostic assays.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

  12. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Herrin, Brantley R.; Alder, Matthew N.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R. A.; Boydston, Jeremy A.; Turnbough, Charles L.; Cooper, Max D.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores. The recombinant VLR-B antibodies possess 8–10 uniform subunits that collectively bind antigen with high avidity. Sequence analysis, mutagenesis, and modeling studies show that antigen binding involves residues in the ?-sheets lining the VLR-B concave surface. EM visualization reveals tetrameric and pentameric molecules having a central core and highly flexible pairs of stalk-region “arms” with antigen-binding “hands.” Remarkable antigen-binding specificity, avidity, and stability predict that these unusual LRR-based monoclonal antibodies will find many biomedical uses. PMID:18238899

  13. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brantley R; Alder, Matthew N; Roux, Kenneth H; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Boydston, Jeremy A; Turnbough, Charles L; Cooper, Max D

    2008-02-12

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores. The recombinant VLR-B antibodies possess 8-10 uniform subunits that collectively bind antigen with high avidity. Sequence analysis, mutagenesis, and modeling studies show that antigen binding involves residues in the beta-sheets lining the VLR-B concave surface. EM visualization reveals tetrameric and pentameric molecules having a central core and highly flexible pairs of stalk-region "arms" with antigen-binding "hands." Remarkable antigen-binding specificity, avidity, and stability predict that these unusual LRR-based monoclonal antibodies will find many biomedical uses. PMID:18238899

  14. Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W Ian; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

  15. Automated Aufbau of antibody structures from given sequences using Macromoltek's SmrtMolAntibody.

    PubMed

    Berrondo, Monica; Kaufmann, Susana; Berrondo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    This study was a part of the second antibody modeling assessment. The assessment is a blind study of the performance of multiple software programs used for antibody homology modeling. In the study, research groups were given sequences for 11 antibodies and asked to predict their corresponding structures. The results were measured using root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) between the submitted models and X-ray crystal structures. In 10 of 11 cases, the results using SmrtMolAntibody show good agreement between the submitted models and X-ray crystal structures. In the first stage, the average rmsd was 1.4 Å. Average rmsd values for the framework was 1.2 Å and for the H3 loop was 3.0 Å. In stage two, there was a slight improvement with an rmsd for the H3 loop of 2.9 Å. PMID:24777752

  16. Chorea Associated with High Titers of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in the Absence of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safarpour, Damoun; Buckingham, Sarah; Jabbari, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Chorea associated with high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies in the absence of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome has been seldom reported. Case report An 89-year-old female developed persistent right side chorea associated with high titers of anticardiolipin antibody (antiphospholipid antibosies immunoglobulin (Ig)M, 45 MPL and 112 IgM aCL (MPL) after 3 months) but normal lupus anticoagulants. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality, but positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated increased bilateral striatal metabolic activity, more on the left side. Her MRI showed no cause for chorea. The PET scan demonstrated a marked increase in the metabolic activity of the left basal ganglia. Discussion Her chorea remained unchanged over a 9-month follow-up period. The literature on chorea associated with high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies in the absence of antiphospholipid syndrome is reviewed. PMID:25774325

  17. Antigen-Antibody Testing: A Visual Simulation or Virtual Reality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel L. Schadler (Oglethorpe University; )

    2003-02-24

    This exercise demonstrates the biological phenomenon of the formation of a precipitate when an antigen reacts with an antibody. The exercise can be used to illustrate the specificity of antigen-antibody reactions, showing that a precipitation reaction only occurs when an antibody reacts with the antigen that was used to induce the formation of the antibody. The exercise is also a general demonstration of diffusion.

  18. QUANTITATIVE DOUBLE ANTIBODY SANDWICH ELISA FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GLIADIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naiyana Gujral; Mavanur R. Suresh; Hoon H. Sunwoo

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) based on chicken anti-gliadin IgY and biotinylated monoclonal antibody (mAb) was developed for the quantification of gliadin in foods. The anti-gliadin IgY and mAb specifically detected gliadin in wheat, barley and rye by indirect ELISA and western-blot assay. Using anti-gliadin IgY as capture antibody and biotinylated mAb as detecting antibody, the sensitivity of

  19. Use of the enzyme method for antibody identification.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Enzyme methods for red blood cell antibody testing may have two goals: detection of weak antibodies by increasing the strength of the reactions and differentiation of the antibodies in an antibody mixture by abolishing the reaction of antibodies against enzyme-labile antigens. We analyzed the phenotype listing sheets of all lots of one year (expiration date in 2002) of 8 products (5 manufacturers) (together 130 worksheets). The aim was to find out how often some antibodies could only be detected after enzyme treatment, when there is an additional antibody against one of the following enzyme-labile antigens in the patient's serum: Fya, Fyb, M, N, S and s. If there is one of these antibodies against an enzyme-labile antigen, an additional antibody against one of the following enzyme-stable antigens D, C, E, c, e, CW, K, Kpa, Jsa, Jka, Jkb, Lea, Leb, P1, Lua cannot be detected on average in 20% of the panels. Moreover, in a further 37% of the panels there is no red blood cell suspension carrying the Kpa, in 44% none carrying the Jsa and in 19% no one carrying the Lua antigen. On the other hand, an antibody against one of the high-incidence antigens k, Kpb, Jsb or Lub can be detected in each of the 130 panels, also if there is an additional antibody directed against one of the above-mentioned enzyme-labile antigens. As also nowadays in some antibody identification panels antibodies against some enzyme-stable antigens might be covered by antibodies against enzyme-labile antigens, the enzyme method can be a helpful completion in antibody differentiation in some sera with multiple antibodies. PMID:15481633

  20. Anti-infective antibodies--reviving an old paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Peter

    2009-12-30

    Antibody therapy for infections has a long history and the development of monoclonal antibody technologies, and of increasingly ingenious techniques for making these products, has brought about a major revival in interest. In this paper the field is reviewed with particular emphasis on two topics: the role that antibodies may have in combating pandemic flu; and the prospects for giving, as a food, antibodies derived from the ovalbumin of transgenic chicken eggs, as a prophylactic against diarrhoeal disease. PMID:20006138

  1. Organ-specific Antibodies in Patients with Lichen Sclerosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Goolamali; E. W. Barnes; W. J. Irvine; Sam Shuster

    1974-01-01

    Organ-specific antibodies were looked for in 26 patients with lichen sclerosus. Ten of the 25 female patients (40%) had organ-specific antibodies to thyroid cytoplasm and 11 (44%) had organ-specific antibodies to gastric parietal cells. Both values were significantly greater than those obtained in age-matched controls. None of the sera from patients with lichen sclerosus contained antibodies to steroid-producing tissues. No

  2. Antibody Engineering Using Phage Display with a Coiled-Coil Heterodimeric Fv Antibody Fragment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinwei Wang; Pinyu Zhong; Peter P. Luo; Kevin C. Wang; Kevin K. A. Tetteh

    2011-01-01

    A Fab-like antibody binding unit, ccFv, in which a pair of heterodimeric coiled-coil domains was fused to VH and VL for Fv stabilization, was constructed for an anti-VEGF antibody. The anti-VEGF ccFv showed the same binding affinity as scFv but significantly improved stability and phage display level. Furthermore, phage display libraries in the ccFv format were constructed for humanization and

  3. Vaccination against rabies and protective antibodies - comparison of ELISA and fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana Stanti?-Pavlini?; Peter Hostnik; Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj

    The aim of the study was monitoring the efficacy of primary vaccination against rabies and the need for booster doses. These studies validate at the same time recent technological improvements in laboratory diagnostics of the level of rabies protection in human sera. Research was carried out into the level of antibodies, considering that an antibody titer ?0.5 IU\\/mL is protective.

  4. Comparison of Tissue Transglutaminase-Specific Antibody Assays with Established Antibody Measurements for Coeliac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Bazzigaluppi; Vito Lampasona; Graziano Barera; Anna Venerando; Cesare Bianchi; Giuseppe Chiumello; Ezio Bonifacio; Emanuele Bosi

    1999-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase C has recently been identified as one of the auto-antigens of endomysial antibodies found in coeliac disease. In this study we have cloned the human autoantigen and developed immunoassays measuring antibodies to transglutaminase in order to compare their diagnostic performance to that of established markers of the disease. A radiobinding assay usingin vitrotranscribed and translated35S-methionine-labelled transglutaminase detected IgG

  5. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin (San Ramon, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Bailey, Nina R. (Berkley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  6. A Simple Model System to Demonstrate Antibody Structure and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kennedy, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A model that can be used to show the arrangement of light and heavy chains, disulfide linkages, domains, and subclass variations in antibodies is given. It can be constructed and modified to illustrate Fab, F(ab')2, and Fc fragments, single domain and bifunctional antibodies, and labeling of antibodies. (Author)

  7. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  8. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mayo; Hans-Erik Carlsson; Andrea Zagon; Felix Royo; Jann Hau

    2009-01-01

    Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral response, but oral booster immunizations lack efficiency. The aim of the present study was to develop immunization schemes

  9. Maternal transfer of antibodies: raising immuno-ecology issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Boulinier; Vincent Staszewski

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring has broad potential implications in evolutionary ecology, from the adaptive value of maternal effects to the role of transgenerational plasticity in host-parasite inter- actions. Recent contributions have addressed key issues such as environmental and genetic factors affecting the amount of antibodies transferred and whether maternal antibodies affect offspring immunity, but little is

  10. Anticardiolipin antibodies in ischemic stroke in the young: Indian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Nagaraja; R Christopher; T Manjari

    1997-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) have been recognised as a marker for an increased risk of thrombosis. The prevalence of these antibodies in young Indian ischemic stroke population is not known. Our study establishes the prevalence of these antibodies and evaluates their clinical significance in 60 patients aged 40 years or less who presented with completed ischemic stroke. Immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin

  11. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Köhler; C. Milstein

    1975-01-01

    THE manufacture of predefined specific antibodies by means of permanent tissue culture cell lines is of general interest. There are at present a considerable number of permanent cultures of myeloma cells1,2 and screening procedures have been used to reveal antibody activity in some of them. This, however, is not a satisfactory source of monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity. We describe

  12. Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles: Monoclonal antibodies to inherent antigen(s)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Wang; I. Grundke-Iqbal; R. J. Kascsak; K. Iqbal; H. M. Wisniewski

    1984-01-01

    Using isolated Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles as the immunogen, nine mouse hybridomas were generated which produced antibodies to the tangles as tested in both tissue sections and isolated neurons from Alzheimer brain. Extraction of isolated neurofibrillary tangles with 2% SDS could not remove the antigen(s) with which these monoclonal antibodies reacted. Immunocytochemical study revealed that each of the monoclonal antibodies reacted

  13. Improving the efficacy of antibody-based cancer therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Carter

    2001-01-01

    A quarter of a century after their advent, monoclonal antibodies have become the most rapidly expanding class of pharmaceuticals for treating a wide variety of human diseases, including cancer. Although antibodies have yet to achieve the ultimate goal of curing cancer, many innovative approaches stand poised to improve the efficacy of antibody-based therapies.

  14. An assessment of histone-modification antibody quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea A Egelhofer; Aki Minoda; Sarit Klugman; Kyungjoon Lee; Paulina Kolasinska-Zwierz; Artyom A Alekseyenko; Ming-Sin Cheung; Daniel S Day; Sarah Gadel; Andrey A Gorchakov; Tingting Gu; Peter V Kharchenko; Samantha Kuan; Isabel Latorre; Daniela Linder-Basso; Ying Luu; Queminh Ngo; Marc Perry; Andreas Rechtsteiner; Nicole C Riddle; Yuri B Schwartz; Gregory A Shanower; Anne Vielle; Julie Ahringer; Sarah C R Elgin; Mitzi I Kuroda; Vincenzo Pirrotta; Bing Ren; Susan Strome; Peter J Park; Gary H Karpen; R David Hawkins; Jason D Lieb

    2010-01-01

    We have tested the specificity and utility of more than 200 antibodies raised against 57 different histone modifications in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. Although most antibodies performed well, more than 25% failed specificity tests by dot blot or western blot. Among specific antibodies, more than 20% failed in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We advise rigorous testing of histone-modification

  15. Specific Antibody Response to Oligomannosidic Epitopes in Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. SENDID; J. F. COLOMBEL; P. M. JACQUINOT; C. FAILLE; J. FRUIT; A. CORTOT; D. LUCIDARME; D. CAMUS

    1996-01-01

    Elevated antibody levels against the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiaehave been reported in sera from patients with Crohn's disease and not with ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to identify the nature of the epitopes supporting this antibody response. Whole cells from different S. cerevisiae strains were selected in immunofluorescence assay for their ability to differentiate the antibody responses of patients

  16. /sup 67/Ga-labeled antibodies for immunoscintigraphy and evaluation of tumor targeting of drug-antibody conjugates in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Kunimatsu, M.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Kawamura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Saga, T.; Konishi, J.; Yamamuro, T.

    1988-03-01

    To assess the in vivo behavior of cytotoxic agents linked to antibodies, deferoxamine, known to form stable chelates with /sup 67/Ga, was conjugated with monoclonal antibodies using three different methods. One method used a homocoupling reagent, glutaraldehyde, whereas two other methods used heterocoupling reagents, N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate and succinimidyl-6-maleimidohexanoate, linking deferoxamine to antibodies through alkylamine, disulfide, and thioether bonds, respectively. Antibodies were efficiently labeled with /sup 67/Ga through chelation with deferoxamine without losing antigen-binding capability. /sup 67/Ga-labeled antibodies clearly visualized transplanted tumors in nude mice. However, the biodistribution of radioactivity was markedly different with the coupling methods used for the conjugation of deferoxamine and antibodies. High nonspecific uptake in the liver and spleen was observed with /sup 67/Ga-labeled antibodies prepared by the glutaraldehyde method. /sup 67/Ga-labeled antibodies linked by thioether bonds demonstrated in vivo stability and the highest tumor:liver ratio, whereas /sup 67/Ga-labeled antibodies conjugated with disulfide bonds were rapidly cleared from the circulation. These results indicate that antibody conjugates linked by thioether bonds are a better choice for drug targeting and that /sup 67/Ga-labeled antitumor monoclonal antibodies are useful not only for the immunoscintigraphy but also for the quantitative assessment and visualization of the biodistribution of drug-antibody conjugates.

  17. Cloning, bacterial expression and crystallization of Fv antibody fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E´, Jean-Luc; Boulot, Ginette; Chitarra, V´ronique; Riottot, Marie-Madeleine; Souchon, H´le`ne; Houdusse, Anne; Bentley, Graham A.; Narayana Bhat, T.; Spinelli, Silvia; Poljak, Roberto J.

    1992-08-01

    The variable Fv fragments of antibodies, cloned in recombinant plasmids, can be expressed in bacteria as functional proteins having immunochemical properties which are very similar or identical with those of the corresponding parts of the parent eukaryotic antibodies. They offer new possibilities for the study of antibody-antigen interactions since the crystals of Fv fragments and of their complexes with antigen reported here diffract X-rays to a higher resolution that those obtained with the cognate Fab fragments. The Fv approach should facilitate the structural study of the combining site of antibodies and the further characterization of antigen-antibody interactions by site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

  18. Postentry Neutralization of Adenovirus Type 5 by an Antihexon Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Robin; Mikyas, Yeshi; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Ralston, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies against hexon, the major coat protein of adenovirus (Ad), are an important component of the neutralizing activity in serum from naturally infected humans and experimentally infected animals. The mechanisms by which antihexon antibodies neutralize the virus have not been defined. As a model system, murine monoclonal antibodies raised against Ad type 5 (Ad5) were screened for antihexon binding and neutralization activity; one monoclonal antibody, designated 9C12, was selected for further characterization. The minimum ratio of 9C12 to Ad5 required for neutralization was 240 antibody molecules per virus particle, or 1 antibody per hexon trimer. Analysis of antibody-virus complexes by dynamic light scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy (EM) showed that the virus particles were coated with electron-dense material but not aggregated at neutralizing ratios. Cryo-EM image reconstruction of the antibody-virus complex showed that the surface of the virus particle was covered by a meshwork of 9C12 antibody density, consistent with bivalent binding at multiple sites. Confocal analysis revealed that viral attachment, cell entry, and intracellular transport to the nuclear periphery still occur in the presence of neutralizing levels of 9C12. A model is presented for neutralization of Ad by an antihexon antibody in which the hexon capsid is cross-linked by antibodies, thus preventing virus uncoating and nuclear entry of viral DNA. PMID:15507619

  19. Studies on production of anticollagen antibodies in silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Tadasu; Tabata, Masaji; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Okada, Akira (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Silicosis is characterized by pulmonary fibrotic changes which consist primarily of an increase in collagen. In this study, anticollagen antibodies in the serum of 134 silicosis patients versus 40 normal subjects were examined and their relationship with immunoglobulin, autoantibodies, and procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean levels of antihuman type I collagen (HI) and anti-human type Ill collagen (HIII) antibodies were significantly higher in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects (P < 0.001). However, no differences were observed in the mean levels of anti-human type IV collagen (HIV) antibodies in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects. Anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients appear to be formed at an early stage of the disease. We observed a correlation between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulin. There was a tendency toward high values of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of patients positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF), both of which are autoantibodies. However, no correlation was observed between serum PIIIP and anticollagen antibodies. These observations suggest that, in silicosis, there is a relationship between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulins, as well as between anticollagen antibodies and autoantibodies. Measurement of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients offers a useful index for evaluating the prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis and autoimmune abnormality in silicosis. 49 refs. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Serum Antibody Repertoire Profiling Using In Silico Antigen Screen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyue; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Tallo, Luke J.; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Schettine, Cassandra A.; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Klyushnenkova, Elena N.; Ionov, Yurij

    2013-01-01

    Serum antibodies are valuable source of information on the health state of an organism. The profiles of serum antibody reactivity can be generated by using a high throughput sequencing of peptide-coding DNA from combinatorial random peptide phage display libraries selected for binding to serum antibodies. Here we demonstrate that the targets of immune response, which are recognized by serum antibodies directed against sequential epitopes, can be identified using the serum antibody repertoire profiles generated by high throughput sequencing. We developed an algorithm to filter the results of the protein database BLAST search for selected peptides to distinguish real antigens recognized by serum antibodies from irrelevant proteins retrieved randomly. When we used this algorithm to analyze serum antibodies from mice immunized with human protein, we were able to identify the protein used for immunizations among the top candidate antigens. When we analyzed human serum sample from the metastatic melanoma patient, the recombinant protein, corresponding to the top candidate from the list generated using the algorithm, was recognized by antibodies from metastatic melanoma serum on the western blot, thus confirming that the method can identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies. We demonstrated also that our unbiased method of looking at the repertoire of serum antibodies reveals quantitative information on the epitope composition of the targets of immune response. A method for deciphering information contained in the serum antibody repertoire profiles may help to identify autoantibodies that can be used for diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases or malignancies. PMID:23826227

  1. [Antibodies against Borrelia garinii in diagnosis of Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Flisiak, R; Prokopowicz, D

    2000-01-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia garinii (Bg) was analysed in sera of 42 patients with Lyme borreliosis confirmed through demonstration of antibodies against antigen 41 kDa of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss). IgM or IgG antibodies against Bg were found in sera of 88% patients. Agreement of the results between Bg and Bbss tests related to IgM antibodies reached 84% and to IgG antibodies 76%. Comparison of individual results revealed significant positive correlation of optical densities in respect to both IgM and IgG antibodies. These results indicate possible use of detection of anti-Borrelia garinii antibodies in diagnostics of Lyme borreliosis in Poland. PMID:10909283

  2. The anticentromere antibody: disease specificity and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Powell, F C; Winkelmann, R K; Venencie-Lemarchand, F; Spurbeck, J L; Schroeter, A L

    1984-10-01

    Serum samples from 539 subjects were screened for the presence of the anticentromere antibody on a human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cell line (Antibodies, Inc.). The antibody was present in 61 patients (11%), most of whom had features of limited scleroderma or the CREST syndrome (calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia), either independently or in association with primary biliary cirrhosis. The antibody was rarely found in patients with rapidly advancing or diffuse scleroderma. The anticentromere antibody is therefore a useful prognostic indicator in patients with early scleroderma, as it may help to predict what pattern of scleroderma will evolve. Screening for this antibody should be conducted in all patients with Raynaud's phenomenon, primary biliary cirrhosis, and scleroderma. Other previous studies have indicated a similar disease specificity and prognostic importance of this antibody. PMID:6384675

  3. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. PMID:25723164

  4. [Challenges of the modern antibody diagnostics in kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Dániel; Szentiványi, Dorottya

    2014-11-16

    Overcoming antibody mediated rejection is of increasing interest in the field of transplantation immunology. The recipient's antibodies against the graft human leukocyte antigens are responsible for antibody mediated graft injury. Introduction of the solid phase immunoassay technology radically changed the monitoring practice of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens, and this has consequences both for pretransplant and posttransplant phases, though our knowledge about the clinical interpretation of the detected antibodies is limited. This integrating review reports recommendations and algorithms regarding the management of kidney transplant patients. The detection of complement activation combined with the solid phase techniques is a promising new approach in antibody testing. The C4d and especially the more sensitive C1q methods have the potential to answer pivotal questions about the clinical relevance of antibodies. Answering the questions that the applied new methods raised and reviewing the recommendations are needed to remain up to date with this dynamically developing field. PMID:25381657

  5. IBC’s 23rd Antibody Engineering and 10th Antibody Therapeutics Conferences and the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, John; Begent, Richard H.J.; Chester, Kerry; Huston, James S.; Bradbury, Andrew; Scott, Jamie K.; Thorpe, Philip E.; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M.; Weiner, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 23rd and 10th years, respectively, the Antibody Engineering and Antibody Therapeutics conferences are the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society. The scientific program covers the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development from basic science through clinical development. In this preview of the conferences, the chairs provide their thoughts on sessions that will allow participants to track emerging trends in (1) the development of next-generation immunomodulatory antibodies; (2) the complexity of the environment in which antibodies must function; (3) antibody-targeted central nervous system (CNS) therapies that cross the blood brain barrier; (4) the extension of antibody half-life for improved efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD); and (5) the application of next generation DNA sequencing to accelerate antibody research. A pre-conference workshop on Sunday, December 2, 2012 will update participants on recent intellectual property (IP) law changes that affect antibody research, including biosimilar legislation, the America Invents Act and recent court cases. Keynote presentations will be given by Andreas Plückthun (University of Zürich), who will speak on engineering receptor ligands with powerful cellular responses; Gregory Friberg (Amgen Inc.), who will provide clinical updates of bispecific antibodies; James D. Marks (University of California, San Francisco), who will discuss a systems approach to generating tumor targeting antibodies; Dario Neri (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich), who will speak about delivering immune modulators at the sites of disease; William M. Pardridge (University of California, Los Angeles), who will discuss delivery across the blood-brain barrier; and Peter Senter (Seattle Genetics, Inc.), who will present his vision for the future of antibody-drug conjugates. For more information on these meetings or to register to attend, please visit www.IBCLifeSciences.com/AntibodyEng or call 800-390-4078. Members of The Antibody Society and mAbs journal subscribers receive a 20% discount for meeting registration. To obtain this discount, email kdostie@ibcusa.com. mAbs is the official therapeutics journal of The Antibody Society and offers a discounted subscription to Society members for $49. PMID:23007482

  6. Inhibition of in vitro tumor cell growth by RP215 monoclonal antibody and antibodies raised against its anti-idiotype antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Lee; Bixia Ge

    2010-01-01

    RP215 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was shown to recognize carbohydrate-associated epitope(s) in the heavy chains of cancer cell-expressed\\u000a immunoglobulins, designated in general as CA215 pan cancer marker. Growth inhibitions of tumor cells in vitro by RP215 Mab\\u000a and antibodies against its anti-idiotype (anti-id) antibodies were investigated. Polyclonal rabbit anti-id antibodies and\\u000a the corresponding rat anti-id Mabs were generated and characterized. Following

  7. IBC's 23rd Antibody Engineering and 10th Antibody Therapeutics Conferences and the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society: December 2-6, 2012, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, John; Begent, Richard H J; Chester, Kerry; Huston, James S; Bradbury, Andrew; Scott, Jamie K; Thorpe, Philip E; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M; Weiner, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 23rd and 10th years, respectively, the Antibody Engineering and Antibody Therapeutics conferences are the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society. The scientific program covers the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development from basic science through clinical development. In this preview of the conferences, the chairs provide their thoughts on sessions that will allow participants to track emerging trends in (1) the development of next-generation immunomodulatory antibodies; (2) the complexity of the environment in which antibodies must function; (3) antibody-targeted central nervous system (CNS) therapies that cross the blood brain barrier; (4) the extension of antibody half-life for improved efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD); and (5) the application of next generation DNA sequencing to accelerate antibody research. A pre-conference workshop on Sunday, December 2, 2012 will update participants on recent intellectual property (IP) law changes that affect antibody research, including biosimilar legislation, the America Invents Act and recent court cases. Keynote presentations will be given by Andreas Plückthun (University of Zürich), who will speak on engineering receptor ligands with powerful cellular responses; Gregory Friberg (Amgen Inc.), who will provide clinical updates of bispecific antibodies; James D. Marks (University of California, San Francisco), who will discuss a systems approach to generating tumor targeting antibodies; Dario Neri (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich), who will speak about delivering immune modulators at the sites of disease; William M. Pardridge (University of California, Los Angeles), who will discuss delivery across the blood-brain barrier; and Peter Senter (Seattle Genetics, Inc.), who will present his vision for the future of antibody-drug conjugates. For more information on these meetings or to register to attend, please visit www.IBCLifeSciences.com/AntibodyEng or call 800-390-4078. Members of The Antibody Society and mAbs journal subscribers receive a 20% discount for meeting registration. To obtain this discount, email kdostie@ibcusa.com. mAbs is the official therapeutics journal of The Antibody Society and offers a discounted subscription to Society members for $49. PMID:23007482

  8. Antibody enhancement of free-flow electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohly, H. H. P.; Morrison, Dennis R.; Atassi, M. Zouhair

    1988-01-01

    Specific T cell clones and antibodies (ABs) were developed to study the efficiency of purifying closely associated T cells using Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Enhanced separation is accomplished by tagging cells first with ABs directed against the antigenic determinants on the cell surface and then with ABs against the Fc portion of the first AB. This second AB protrudes sufficiently beyond the cell membrane and glycocalyx to become the major overall cell surface potential determinant and thus causes a reduction of electrophoretic mobility. This project was divided into three phases. Phase one included development of specific T cell clones and separation of these specific clones. Phase two extends these principles to the separation of T cells from spleen cells and immunized lymph node cells. Phase three applies this double antibody technique to the separation of T cytotoxic cells from bone marrow.

  9. Clinical pharmacology of bispecific antibody constructs.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Chetan; Meibohm, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    The confluence of rapid scientific advancements especially in protein engineering and recombinant technology, unmet medical needs, and commercial incentives have led to the development of the next generation of therapeutic proteins. Bispecific antibody constructs are one of the novel strategies that is being pursued, combining the ability to bind simultaneously to two distinct targets and the advantages of purpose-designed and optimized antibody-based scaffolds. Their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including their immunogenic potential, are closely related to their structural features and ability to interact with disposition mechanisms of immunoglobulin molecules. Catumaxomab and blinatumomab are bispecific constructs that are approved for clinical use and have provided clinical pharmacology data for this novel class of therapeutics. This knowledgebase on the clinical behavior of bispecific therapeutic proteins is poised to rapidly evolve over the next few years with many development programs having entered the clinical development stage. PMID:25707960

  10. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Antigen-antibody interactions: an NMR approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, P E; Dyson, H J; Lerner, R A; Riechmann, L; Tsang, P

    1990-07-01

    With recent advances in methodology, it now appears that NMR can be used at an unprecedented level of sophistication to obtain new insights into the solution structure and dynamics of the antibody combining site, both free and in its complex with antigen. Most promising in this regard is the Fv fragment (molecular weight approximately 25 kD) which can be produced by genetic engineering in a form suitable for NMR studies. Isotopic labeling is required to make specific resonance assignments. NMR can also provide information on the conformational preferences of immunogenic peptides and can be used to probe the conformation and dynamics of peptides (appropriately labeled with 13C or 15N) bound to the Fab fragment (molecular weight approximately 50 kD) of antipeptide antibodies. PMID:1695509

  12. Antibodies to idiotypes of isologous immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    To determine if the immunoglobulins (Igs) capable of eliciting the formation of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies are rare exceptions, BABL/c mice were immunized with five myeloma proteins of BALB/c origin. Anti-idiotypes were produced against all but one. The idiotype of the exception (T15) is remarkably abundant in BALB/c mice, whose unresponsiveness is probably due to tolerance. Nevertheless, prolonged immunization with T15 finally induced the formation of isologous antibodies that seemed largely to be specific for IgA proteins, especially those with k-light-chains; the reactions of a few of these isologous antisera with T15 were slightly inhibited by phosphorylcholine, suggesting that some anti-idiotypes were probably formed even to this unusually prevalent idiotype. It is likelythat under appropriate conditions almost any myeloma protein can elicit isologous anti-idiotypes. PMID:805211

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Growth Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Joachim; Arnscheidt, Angelika; Klix, Dieter; Weiler, Elmar W.

    1986-01-01

    Four high affinity monoclonal antibodies, which recognize two plant growth regulators from the cytokinin group, namely trans-zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside and their derivatives are reported. Six hybridomas were produced from three independent fusions of Balb/c spleen cells with P3-NS1-Ag 4-1 (abbreviated NS1) or X63-Ag 8.653 (X63) myeloma cells. The mice had been hyperimmunized with zeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate or dihydrozeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate for 3 months. The hybridomas secrete antibodies of the IgG 1 or IgG 2b subclass and allow the detection of femtomole amounts of the free cytokinins, their ribosides, and ribotides in plant extracts. The use of these monoclonals in radio- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is also discussed. PMID:16664848

  14. Vaccination Strategies to Promote Mucosal Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    There are great interest and demand for the development of vaccines to prevent and treat diverse microbial infections. Mucosal vaccines elicit immune protection by stimulating the production of antibodies at mucosal surfaces and systemic districts. Being positioned in close proximity to a large community of commensal microbes, the mucosal immune system deploys a heterogeneous population of cells and a complex regulatory network to maintain the balance between surveillance and tolerance. A successful mucosal vaccine relies on leveraging the functions of these immune cells and regulatory components. This article reviews the important cellular interactions and molecular pathways underlying the induction and regulation of mucosal antibody responses and discusses their implications on mucosal vaccination. PMID:21029959

  15. Antibody-mediated cofactor-driven reactions

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions capable of being rate-enhanced by auxiliary species which interact with the reactants but do not become chemically bound to them in the formation of the final product are performed in the presence of antibodies which promote the reactions. The antibodies contain regions within their antigen binding sites which recognize the auxiliary species in a conformation which promotes the reaction. The antigen binding site frequently recognizes a particular transition state complex or other high energy complex along the reaction coordinate, thereby promoting the progress of the reaction along the desired route as opposed to other less favorable routes. Various classes of reaction together with appropriate antigen binding site specificities tailored for each are disclosed.

  16. Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

    1981-03-01

    A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

  17. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  18. Identification of Streptococcus sobrinus with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Soet, J J; van Dalen, P J; Appelmelk, B J; de Graaff, J

    1987-12-01

    Identification of Streptococcus sobrinus is often difficult to perform because of the great resemblance of the organism to other oral streptococcal species. Therefore, monoclonal antibodies were prepared which were shown to be highly specific for S. sobrinus. Cross-reactivity with other oral microorganisms has not been observed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunofluorescence assay. These monoclonal antibodies belonged to the subclass immunoglobulin G2b. To be certain that the strains used in cross-reactivity tests were S. sobrinus, their DNA base composition was measured as a golden standard. Additional tests like colony morphology and sugar fermentation with the API 20 Strep system (Analytab Products, Montalieu-Vercieu, France) were performed. These additional tests turned out to be necessary because 100% correct identification could not be obtained by separate tests. Immunological characterization with the clones OMVU10 and OMVU11 proved to be discriminative between S. sobrinus and other streptococcal species. PMID:3323224

  19. Insulin antibody determination: Theoretical and practical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Reeves

    1983-01-01

    Conclusion  The immunogenicity of insulin preparations is of both academic and clinical interest. The links between insulin antibodies and insulin allergy, some forms of insulin resistance and injection site lipoatrophy are well-established, but other more subtle metabolic effects require further examination. Contamination with impurities (e.g. proinsulin) has been a major factor in the immunogenicity of conventional bovine insulin preparations but the

  20. Monoclonal antibody targets, kills leukemia cells

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center have identified a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets and directly kills chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The findings, published in the online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on March 25, 2013 represent a potential new therapy for treating at least some patients with CLL, the most common type of blood cancer in the United States.

  1. The biotechnology and applications of antibody engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Rapley

    1995-01-01

    The exquisite specificity of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has long provided the potential for creating new reagents for the\\u000a in vivo delivery of therapeutic drugs or toxins to defined cellular target sites or improved methods of diagnosis. However,\\u000a many difficulties associated with their production, affinity, specificity, and use in vivo have largely confined their application\\u000a to research or in vitro diagnostics.

  2. Improved Antibodies Against ERBB4/HER4

    Cancer.gov

    The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Section on Molecular Neurobiology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further evaluate or commercialize specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies generated against the ErbB4 receptor (also known as HER4) that have been validated for specificity using tissue sections and extracts from ErbB4 knockout mice.

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dingoes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Phillips, P; Jenkins, D

    1990-07-01

    Serum samples from 62 dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) trapped in five areas of southeastern New South Wales, Australia were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Six (10%) of the dingoes had direct agglutination test titers for T. gondii of greater than or equal to 1:64, and four of these animals had T. gondii-specific IgM, suggesting recent exposure. PMID:2388361

  4. Sensitive neutralization test for virus antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sato; P. Albrecht; J. T. Hicks; B. C. Meyer; F. A. Ennis

    1978-01-01

    Summary A sensitive mumps virus plaque neutralization test has been developed based on the potentiation of virus-antibody complexes by heterologous anti-immunoglobulins (AIG). The enhanced neutralization test was approximately 100 times more sensitive than the conventional neutralization test or the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Using AIG against human immunoglobulin G (IgG) or human IgM permitted determination of the relative titers of the two

  5. JC Virus Antibody Status Underestimates Infection Rates

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joseph R.; Houff, Sidney A.; Gurwell, Julie; Vega, Nubia; Miller, Craig S.; Danaher, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background JC virus (JCV) seropositivity is a risk factor for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients on natalizumab. Accordingly, the JCV serological antibody test is of paramount importance in determining disease risk. Methods We tested the accuracy of the JCV serum antibody test by comparing the results of JCV serology to JC viruria and viremia in 67 patients enrolled in a single-center, retrospective cohort study. Bodily fluids (urine and blood) were assessed for JCV DNA by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction 6 to 47 months earlier (mean 26.1 months) before JCV antibody testing. In 10 individuals, blood and urine samples were obtained on two separate occasions at 6 month intervals. Results Forty (59.7%) of the 67 patients were JCV seropositive. Of 27 JCV seronegative patients, 10 (37%) had JC viruria. Urine JCV DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the seropositive group (mean log copy number: 5.93; range 1.85 – 9.21) than the seronegative group (mean log copy number: 2.41; range 1.85 – 5.43) (p=0.0026). Considering all body fluid test results, 50 (74.6%) of the 67 patients were previously infected with JCV. Conclusions The false negative rate of the JCV serology in this study was 37%; therefore, JCV serostatus does not appear to identify all patients infected with JCV. Thus, a negative JCV antibody result should not be conflated with absence of JCV infection. This discordance may be important in understanding JCV biology, risk for PML and PML pathogenesis. PMID:23526716

  6. Historical Development of Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nissim; Y. Chernajovsky

    Since the first publication by Kohler and Milstein on the production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by hybridoma technology,\\u000a mAbs have had a profound impact on medicine by providing an almost limitless source of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.\\u000a Therapeutic use of mAbs has become a major part of treatments in various diseases including transplantation, oncology, autoimmune,\\u000a cardiovascular, and infectious diseases.

  7. Antibody-Catalyzed Degradation of Cocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Donald W.; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ginger X.-Q.; Glickman, Michael; Georgiadis, Taxiarchis M.

    1993-03-01

    Immunization with a phosphonate monoester transition-state analog of cocaine provided monoclonal antibodies capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of the cocaine benzoyl ester group. An assay for the degradation of radiolabeled cocaine identified active enzymes. Benzoyl esterolysis yields ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid, fragments devoid of cocaine's stimulant activity. Passive immunization with such an artificial enzyme could provide a treatment for dependence by blunting reinforcement.

  8. Mapping nucleolar proteins with monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOERG KISTLER; YVONNE DUNCOMBE; ULRICH K. LAEMMLI

    1984-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies as probes, we have characterized three antigens with respect to localization in the nucleolus, molecular weight and solubility. Two proteins, of 110,000 and 94,000 apparent molecular weight, were found associated with the ribonucleo- protein fibers. A third protein, with a molecular weight of 40,000, was accumulated at the nucleolar periphery, was present in the nucleoplasm, and may

  9. Complement in Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura M.; Veeramani, Suresh; Weiner, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been used as targeted treatments against cancer for more than a decade, with mixed results. Research is needed to understand mAb mechanisms of action with the goal of improving the efficacy of currently used mAbs, and guiding the design of novel mAbs. While some mAb-induced tumor cell killing is a result of direct effects on tumor cell signaling, mAb opsonization of tumor cells also triggers activation of immune responses due to complement activation and engagement of antibody receptors on immune effector cells. In fact, complement has been shown to play an important role in modulating the anti-tumor activity of many mAb through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), and through indirect effects by modulating the tumor microenvironment. Complement activity can have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on these processes, and which mechanisms are most responsible for effective elimination of malignant cells remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the mAbs currently approved for cancer treatment, and examine how complement can impact their efficacy with a focus on how this information might be used to improve the clinical efficacy of mAb treatment. PMID:24906530

  10. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization. PMID:24725950

  11. Pseudomonas infection in antibody deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingham, Sai S.; Hanson, Steven; Buckland, Matthew; Grigoriadou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is commonly isolated from the respiratory secretions of antibody deficiency patients, but the significance of this has not been well studied. We have reviewed our adult antibody deficiency cohort of 179 patients and assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PA infection and the effects of early antibiotic eradication treatments. Of the 34 patients with PA, 55.9% (19) underwent successful eradication and were infection-free, 38.2% (13) had intermittent infection, and 5.9% (2) had chronic PA. PA infection was significantly associated with bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), with 36.1% (22 out of 61) of patients with bronchiectasis developing a PA infection. Infection status was also significantly associated with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.0001). Most treated PA exacerbations were symptomatic and with colony counts of ?1000 cfu/ml. Current eradication protocols used at our center involve early treatment at first positive isolate with ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks and nebulized colomycin for 3 months, and if eradication fails, intravenous ceftazidime and gentamycin or colomycin is administered for 2 weeks. Continued sputum surveillance and early eradication treatments upon positive PA culture may help to limit chronic PA infection in antibody deficiency patients. PMID:25544892

  12. Evaluation of Surface Chemistries for Antibody Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; White, Amanda M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2007-12-01

    Antibody microarrays are an emerging technology that promises to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The current technology for protein microarrays has been primarily derived from DNA microarrays and is not fully characterized for use with proteins. For example, there are a myriad of surface chemistries that are commercially available for antibody microarrays, but no rigorous studies that compare these different surfaces. Therefore, we have used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray platform to analyze 16 different commercially available slide types. Full standard curves were generated for 24 different assays. We found that this approach provides a rigorous and quantitative system for comparing the different slide types based on spot size and morphology, slide noise, spot background, lower limit of detection, and reproducibility. These studies demonstrate that the properties of the slide surface affect the activity of immobilized antibodies and the quality of data produced. Although many slide types can produce useful data, glass slides coated with poly-L-lysine or aminosilane, with or without activation with a crosslinker, consistently produce superior results in the ELISA microarray analyses we performed.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies against Xenopus greatwall kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A; Wahl, James K; Peng, Aimin

    2011-10-01

    Mitosis is known to be regulated by protein kinases, including MPF, Plk1, Aurora kinases, and so on, which become active in M-phase and phosphorylate a wide range of substrates to control multiple aspects of mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Mechanistic investigations of these kinases not only provide key insights into cell cycle regulation, but also hold great promise for cancer therapy. Recent studies, largely in Xenopus, characterized a new mitotic kinase named Greatwall (Gwl) that plays essential roles in both mitotic entry and maintenance. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Xenopus Gwl and characterized these antibodies for their utility in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunodepletion in Xenopus egg extracts. Importantly, we generated an MAb that is capable of neutralizing endogenous Gwl. The addition of this antibody into M-phase extracts results in loss of mitotic phosphorylation of Gwl, Plk1, and Cdk1 substrates. These results illustrate a new tool to study loss-of-function of Gwl, and support its essential role in mitosis. Finally, we demonstrated the usefulness of the MAb against human Gwl/MASTL. PMID:22008075

  14. Complement in monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Laura M; Veeramani, Suresh; Weiner, George J

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been used as targeted treatments against cancer for more than a decade, with mixed results. Research is needed to understand mAb mechanisms of action with the goal of improving the efficacy of currently used mAbs and guiding the design of novel mAbs. While some mAb-induced tumor cell killing is a result of direct effects on tumor cell signaling, mAb opsonization of tumor cells also triggers activation of immune responses due to complement activation and engagement of antibody receptors on immune effector cells. In fact, complement has been shown to play an important role in modulating the anti-tumor activity of many mAb through complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and through indirect effects by modulating the tumor microenvironment. Complement activity can have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on these processes. How the balance of such effects impacts on the clinical efficacy of mAb therapy remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the mAbs currently approved for cancer treatment and examine how complement can impact their efficacy with a focus on how this information might be used to improve the clinical efficacy of mAb treatment. PMID:24906530

  15. Modulation of antibody pharmacokinetics by chemical polysialylation.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Antony; Epenetos, Agamemnon A; Hreczuk-Hirst, Dale; Jain, Sanjay; Deonarain, Mahendra P

    2008-03-01

    Chemical coupling of a variety of polymers to therapeutic proteins has been studied as a way of improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo. Conjugates have been shown to possess greater stability, lower immunogenicity, and a longer blood circulation time due to the chemicophysical properties of these hydrophilic long chain molecules. Naturally occurring colominic acid (polysialic acid, PSA) has been investigated as an alternative to synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) due to its lower toxicity and natural metabolism. Antibodies and their fragments are a good example of the types of proteins which benefit from pharmacokinetic engineering. Here, we chemically attached differing amounts and differing lengths of short (11 kDa) and longer (22 kDa) chain colominic acid molecules to the antitumor monoclonal antibody H17E2 Fab fragment. Different coupling ratios and lengths were seen to alter the electrophoretic mobility of the Fab fragment but have a minor effect on the antibody immunoreactivity toward the placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) antigen. Polysialylation generally increased Fab fragment blood half-life resulting in higher tumor uptake in a KB human tumor xenograft mouse model. One H17E2 Fab-PSA conjugate had over a 5-fold increase in blood exposure and over a 3-fold higher tumor uptake with only a marginal decrease in tumor/blood selectivity ratio compared to the unconjugated Fab. This conjugate also had a blood bioavailability approaching that of a whole immunoglobulin. PMID:18307285

  16. Production, isolation, and characterization of rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against human antithyrotrophin receptor antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J R; Lukes, Y G; Burman, K D

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that anti-idiotypic antibodies can be developed in vivo through animal immunization with idiotype, and that these antibodies can be isolated from other anti-immunoglobulin antibodies by affinity purification. These techniques have relied on large amounts of idiotype, which were produced either by hyperimmunization or by monoclonal antibodies, to serve as the affinity adsorbent. In the present study, we produced anti-idiotypic antibodies to human anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies by first injecting rabbits with (TSH receptor purified) IgG from Graves' patients. The resulting antiserum was then adsorbed with Sepharose-coupled TSH in an attempt to specifically bind and isolate the anti-idiotype. The antibody obtained from this process was shown to bind specifically to TSH receptor-binding antibodies from Graves' patients, and this binding could be inhibited by 56% with the addition of 10(-4) M TSH but not by HCG (10(-2) M). The anti-idiotype also bound to TSH, and this binding could be specifically inhibited by receptor-purified Graves' IgG (60% inhibition at 10 micrograms/ml IgG), but not by IgG from normal subjects (no inhibition at 50 micrograms/ml IgG). In a TSH receptor binding assay, the anti-idiotype could inhibit TSH receptor binding in Graves' sera at a 1,000-fold lower concentration than could anti-kappa/lambda antiserum; the anti-idiotypic antiserum also inhibited in vitro TSH-mediated adenylate cyclase stimulation at an IgG concentration of 5 micrograms/ml, while heterologous anti-TSH antisera and normal IgG at similar concentrations had no effect. Finally, despite being generated against a single patient's TSH receptor binding antibody, the anti-idiotype was able to block TSH receptor binding in the serum of six other Graves' patients, thus suggesting that there may be conformational conservation in the antigen that is recognized by different individuals' TSH receptor-binding immunoglobulins. PMID:6086714

  17. Peptide antibodies and their use in detecting oncogene products

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.L.; Arnheim, N.; McCormick, F.P.; Wong, G.L.; Clark, R.; Arnheim, N.; Nitecki, D.E.

    1989-01-17

    A polyclonal antibody preparation is described. It binds selectively to a characteristic marker epitope encompassing amino acid position 12 of an activated form of p21 protein, wherein the polyclonal antibody preparation is specific for a particular polyclonal antibody amino acid at position 12 and does not bind the p21 protein encoded by the corresponding proto-oncogene. A method for detecting an activated form of p21 protein is also described. It is encoded by an oncogene in a cellular sample of a patient which protein has a characteristic marker epitope encompassing amino acid position 12 which is not present in the p21 protein encoded by the corresponding proto-oncogene and which is not exposed in the undenatured protein. The method comprises: (a) treating the sample with a protein denaturing agent that causes the epitope to be exposed and does not substantially inhibit binding of an antibody to the epitope of the protein, (b) incubating the sample with the antibody under conditions that permit the binding of the antibody preparation to the epitope, (c) incubating the sample with a labeled antibody which binds specifically to the antibody employed in step (b), (d) washing the incubated sample to remove unbound labeled antibody, and (e) detecting the presence of labelled immune complexes of the epitope with the antibodies employed in steps (b) and (c).

  18. Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

  19. Altered antibody profiles against common infectious agents in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Morse, Caryn G; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Ali, Mir A; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K; Holland, Steven M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Iadarola, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

  20. Use of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies as Cell-Surface Receptor Probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Sege; Per A. Peterson

    1978-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies have been raised against antibodies to retinol-binding protein (RBP) and to insulin. After absorption the anti-idiotypic antibodies recognized the antigen-combining sites of the antibodies used as the immunogen but of no other antibodies. Some of the anti-idiotypic antibodies raised against antibodies to RBP bound specifically to rat intestine epithelial cells, which have a physiological cell-surface receptor for RBP.

  1. IBC's 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, December 5–8, 2011, San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Dunlop, D Cameron; Sircar, Aroop; Wurch, Thierry; Falkowska, Emilia; Helguera, Gustavo; Piccione, Emily C; Brack, Simon; Berger, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 5–8, 2011 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew ?800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a preview to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 4, 2011 focused on antibodies as probes of structure. The Antibody Engineering Conference comprised eight sessions: (1) structure and dynamics of antibodies and their membrane receptor targets; (2) model-guided generation of binding sites; (3) novel selection strategies; (4) antibodies in a complex environment: targeting intracellular and misfolded proteins; (5) rational vaccine design; (6) viral retargeting with engineered binding molecules; (7) the biology behind potential blockbuster antibodies and (8) antibodies as signaling modifiers: where did we go right, and can we learn from success? The Antibody Therapeutics Conference comprised five sessions: (1) Twenty-five years of therapeutic antibodies: lessons learned and future challenges; (2) preclinical and early stage development of antibody therapeutics; (3) next generation anti-angiogenics; (4) updates of clinical stage antibody therapeutics and (5) antibody drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies. PMID:22453091

  2. Effect of antithyroid antibodies on ICSI outcome in antiphospholipid antibody-negative euthyroid women.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Meric; Alwaeely, Faiz; Cebi, Ziya; Berberoglugil, Munip; Batukan, Melike; Ulug, Murat; Arvas, Ayse; Caml?bel, Teksen

    2013-10-01

    Antithyroid antibodies (ATA) are found in 5-15% of women at reproductive age and are not necessarily accompanied with thyroid dysfunction. ATA are associated with adverse effects such as spontaneous miscarriage, recurrent miscarriages, preterm delivery and maternal post-partum thyroiditis in women with normal thyroid hormone concentrations. The role of ATA on the outcome of IVF cycles remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the impact of ATA on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycles in euthyroid women. A total of 253 women undergoing ICSI-embryo transfer cycles were prospectively enrolled in this study. Women positive for at least one of the thyroid antibodies, with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 concentrations and negative for anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were included. ICSI was performed for fertilization in all cycles. Of 253 women, 219 were ATA negative and 34 ATA positive. Implantation rates (19.1% versus 18.4%), miscarriage rates (9.0% versus 8.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rates (37.0% versus 32.4%) did not differ significantly between the ATA-positive group and the ATA-negative group, respectively. The presence of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid and antiphospholipid antibody-negative women was not found to significantly affect the outcome of ICSI-embryo transfer cycles. Antithyroid antibodies (ATA) can interact with thyroid hormone receptors located on the human oocyte and impair the chance of fertilization and healthy pregnancy. They are found in 5-15% of women at reproductive age and are not necessarily accompanied with thyroid dysfunction. ATA have been reported to be associated with adverse effects such as spontaneous miscarriage, recurrent miscarriages, preterm delivery and maternal post-partum thyroiditis in women with normal thyroid hormone concentrations. The role of ATA on the outcome of IVF cycles remains to be investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of ATA on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycles in euthyroid women. A total of 253 women undergoing ICSI-embryo transfer cycles were prospectively enrolled in this study. Women with at least one of the thyroid antibodies positive and normal TSH and free T4 concentrations were included in the study. Since other immunological disorders might affect the results, antiphospholipid antibodies (APA), which are the markers of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, were also screened in all women prior to study. Women with positive for APA were excluded in the final analysis. Of 253 women, 219 (86.6%) were ATA negative and 34 (13.4%) ATA positive. Implantation rates (19.1% versus 18.4%), biochemical pregnancy rates (9.2% versus 14.3%), miscarriage rates (9.0% versus 8.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rates (37.0% versus 32.4%) did not differ significantly between the ATA-positive group and the ATA-negative group, respectively. In conclusion, presence of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid and antiphospholipid antibody-negative women does not affect the outcome of ICSI-embryo transfer cycles. PMID:23953066

  3. Antibody penetration of viable human cells. II. Anti-RNP antibodies binding to RNP antigen expressed on cell surface, which may mediate the antibody internalization.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; King, N; Chen, S L; Penny, R; Breit, S N

    1993-09-01

    As U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP2) has a crucial role in pre-mRNP splicing, the interaction of anti-RNP antibody with snRNP within viable lymphocytes may profoundly influence cell functions. We have shown that antibody can penetrate viable human lymphocytes, and anti-RNP antibodies enter more cells than other anti-nuclear antibodies or control IgG. In order to study the in vitro interaction of anti-RNP antibodies with viable cells, T lymphocytes were metabolically labelled with 35S-methionine, then incubated with the antibodies and washed. A set of 35S-labelled cell-associated snRNP polypeptides A, B'/B, C and D were found to bind to both monospecific human polyclonal anti-RNP IgG (human anti-RNP IgG) and a mouse monoclonal anti-RNP antibody (2.73), indicating that anti-RNP antibodies interacted with RNP antigen inside or/and on the surface of viable cells. To investigate antibody binding to RNP antigen on the cell surface, the cell surface proteins were either iodinated with 125I or the cells processed for immunoelectron microscopic studies after incubation with MoAb. At least seven 125I-labelled polypeptides on the cell surface were found to be immunoprecipitated by the anti-RNP MoAb which have similar molecular weights to U snRNP polypeptides 70K, A, B, D, E, F, and G. The immunoelectron microscopic studies showed that the gold particles formed clustered patches on the cell membrane. Further studies suggested that RNP antigen bound to the cell surface, and the RNP binding structure was probably a heterodimer receptor. This study provides evidence to suggest that anti-RNP antibody entry into viable cells may be mediated by interaction with RNP antigen expressed on the cell surface. PMID:8370166

  4. Antibodies to Escherichia coli in chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Simjee, A E; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Thomas, H C; Brumfitt, W; Sherlock, S

    1975-01-01

    Patients with chronic active hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis have serum antibodies to many more serotypes of Escherichia coli than do patients with primary biliary cirrhosis or cryptogenic cirrhosis, or normal controls. They also have antibodies against more serotypes than cirrhotic patients with a portacaval shunt. These observations suggest that factors other than shunting of blood away from the liver are responsible for the increased range of antibodies. These factors are discussed. There was no correlation between the number of serotypes to which antibodies were present and the serum immunoglobulin concentration. In three patients, each with chronic active hepatitis, the antibodies were predominantly of the IgM class, while the elevation of globulin in general was mainly due to increased IgG and IgA levels. Antibodies to Escherichia coli, therefore, probably contribute only a small part of the increased globulin levels found in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:1104410

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Aquaporin-4 Antibody Levels in Neuromyelitis Optica Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Callegaro, Dagoberto; de Haidar Jorge, Frederico M; Nakashima, Ichiro; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Simm, Renata Faria; Apostolos-Pereira, Samira Luisa; Misu, Tatsuro; Steinman, Lawrence; Aoki, Masashi; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate immunopathogenetic roles of aquaporin-4 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), we analyzed aquaporin-4 antibody titers, cellular and inflammatory markers in the CSF collected from 11 aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive patients. The CSF aquaporin-4 antibody levels during attacks (but not in sera) closely correlated with pleocytosis, inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 that can regulate antibody-producing plasmablasts, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the CSF. The amount of aquaporin-4 antibodies present in the central nervous system may have therapeutic implications, as it is associated with astrocyte injury and inflammatory responses during NMOSD attacks. Ann Neurol 2014;76:305–309 PMID:24977390

  6. Antigen-Antibody Testing: A Visual Simulation or Virtual Reality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-17

    In this biology activity, learners use plastic pipettes to cut wells into the solid gel layer of agar in petri dishes and place solutions of simulated antigen and antibody preparations into the wells. The antigens and antibodies diffuse into the gel layer and react to form a precipitate. This activity demonstrates the biological phenomenon of the formation of a precipitate when an antigen reacts with an antibody. The exercise can be used to illustrate the specificity of antigen-antibody reactions, showing that a precipitation reaction only occurs when an antibody reacts with the antigen that was used to induce the formation of the antibody. The exercise is also a general demonstration of diffusion. Adult supervision is recommended.

  7. Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. PMID:19325726

  8. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim, E-mail: DennerJ@rki.d

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  9. Therapeutic antibodies and other proteins obtained by molecular display technologies.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Since the approval of antibodies as therapeutic agents more than 20 years ago, a large about of research conducted by pharmaceutical companies and other institutes has been focused on the development of therapeutic antibodies. Antibody-based drugs have higher specificity and are more effective than chemical reagents in depletion of target cells, particularly diseased cells such as tumor cells, viral-infected cells, and other pathogenic cells. However, as compared to synthetic agents, they are generally more expensive and accelerating expansion of budgets on medicine. Hitherto, genetic engineering techniques, especially molecular display technology, have played an important role in the development of various active therapeutic antibodies. To reduce the expenditure associated with the production of these antibodies, the selection of candidate molecules- an upstream process must be optimized for efficiency. This review article summarizes recent representative patents related to therapeutic antibodies and molecular display techniques that have been used for their production. PMID:19149719

  10. Rational design of CXCR4 specific antibodies with elongated CDRs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Hull, Mitchell; Schultz, Peter G; Wang, Feng

    2014-07-30

    The bovine antibody (BLV1H12) which has an ultralong heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) provides a novel scaffold for antibody engineering. By substituting the extended CDRH3 of BLV1H12 with modified CXCR4 binding peptides that adopt a ?-hairpin conformation, we generated antibodies specifically targeting the ligand binding pocket of CXCR4 receptor. These engineered antibodies selectively bind to CXCR4 expressing cells with binding affinities in the low nanomolar range. In addition, they inhibit SDF-1-dependent signal transduction and cell migration in a transwell assay. Finally, we also demonstrate that a similar strategy can be applied to other CDRs and show that a CDRH2-peptide fusion binds CXCR4 with a K(d) of 0.9 nM. This work illustrates the versatility of scaffold-based antibody engineering and could greatly expand the antibody functional repertoire in the future. PMID:25041362

  11. Anti-HLA antibodies in pemphigoid gestationis (herpes gestationis).

    PubMed

    Shornick, J K; Jenkins, R E; Briggs, D C; Welsh, K I; Kelly, S E; Garvey, M P; Black, M M

    1993-09-01

    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG; herpes gestationis) is a rare autoimmune disease associated with pregnancy, currently defined by the presence of complement deposition along the cutaneous basement membrane zone. It is known to be associated with HLA-DR3 and DR4, and an increase in anti-HLA antibodies in those with a history of PG has been reported. We have studied 39 patients with an immunofluorescence-confirmed diagnosis of PG for the presence and specificity of anti-HLA antibodies. Anti-HLA antibodies were found in all 39 patients. Specificity was against class I antigens in 98% (controls 10%; P < 0.001) and class II antigens in 25% (controls 8.5%; P < 0.001). Almost all anti-HLA antibodies were cytotoxic. The universal presence of anti-HLA antibodies in PG suggests that they may develop coincidently with antibasement membrane antibodies, and may reflect a common immunological event. PMID:8286221

  12. Antibody-maytansinoid conjugates for the treatment of myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Kathleen R

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma, new agents are still needed to improve the outcome for patients. The established success of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of some cancers has promoted interest in developing antibody-based therapies for multiple myeloma. Efforts have included the development of antibodies conjugated to potent cytotoxic moieties that combine the specificity of anti-myeloma-targeting antibodies with highly active anti-tumor compounds. Two such immunoconjugates currently in clinical development are composed of antibodies that target cell surface proteins found on multiple myeloma cells, and are coupled to cytotoxic maytansinoids. IMGN901 targets the neural cell adhesion molecule, CD56, which is expressed on the majority of myeloma cells, as well as on other cancers, while BT062 targets CD138, a primary diagnostic marker for multiple myeloma. In this review, we discuss the preclinical and early clinical data for these two promising new antibody-based anti-myeloma agents. PMID:20068397

  13. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    van Berkel, Patrick H C; van Veen, Harrie A; Geerts, Marlieke E J; Nuijens, Jan H

    2002-09-15

    The iron-binding glycoprotein human lactoferrin (hLF) is involved in the host defense against infection and is a modulator of inflammatory reactions. We generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to hLF as tools to assist both structure-function studies and the development of recombinant human lactoferrin for applications in human health care. Binding experiments with ten distinct anti-hLF mAbs to tryptic and recombinant hLF fragments in ELISA and/or on immunoblots revealed that five mAbs bound to conformational epitopes residing in the N-lobe (residues 1 to 334), whereas the other five bound to C-lobe conformational epitopes (residues 335 to 692). None of the mAbs bound to hLF denatured upon reduction. Monoclonal antibody E11 appeared to bind to the arginine-rich N-terminus of hLF, which is the binding site for heparin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, human lysozyme, DNA and receptors. The dissociation constant of the distinct mAbs for hLF ranged from 0.5 to 18 nM, without differences in affinity for unsaturated or iron-saturated hLF, indicating that the conformational changes subject to incorporation of iron do not seem to affect the exposure and/or conformation of the antibody epitopes. The mAbs did not bind to human transferrin, a protein closely related to hLF in size, primary amino acid sequence and structure. Two C-lobe specific mAbs, E2 and E8, cross-reacted with bovine and/or porcine lactoferrin, indicating that human, bovine and porcine lactoferrin share antigenic determinants. This panel of mAbs will be used to develop quantitative and qualitative immunoassays for hLF and to delineate which regions of hLF are relevant to its anti-infective and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:12165435

  14. Prevalence of antipituitary antibodies in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Caturegli, Patrizio; Salvatori, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder due to an excessive production of growth hormone (GH), typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) are often seen in patients with different kinds of pituitary pathologies. Because GH has been proposed as a possible antigen recognized by such antibodies, the prevalence of APAs may be higher in conditions characterized by excessive GH secretion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of APAs in patients with acromegaly and in controls with other types of pituitary tumors and healthy subjects. Secondary aim was to characterize the pituitary cells targeted by the APAs. Thirty eight acromegaly patients and 215 controls, including 38 patients with prolactinomas, 64 with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), and 113 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were tested for APAs using indirect immunofluorescence. Target cells recognized by APAs were identified by double staining immunofluorescence. APAs were significantly more prevalent in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (10.5% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). This prevalence was similar to that found in patients with prolactinomas (7.9%) and NFPA (12.5%). Among APAs-positive subjects, antibodies recognizing somatotrope cells were more common in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (3/4 vs. 0/113, P < 0.0001), but had similar frequencies in NFPA (2/8) and prolactinomas (1/3). APAs are more frequently found in patients with pituitary adenomas than healthy subjects, with no significant difference among the tumor types studied. GH-secreting cells could represent a target of the autoimmune response. PMID:22002711

  15. Leukocyte analysis using monoclonal antibodies in human glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H Hooke; David C Gee; Robert C Atkins

    1987-01-01

    Leukocyte analysis using monoclonal antibodies in human glomerulonephritis. The leukocyte subpopulations were analyzed within both the glomeruli and the interstitium in renal biopsies from 145 patients with various forms of glomerulonephritis. Cells were identified by monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte cell–surface antigens and immunoper-oxidase labelling. Leukocytes, as defined by a monoclonal antibody to the leukocyte common antigen (PHM1), were present in

  16. Screening Panels of Monoclonal Antibodies Using Phage-Displayed Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Lijnen; I. Lasters; M. Verstreken; D. Collen; L. Jespers

    1997-01-01

    A procedure is described to screen panels of hybridomas or purified monoclonal antibodies using antigen displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. In this system, samples containing murine monoclonal antibodies are incubated with phage-displayed antigen in microtiter plates coated with rabbit anti-mouse IgG, and bound antibody–phage complex is detected with horseradish peroxidase–sheep anti-phage M13 conjugate. The assay has been validated

  17. Preparation of a monoclonal antibody against human monocyte lineage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seishin Maruyama; Tsutomu Naito; Haruhiko Kakita; Susumu Kishimoto; Yuichi Yamamura; Tadamitsu Kishimoto

    1983-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody termed M206 directed to a human monocyte lineage are described. The antibody was produced by somatic cell hybridization between BALB\\/c spleen cells primed with human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 and murine myeloma cell line P3U1. The antibody reacted intensely with human peripheral blood monocytes as well as U937 but did not react

  18. Antibodies to cell surface proteins redirect intracellular trafficking pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. St. Pierre; Deborah Leonard; Silvia Corvera; Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones; Robert W. Finberg

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-mediated intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents has been considered for treatment of a variety of diseases. These approaches involve targeting cell-surface receptor proteins expressed by tumors or viral proteins expressed on infected cells. We examined the intracellular trafficking of a viral cell-surface-expressed protein, rabies G, with or without binding a specific antibody, ARG1. We found that antibody binding shifts the

  19. Product-dependent anti-factor VIII antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Butenas, Saulius; Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Rivard, Georges E.; Mann, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of anti-factor (F)VIII antibodies in hemophilia A (HA) subjects undergoing replacement therapy has been well-documented. The correlation between antibody development and the FVIII product used for replacement therapy remains a subject of discussion. Aim To evaluate the presence of anti-FVIII antibodies toward three commercial rFVIII products in 34 HA subjects’ plasmas. Methods Antibodies were quantitated by a Multiplex Fluorescence Immunoassay. Results All plasmas contained anti-FVIII antibodies at variable concentrations ranging from 50 nM to 570 ?M. Eleven of 20 HA subjects treated with one (r)FVIII product contained inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies (0.8–3584 BU). The inhibitory antibody titer and the molar concentrations of total antibody were mildly correlated (r2=0.6). Pronounced differences in antibody recognition with the three rFVIII products were observed. For the group treated with Product “A”, the titer toward this product was 2.4-fold higher than that observed with another full-length rFVIII-containing product (Product “B”) and almost 4-fold higher than that measured with a B domain-less rFVIII product (Product “C”). For the group of 14 HA subjects treated with FVIII other than Product “A”, only one showed higher antibody titer when measured with this product. Conclusions Our data suggest that the development of anti-FVIII antibodies is biased toward the product used for treatment and that a significant fraction of antibodies bind to the B domain of FVIII. PMID:23557464

  20. Stepwise Intraclonal Maturation of Antibody Affinity through Somatic Hypermutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Kocks; Klaus Rajewsky

    1988-01-01

    Using recombinant DNA techniques, we reconstructed a genealogical tree (Sablitzky, F., Wildner, G. & Rajewsky, K. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 345-350) that connects three clonally related B cells producing somatically mutated antibodies to a progenitor cell expressing a germ line-encoded antibody. The somatic mutants had been isolated from an in vivo immune response. The germ line-encoded progenitor antibody bound the

  1. Second Generation Anti-MUCl Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-xiang Xing; Julie Prenzoska; Kaylene Quelch; Ian F. C. McKenzie

    Second generation antibodies to mammary mucins were produced by immunizing mice with a peptide with a sequence deduced from that of the MUC1 complementary DNA sequence (PAHGVTSAPDTRPAPGS- TAP). Four monoclonal antibodies (BCP7-10) were produced which gave different reactions. BCP8 was similar in tissue reactivity (by immunoper- oxidase staining) to anti-breast cancer or anti-human milk fat globule membranes (HMFG) antibodies and

  2. Circulating p53 Antibody in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goshi Shiota; Masato Ishida; Naoya Noguchi; Kenji Oyama; Yuji Takano; Michiko Okubo; Shunsuke Katayama; Yasushi Tomie; Kenichi Harada; Kotaro Hori; Kumiyo Ashida; Yosuke Kishimoto; Akihide Hosoda; Takeaki Suou; Takamasa Kanbe; Kiwamu Tanaka; Kimiyasu Nosaka; Osamu Tanida; Haruhiko Kojo; Kunihiko Miura; Hisao Ito; Nobuaki Kaibara; Hironaka Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    The presence of serum anti-p53 antibody has been reported to be associated with survival of patients with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To clarify prognostic significance of p53 antibody in colorectal cancer, serum p53 antibody was measured in patients with colorectal cancer. The 89 patients included 71 with colorectal cancer and 18 with colon polyp. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  3. The production of monoclonal antibodies to Babesia microti

    E-print Network

    Ruwe, Kathryn Lyn

    1986-01-01

    17 18 18 20 22 24 25 29 45 48 49 VITA 55 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Derivation of monoclonal antibodies to Babesia microti. 2. IFA titers of individual monoclonal antibody preparations to Babesia microti. 3. Properties of FITC... with an adjuvant into cattle provided protection against B. bovis challenge infections. Monoclonal antibodies have also been produced to many other protozoan parasites including ~7p 6 d '* (36(, '6* *pl ~d' ' (3(, Trypanosoma cruzi (4), and Plasmodium chabaudi...

  4. Bispecific antibody platforms for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lameris, Roeland; de Bruin, Renée C G; Schneiders, Famke L; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Verheul, Henk M W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decades advances in bioengineering and expanded insight in tumor immunology have resulted in the emergence of novel bispecific antibody (bsAb) constructs that are capable of redirecting immune effector cells to the tumor microenvironment. (Pre-) clinical studies of various bsAb constructs have shown impressive results in terms of immune effector cell retargeting, target dependent activation and the induction of anti-tumor responses. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of bsAb-therapy and limitations that were encountered. Furthermore, we will discuss potential future developments that can be expected to take the bsAb approach successfully forward. PMID:25195094

  5. Phylogenetic study of transcortin using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Faict, D; De Moor, P

    1986-08-14

    We produced monoclonal antibodies that recognise three distinct epitopes of human transcortin. These epitopes are present on transcortin of humans with normal and altered transcortin levels, as well as on a variant with lower affinity for cortisol. One epitope is present on transcortin of Old World Monkeys and apes, the others are only present on transcortin of apes. The epitopes are not present on transcortin of other species. These results indicate that human transcortin contains a highly evolved and a more conserved part. PMID:2428359

  6. Assays of thyroid-stimulating antibody

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, J.M.; Zakarija, M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the two major assay methods of thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) of Graves' disease. The basic procedures involve: (1) some index of thyroid stimulation, usually in vitro, using TSAb to indicate its activity; and (2) indirect recognition by assessment of the inhibition of binding of radioiodinated thyrotropin (TSH) to a preparation of its receptor, i.e., TSH-binding inhibition or TBI. There is potential for misinterpretation of data acquired by testing patients' sera by one or the other basic procedure.

  7. Antibody purification using affinity chromatography: a case study with a monoclonal antibody to ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhui; Liang, Qi; Wen, Kai; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-11-15

    The application of antibodies to small molecules in the field of bioanalytics requires antibodies with stable biological activity and high purity; thus, there is a growing interest in developing rapid, inexpensive and effective procedures to obtain such antibodies. In this work, a ractopamine (RAC) derivative, N-4-aminobutyl ractopamine (ABR), was synthesized for preparing new specific affinity chromatography to purify a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RAC from ascites. The performance of the new specific chromatography was compared with four other purification methods in terms of recovery, purity and biological activity of mAb. These four purification methods were prepared by using specific ligands (RAC and RAC-ovalbumin) and commercial ligands (protein G and protein A), respectively. The results showed that the highest recovery (88.1%) was achieved using the new chromatography; in comparison, the recoveries from the other methods were all below 70%. The purity of the mAbs from the new chromatography was 88.3%, while, the highest purity of 97.6% was from protein G chromatography and the lowest purity of 84.7% was from protein A chromatography. The biological activity of the purified mAb from all of the chromatography methods was comparable in enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA). PMID:25261834

  8. Assessment of a fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibodies against epizootic bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Myra T; Anderson, Mark L; Hoar, Bruce R; Pires, Alda F A; Blanchard, Patricia C; Yeargan, Bret V; Teglas, Mike B; Belshaw, Margaret; Stott, Jeffery L

    2014-09-01

    The current study was directed at developing and validating an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) capable of detecting antibodies specific for the agent of epizootic bovine abortion (aoEBA). Sensitivity and specificity was determined by comparing antibody titers from 114 fetuses infected with aoEBA with 68 fetuses diagnosed with alternate infectious etiologies. Data established specificity at 100% and sensitivity at 94.7% when cutoff criteria for a positive test were assigned at a titer of ?1,000. Potential cross-reactivity was noted in samples from 3 fetuses with antibody titers of 10 or100; all were infected with Gram-positive organisms. The remaining 65 fetuses infected with microbes other than aoEBA, and an additional 12 negative reference sera, did not have detectable titers. The IFAT-based serology assay is rapid, reproducible, and unaffected by fluid color or opacity. Total fetal immunoglobulin (Ig)G was also evaluated as an aid for diagnosing EBA. Significantly higher concentrations of IgG were identified in fetuses infected with aoEBA as compared to those with alternate infectious etiologies. The presence of IgG is a sensitive indicator of EBA and increases the specificity of FAT-based serologic diagnosis when titers are 10 or 100. Taken together, serology and IgG analyses suggest that the incidence of EBA may be underestimated. PMID:25139792

  9. An Insertion Mutation That Distorts Antibody Binding Site Architecture Enhances Function of a Human Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Jens C.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Smith, Patricia B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Crowe, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen. PMID:21304166

  10. An Insertion Mutation That Distorts Antibody Binding Site Architecture Enhances Function of a Human Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Jens C.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Smith, Patricia B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Crowe, Jr., James E. (Vanderbilt); (Scripps); (CDC)

    2011-09-02

    The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen.

  11. SPECIFICITY OF ANTIBODIES: UNEXPECTED CROSS-REACTIVITY OF ANTIBODIES DIRECTED AGAINST THE EXCITATORY AMINO ACID

    E-print Network

    Bergles, Dwight

    ), including GABAergic ones, in most parts of the nervous system. EAAT3 is concentrated in the neuronal cell and immunized 6 sheep and 30 rabbits. All sera were affinity purified against the relevant immobilized peptide antibodies were obtained to several parts of EAAT2. EAAT3 was only detected in neurons. However, rabbits

  12. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, APTAMERS AND SINGLE CHAIN ANTIBODIES TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paratuberculosis (MAP) was identified as an unmet need at the 7th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis in Bilbao, Spain. To fill this gap in Johne’s disease research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MAP were produced from BALB/c mice immunized with sonicated MAP extracts or recombinant...

  13. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal antibodies (MAb) may interfere with avian influenza (AI) vaccination. MAb interference prevents an immune response by binding to the vaccine antigen. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick is susceptible to a circulating AI virus. This study examined the affect of MAb on seroconversion ...

  14. Derivatized gold clusters and antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F. (Shoreham, NY); Furuya, Frederic R. (Williston Park, NY)

    1994-11-01

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be as small as 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies, Fab' or F(ab').sub.2 fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. The gold clusters may contain 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 55 or 67 gold atoms in their inner core. The clusters may also contain radioactive gold. The antibody-cluster conjugates are useful in electron microscopy applications as well as in clinical applications that include imaging, diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Method for detecting pathogens attached to specific antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.

    2005-01-25

    The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.

  16. Derivatized gold clusters and antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.; Furuya, F.R.

    1994-11-01

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be as small as 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies, Fab' or F(ab')[sub 2] fragments are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. The gold clusters may contain 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 55 or 67 gold atoms in their inner core. The clusters may also contain radioactive gold. The antibody-cluster conjugates are useful in electron microscopy applications as well as in clinical applications that include imaging, diagnosis and therapy. 7 figs.

  17. Impedance measurements for detecting pathogens attached to antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.; Fuller, Christopher K.

    2004-12-28

    The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.

  18. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fc? receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein ? (SIRP?) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients. PMID:25667985

  19. Antiplatelet antibodies in oxaliplatin-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Michael J; Curtis, Brian R; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Lesson Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia may be potentially fatal; here we report the development of severe thrombocytopenia with strong oxaliplatin-dependent antiplatelet antibodies. PMID:25057402

  20. Mechanisms of monoclonal antibody stabilization and release from silk biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Guziewicz, Nicholas A.; Massetti, Andrew J.; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo J.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of stabilization and sustained delivery systems for antibody therapeutics remains a major clinical challenge, despite the growing development of antibodies for a wide range of therapeutic applications due to their specificity and efficacy. A mechanistic understanding of protein-matrix interactions is critical for the development of such systems and is currently lacking as a mode to guide the field. We report mechanistic insight to address this need by using well-defined matrices based on silk gels, in combination with a monoclonal antibody. Variables including antibody loading, matrix density, charge interactions, hydrophobicity and water access were assessed to clarify mechanisms involved in the release of antibody from the biomaterial matrix. The results indicate that antibody release is primarily governed by hydrophobic interactions and hydration resistance, which are controlled by silk matrix chemistry, peptide domain distribution and protein density. Secondary ionic repulsions are also critical in antibody stabilization and release. Matrix modification by free methionine incorporation was found to be an effective strategy for mitigating encapsulation induced antibody oxidation. Additionally, these studies highlight a characterization approach to improve the understanding and development of other protein sustained delivery systems, with broad applicability to the rapidly developing monoclonal antibody field. PMID:23859659

  1. Recombinant antibody mixtures: production strategies and cost considerations.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Næsted, Henrik; Müller, Christian; Tolstrup, Anne B; Frandsen, Torben P

    2012-10-15

    Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have during the last two decades emerged as a very successful class of biological drugs for the treatment of a variety of different diseases used either as biological mono therapy or in combination with small molecule based drugs. Recombinant antibody mixtures offering targeting of more than one antigen is one of the new promising antibody technologies resulting in higher therapeutic effectiveness and/or broader reactivity. Such recombinant antibody mixtures can in principle be manufactured by different approaches but two main strategies is often applied, either individual manufacturing of the constituent antibodies or single batch manufacturing of the recombinant antibody mixture. Symphogen has developed an expression platform, Sympress™, allowing single batch manufacturing of recombinant antibody mixtures, while other companies are currently using a manufacturing strategy based on production of the individual constituent monoclonal antibodies. An overview and comparison of the different approaches with focus on the challenges in terms of cell banking strategy, manufacturing approach, and strategies for release and characterization will be reviewed in the present manuscript. Furthermore, the two manufacturing approaches are compared based on different parameters such as development timelines, preclinical developmental costs, and manufacturing cost of goods sold (COGS). We conclude that the single batch manufacturing approach expressing a mixture of full length IgG provides a robust and reproducible platform that can be used for cost effective manufacturing of recombinant antibody mixtures. PMID:22820097

  2. Antibody binding to p-Si using LANL SAM chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    This NMSBA-sponsored project involves the attachment of antibodies to polymeric silicon (p-Si) surfaces, with the ultimate goal of attaching antibodies to nanowires for Vista Therapeutics, Inc. (Santa Fe, NM). This presentation describes the functionalization of p-Si surfaces. the activation of terminal carboxylates on these surfaces, the conjugation of antibodies, and the analyses undertaken at each step. The results of this work show that antibody conjugation is possible on p-Si coatings using the well-known EDC/NHS activation chemistry.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies—Therapeutic and Diagnostic Uses in Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, James N.; Levy, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies represent an attractive type of antitumor therapy because of their potential for exquisite specificity, production in large, pure quantities and mediation of in vivo cytotoxic effects. With maturing monoclonal antibody technology has come the use of these antibodies in clinical studies in patients with malignancy. These trials have established that monoclonal antibodies can be safely administered in large doses, that their pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration can be predicted and that in some instances a therapeutic effect can be produced by their infusion. A number of problems have also been identified by these studies, including antigenic heterogeneity of the tumor, the presence of free serum antigen, the immunogenicity of the xenogeneic antibody, modulation of the surface antigen by the antibody and a finite capacity of human effector mechanisms to mediate cytotoxicity directed by murine antibodies. Other workers are concurrently investigating the use of monoclonal antibodies in the ex vivo elimination of cells from bone marrow, as probes for serum tumor marker antigens and as carriers for radioimaging agents or toxins. Although most of these endeavors are at the earliest stages, promising preliminary results presage an important role for native and altered monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant conditions. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1. PMID:3911594

  4. Modern Technologies for Creating Synthetic Antibodies for Clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Lebedenko, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    The modular structure and versatility of antibodies enables one to modify natural immunoglobulins in different ways for various clinical applications. Rational design and molecular engineering make it possible to directionally modify the molecular size, affinity, specificity, and immunogenicity and effector functions of an antibody, as well as to combine them with other functional agents. This review focuses on up-to-date methods of antibody engineering for diagnosing and treating various diseases, particularly on new technologies meant to refine the effector functions of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:22649585

  5. Sequencing the functional antibody repertoire—diagnostic and therapeutic discovery

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has enabled large-scale characterization of functional antibody repertoires, a new method of understanding protective and pathogenic immune responses. Important parameters to consider when sequencing antibody repertoires include the methodology, the B-cell population and clinical characteristics of the individuals analysed, and the bioinformatic analysis. Although focused sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chains or complement determining regions can be utilized to monitor particular immune responses and B-cell malignancies, high-fidelity analysis of the full-length paired heavy and light chains expressed by individual B cells is critical for characterizing functional antibody repertoires. Bioinformatic identification of clonal antibody families and recombinant expression of representative members produces recombinant antibodies that can be used to identify the antigen targets of functional immune responses and to investigate the mechanisms of their protective or pathogenic functions. Integrated analysis of coexpressed functional genes provides the potential to further pinpoint the most important antibodies and clonal families generated during an immune response. Sequencing antibody repertoires is transforming our understanding of immune responses to autoimmunity, vaccination, infection and cancer. We anticipate that antibody repertoire sequencing will provide next-generation biomarkers, diagnostic tools and therapeutic antibodies for a spectrum of diseases, including rheumatic diseases. PMID:25536486

  6. A novel antibody engineering strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies by electrostatic steering mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Leng, Esther C; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Howard, Monique; Stoops, Janelle; Manchulenko, Kathy; Razinkov, Vladimir; Liu, Hua; Fanslow, William; Hu, Zhonghua; Sun, Nancy; Hasegawa, Haruki; Clark, Rutilio; Foltz, Ian N; Yan, Wei

    2015-03-20

    Producing pure and well behaved bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) on a large scale for preclinical and clinical testing is a challenging task. Here, we describe a new strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies in mammalian cells. We applied an electrostatic steering mechanism to engineer antibody light chain-heavy chain (LC-HC) interface residues in such a way that each LC strongly favors its cognate HC when two different HCs and two different LCs are co-expressed in the same cell to assemble a functional bispecific antibody. We produced heterodimeric IgGs from transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. The engineered heterodimeric IgG molecules maintain the overall IgG structure with correct LC-HC pairings, bind to two different antigens with comparable affinity when compared with their parental antibodies, and retain the functionality of parental antibodies in biological assays. In addition, the bispecific heterodimeric IgG derived from anti-HER2 and anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) antibody was shown to induce a higher level of receptor internalization than the combination of two parental antibodies. Mouse xenograft BxPC-3, Panc-1, and Calu-3 human tumor models showed that the heterodimeric IgGs strongly inhibited tumor growth. The described approach can be used to generate tools from two pre-existent antibodies and explore the potential of bispecific antibodies. The asymmetrically engineered Fc variants for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity enhancement could be embedded in monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG to make best-in-class therapeutic antibodies. PMID:25583986

  7. Hevein-specific recombinant IgE antibodies from human single-chain antibody phage display libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Leena Laukkanen; Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen; Kirsi Isoherranen; Tari Haahtela; Hans Söderlund; Kristiina Takkinen

    2003-01-01

    IgE antibodies distinctively recognising allergenic epitopes would be ideal reagents in immunodiagnostics to detect and quantify allergens, as well as for the development of allergy diagnostics and therapeutics. We have isolated recombinant human IgE antibodies specific for the major latex allergen, hevein, from antibody phage display libraries using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)–hevein fusion as a selection antigen. Human IgE

  8. Seropositivity of Dengue Antibodies during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Wan Abd Rahim, Wan Elly Rushima; Salleh, Sharifah Azura; Neoh, Hui-Min; Jamal, Rahman; Jamil, Muhammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Malaysia a dengue endemic country with dengue infections in pregnancy on the rise. The present study was aimed at determining dengue seroprevalence (IgG or IgM) during pregnancy and its neonatal transmission in dengue seropositive women. Methods. Maternal with paired cord blood samples were tested for dengue antibodies (IgG and IgM) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Maternal age, parity, occupation, ethnic group, and gestational age were recorded. Data on neonatal Apgar score and admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were analyzed. Results. Out of 358 women recruited, about 128 (35.8%) patients were seropositive. Twelve patients (3.4%) had recent infections (IgM positive) and another 116 women (32.4%) were with past infections (IgG positive). All babies born to seropositive mothers had positive IgG paired cord blood; however, no IgM seropositivity was observed. All neonates had good Apgar scores and did not require NICU admission. Conclusion. In this study, 35.8% pregnant women were found to be dengue seropositive. However, transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies had no detrimental effect on the neonatal outcomes. PMID:25587564

  9. Immunofluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of gonorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Caloenescu, M; Clecner, B; Petrow, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1975-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test was evaluated in 198 cases of a high-risk group with a culture prevalence of 37.3% and in 426 cases of a low-risk group with a culture prevalence of 1.16%. A sensitivity of 77.1% in the culture-positive patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea, and a specificity of 88.7% in the culture- and history-negative cases, was obtained in the high-risk group. In this group, the sera from 88.8% of the patients with culture-proven gonorrhoea became positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test within 3 weeks of last sexual contact. In the low-risk group, for which the sensitivity could not be determined due to various reasons, a specificity of 95.8% was obtained. Complement fixation test was positive in sera of only 17.6% of the culture-positive cases of the high-risk group. PMID:809468

  10. Localization of malignant melanoma using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wasselle, J.; Becker, J.; Cruse, W.; Espinosa, C.; Cox, C.; Reintgen, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Finding a screening test to evaluate patients with cancer for occult metastatic disease, as well as imaging all known disease, is a goal of research efforts. Twenty-nine evaluable patients with deeply invasive (stage I), regional nodal (stage II), or systemic (stage III) melanoma underwent imaging by administration of a preparation of the antimelanoma antibody labeled with technetium 99m. Scan results indicated that 28 of 32 confirmed metastatic sites were imaged with this technique (88% sensitivity). Analysis of the individual positive sites revealed that nodal basins and visceral metastases accounted for the highest percentage of metastatic sites imaged, with 14 (88%) of 16 nodal basin metastases and all four visceral metastases being detected through imaging. Occult nodal disease was detected in the iliac nodal chain in two of the 29 patients. The imaging of benign tumors and nodal basins not containing disease accounted for a confirmed false-positive rate of 21%. Three (10%) of the 29 scan results were confirmed to be false-negative. In vivo tumor localization with monoclonal antibodies showed a sensitivity similar to that of other roentgenographic procedures for identifying metastatic disease and was useful in two of three patients in identifying occult iliac nodal disease, a region that is difficult to evaluate with physical examination and other imaging modalities.

  11. Antibody responses in allogeneic radiation chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Coico, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction of long-lived allogeneic radiation chimeras, free of graft-versus-host disease, has been achieved using serologic elimination of Thy 1/sup +/ cells from donor bone marrow. Humoral immune function was not restored in these animals as evidenced by lack of primary antibody responses to a T cell-dependent antigen, namely, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) both in vivo and in vitro. No evidence for a suppressor cell-mediated mechanism was found. Using separated chimera spleen cell populations and specific helper cell soluble mediators, the functional capabilities of chimera B cells, T cells, and macrophages were assessed. These findings suggested that the failure of chimeras to produce antibody is not the result of impaired B cell, T cell, or macrophage function, but rather, that it is due to ineffective cellular interactions. Physiologic cellular interactions depend upon the sharing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants between interacting cells. However, the self-recognition repertoire of developing T cells may be influenced by the environment which these cells differentiate such that they learn to recognize host MHC determinants as self. These findings support the interpretation that the immunologic hyporeactivity of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras reflects the role of the host environment in restricting the interactive capabilities of donor-derived cells.

  12. Endotoxin antibodies in African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, V W; Alafiatayo, R A; Barclay, G R; Crawley, B; Doua, F; Oppenheim, B A

    1997-04-01

    Antibodies to the core region of endotoxin (endotoxin core antibodies, EndoCAb), which cross-react with endotoxin from a range of Gram-negative bacteria, are maintained in relative homeostasis in health, but undergo marked changes in a number of different diseases associated directly or indirectly with endotoxaemic or septicaemic states. The levels of EndoCAb IgG in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 35 late-stage sleeping sickness patients and 9 control individuals were measured by ELISA. EndoCAb levels were significantly elevated in the patient blood (mean EndoCAb value 290 MU/ml cf. control 182 MU/ml, P < 0.001), and CSF (mean EndoCAb value 254 MU/ml cf. control 150 MU/ml, P < 0.001). EndoCAb IgG levels correlated with endotoxin levels in patient blood (r = 0.78, P < 0.001), but not in the CSF and were not reduced 6 weeks following chemotherapy, unlike the endotoxin levels. It is concluded that late-stage sleeping sickness is associated with chronic exposure to endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:9107022

  13. Fully human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells after vaccination with Pneumovax®23 are serotype specific and facilitate opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; McKee, Emily; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Wilson, Patrick C; James, Judith A

    2013-05-01

    B lymphocyte memory generates antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) that represent a source of protective antibodies that may be exploited for therapeutics. Here we vaccinated four donors with Pneumovax®23 and produced human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) from ASCs. We have cloned 137 hmAbs and the specificities of these antibodies encompass 19 of the 23 serotypes in the vaccine, as well as cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). Although the majority of the antibodies are serotype specific, 12% cross-react with two serotypes. The Pneumovax®23 ASC antibody sequences are highly mutated and clonal, indicating an anamnestic response, even though this was a primary vaccination. Hmabs from 64% of the clonal families facilitate opsonophagocytosis. Although 9% of the total antibodies bind to CWPS impurity in the vaccine, none of these clonal families showed opsonophagocytic activity. Overall, these studies have allowed us to address unanswered questions in the field of human immune responses to polysaccharide vaccines, including the cross-reactivity of individual antibodies between serotypes and the percentage of antibodies that are protective after vaccination with Pneumovax®23. PMID:23084371

  14. Antibodies to GABAA receptor ?1 and ?2 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, Philippa; Kramer, Holger B.; Coebergh, Jan Adriaan; Pettingill, Rosie; Maxwell, Susan; Nibber, Anjan; Malaspina, Andrea; Jacob, Anu; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla; Beeson, David; Lang, Bethan; Waters, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. Methods: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the ?1 subunit of the ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR ?, ?, and ? subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. Results: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the ?1 (9/45, 20%) or the ?2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025), and showed no defined subunit specificity. Incubation of primary hippocampal neurons with GABAAR IgG1 sera reduced surface GABAAR membrane expression. The clinical features of 15 patients (GABAAR ?1 n = 6, ?2 n = 5, undefined n = 4) included seizures (47%), memory impairment (47%), hallucinations (33%), or anxiety (20%). Most patients had not been given immunotherapies, but one with new-onset treatment-resistant catatonia made substantial improvement after plasma exchange. Conclusions: The GABAAR ?1 and ?2 are new targets for antibodies in autoimmune neurologic disease. The full spectrum of clinical features, treatment responses, correlation with antibody specificity, and in particular the role of the IgM antibodies will need to be assessed in future studies. PMID:25636713

  15. Affinity maturation of phage display antibody populations using ribosome display.

    PubMed

    Groves, Maria; Lane, Steven; Douthwaite, Julie; Lowne, David; Rees, D Gareth; Edwards, Bryan; Jackson, Ronald H

    2006-06-30

    A comparison has been performed, using phage display or ribosome display, of stringent selections on antibody populations derived from three rounds of phage display selection. Stringent selections were performed by reducing concentrations of the antigen, bovine insulin, down to 1 nM. Higher affinity antibodies were isolated using ribosome display in a process that introduces random mutations across the clone population. Whereas the highest affinity antibody produced by phage display, D3, has a K(d) of 5.8 nM as a scFv fragment, ribosome display generated higher affinity variants of this antibody with K(d) values of 189 pM and 152 pM, without or with the use of error prone mutagenesis, respectively. The affinities were further increased for each antibody on conversion of the scFv fragments to whole IgG format, to a K(d) of less than 21 pM for the highest affinity variant of D3. Mutation of VH D101 of antibody D3 to glycine or valine, removing the salt bridge between K94 and D101 at the base of VHCDR3, was responsible for the enhanced affinity observed. In addition to the variants of D3, other unrelated antibodies of comparable or higher affinity for insulin, were isolated by ribosome display, but not phage display, indicating that ribosome display can enrich for different populations of antibodies. Affinity maturation of phage antibody populations using ribosome display is a valuable method of rapidly generating diverse, high affinity antibodies to antigen and should be readily applicable to the isolation of antibodies for the detection and assay of biomarkers. PMID:16730741

  16. The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

    2010-01-01

    A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

  17. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in wild mammals, southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.

  18. 42 CFR 493.861 - Standard; Unexpected antibody detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health...Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing...

  19. Human Antibodies and Fusion Proteins that Neutralize HIV-1 Activity

    Cancer.gov

    The researchers have also developed a series of fusion proteins as vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-isolates from different clades. One invention describes a vaccine composed of a primary immunogen and a secondary immunogen, and a method for making the vaccine that could elicit desired broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  20. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Detection of Antibody to Brucella abortus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Nielsen; Min Lin; David Gall; Michael Jolley

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPA) is a homogeneous immunoassay useful for rapid and accurate detection of antibody or antigen. The principle of the assay is that a fluorescent dye (attached to an antigen or an antibody fragment) can be excited by plane-polarized light at the appropriate wavelength. As a rule, a small molecule rotates faster when in solution than a larger

  1. Antibody and B cell responses to Plasmodium sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Dups, Johanna N; Pepper, Marion; Cockburn, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are capable of blocking infection of the liver by Plasmodium sporozoites. Accordingly the induction of anti-sporozoite antibodies is a major aim of various vaccine approaches to malaria. In recent years our knowledge of the specificity and quantities of antibodies required for protection has been greatly expanded by clinical trials of various whole sporozoite and subunit vaccines. Moreover, the development of humanized mouse models and transgenic parasites have also aided our ability to assess the specificity of antibodies and their ability to block infection. Nonetheless, considerable gaps remain in our knowledge - in particular in understanding what antigens are recognized by infection blocking antibodies and in knowing how we can induce robust, long-lived antibody responses. Maintaining high levels of circulating antibodies is likely to be of primary importance, as antibodies must block infection in the short time it takes for sporozoites to reach the liver from the skin. It is clear that a better understanding of the development of protective B cell-mediated immunity will aid the development and refinement of malaria vaccines. PMID:25477870

  2. Antibodies production and the maintenance of the immunological memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this work we have considered the R. Nayak et al. [Immunology 102, 387 (2001)] biological model - Relay Hypothesis - to study the time evolution of the clonal repertoire, including the populations of antibodies. Our results suggest that the decrease of the production of antibodies favors the global maintenance of immune memory.

  3. Receptor Antibodies and Novel Ligands as Potential Therapeutics for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ussar, Siegfried; Vienberg, Sara; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Antibodies to receptors can block or mimic hormone action. Taking advantage of receptor isoforms, co-receptors and other receptor modulating proteins, antibodies and other designer ligands can enhance tissue specificity and provide new approaches to the therapy of diabetes and other diseases. PMID:22174312

  4. The immunogenicity of humanized and fully human antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Marcia M; Razo, Jennifer; DuBridge, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent an attractive therapeutic tool as they are highly specific for their targets, convey effector functions and enjoy robust manufacturing procedures. Humanization of murine monoclonal antibodies has vastly improved their in vivo tolerability. Humanization, the replacement of mouse constant regions and V framework regions for human sequences, results in a significantly less immunogenic product. However, some humanized and even fully human sequence-derived antibody molecules still carry immunological risk. to more fully understand the immunologic potential of humanized and human antibodies, we analyzed CD4+ helper T cell epitopes in a set of eight humanized antibodies. the antibodies studied represented a number of different VH and VL family members carrying unique CDR regions. In spite of these differences, CD4+ T cell epitopes were found only in CDR-sequence containing regions. We were able to incorporate up to two amino acid modifications in a single epitope that reduced the immunogenic potential while retaining full biologic function. We propose that immunogenicity will always be present in some antibody molecules due to the nature of the antigen-specific combining sites. A consequence of this result is modifications to reduce immunogenicity will be centered on the affinity-determining regions. Modifications to CDR regions can be designed that reduce the immunogenic potential while maintaining the bioactivity of the antibody molecule. PMID:20400861

  5. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Antibody-based therapies for malaria

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group OPI N ION Antibody-based therapies for malaria Richard J. Pleass and tissue fluids, and can protect against malaria by binding and neutralizing malaria parasites of antibodies in the treatment and prevention of malaria. Despite control efforts, malaria continues to kill ~2

  6. The role of phage display in therapeutic antibody discovery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Conrad E Z; Lim, Angeline P C; MacAry, Paul A; Hanson, Brendon J

    2014-12-01

    Phage display involves the expression of selected proteins on the surface of filamentous phage through fusion with phage coat protein, with the genetic sequence packaged within, linking phenotype to genotype selection. When combined with antibody libraries, phage display allows for rapid in vitro selection of antigen-specific antibodies and recovery of their corresponding coding sequence. Large non-immune and synthetic human libraries have been constructed as well as smaller immune libraries based on capturing a single individual's immune repertoire. This completely in vitro process allows for isolation of antibodies against poorly immunogenic targets as well as those that cannot be obtained by animal immunization, thus further expanding the utility of the approach. Phage antibody display represents the first developed methodology for high throughput screening for human therapeutic antibody candidates. Recently, other methods have been developed for generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies, such as single B-cell screening, next-generation genome sequencing and transgenic mice with human germline B-cell genes. While each of these have their particular advantages, phage display has remained a key methodology for human antibody discovery due its in vitro process. Here, we review the continuing role of this technique alongside other developing technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:25135889

  7. NMDA receptor antibodies associated with distinct white matter syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Yael; Absoud, Michael; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jacobson, Leslie; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pike, Mike; Pullaperuma, Sunil; Siddiqui, Ata; Wassmer, Evangeline; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical and radiologic findings of children with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and white matter disorders. Method: Ten children with significant white matter involvement, with or without anti-NMDAR encephalitis, were identified from 46 consecutive NMDAR antibody–positive pediatric patients. Clinical and neuroimaging features were reviewed and the treatment and outcomes of the neurologic syndromes evaluated. Results: Three distinct clinicoradiologic phenotypes were recognized: brainstem encephalitis (n = 3), leukoencephalopathy following herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) (n = 2), and acquired demyelination syndromes (ADS) (n = 5); 3 of the 5 with ADS had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as well as NMDAR antibodies. Typical NMDAR antibody encephalitis was seen in 3 patients remote from the first neurologic syndrome (2 brainstem, 1 post-HSVE). Six of the 7 patients (85%) who were treated acutely, during the original presentation with white matter involvement, improved following immunotherapy with steroids, IV immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange, either individually or in combination. Two patients had escalation of immunotherapy at relapse resulting in clinical improvement. The time course of clinical features, treatments, and recoveries correlated broadly with available serum antibody titers. Conclusion: Clinicoradiologic evidence of white matter involvement, often distinct, was identified in 22% of children with NMDAR antibodies and appears immunotherapy responsive, particularly when treated in the acute phase of neurologic presentation. When observed, this clinical improvement is often mirrored by reduction in NMDAR antibody levels, suggesting that these antibodies may mediate the white matter disease. PMID:25340058

  8. THE ROLE OF THE LYMPHOCYTE IN ANTIBODY FORMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Harris; E. GRIMM; E. MERTENS; W. E. EHRICtt

    1945-01-01

    In a previous paper(l) the production of antibodies in the p~pliteal lymph node of the rabbit was compared with the output of lymphocytes in the ef- ferent lymph vessel of the node and with the morphological changes which took place within the node itself. Antibodies first appeared in the efferent lymph 2 to 4 days after the injection of the

  9. Original article Residual foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Residual foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in French cattle and sheep six to establish a reference pattern of residual vaccine antibodies and non-specific reactions against the foot-and-mouth disease virus 6 years after the ban on vaccination and in the absence of any foot-and-mouth disease

  10. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO FENBENDAZOLE: UTILITY IN RESIDUE STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA was developed for fenbendazole, a widely used benzimidazole anthelmintic, with approved uses in cattle and other food animals. The antibody was elicited using as hapten 2-succinamido-5(6)-phenylthiobenzimidazole, which was conjugated with bovine serum albumin to pro...

  11. Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshy Jacob; Garnett Kelsoe; Klaus Rajewsky; Ursula Weiss

    1991-01-01

    THE generation and selection of somatic antibody mutants are key elements of acquired immunity, essential for the affinity maturation of antibody responses dependent on T cells. The mutants are generated through a mechanism that introduces point mutations at high rate into rearranged variable (V) region genes in the course of cell proliferation1,2. Their appearance coincides with the generation of germinal

  12. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  13. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  14. NEUROMUSCULAR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Antibody Testing Neuromuscular Disease Center

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ================================================================== ANTIBODY TESTS & INTERPRETATIONS REQUESTED Syndrome Panels Antibody Panels: Individual [ ] Motor Neuropathy-Kleffner variant (IgM & IgG) Other: [ ] _________________________ [ ] Sensory (± Motor) Neuropathy: IgG vs: Sulfatide & GM1 IgM vs: MAG, GD1b, TS-HDS, Sulfatide, HH3 [ ] Peripheral Neuropathy: Sensory Neuropathy + GM

  15. Escherichia coli antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Tabaqchali; D P ODonoghue; K A Bettelheim

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (16 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were assayed for the presence of antibodies against 159 Escherichia coli O-antigens and compared with sera from 16 matched control subjects. The majority of patients with IBD had agglutinating antibodies to a higher number of Escherichia coli O-antigens and in

  16. Antibodies to infectious agents in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Markus Leweke; Christoph W. Gerth; Dagmar Koethe; Joachim Klosterkötter; Inna Ruslanova; Bogdana Krivogorsky; E. Fuller Torrey; Robert H. Yolken

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the levels of antibodies to infectious agents in the serum and cerebral spinal fluids (CSFs) of individuals with recent onset schizophrenia and compared these levels to those of controls without psychiatric disease. We found that untreated individuals with recent onset schizophrenia had significantly increased levels of serum and CSF IgG antibody to cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii as compared

  17. Human-like antibodies neutralizing Western equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hülseweh, Birgit; Rülker, Torsten; Pelat, Thibaut; Langermann, Claudia; Frenzel, Andrè; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development of the first neutralizing antibodies against Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), a member of the genus Alphavirus. WEEV is transmitted by mosquitoes and can spread to the human central nervous system, causing symptoms ranging from mild febrile reactions to life-threatening encephalitis. WEEV has been classified as a biological warfare agent by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No anti-WEEV drugs are currently commercially available. Neutralizing antibodies are useful for the pre- and post-exposure treatment of WEEV infections. In this study, two immune antibody gene libraries were constructed from two macaques immunized with inactivated WEEV. Four antibodies were selected from these libraries and recloned as scFv-Fc, with a human Fc part. These antibodies bound WEEV specifically in ELISA with little or no cross-reaction with other alphaviruses. They were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All binders were suitable for the intracellular detection of WEEV particles. Neutralizing activity was determined in vitro. Three of the four antibodies were found to be neutralizing; about 1 ng/mL of the best antibody (ToR69-3A2) neutralized 50% of 5x10(4) TCID 50/mL. Due to its human-like nature with a germinality index of 89% (VH) and 91% (VL), the ToR69-3A2 antibody is a promising candidate for future passive vaccine development. PMID:24518197

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide and dogs are an important risk factor for N. caninum infection in cattle. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the Punjab State, India, by a commercial monoclonal antibody bas...

  19. Development of Biodegradable Nanocarriers Loaded with a Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Gdowski, Andrew; Ranjan, Amalendu; Mukerjee, Anindita; Vishwanatha, Jamboor

    2015-01-01

    Treatments utilizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics against intracellular protein-protein interactions in cancer cells have been hampered by several factors, including poor intracellular uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation. Our current work examines the feasibility of encapsulating monoclonal antibodies within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles using a water/oil/water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. This method can be used to prepare protective polymeric nanoparticles for transporting functional antibodies to the cytoplasmic compartment of cancer cells. Nanoparticles were formulated and then characterized using a number of physical and biological parameters. The average nanoparticle size ranged from 221 to 252 nm with a low polydispersity index. Encapsulation efficiency of 16%–22% and antibody loading of 0.3%–1.12% were observed. The antibody molecules were released from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner and upon release maintained functionality. Our studies achieved successful formulation of antibody loaded polymeric nanoparticles, thus indicating that a PLGA-based antibody nanoformulation is a promising intracellular delivery vehicle for a large number of new intracellular antibody targets in cancer cells. PMID:25690029

  20. Development of biodegradable nanocarriers loaded with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Gdowski, Andrew; Ranjan, Amalendu; Mukerjee, Anindita; Vishwanatha, Jamboor

    2015-01-01

    Treatments utilizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics against intracellular protein-protein interactions in cancer cells have been hampered by several factors, including poor intracellular uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation. Our current work examines the feasibility of encapsulating monoclonal antibodies within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles using a water/oil/water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. This method can be used to prepare protective polymeric nanoparticles for transporting functional antibodies to the cytoplasmic compartment of cancer cells. Nanoparticles were formulated and then characterized using a number of physical and biological parameters. The average nanoparticle size ranged from 221 to 252 nm with a low polydispersity index. Encapsulation efficiency of 16%-22% and antibody loading of 0.3%-1.12% were observed. The antibody molecules were released from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner and upon release maintained functionality. Our studies achieved successful formulation of antibody loaded polymeric nanoparticles, thus indicating that a PLGA-based antibody nanoformulation is a promising intracellular delivery vehicle for a large number of new intracellular antibody targets in cancer cells. PMID:25690029