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Murine monoclonal antibodies specific for virulent Treponema pallidum (Nichols).  

PubMed Central

Murine anti-Treponema pallidum (Nichols) lymphocyte hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against a variety of treponemal antigens have been generated. Hybridomas isolated were of three major types: those that were directed specifically against T. pallidum antigens, those that were directed against treponemal group antigens (as evidenced by their cross-reactivity with T. phagedenis biotype Reiter antigens), and those that cross-reacted with both treponemal as well as rabbit host testicular tissue antigens. The majority (31 of 39 clones) of these anti-T. pallidum hybridomas, which produced monoclonal antibodies of mouse isotypes immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3 or IgM, were directed specifically against T. pallidum and not other treponemal or rabbit antigens tested by radioimmunoassay. Four of these T. pallidum-specific hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies with greater binding affinity for "aged" rather than freshly isolated intact T. pallidum cells, suggesting a possible specificity for "unmasked" surface antigens of T. pallidum. Six anti-T. pallidum hybridomas produced complement-fixing monoclonal antibodies (IgG2a, IgG2b, or IgM) that were capable of immobilizing virulent treponemes in the T. pallidum immobilization (TPI) test; these may represent biologically active monoclonal antibodies against treponemal surface antigens. Three other hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies which bound to both T. pallidum and T. phagedenis biotype Reiter antigens, thus demonstrating a possible specificity for treponemal group antigens. Five hybridoma cell lines were also isolated which produced IgM monoclonal antibodies that cross-reacted with all treponemal and rabbit host testicular tissue antigens employed in the radioimmunoassays. This report describes the construction and characteristics of these hybridoma cell lines. The potential applications of the anti-T. pallidum monoclonal antibodies are discussed.

Robertson, S M; Kettman, J R; Miller, J N; Norgard, M V



Evaluation of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for determination of Treponema pallidum antibodies.  


Evaluation of a Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) for determination of anti-Treponema pallidum (TP) antibodies, "ARCHITECT TPAb", was performed. This assay was confirmed to be a reliable anti-TP assay as it showed very good fundamental performance on reproducibility (intra-assay CV: less than 4%), assay specificity (100%, 500/500) and assay sensitivity (100%, 121/121). Since this assay showed very good dilution linearity for samples within the range of 0.59-8.38 S/CO, quantification of the immunoreactivity of anti-TP was attempted. The correction formula for quantification was successfully validated with 8 specimens. The quantified anti-TP, CMIA-QT, calculated by multiplying together the assay's corrected S/CO within the range of 0.59 - 8.38 and the sample dilution factors, showed a strong correlation with the titer of TP particle agglutination (TPPA). The clinical utility of CMIA-QT was evaluated with stored specimens from 5 primary, 5 secondary, and 5 neural syphilis patients. The clinical utility of CMIA-QT was confirmed in the same manner as that of TPPA. PMID:18257467

Yoshioka, Nori; Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Kita, Mifumi; Watanabe, Mikio; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori



Opsonization of Treponema pallidum is mediated by immunoglobulin G antibodies induced only by pathogenic treponemes.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit antisera to Leptospira interrogans, Borrelia hermsii, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter, reactive to shared spirochetal antigens, failed to enhance phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum by macrophages, while immunoglobulin G to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue and Treponema paraluiscuniculi promoted phagocytosis. Opsonic antibodies are directed to pathogen-restricted, not shared spirochetal, antigens.

Shaffer, J M; Baker-Zander, S A; Lukehart, S A



Treponema pallidum Major Sheath Protein Homologue Tpr K Is a Target of Opsonic Antibody and the Protective Immune Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have identified a family of genes that code for targets for opsonic antibody and protective immunity in T. pallidum subspecies pallidum using two different approaches, subtraction hybrid- ization and differential immunologic screening of a T. pallidum genomic library. Both ap- proaches led to the identification of a polymorphic multicopy gene family with predicted amino acid homology to the

Arturo Centurion-Lara; Christa Castro; Lynn Barrett; Caroline Cameron; Maryam Mostowfi; Wesley C. Van Voorhis; Sheila A. Lukehart


Reactivity of Antibodies from Syphilis Patients to a Protein Array Representing the Treponema pallidum Proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify antigens important in the human immune response to syphilis, the serum antibody reactivity of syphilitic patients was examined with 908 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum using a protein array enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-four proteins exhibited significant reactivity when assayed with human sera from patients in the early latent stage of syphilis.

Mary Beth Brinkman; Matthew McKevitt; Melanie McLoughlin; Carla Perez; Jerrilyn Howell; George M. Weinstock; Steven J. Norris; Timothy Palzkill



Microcapsule agglutination test for Treponema pallidum antibodies. A new serodiagnostic test for syphilis.  

PubMed Central

For the serodiagnosis of syphilis a quantitative passive agglutination (MCA-TP) test for antibodies to Treponema pallidum was performed with chemically stable microcapsules with no antigenic activity instead of with conventional sheep erythrocytes. The microcapsules were easily sensitised with the antigen of sonicated Treponema pallidum by treatment with glutaraldehyde. Compared with the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) the MCA-TP test was superior for detecting cases of primary syphilis. Furthermore, the decrease in antibody titre during treatment was more evident in this test than in the FTA-ABS or the TPHA tests. The MCA-TP test performed on IgM and IgG gel-filtered fractions of sera from patients with syphilis proved that the sensitised microcapsule antigen reacted sharply with the IgM antibodies specific to syphilis.

Kobayashi, S; Yamaya, S I; Sugahara, T; Matuhasi, T



Application of quantitative immunofluorescence to clinical serology: antibody levels of Treponema pallidum.  

PubMed Central

A previously reported method of quantitative immunofluorescence, employing a calibrated photometric system and chemically stabilized fluorescence intensity, was used to replace the subjective, visual method of endpoint determination with a quantitative, calibrated measurement of antibodies to Treponema pallidum in serum. The results of the quantitative immunofluorescence method showed a 90% correlation with the subjective determinations of the visual method.

Picciolo, G L; Kaplan, D S



[Laboratory-based evaluation of DainaScreen TPAb to detect specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum].  


A newly developed immunochromatography assay, DainaScreen TPAb (Dainabot, Tokyo), to detect antibodies specific to Treponema pallidum was evaluated. When we tested serum and plasma samples of Syphilis Mixed Titer Performance Panel PSS201 (Boston Biomedica, Inc. , Bridgewater, MA, U.S.A.), all the test results obtained by DainaScreen TPAb were comparable to those determined by fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS). Both within-run and day-to-day variation tests were highly precise, and no discrepant interpretation was obtained by the different medical technicians performed. Also, the testings of whole blood and plasma for individual samples gave same interpretations. The minimum detectable antibody titer was equal to that of Mediace TPLA (Sekisui Chemicals, Osaka) determined by Behring Nephelometer Analyzer (Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany). All the test results by DainaScreen TPAb for clinical serum samples were comparable to those by Mediace TPLA. With these results, we can conclude that DainaScreen TPAb is a rapid, practical and easy-to-perform alternative to detect antibodies specific to Treponema pallidum, in particular as being a point-of-care testing. PMID:10415447

Oshiro, M; Taira, R; Kyan, T; Yamane, N



Evaluation of the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test for detection of antibodies (immunoglobulins G and M) to Treponema pallidum in serologic diagnosis of syphilis.  


We compared the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) (immunoglobulin (Ig)G + IgM) assay with the (micro-) Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA), the T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), the Murex syphilis ICE (ICE) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Diesse Enzywell TP (TP) (ELISA) using 122 serum samples and the Western blot (WB) assay using 42 serum samples whose results were inharmonious with other tests. Additionally, the Captia syphilis-M (IgM) (ELISA) were performed. All sera had already been examined by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test, a non-treponemal test and the TPHA, a treponemal test using routine screening tests. Agreements of the FTA-ABS with the TPHA test, the TPPA test, the ICE test and the TP test were 97.5%, 95.9%, 98.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The results suggest that the FTA-ABS test is a useful confirmatory test, but can be inadequate as a confirmatory test for serologic diagnosis of syphilis by giving equivocal and false-negative results even rarely. PMID:17509177

Aktas, Gulseren; Young, Hugh; Moyes, Alex; Badur, Selim



Comparison of a Treponema pallidum IgM immunoblot with a 19S fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis.  


We compared an in-house Treponema pallidum IgM immunoblot (IB) with a 19S fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (IgM) test during routine use for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis (CS) in a national reference laboratory in a nonendemic setting. The overall agreement between the assays was high (97%), and 19S positive samples had at least 2 reactive bands in the IB. The high agreement is mainly caused by the large number of negative results (95%). If the 19S is taken as the gold standard, the estimate sensitivity of the IB was at least 88% with a specificity of 97.2%. Analysis of the discrepancies revealed that the IB was positive with 1 or 2 specific bands in 2.8% of the cases, whereas 19S was negative, possibly indicating higher sensitivity of the IB. We conclude that the IB is a sensitive method to detect contact with T. pallidum in neonates and can replace the 19S in routine laboratory screening for CS cases. PMID:17662551

Herremans, Martina; Notermans, Daan W; Mommers, Mart; Kortbeek, Laetitia M



Footprint of Positive Selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Genome Sequences Suggests Adaptive Microevolution of the Syphilis Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and

Lorenzo Giacani; Sujay Chattopadhyay; Arturo Centurion-Lara; Brendan M. Jeffrey; Hoavan T. Le; Barbara J. Molini; Sheila A. Lukehart; Evgeni V. Sokurenko; Daniel D. Rockey



Development of a colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to Treponema pallidum with TPN17 and TPN47.  


Syphilis remains a worldwide public health problem; it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. Here, we report a new testing method named colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay (GICA) to detect syphilis instead of fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs). Syphilis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody was detected with GICA established on syphilis-specific recombinant proteins, TPN17 and TPN47. FTA-Abs Treponema pallidum (TP)-IgG was set as the gold standard. A GICA test was performed to detect the serum of 14?967 subjects who took a serologic test for syphilis at the Xiamen Center of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian, China, from March 2009 to February 2010, among which 1326 cases were diagnosed as syphilitic. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 99.38% (1279/1287), 99.96% (12,975/12,980), and 99.61% (1279/1284), respectively. The positive rate between the 2 test methods had no significant difference (?(2) = 0.003, P > 0.05). Detection on 500 interference specimens indicated that the biologic false-positive rate of the GICA test was extremely low and free from other biologic and chemical factors. The characteristics of GICA TP-IgG correspond to that of FTA-Abs TP-IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika, Germany). The GICA test is convenient, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be used both as a confirmatory test and a screening indicator, instead of FTA-Abs TP-IgG. PMID:20846810

Lin, Li-Rong; Fu, Zuo-Gen; Dan, Bing; Jing, Guang-Jun; Tong, Man-li; Chen, De-Teng; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Chang-Gong; Yang, Tian-Ci; Zhang, Zhong-Ying



Serological Diagnosis of Syphilis: Enzyme?Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Measure Antibodies to Individual Recombinant Treponema pallidum Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We standardized an indirect ELISA for measurement of serum antibody levels to four individual treponemal recombinant proteins that have been commonly used in a number of commercial EIAs, mostly as a mixture of antigens. When tested with 127 syphilis?negative and 37 secondary syphilis sera, ELISA O.D.s obtained for each of the four antigens clearly distinguished between these two groups of

Irene E. Martin; Allan Lau; Pam Sawatzky; Raymond S. W. Tsang; Wilfred Cuff; Craig Lee; Paul A. MacPherson; Tony Mazzulli



The Treponema pallidum Genome Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) has posted the complete gene sequence of Treponema pallidum (published in Science 281:375-388, 1998). The newly available Treponema pallidum genome, directed by Dr. Claire Fraser, is searchable by name, TP number, sequence, and segment. Offerings at the site include a hyperlinked Gene Identification Table, RNA Gene Table, Paralogous gene families of Treponema pallidum, and instructions on how to download data.

Fraser, Claire.



Detection of Treponema pallidum by a sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR.  

PubMed Central

Syphilis is diagnosed by serologic testing or by identification of the causative agent, Treponema pallidum. The bacterium has historically been detected in clinical specimens by dark-field microscopy, immunostaining with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, or the rabbit inoculation test (RIT). RIT is considered to be very sensitive and specific, although it is available only in research settings and is not clinically useful due to the length of time required to obtain a result. In recent years, several PCR methods have been developed for the detection of T. pallidum, but none of these has shown a clear advantage in sensitivity over RIT. We have developed a specific and highly sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) that targets a 366 bp region of the 16S rRNA of T. pallidum. This RT-PCR can detect a single organism by Southern analysis when whole organisms are diluted and 10(-2) to 10(-3) T. pallidum organisms when RNA equivalents are used to make cDNA. The test was demonstrated to detect 10(-2) T. pallidum RNA equivalents in cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty different strains of T. pallidum, isolated from cerebrospinal fluids, aqueous humor, blood, and chancres, were shown to be detectable by this test. This efficient and sensitive technique could be more useful than existing methods for detecting very low numbers of organisms in clinical samples.

Centurion-Lara, A; Castro, C; Shaffer, J M; Van Voorhis, W C; Marra, C M; Lukehart, S A



[The functional properties of the cellular structures of cultured Treponema pallidum].  


New data on the functional properties of the cell structures of cultured T. pallidum were obtained, which permitted the construction of new more effective preparations for the diagnostics of syphilis. T. pallidum cell walls were used as antigen in the complement fixation test (CFT) and the development of a new enzyme immunoassay system for the determination of IgM and IgG antibodies to T. pallidum with the visual evaluation of results, while T. pallidum cytoplasm was used as sorbent in the immunofluorescence test (IFT-abs) for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. The immunization of rabbits with T. pallidum cell walls increased the titers of positive control sera used in CFT for diagnosing syphilis. PMID:9304316

Pozharskaia, V O


Development of a colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to Treponema pallidum with TPN17 and TPN47  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syphilis remains a worldwide public health problem; it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. Here, we report a new testing method named colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay (GICA) to detect syphilis instead of fluorescent treponemal antibody–absorption (FTA-Abs). Syphilis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody was detected with GICA established on syphilis-specific recombinant proteins, TPN17

Li-Rong Lin; Zuo-Gen Fu; Bing Dan; Guang-Jun Jing; Man-li Tong; De-Teng Chen; Yang Yu; Chang-Gong Zhang; Tian-Ci Yang; Zhong-Ying Zhang



Genome Differences between Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Strain Nichols and T. paraluiscuniculi Strain Cuniculi A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Treponema paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A was compared to the genome of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols using DNA microarray hybridization, whole-genome fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. A DNA microarray of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols containing all 1,039 predicted open reading frame PCR products was used to identify deletions and major sequence changes in

Michal Strouhal; D. Smajs; P. Matejkova; Erica Sodergren; Anita G. Amin; Jerrilyn K. Howell; Steven J. Norris; George M. Weinstock



Ventral Pallidum Roles in Reward and Motivation  

PubMed Central

In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that 1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, 2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and 3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important ‘limbic final common pathway’ for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

Smith, Kyle S.; Tindell, Amy J.; Aldridge, J. Wayne; Berridge, Kent C.



Footprint of positive selection in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum genome sequences suggests adaptive microevolution of the syphilis pathogen.  


In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. Between these strains, significant differences are found in expression of, and antibody responses to some candidate virulence factors, suggesting the existence of functional genetic differences between isolates. The Chicago strain genome was therefore sequenced and compared to the Nichols genome, available since 1998. Initial comparative analysis suggested the presence of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 103 small (?3 nucleotides) indels, and 1 large (1204 bp) insertion in the Chicago genome with respect to the Nichols genome. To confirm the above findings, Sanger sequencing was performed on most loci carrying differences using DNA from Chicago and the Nichols strain used in the original T. pallidum genome project. A majority of the previously identified differences were found to be due to errors in the published Nichols genome, while the accuracy of the Chicago genome was confirmed. However, 20 SNPs were confirmed between the two genomes, and 16 (80.0%) were found in coding regions, with all being of non-synonymous nature, strongly indicating action of positive selection. Sequencing of 16 genomic loci harboring SNPs in 12 additional T. pallidum strains, (SS14, Bal 3, Bal 7, Bal 9, Sea 81-3, Sea 81-8, Sea 86-1, Sea 87-1, Mexico A, UW231B, UW236B, and UW249C), was used to identify "Chicago-" or "Nichols -specific" differences. All but one of the 16 SNPs were "Nichols-specific", with Chicago having identical sequences at these positions to almost all of the additional strains examined. These mutations could reflect differential adaptation of the Nichols strain to the rabbit host or pathoadaptive mutations acquired during human infection. Our findings indicate that SNPs among T. pallidum strains emerge under positive selection and, therefore, are likely to be functional in nature. PMID:22720110

Giacani, Lorenzo; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Le, Hoavan T; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Rockey, Daniel D



Polypeptides of Treponema pallidum: progress toward understanding their structural, functional, and immunologic roles. Treponema Pallidum Polypeptide Research Group.  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis, is unusual in a number of respects, including its small genome size, inability to grow under standard in vitro culture conditions, microaerophilism, apparent paucity of outer membrane proteins, structurally complex periplasmic flagella, and ability to evade the host immune responses and cause disease over a period of years to decades. Many of these attributes are related ultimately to its protein content. Our knowledge of the activities, structure, and immunogenicity of its proteins has been expanded by the application of recombinant DNA, hybridoma, and structural fractionation techniques. The purpose of this monograph is to summarize and correlate this new information by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody reactivity, sequence data, and other properties as the bases of polypeptide identification. The protein profiles of the T. pallidum subspecies causing syphilis, yaws, and endemic syphilis are virtually indistinguishable but differ considerably from those of other treponemal species. Among the most abundant polypeptides are a group of lipoproteins of unknown function that appear to be important in the immune response during syphilitic infection. The periplasmic flagella of T. pallidum and other spirochetes are unique with regard to their protein content and ultrastructure, as well as their periplasmic location. They are composed of three core proteins (homologous to the other members of the eubacterial flagellin family) and a single, unrelated sheath protein; the functional significance of this arrangement is not understood at present. Although the bacterium contains the chaperonins GroEL and DnaK, these proteins are not under the control of the heat shock regulon as they are in most organisms. Studies of the immunogenicity of T. pallidum proteins indicate that many may be useful for immunodiagnosis and immunoprotection. Future goals in T. pallidum polypeptide research include continued elucidation of their structural locations and functional activities, identification and characterization of the low-abundance outer membrane proteins, further study of the immunoprotective and immunodiagnostic potential of T. pallidum proteins, and clarification of the roles of treponemal proteins in pathogenesis. Images

Norris, S J



Fibronectin mediates Treponema pallidum cytadherence through recognition of fibronectin cell-binding domain  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the interaction between Treponema pallidum and fibronectin was demonstrated. Treatment of host cells with only antifibronectin sera and not anticollagen or antilaminin sera, inhibited treponemal cytadsorption. Incubation of fibronectin-coated coverslips with monoclonal antibody to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin reduced treponemal attachment to the same extent as antifibronectin serum. Both iodinated fibronectin and iodinated cell- binding domain bound to T. pallidum in a saturable manner. Specificity of the T. pallidum association with the cell-binding domain was the most effective inhibitor of the binding of either radioiodinated cell- binding domain or fibronectin to T. pallidum. Scatchard analysis gave Kd on the order of 10(-7) M for both cell-binding domain and fibronectin binding to T. pallidum, consistent with the high affinity interaction of these organisms with host cell surfaces. Finally, the same level of attachment of treponemes was achieved on coverslips coated with cell-binding domain as that observed for organisms incubated with fibronectin, indicating that the cell-binding domain polypeptide is functionally identical to fibronectin in mediating T. pallidum adherence.



Major integral membrane protein immunogens of Treponema pallidum are proteolipids.  

PubMed Central

A number of the major pathogen-specific immunogens of Treponema pallidum were characterized recently as amphiphilic, integral membrane proteins by phase partitioning with Triton X-114 (J. D. Radolf, N. R. Chamberlain, A. Clausell, and M. V. Norgard. Infect. Immun. 56:490-498, 1988). In the present study, we demonstrated that the same membrane immunogens (designated as detergent phase proteins [DPPs]) become radiolabeled upon in vitro incubation of T. pallidum with various 3H-labeled fatty acids. Radioimmunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody confirmed that the 3H-labeled 47-kilodalton protein corresponded to the well-characterized treponemal antigen with the identical apparent molecular mass. Failure to detect 3H-labeled DPPs following incubation with erythromycin confirmed that protein acylation required de novo protein synthesis by the bacteria. When treponemes were incubated with [3H]myristate, [3H]palmitate, or [3H]oleate, radiolabeled proteins corresponding to the DPPs were detected upon autoradiography. Demonstration that a number of the abundant membrane immunogens of T. pallidum are proteolipids provides information to help clarify their membrane association(s) and may serve to explain their extraordinary immunogenicity. Images

Chamberlain, N R; Brandt, M E; Erwin, A L; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V



Major integral membrane protein immunogens of Treponema pallidum are proteolipids  

SciTech Connect

A number of the major pathogen-specific immunogens of Treponema pallidum were characterized recently as amphiphilic, integral membrane proteins by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. In the present study, we demonstrated that the same membrane immunogens (designated as detergent phase proteins (DPPs)) become radiolabeled upon in vitro incubation of T. pallidum with various {sup 3}H-labeled fatty acids. Radioimmunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody confirmed that the {sup 3}H-labeled 47-kilodalton protein corresponded to the well-characterized treponemal antigen with the identical apparent molecular mass. Failure to detect {sup 3}H-labeled DPPs following incubation with erythromycin confirmed that protein acylation required de novo protein synthesis by the bacteria. When treponemes were incubated with ({sup 3}H)myristate, ({sup 3}H)palmitate, or ({sup 3}H)oleate, radiolabeled proteins corresponding to the DPPs were detected upon autoradiography. Demonstration that a number of the abundant membrane immunogens of T. pallidum are proteolipids provides information to help clarify their membrane association(s) and may serve to explain their extraordinary immunogenicity.

Chamberlain, N.R.; Brandt, M.E.; Erwin, A.L.; Radolf, J.D.; Norgard, M.V. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))



Comparison of molecular and microscopic techniques for detection of Treponema pallidum in genital ulcers.  

PubMed Central

We compared the ability of direct immunofluorescent staining (DFA) and the PCR to detect Treponema pallidum in specimens from patients with genital ulcer disease. Touch preparations from 156 patients with genital lesions were fixed in acetone and stained with a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for the 37-kDa antigen of T. pallidum. After microscopic examination, the smear was removed from the slide with a swab. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform and precipitated with isopropanol. Ten microliters of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using primers for the gene encoding the 47-kDa protein of T. pallidum and hybridized to an internal probe. Twenty-two of 156 specimens were positive for T. pallidum by DFA and PCR, while 127 were negative by both methods, yielding a concordance of 95.5% (kappa = 0.84). Four specimens were positive by PCR and negative by DFA, while three specimens were negative by PCR and positive by DFA. The DFA-negative, PCR-positive specimens may have resulted from the presence of large numbers of leukocytes on the slides, obscuring visualization of treponemes. The DFA-positive, PCR-negative results were not due to inhibition of the PCR since purified T. pallidum DNA was amplified when added to aliquots of these specimens. Negative results in these specimens were most likely due to inefficient recovery of their DNA. These data suggest that DFA and PCR are equivalent methods for detection of T. pallidum on touch preparations of genital lesions. Further refinements of the PCR assay are necessary for it to significantly improve the detection of T. pallidum in genital lesions.

Jethwa, H S; Schmitz, J L; Dallabetta, G; Behets, F; Hoffman, I; Hamilton, H; Lule, G; Cohen, M; Folds, J D



Purification and characterization of a cloned protease-resistant Treponema pallidum-specific antigen.  


A cloned Treponema pallidum antigen, designated 4D, was purified from Escherichia coli predominantly as a 190-kilodalton (kd) polypeptide, although higher oligomeric forms exist. Extensive proteolysis of 4D created a limit digestion product of 90 kd which retained antigenicity with sera from patients with primary, secondary, early latent, late latent, and tertiary syphilis. A molecule indistinguishable from 90-kd 4D in size, isoelectric point, and antigenicity was isolated from T. pallidum after proteolysis. The 190- and 90-kd forms of 4D were stable at 68 degrees C but converted to 19- and 14-kd species, respectively, after boiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The low-molecular-weight species did not react with syphilitic sera. Rabbits immunized with the purified 4D antigen developed antibodies which immobilized virulent T. pallidum in a complement-dependent assay system, suggesting that the antigen has a native surface location. PMID:6389353

Fehniger, T E; Walfield, A M; Cunningham, T M; Radolf, J D; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A



TP0453, a Concealed Outer Membrane Protein of Treponema pallidum, Enhances Membrane Permeability  

PubMed Central

The outer membrane of Treponema pallidum, the noncultivable agent of venereal syphilis, contains a paucity of protein(s) which has yet to be definitively identified. In contrast, the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria contain abundant immunogenic membrane-spanning ?-barrel proteins mainly involved in nutrient transport. The absence of orthologs of gram-negative porins and outer membrane nutrient-specific transporters in the T. pallidum genome predicts that nutrient transport across the outer membrane must differ fundamentally in T. pallidum and gram-negative bacteria. Here we describe a T. pallidum outer membrane protein (TP0453) that, in contrast to all integral outer membrane proteins of known structure, lacks extensive ?-sheet structure and does not traverse the outer membrane to become surface exposed. TP0453 is a lipoprotein with an amphiphilic polypeptide containing multiple membrane-inserting, amphipathic ?-helices. Insertion of the recombinant, nonlipidated protein into artificial membranes results in bilayer destabilization and enhanced permeability. Our findings lead us to hypothesize that TP0453 is a novel type of bacterial outer membrane protein which may render the T. pallidum outer membrane permeable to nutrients while remaining inaccessible to antibody.

Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Cox, David L.; Decaffmeyer, Marc; Bennett, Michael P.; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; La Vake, Carson J.; La Vake, Morgan E.; Bourell, Kenneth W.; Robinson, Esther J.; Brasseur, Robert; Radolf, Justin D.



Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. RESULTS: The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only

Petra Mat?jková; Michal Strouhal; David Šmajs; Steven J Norris; Timothy Palzkill; Joseph F Petrosino; Erica Sodergren; Jason E Norton; Jaz Singh; Todd A Richmond; Michael N Molla; Thomas J Albert; George M Weinstock



Identification of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen.  


Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, was detected in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen from Easter Island. An initial diagnosis of treponemal infection was confirmed by extensive purification of immunoglobulin that reacted strongly with T. pallidum antigen. Extracted DNA exhibited a single-base polymorphism that distinguished T.p. subsp. pallidum from 4 other human and nonhuman treponemes. Extensive precautions against contamination of the subject matter with modern treponemal DNA were employed, including analysis of archaeological and modern specimens in 2 geographically separate laboratories. Molecular determination of historical disease states by using skeletal material can significantly enhance our understanding of the pathology and spread of infectious diseases. PMID:10558971

Kolman, C J; Centurion-Lara, A; Lukehart, S A; Owsley, D W; Tuross, N



Function and Protective Capacity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase  

PubMed Central

Infectious syphilis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, remains a public health concern worldwide. The immune-response evasion mechanisms employed by T. pallidum are poorly understood, and prior attempts to identify immunoprotective antigens for subsequent vaccine design have been unsuccessful. Previous investigations conducted in our laboratory identified the T. pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase as a potential immunoprotective antigen by using a differential immunologic expression library screen. In studies reported here, heterologous expression of the T. pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase in Escherichia coli yielded a full-length, enzymatically active protein. Characterization of the recombinant molecule showed it to be bifunctional, in that it exhibited specific binding to human immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgD, and IgG in addition to possessing enzymatic activity. IgG fractionation studies revealed specific binding of the recombinant enzyme to the Fc fragment of human IgG, a characteristic that may play a role in enabling the syphilis spirochete to evade the host immune response. In further investigations, immunization with the recombinant enzyme significantly protected rabbits from subsequent T. pallidum challenge, altering lesion development at the sites of challenge. In all cases, animals immunized with the recombinant molecule developed atypical pale, flat, slightly indurated, and nonulcerative reactions at the challenge sites that resolved before lesions appeared in the control animals. Although protection in the immunized rabbits was incomplete, as demonstrated by the presence of T. pallidum in the rabbit infectivity test, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase nevertheless represents a significantly immunoprotective T. pallidum antigen and thus may be useful for inclusion in an antigen cocktail vaccine for syphilis.

Cameron, Caroline E.; Castro, Christa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.



Cultivation of 'Treponema pallidum' 'in vitro'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have increased the retention of active motility of Treponema pallidum from 3-4 days to 8 or more days as well as maintaining virulence of the organism by 6-7 days by improving the media and environmental conditions. These results were obtained...

H. M. Jenkin



Flagellins, but not endoflagellar sheath proteins, of Treponema pallidum and of pathogen-related oral spirochetes are glycosylated.  


Glycosylation of the flagellar core proteins (FlaBs) was detected in Treponema pallidum Nichols and in the type or reference strains of seven oral Treponema species. In several nonmotile strains of oral treponemes, the FlaBs were undetectable by both antibody and glycan staining. In contrast, a spontaneous low-motility variant of T. vincenti poundi-related strain RitzA, OMZ 305A, lacked the flagellar sheath protein (FlaA) and the two glycan-staining FlaB bands of the wild type, but antibody labeling revealed a novel FlaB band with a lower relative molecular weight. A ca. 38-kDa component of isolated endoflagella of T. vincentii OMZ 800 was identified on Western blots as FlaA by monoclonal antibody (MAb) H9-2, which specifically labels the 37-kDa FlaA protein of T. pallidum. Glycan and H9-2 labeling patterns similar to those of T. pallidum were observed in whole-cell extracts of T. medium G7201 and of 10 strains classified as T. vincentii and as two T. vincentii-related taxons. These four groups were thus identified as cultivable pathogen (T. pallidum)-related oral spirochetes as defined by labeling with MAb H9-2. No H9-2 MAb-reactive component could be detected in T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. pectinovorum, and the three subspecies of T. socranskii. PMID:9826350

Wyss, C



Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp-2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or /sup 35/S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition.

Peterson, K.M.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.



Factors affecting the multiplication and subculture of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in a tissue culture system.  


Limited multiplication of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain) can be obtained in the presence of Sf1Ep rabbit epithelial cell cultures, but continuous culture has not yet been achieved. In the system currently employed, growth is exponential for the first 10 to 15 days of culturing, after which multiplication and the percentage of motile organisms decrease. In an effort to identify culture conditions which may adversely affect treponemal viability and growth, eight culture parameters were monitored over a 12-day period of incubation. Several of these parameters, including pH, redox potential, dissolved oxygen concentration, and glucose levels were found to change dramatically during the course of incubation, indicating that they may be responsible for the cessation of treponemal multiplication. The feasibility of extending the period of growth by subculturing was also investigated. In preparation for planned serial subcultivation experiments, several subculture procedures were tested and found to be effective in allowing the transfer of T. pallidum from 3-day-old primary cultures to secondary cultures without loss of motility or growth potential. Increases of up to 55-fold were observed in secondary cultures, but increased growth due to subculturing was not a consistent finding. Use of subculture intervals of greater than or equal to 6 days resulted in a progressive decrease in treponemal multiplication in secondary cultures, although retention of motility was extended in the subcultures compared with motility in the primary cultures. These results indicate that the lack of continued multiplication of T. pallidum in subcultures is not due to damage to the treponemes during subculture. Prolonged multiplication of T. pallidum may be obtained through the stabilization of culture conditions by either performing subcultures at regular intervals or by medium replacement techniques. It was also found that primary T. pallidum cultures could be established by using as the inoculum treponemes that had been stored at -70 degrees C in a medium containing 15% glycerol. PMID:3091504

Norris, S J; Edmondson, D G



Flagellins, but Not Endoflagellar Sheath Proteins, of Treponema pallidum and of Pathogen-Related Oral Spirochetes Are Glycosylated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosylation of the flagellar core proteins (FlaBs) was detected in Treponema pallidum Nichols and in the type or reference strains of seven oral Treponema species. In several nonmotile strains of oral treponemes, the FlaBs were undetectable by both antibody and glycan staining. In contrast, a spontaneous low-motility variant of T. vincenti£i-related strain RitzA, OMZ 305A, lacked the flagellar sheath protein



Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum strain DAL-1  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum strain DAL-1 is a human uncultivable pathogen causing the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. Strain DAL-1 was isolated from the amniotic fluid of a pregnant woman in the secondary stage of syphilis. Here we describe the 1,139,971 bp long genome of T. pallidum strain DAL-1 which was sequenced using two independent sequencing methods (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina). In rabbits, strain DAL-1 replicated better than the T. pallidum strain Nichols. The comparison of the complete DAL-1 genome sequence with the Nichols sequence revealed a list of genetic differences that are potentially responsible for the increased rabbit virulence of the DAL-1 strain.

Zobanikova, Marie; Mikolka, Pavol; Cejkova, Darina; Pospisilova, Petra; Chen, Lei; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Smajs, David




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Antibody: A blood protein that is produced in response to and counteracts an antigen. Antibodies are produced in response to disease and help the body fight against the particular disease. In this way, antibodies help the body develop an immunity to disease.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)



Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum Clinical Strains from Lisbon, Portugal?  

PubMed Central

A molecular system was used to subtype Portuguese Treponema pallidum clinical strains isolated from both skin lesions and blood. The study with this system constitutes the first typing study in a European country. Three T. pallidum subtypes were found: subtypes 14a (50%), 14d (45.2%), and 14f (4.8%). Further studies are needed to better characterize the isolates involved in syphilis outbreaks.

Florindo, C.; Reigado, V.; Gomes, J. P.; Azevedo, J.; Santo, I.; Borrego, M. J.



Accidental laboratory infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain.  


This case report describes a laboratory-acquired infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain. The specific details of the accidental exposure are presented, along with a description of the clinical observations. This infection indicates that the rabbit adapted Nichols strain of T pallidum retains its capability to infect humans. In addition, aerosols of concentrated preparations of these organisms, generated within the laboratory, represent a definite biohazard. PMID:1010772

Fitzgerald, J J; Johnson, R C; Smith, M



Topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).  


The topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been studied using Nissl staining in conjunction with myelin staining, enzyme reactivity to acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase, and immunoreactivity to parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, and neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). All those components of the striatum and pallidum found in eutherian mammals could also be identified in the echidna's brain, with broad chemoarchitectural similarities to those regions in eutherian brains also apparent. There was a clear chemoarchitectural gradient visible with parvalbumin immunoreactivity of neurons and fibers, suggesting a subdivision of the echidna caudatoputamen into weakly reactive rostrodorsomedial and strongly reactive caudoventrolateral components. This may, in turn, relate to subdivision into associative versus sensorimotor CPu and reflect homology to the caudate and putamen of primates. Moreover, the chemoarchitecture of the echidna striatum suggested the presence of striosome-matrix architecture. The morphology of identified neuronal groups (i.e., parvalbumin, calbindin, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive) in the echidna striatum and pallidum showed many similarities to those seen in eutherians, although the pattern of distribution of calbindin immunoreactive neurons was more uniform in the caudatoputamen of the echidna than in therians. These observations indicate that the same broad features of striatal and pallidal organization apply across all mammals and suggest that these common features may have arisen before the divergence of the monotreme and therian lineages. PMID:18821282

Ashwell, K W S



TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.  


Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidumrepeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors, including four catabolite activator protein homologues. In this work, sequences matching the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homologue, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator that influences tpr promoter activity. PMID:19432808

Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo



Genetic diversity in Treponema pallidum: implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes, similar to syphilis-causing Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, include T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, T. pallidum ssp. endemicum and Treponema carateum, which cause yaws, bejel and pinta, respectively. Genetic analyses of these pathogens revealed striking similarity among these bacteria and also a high degree of similarity to the rabbit pathogen, T. paraluiscuniculi, a treponeme not infectious to humans. Genome comparisons between pallidum and non-pallidum treponemes revealed genes with potential involvement in human infectivity, whereas comparisons between pallidum and pertenue treponemes identified genes possibly involved in the high invasivity of syphilis treponemes. Genetic variability within syphilis strains is considered as the basis of syphilis molecular epidemiology with potential to detect more virulent strains, whereas genetic variability within a single strain is related to its ability to elude the immune system of the host. Genome analyses also shed light on treponemal evolution and on chromosomal targets for molecular diagnostics of treponemal infections.

Smajs, David; Norris, Steven J.; Weinstock, George M.



Intraneuronal polyglucosan storage restricted to the lateral pallidum (Bielschowsky bodies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 19-year-old man who suffered from an athetoid form of cerebral palsy, a status marmoratus was found in both putamina at autopsy, as well as numerous intraneuronal pleomorphic PAS-positive deposits within the outer segment of the pallidum. The histological features of the deposits corresponded to those known as Bielschowsky bodies. Their histochemical properties were consistent with the presence of

A. Probst; P. Sandoz; Ch. Vanoni; J. U. Baumann




PubMed Central

A method for the direct cultivation of Treponema pallidum from human syphilitic lesions, by the employment of a solid medium, has been described. By means of it, three of the four strains worked with were successfully cultivated. The several pure cultures agree in morphological and cultural characters, grow only in the presence of sterile tissue under anaerobic conditions, and do not produce putrefactive odors. The morphology is typical under optimum cultural conditions; it becomes atypical when the conditions are unfavorable. In cultures, Treponema pallidum multiplies by longitudinal division. The process is usually symmetrical but occasionally appears to be asymmetrical. Inoculation of the pure cultures into the skin of two species of lower monkeys was followed by the production of lesions resembling the primary syphilitic lesion occurring in man and those caused in the monkey by inoculation of spirochætæ-containing serum from human sources. During the course of the positive inoculation in the monkey, the blood develops the property of giving a positive Wassermann reaction. Thus the relation of Treponema pallidum to this reaction is supported, and the identity of the cultivated strains with the species found in human syphilitic lesions established.

Noguchi, Hideyo



A redescripton of Lyrosoma pallidum (Eschscholtz) and distributional range extension of Lyrosoma Mannerheim (Coleoptera, Agyrtidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A redescription with illustrations of the species Lyrosoma pallidum and a key to the Korean species of the family Agyrtidae are provided. New distributional data, including a range extension, of the two Lyrosoma Mannerheim species are presented. Lyrosoma pallidum (Eschscholtz) is recorded for the first time in Korea.

Yoo, In-Seong; Sikes, Derek; Ahn, Kee-Jeong



Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum Potentiates Innate Immune Activation and Induces Gamma Interferon Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the interactions of live and lysed spirochetes with innate immune cells. THP-1 monocytoid cells were activated to comparable extents by live Borrelia burgdorferi and by B. burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum lysates but were poorly activated by live T. pallidum. Because THP-1 cells poorly internalized live spirochetes, we turned to an ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell system that

Meagan W. Moore; Adriana R. Cruz; Carson J. LaVake; Amanda L. Marzo; Christian H. Eggers; Juan C. Salazar; Justin D. Radolf



Distribution of glucose incorporated into macromolecular material by treponema pallidum.  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum was observed to incorporate glucose carbons into lipids, ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and protein. Only the glycerol portions of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol contained glucose-derived carbons. Incorporation of exogenous choline into phosphatidylcholine was detected. Glucose was incorporated into only the pentoses of nucleic acids. About 50% of the glucose incorporated into protein was present in only one amino acid, aspartate. Evidence suggests that aspartate synthesis could follow the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxalacetic acid by a guanosine 5'-diphosphate-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

Barbieri, J T; Austin, F E; Cox, C D



TprC/D (Tp0117/131), a Trimeric, Pore-Forming Rare Outer Membrane Protein of Treponema pallidum, Has a Bipartite Domain Structure  

PubMed Central

Identification of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been a longstanding objective of syphilis researchers. We recently developed a consensus computational framework that employs a battery of cellular localization and topological prediction tools to generate ranked clusters of candidate rare OMPs (D. L. Cox et al., Infect. Immun. 78:5178–5194, 2010). TP0117/TP0131 (TprC/D), a member of the T. pallidum repeat (Tpr) family, was a highly ranked candidate. Circular dichroism, heat modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning, and liposome incorporation confirmed that full-length, recombinant TprC (TprCFl) forms a ?-barrel capable of integrating into lipid bilayers. Moreover, TprCFl increased efflux of terbium-dipicolinic acid complex from large unilamellar vesicles and migrated as a trimer by blue-native PAGE. We found that in T. pallidum, TprC is heat modifiable, trimeric, expressed in low abundance, and, based on proteinase K accessibility and opsonophagocytosis assays, surface exposed. From these collective data, we conclude that TprC is a bona fide rare OMP as well as a functional ortholog of Escherichia coli OmpF. We also discovered that TprC has a bipartite architecture consisting of a soluble N-terminal portion (TprCN), presumably periplasmic and bound directly or indirectly to peptidoglycan, and a C-terminal ?-barrel (TprCC). Syphilitic rabbits generate antibodies exclusively against TprCC, while secondary syphilis patients fail to mount a detectable antibody response against either domain. The syphilis spirochete appears to have resolved a fundamental dilemma arising from its extracellular lifestyle, namely, how to enhance OM permeability without increasing its vulnerability to the antibody-mediated defenses of its natural human host.

Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star; Caimano, Melissa J.; Karanian, Carson; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.



Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.  


Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306

Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N



Involvement of the medial pallidum in focal myoclonic dystonia: A clinical and neurophysiological case study.  


We successfully treated a patient with familial myoclonic dystonia (FMD), which primarily affected his neck muscles, with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the medial pallidum, and investigated the role of the medial pallidum in FMD. A patient with FMD underwent bilateral implantation of DBS electrodes during which field potentials (FPs) in the medial pallidum and electromyograms (EMGs) from the affected neck muscles were recorded. The effects of high-frequency DBS to the medial pallidum on the FMD were also assessed by recording EMGs during and immediately after implantation, as well as 6 days and 8 weeks postoperatively. During spontaneous myoclonic episodes, increased FPs oscillating at 4 and 8 Hz were recorded from the medial pallidum; these correlated strongly with phasic EMG activity at the same frequencies in the contralateral affected muscles. The EMG activity was suppressed by stimulating the contralateral medial pallidum at 100 Hz during the operation and continuous bilateral DBS from an implanted stimulator abolished myoclonic activity even more effectively postoperatively. The phasic pallidal activity correlated with and led the myoclonic muscle activity, and the myoclonus was suppressed by bilateral pallidal DBS, suggesting that the medial pallidum was involved in the generation of the myoclonic activity. High-frequency DBS may suppress the myoclonus by desynchronising abnormal pallidal oscillations. This case study has significant clinical implications, because at present, there is no effective treatment for focal myoclonic dystonia. PMID:11921122

Liu, Xuguang; Griffin, Ivan C; Parkin, Simon G; Miall, R Christopher; Rowe, Jeremy G; Gregory, Ralph P; Scott, Richard B; Aziz, Tipu Z; Stein, John F



Treponema pallidum induces up-regulation of interstitial collagenase in human dermal fibroblasts.  


In this study we investigated the capability of Treponema pallidum to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts to produce interstitial collagenase (MMP-1), which is needed to degrade type I collagen, the most abundant component of the human dermis. When T. pallidum was added to human dermal fibroblast culture, both the amount of secreted MMP-1 and its mRNA levels were increased. Our results show that T. pallidum can stimulate host human fibroblasts to increase the synthesis of MMP-1, which may act as a virulence factor of the organism. PMID:12353706

Chung, Kee Yang; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Lee, Min Geol; Chang, Nam Soo; Lee, Jung Bock



Unique lipid composition of Treponema pallidum (Nichols virulent strain).  

PubMed Central

The lipid composition of Treponema pallidum (Nichols virulent strain) was determined after purification of the organisms from the infected testes of corticosteroid-treated rabbits by differential centrifugation, filtration through Nuclepore membranes, and sedimentation in Hypaque density gradients. The total lipids were comprised of 32.2% neutral lipids, mainly cholesterol, and 67.8% phospholipids consisting of phosphatidylcholine (32.1%), sphingomyelin (14.8%), cardiolipin (13.0%), phosphatidylethanolamine (6.2%), phosphatidylinositol-serine (1.2%), and lysophosphatidylcholine (0.4%). Monoglycosyldiglyceride, a glycolipid comprising 25 to 50% of thetotal lipid of all Treponema previously examined, was not detected. The fatty acid composition was similar but quntitatively distinct from that of the infected testes tissue. Images

Matthews, H M; Yang, T K; Jenkin, H M



21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in cultured rabbit cells by Treponema pallidum (Nichols).  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum partially inhibited the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein by rabbit cells in vitro. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was proportional to treponemal concentration and persisted during the period of exposure to T. pallidum. The toxic effect was not dependent on treponemal metabolism or on whole treponemes, since heat- and penicillin-killed treponemes and a cell-free sonicate of treponemes had similar toxicities. The toxic factor(s) was also detected in extracts of syphilitic rabbit testes but not in extracts of normal rabbit testes or testes inflamed by chemical means. The T. pallidum-derived toxic material had a molecular weight greater than 20,000 as determined by dialysis. Protein and DNA synthesis were most rapidly inhibited; RNA synthesis continued at normal rates for up to 2 h after exposure to treponemes. Protein synthesis or a necessary precursor of protein synthesis appeared to be the primary target of the T. pallidum toxin(s).

Wong, G H; Steiner, B M; Graves, S



TP0453, a Concealed Outer Membrane Protein of Treponema pallidum, Enhances Membrane Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer membrane of Treponema pallidum, the noncultivable agent of venereal syphilis, contains a paucity of protein(s) which has yet to be definitively identified. In contrast, the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria contain abundant immunogenic membrane-spanning -barrel proteins mainly involved in nutrient transport. The absence of orthologs of gram-negative porins and outer membrane nutrient-specific transport- ers in the T. pallidum

Karsten R. O. Hazlett; David L. Cox; Marc Decaffmeyer; Michael P. Bennett; Daniel C. Desrosiers; Carson J. La Vake; Morgan E. La Vake; Kenneth W. Bourell; Esther J. Robinson; Robert Brasseur; Justin D. Radolf



Fibronectin Binding to the Treponema pallidum Adhesin Protein Fragment rTp0483 on Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Past work has shown that Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, binds host fibronectin (FN). FN and other host proteins are believed to bind to rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of T. pallidum, and it is postulated that this interaction may facilitate cell attachment and mask antigenic targets on the surface. This research seeks to prepare a surface capable of mimicking the FN binding ability of T. pallidum in order to investigate the impact of FN binding with adsorbed Tp0483 on the host response to the surface. By understanding this interaction it may be possible to develop more effective treatments for infection and possibly mimic the stealth properties of the bacteria. Functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on0 gold were used to investigate rTp0483 and FN adsorption. Using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) rTp0483 adsorption and subsequent FN adsorption onto rTp0483 was determined to be higher on negatively charged carboxylate-terminated self-assembled monolayers (?COO? SAMs) compared to the other surfaces analyzed. Kinetic analysis of rTp0483 adsorption using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) supported this finding. Kinetic analysis of FN adsorption using SPR revealed a multi-step event, where the concentration of immobilized rTp0483 plays a role in FN binding. An examination of relative QCM dissipation energy compared to the shift in frequency showed a correlation between the physical properties of adsorbed rTp0483 and SAM surface chemistry. In addition, AFM images of rTp0483 on selected SAMs illustrated a preference of rTp0483 to bind as aggregates. Adsorption on ?COO? SAMs was more uniform across the surface, which may help further explain why FN bound more strongly. rTp0483 antibody studies suggested the involvement of amino acids 274–289 and 316–333 in binding between rTp0483 to FN, while a peptide blocking study only showed inhibition of binding with amino acids 316–333. Finally, surface adsorbed rTp0483 with FN bound significantly less anti-RGD and gelatin compared to FN adsorbed directly to ?COO? SAMs indicating that one or both binding regions may play a role in binding between rTp0483 and FN.

Dickerson, Matthew T.; Abney, Morgan B.; Cameron, Caroline E.; Knecht, Marc; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Anderson, Kimberly W.



Ventral pallidum mediates amygdala-evoked deficits in prepulse inhibition  

PubMed Central

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. It is defined as a reduction in magnitude of a startle response when a startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker “prepulse”. PPI has been found to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. As such, the neural substrates regulating PPI are of particular interest. Previous studies using lesions, selective blockade of NMDA receptors and pharmacological disinhibition have demonstrated that impairment of basolateral amygdala (BLA) function disrupts PPI. However, transient GABA-mediated inactivation of BLA has not been evaluated for effects on PPI. Furthermore, the downstream projection targets that mediate BLA-evoked disruptions of PPI have not been elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effect on PPI of bilateral and unilateral inactivation of BLA, by microinfusion of the GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol. We found that either bilateral or unilateral inactivation impaired PPI. Because unilateral inactivation was sufficient to impair PPI, we hypothesized that this was due to an indirect activation of a downstream target of BLA, the ventral pallidum (VP). Because VP inhibition normalizes PPI deficits evoked from nucleus accumbens (Kodsi & Swerdlow, 1994), we next tested the degree to which VP inhibition would normalize PPI deficits evoked from BLA. We unilaterally inactivated BLA with concurrent inactivation of VP and found that VP inactivation blocked BLA-evoked deficits in PPI. We suggest that BLA inactivation disrupts PPI through disinhibition of VP.

Forcelli, Patrick A.; West, Elizabeth A.; Murnen, Alice T.; Malkova, Ludise



Structural elucidation of polysaccharide fractions from brown seaweed Sargassum pallidum.  


The structural characteristics of two purified fractions of polysaccharides from Sargassum pallidum (SPS) were investigated in the present study. As results, the molecular weights of the two polysaccharide fractions, SPS-3-1 and SPS-3-2, were determined to be 5.87 and 7.25 kDa, respectively. SPS-3-1 was composed of glucose, mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 11.18:1.00:0.96, while SPS-3-2 was composed of fucose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.53:0.61:1.00:0.46:0.92. Both SPS-3-1 and SPS-3-2 exhibited the characteristics of polysaccharide in the frequency range of 4000-400 cm(-1) based on their Fourier-transform infrared spectra. Furthermore, the results of periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis suggested that SPS-3-2 was composed of (1?4)-linked fucopyranosyl backbone and (1?3)-linked galactopyranosyl, (1?3)-linked mannopyranosyl, (1?2)-linked xylopyranosyl and (1?6)-linked glucopyranosyl branch chains. PMID:23911498

Ye, Hong; Zhou, Chunhong; Li, Wei; Hu, Bing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong



Suitability of two seaweeds, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Sargassum pallidum, as feed for the abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of two algae species, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Sargassum pallidum, for use as food sources for the abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino was evaluated. Abalones were fed one of five experimental diets: 1) kelp Laminarijaponica; 2) G. lemaneiformis; 3) S. pallidum; 4) a mixed diet of L.japonica and G. lemaneiformis (1:1); and 5) a mixed diet of L. japonica

Zhanhui Qi; Hongmei Liu; Bin Li; Yuze Mao; Zengjie Jiang; Jihong Zhang; Jianguang Fang



Comparative modeling of class 1 lysyl tRNA synthetase from Treponema pallidum.  


Lysyl tRNA synthetases facilitate amino acylation and play a crucial role in the essential cellular process of translation. They are grouped into two distinct classes (class I and class II). Class I lysyl tRNA synthetase is considered as a drug target for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Comparative genome analysis shows the absence of its sequence homolog in eukaryotes. The structure of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from Treponema pallidum is unknown and the difficulties in the in vitro culturing of Treponema makes it non-trivial. We used the structural template of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from the archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii for modeling the Treponema pallidum lysyl tRNA synthetase structure. Thus, we propose the usefulness of the modeled class I lysyl tRNA synthetase for the design of suitable inhibitors towards the treatment of syphilis. PMID:17597860

Rao, Venkata Rao Dodaghatta Krishna; Ramanjeneyulu, Rallapalli; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara; Kumar, Chitta Suresh



Induction of cell fusion by a factor released by the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterokaryons and hybrid cells, which are extremely useful for research in cell biology, can be produced artificially by treating cells with either polyethylene glycol or certain inactivated viruses that alter the plasma membrane. We report here a novel cell-fusion inducing factor secreted by CK-8 strain cells of cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum. Treatment of other strains or other species of

Akiko Mizutani; Yugo Habata; Kaichiro Yanagisawa



Experimental syphilitic orchitis. Relationship between Treponema pallidum infection and testis synthesis of proteoglycans.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Treponema pallidum infection and the synthesis of proteoglycans by organ cultures of rabbit testes was investigated. Two proteoglycan fractions, large (CL-6B Kav 0.05) and small (Kav 0.25), that were not synthesized at detectable levels by cultures from rabbits infected with T. pallidum for 0 or 5 days, were produced by cultures from 10-, 15- and 20-day infected rabbits. The small proteoglycan appeared to be synthesized first because greater amounts of this fraction were detected in extracts of cultures from 10-day infected animals. The large proteoglycan fraction may have been induced directly by T. pallidum because increased synthesis correlated with maximal treponemal numbers, 15 days after infection. In contrast, the induction of the smaller proteoglycan did not appear to be directly related to numbers of elutable organisms. The proteoglycans synthesized between 10 and 20 days after infection were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) size and composition. The size of GAGs beta-eliminated from the proteoglycans generally increased over the 10-20-day infection period. Whereas the composition of the small proteoglycan fraction was largely unchanged during the 10-20-day period (45% chondroitin sulphate (CS), 55% dermatan sulphate (DS)), the amount of DS in the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction decreased from 50-20% during this period (CS 50-80%). Autoradiography studies revealed that increased proteoglycan synthesis in T. pallidum-infected testes was localized to cells lining the seminiferous tubules and to fibroblasts infiltrating peritubular spaces. Images Figure 5

Strugnell, R. A.; Kent, T.; Handley, C. J.; Faine, S.



Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible  

PubMed Central

It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

Harper, Kristin N.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Armelagos, George J.; Knauf, Sascha



TP0326, a Treponema pallidum ?-Barrel Assembly Machinery A (BamA) Ortholog and Rare Outer Membrane Protein  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Definitive identification of Treponema pallidum (Tp) rare outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has long eluded researchers. TP0326, the sole protein in Tp with sequence homology to a Gram-negative OMP, belongs to the BamA family of proteins essential for OM biogenesis. Structural modeling predicted that five polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains comprise the N-terminus of TP0326, while the C-terminus forms an 18-stranded amphipathic ?-barrel. Circular dichroism, heat-modifiability by SDS-PAGE, Triton X-114 phase partitioning and liposome incorporation supported these topological predictions and confirmed that the ?-barrel is responsible for the native protein's amphiphilicity. Expression analyses revealed that native TP0326 is expressed at low abundance, while a protease-surface accessibility assay confirmed surface exposure. Size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a modular Bam complex in Tp considerably larger than that of E. coli. Non-orthologous ancillary factors and self-association of TP0326 via its ?-barrel may both contribute to the Bam complex. Tp-infected rabbits mount a vigorous antibody response to both POTRA and ?-barrel portions of TP0326, whereas humans with secondary syphilis respond predominantly to POTRA. The syphilis spirochete appears to have devised a stratagem for harnessing the Bam pathway while satisfying its need to limit surface antigenicity.

Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star M; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cummings, Michael A. D.; Eshghi, Azad; Cameron, Caroline E.; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Radolf, Justin D.



Evaluation of the Recombinant Protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for Serodiagnosis of Syphilis.  


Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis. PMID:23945159

Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou



Detection by polymerase chain reaction of Treponema pallidum DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from neurosyphilis patients before and after antibiotic treatment.  

PubMed Central

A polymerase chain reaction with nested primer pairs based on the DNA sequence of the 39-kDa bmp gene of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is described. The method allowed the detection of purified T. pallidum DNA equivalent to the amount of DNA in a single bacterium and was specific for T. pallidum subspecies. After concentration of DNA, using diatomaceous earth, it was possible to detect about 100 treponemes in 1 ml of cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from a total of 29 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with neurosyphilis were tested for the presence of treponemal DNA before and at various intervals after intravenous treatment with penicillin. Prior to the penicillin treatment, we detected T. pallidum DNA in 5 of 7 patients with acute symptomatic neurosyphilis, in none of the 4 patients with chronic symptomatic neurosyphilis tested before treatment, and in 2 of 16 patients with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Unexpectedly, T. pallidum DNA was also often detected in cerebrospinal fluid long after intervenous treatment with penicillin, sometimes up to 3 years after therapy. Images

Noordhoek, G T; Wolters, E C; de Jonge, M E; van Embden, J D



Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins: analysis of mobility by freeze-fracture electron microscopy.  


Freeze-fracture and deep-etch electron microscopy were used to investigate the molecular architecture of the Treponema pallidum outer membrane (OM). Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of treponemes freshly harvested from rabbit testes revealed that the intramembranous particles (IMPs) in both the concave and convex OM leaflets were distributed into alternating areas of relatively high and low particle density; in many OM fractures, IMPs formed rows that ran either parallel to or obliquely across the fracture faces. Statistical analysis (runs test) confirmed that the IMPs were nonrandomly distributed in both OM leaflets. Examination of deep-etched specimens revealed that the particles observed in freeze-fractured OMs also were surface exposed. Combined analysis of deep-etched and cross-fractured treponemes revealed that the OM particles were located in regions of the OM away from the endoflagella and closely apposed to the cytoplasmic membrane-peptidoglycan complex. When treponemes were incubated for extended periods with heat-inactivated immune rabbit syphilitic serum, no alteration in the distribution of OM IMPs was detected. In further experiments, approximately 1:1 mixtures of T. pallidum and Escherichia coli or separate suspensions of the nonpathogenic Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter were fixed at 34 degrees C or after cooling to 0 degree C (to induce lateral phase separations that would aggregate IMPs). Only particles in the T. pallidum OM failed to aggregate in cells fixed at the lower temperature. The combined data suggest that the mobility of T. pallidum rare OM proteins is limited, perhaps as a result of interactions between their periplasmic domains and components of the peptidoglycan-cytoplasmic membrane complex. PMID:8132453

Bourell, K W; Schulz, W; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D



Cryo-Electron Tomography Elucidates the Molecular Architecture of Treponema pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete? †  

PubMed Central

Cryo-electron tomography (CET) was used to examine the native cellular organization of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. T. pallidum cells appeared to form flat waves, did not contain an outer coat and, except for bulges over the basal bodies and widening in the vicinity of flagellar filaments, displayed a uniform periplasmic space. Although the outer membrane (OM) generally was smooth in contour, OM extrusions and blebs frequently were observed, highlighting the structure's fluidity and lack of attachment to underlying periplasmic constituents. Cytoplasmic filaments converged from their attachment points opposite the basal bodies to form arrays that ran roughly parallel to the flagellar filaments along the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). Motile treponemes stably attached to rabbit epithelial cells predominantly via their tips. CET revealed that T. pallidum cell ends have a complex morphology and assume at least four distinct morphotypes. Images of dividing treponemes and organisms shedding cell envelope-derived blebs provided evidence for the spirochete's complex membrane biology. In the regions without flagellar filaments, peptidoglycan (PG) was visualized as a thin layer that divided the periplasmic space into zones of higher and lower electron densities adjacent to the CM and OM, respectively. Flagellar filaments were observed overlying the PG layer, while image modeling placed the PG-basal body contact site in the vicinity of the stator-P-collar junction. Bioinformatics and homology modeling indicated that the MotB proteins of T. pallidum, Treponema denticola, and Borrelia burgdorferi have membrane topologies and PG binding sites highly similar to those of their well-characterized Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori orthologs. Collectively, our results help to clarify fundamental differences in cell envelope ultrastructure between spirochetes and gram-negative bacteria. They also confirm that PG stabilizes the flagellar motor and enable us to propose that in most spirochetes motility results from rotation of the flagellar filaments against the PG.

Izard, Jacques; Renken, Christian; Hsieh, Chyong-Ere; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Dunham-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Gebhardt, Linda L.; Limberger, Ronald J.; Cox, David L.; Marko, Michael; Radolf, Justin D.



Fibronectin mediates Treponema pallidum cytadherence through recognition of fibronectin cell-binding domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies (1-5) suggest that an early event in the pathogenesis of syphilis is Treponema pallidum adherence to host cells (cytadherence), mediated by tip-like structures on virulent spirochetes. Biochemical-molecular studies have identified three treponemal outer envelope proteins as putative ligands respon- sible for surface parasitism (3, 6). These proteins are also highly immunogenic, as demonstrated by radioimmunoassays using sera from




Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum during a Local Syphilis Epidemic in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Melbourne, Australia  

PubMed Central

Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection of significant public health importance. Since 2000 there has been a marked increase in the number of cases of syphilis infections notified in Victoria, Australia, with the majority of cases occurring in men who have sex with men (MSM) and the highest incidence being in HIV-infected MSM. The molecular subtyping method described by Pillay et al. (A. Pillay et al., Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:408–414, 1998) has been used in this study to determine the diversity of T. pallidum subtypes circulating locally and to look for any relationship between T. pallidum subtypes and HIV status over a 6-year period (2004 to 2009). Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in 303 patient specimens (n = 3,652), and full subtyping profiles were obtained from 90 of these (from 88 patients). A total of 11 T. pallidum subtypes were identified: types 14e (28, 31.1%), 14d (15, 16.7%), 14k (13, 14.4%), 14p (12, 13.3%), 14i (7, 7.8%) 14b (6, 6.7%), 14l (5, 5.6%), and 12i, 13b, 13i, and 13e (1 each, 1.1%). This study showed a similar level of variation among circulating T. pallidum strains compared with that in other studies using the same methodology. A different mix of strains and different predominating strains have been found at each geographical study location, with type 14e emerging as the predominant local strain in Victoria. There was no detectable trend between T. pallidum subtypes and the specimen collection site or stage of syphilis (where known), nor was there any relationship between particular strains and HIV status.

Ryan, Norbert; Fyfe, Janet; Leslie, David E.



[Recombinant expression of the fusion antigen based on Treponema pallidum TpN17 and TpN47 epitope peptides and establishment and application of the associated ELISA].  


Using recombinant TpNs proteins of Treponema pallidum as antigens, ELISAs are proved to be of higher sensitivity and specificity. However, they can be further increased by using multiple TpNs antigens. According to the epitope analysis, we firstly used linking primers PCRs to obtain an artificial fusion gene segment tpE17-47 containing epitopes of both TpN17 and TpN47. Subsequently, we conducted the prokaryotic expression systems of entire tpN17 and tpN47 genes and tpE17-47 fusion gene. SDS-PAGE analysis and BioRad Gel Image Analysis System showed that the recombinant proteins rTpN17, rTpN47 and rTpE17-47 expressed stably, with 36%, 20% and 28% yields of total bacterial protein, respectively. After purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, all the three recombinant proteins could be recognized by T. pallidum antibody positive sera from syphilis patients. The positive rate of rTpE17-47-ELISA for detecting serum specimens in clinically 630 cases with syphilis was 98.6%. This rate was slightly higher than that by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) (97.9%) (P > 0.05), but significantly higher than those by rTpN17-ELISA (83.8%), rTpN47-ELISA (83.3%) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (72.1%) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, both ELISAs and TPPA for detecting the serum specimens in 25 cases with SLE, 36 cases with RA and 250 healthy cases were all negative. RPR showed positive in 1 case with SLE, 2 cases with RA and 2 healthy cases. This could be a novel serological screening or diagnostic method of syphilis with advantages of quickness, convenience, safety, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19938456

Sun, Aihua; Fan, Xingli; Shen, Xiangdi; Tang, Renxian; Yan, Jie



Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Strains Nichols and SS14: Correction of Sequencing Errors Resulted in Increased Separation of Syphilis Treponeme Subclusters  

PubMed Central

Background Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The genomes of TPA strains Nichols and SS14 were resequenced using the 454 and Illumina sequencing methods that have a combined average coverage higher than 90x. In the TPA strain Nichols genome, 134 errors were identified (25 substitutions and 109 indels), and 102 of them affected protein sequences. In the TPA SS14 genome, a total of 191 errors were identified (85 substitutions and 106 indels) and 136 of them affected protein sequences. A set of new intrastrain heterogenic regions in the TPA SS14 genome were identified including the tprD gene, where both tprD and tprD2 alleles were found. The resequenced genomes of both TPA Nichols and SS14 strains clustered more closely with related strains (i.e. strains belonging to same syphilis treponeme subcluster). At the same time, groups of Nichols-like and SS14-like strains were found to be more distantly related. Conclusion/Significance We identified errors in 11.5% of all annotated genes and, after correction, we found a significant impact on the predicted proteomes of both Nichols and SS14 strains. Corrections of these errors resulted in protein elongations, truncations, fusions and indels in more than 11% of all annotated proteins. Moreover, it became more evident that syphilis is caused by treponemes belonging to two separate genetic subclusters.

Strouhal, Michal; Cejkova, Darina; Zobanikova, Marie; Mikalova, Lenka; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Smajs, David



Evaluation of antioxidant and immunity-enhancing activities of Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract in gastric cancer rats.  


The effect of Sargassum pallidum (brown seaweed) aqueous extract on the immunity function and antioxidant activities in was studied gastric cancer rats. Treatment with Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract at oral doses 400, 600 or 800 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against N-methyl-N?-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced immunity damage and oxidative injury by enhancing serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels, preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa. It can be concluded that Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract may enhance the immunity and antioxidant activities in gastric cancer rats. PMID:22785269

Zhang, Rui-Li; Luo, Wen-Da; Bi, Tie-Nan; Zhou, Shen-Kang



A longitudinal evaluation of Treponema pallidum PCR testing in early syphilis  

PubMed Central

Background Syphilis is a growing public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. Rapid and accurate detection of syphilis is vital to ensure patients and their contacts receive timely treatment and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods We evaluated a PCR assay for the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum using swabs of suspected early syphilis lesions in longitudinally assessed MSM. Results We tested 260 MSM for T pallidum by PCR on 288 occasions: 77 (26.7%) had early syphilis that was serologically confirmed at baseline or within six weeks, and 211 (73.3%) remained seronegative for syphilis. Of 55 men with primary syphilis, 49 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% CI: 77.8%-95.9%) and a specificity of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.5%-99.9%). Of 22 men with secondary syphilis, 11 were PCR positive, giving a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI: 28.2%-71.8%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 66.4%-71.8%). Of the 77 syphilis cases, 43 (56%) were HIV positive and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test did not vary by HIV status. The PCR test was able to detect up to five (10%) primary infections that were initially seronegative, including one HIV positive man with delayed seroconversion to syphilis (72 to 140 days) and one HIV positive man who did not seroconvert to syphilis over 14 months follow-up. Both men had been treated for syphilis within a week of the PCR test. Conclusions T pallidum PCR is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of primary syphilis, particularly where a serological response has yet to develop.



Striatal and ventral pallidum dynorphin concentrations are markedly increased in human chronic cocaine users  

PubMed Central

Summary Interest in development of therapeutics targeting brain neuropeptide systems for treatment of cocaine addiction (e.g., ? opioid agonists) is based on animal data showing interactions between the neuropeptides, brain dopamine, and cocaine. In this autopsied brain study, our major objective was to establish by radioimmunoassay whether levels of dynorphin and other neuropeptides (e.g. metenkephalin, neurotensin and substance P) are increased in the dopamine-rich caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens of human chronic cocaine users (n=12) vs. matched control subjects (n=17) as predicted by animal findings. Changes were limited to markedly increased dynorphin immunoreactivity in caudate (+92%), decreased caudate neurotensin (?49%), and a trend for increased dynorphin (+75%) in putamen. In other examined subcortical/cerebral cortical areas dynorphin levels were normal with the striking exception of the ventral pallidum (+346% ), whereas cerebral cortical metekephalin levels were generally decreased and neurotensin variably changed. Our finding that, in contradistinction to animal data, the other striatal neuropeptides were not increased in human cocaine users could be explained by differences in pattern and contingency between human drug users and the animal models. However, the human dynorphin observations parallel well animal findings and suggest that the dynorphin system is upregulated manifested as elevated neuropeptide levels after chronic drug exposure in striatum and ventral pallidum. Our postmortem brain data suggest involvement of striatal dynorphin systems in human cocaine users and should add to the interest in the testing of new dynorphin-related therapeutics for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

Frankel, Paul S.; Alburges, Mario E.; Bush, Lloyd; Hanson, Glen R.; Kish, Stephen J.



Structural, Bioinformatic, and In Vivo Analyses of Two Treponema pallidum Lipoproteins Reveal a Unique TRAP Transporter  

SciTech Connect

Treponema pallidum, the bacterial agent of syphilis, is predicted to encode one tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter (TRAP-T). TRAP-Ts typically employ a periplasmic substrate-binding protein (SBP) to deliver the cognate ligand to the transmembrane symporter. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes encoding the putative TRAP-T components from T. pallidum, tp0957 (the SBP), and tp0958 (the symporter), are in an operon with an uncharacterized third gene, tp0956. We determined the crystal structure of recombinant Tp0956; the protein is trimeric and perforated by a pore. Part of Tp0956 forms an assembly similar to those of 'tetratricopeptide repeat' (TPR) motifs. The crystal structure of recombinant Tp0957 was also determined; like the SBPs of other TRAP-Ts, there are two lobes separated by a cleft. In these other SBPs, the cleft binds a negatively charged ligand. However, the cleft of Tp0957 has a strikingly hydrophobic chemical composition, indicating that its ligand may be substantially different and likely hydrophobic. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant versions of Tp0956 and Tp0957 established that these proteins associate avidly. This unprecedented interaction was confirmed for the native molecules using in vivo cross-linking experiments. Finally, bioinformatic analyses suggested that this transporter exemplifies a new subfamily of TPATs (TPR-protein-associated TRAP-Ts) that require the action of a TPR-containing accessory protein for the periplasmic transport of a potentially hydrophobic ligand(s).

Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Goldberg, Martin; Schuck, Peter; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V. (NIH); (UTSMC)



Functional mapping of the human globus pallidus: contrasting effect of stimulation in the internal and external pallidum in Parkinson's disease.  


Our objective was to elaborate a functional map of the globus pallidus by correlating the intrapallidal localization of quadripolar electrodes implanted in parkinsonian patients with the clinical effect of the stimulation of each contact. Five patients with L-DOPA-responsive Parkinson's disease presenting severe motor fluctuations and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias were treated by continuous bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus. The effects of stimulation on parkinsonian disability were tested through each of the four stimulating contacts of each electrode. The anatomical localization of each of the stimulating contacts was determined by confronting the pre- and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging with the anatomical atlas of Schaltenbrand and Wharen.(34) The registration procedure comprised digitization of the atlas, the use of deformation tools to fit atlas sections with magnetic resonance imaging sections, and three-dimensional reconstruction of both the atlas and the magnetic resonance imaging sections. Analysis of the 32 stimulating contacts tested did not reveal a somatotopic organization in the pallidal region investigated but demonstrated that high-frequency stimulation had contrasting effects depending on whether it was applied to the external or the internal pallidum. Akinesia was improved by stimulation of the external pallidum but worsened by stimulation of the internal pallidum. In contrast, parkinsonian rigidity was improved by stimulation of either part of the pallidum. The areas in the internal pallidum where stimulation worsened akinesia were those in which stimulation reduced or suppressed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Conversely, stimulation applied to the external pallidum induced dyskinesias. The fact that rigidity was improved by stimulation of the internal and external pallidum suggests that the neuronal bases of parkinsonian rigidity are different from those of akinesia and dyskinesias. The effect on akinesia and dyskinesias is in agreement with the current model of basal ganglia circuitry(10) if high-frequency stimulation activates rather than inhibits pallidal neurons, a possibility which is very likely since there are marked anatomical, biochemical and electrophysiological differences between the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus. This study demonstrates that high-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus in parkinsonian patients has contrasting effects depending on whether it is applied to the external or the internal part of this nucleus. The effect on akinesia and dyskinesias suggests that stimulation activates pallidal neurons, a result which challenges the generally accepted concept that high-frequency stimulation inactivates neurons in the region stimulated. PMID:11068138

Yelnik, J; Damier, P; Bejjani, B P; Francois, C; Gervais, D; Dormont, D; Arnulf, I; M Bonnet, A; Cornu, P; Pidoux, B; Agid, Y



Comparison of the Serodia Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination, Captia Syphilis-G, and SpiroTek Reagin II Tests with Standard Test Techniques for Diagnosis of Syphilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP), a treponemal test, with two other treponemal tests, the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay and the Captia Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay, using 390 clinical serum samples. We also compared two nontrepo- nemal tests, the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) card test and the SpiroTek Reagin II test. Agreements of the MHA-TP





PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide colocalizes with GABA, dynorphin, D1 receptors, and substance P in some neurons in the nucleus accumbens. One of the main nuclei that receive accumbal efferents is the ventral pallidum, and both dynorphin and substance P have been shown to be present in the cell bodies and terminals of this projection. Thus, we investigated whether CART peptide is also present in the ventral pallidum in terminals that originate in the accumbens. The anterograde tracer PHA-L colocalized with CART in neuronal processes in the ventral pallidum when injected into the nucleus accumbens. Also, CART colocalized with the retrograde tracer r-BDA in accumbens cell bodies after the tracer was injected into the ventral pallidum. Using electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, we examined CART terminals in the ventral pallidum and found that CART-immunoreactive terminals formed symmetric synapses consistent with inhibitory GABAergic synapses. These synapses closely resemble GABAergic synapses in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, another nucleus that receives some CART–containing accumbal efferents. Lastly, we found that intra-pallidal injection of CART 55–102 inhibited cocaine-induced locomotion, indicating that CART peptide in the ventral pallidum can have functional effects.

Hubert, G. W.; Manvich, D. F.; Kuhar, M. J.



Cloning and sequencing of a Treponema pallidum gene encoding a 31.3-kilodalton endoflagellar subunit (FlaB2).  

PubMed Central

A library of Treponema pallidum DNA was established in the direct selection vector pUN121. Six clones carrying a gene coding for a 33-kilodalton T. pallidum flagellum subunit were identified by colony hybridization with an oligodeoxynucleotide probe based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this subunit. An open reading frame of 286 amino acids with the expected N-terminal sequence and absence of cysteine residues was identified. The deduced protein had a calculated molecular weight of 31.3 kilodaltons. We propose to name this flagellar subunit FlaB2. FlaB2 shows a significant amino acid homology with flagellins of several remotely related bacterial species. This homology was most pronounced corresponding to the C-terminal and N-terminal parts of the protein, whereas the central region was variable. Images

Pallesen, L; Hindersson, P



Optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen for the survival of virulent Treponema pallidum under conditions of low oxidation-reduction potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maintenance medium with a low oxidation-reduction (redox) potential, when gently bubbled with 5% oxygen in nitrogen or with air for various periods of time, gave a range of dissolved oxygen concentrations between 1.6 and 5.8 micrograms\\/l. Virulent Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain) inoculated into these media were assayed 24 and 48 hours later for motility and virulence and were compared

S Graves; T Billington



Biophysical and Bioinformatic Analyses Implicate the Treponema pallidum Tp34 Lipoprotein (Tp0971) in Transition Metal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Metal ion homeostasis is a critical function of many integral and peripheral membrane proteins. The genome of the etiologic agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, is compact and devoid of many metabolic enzyme genes. Nevertheless, it harbors genes coding for homologs of several enzymes that typically require either iron or zinc. The product of the tp0971 gene of T. pallidum, designated Tp34, is a periplasmic lipoprotein that is thought to be tethered to the inner membrane of this organism. Previous work on a water-soluble (nonacylated) recombinant version of Tp34 established that this protein binds to Zn2+, which, like other transition metal ions, stabilizes the dimeric form of the protein. In this study, we employed analytical ultracentrifugation to establish that four transition metal ions (Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) readily induce the dimerization of Tp34; Cu2+ (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 1.7 ?M) and Zn2+ (EC50 = 6.2 ?M) were the most efficacious of these ions. Mutations of the crystallographically identified metal-binding residues hindered the ability of Tp34 to dimerize. X-ray crystallography performed on crystals of Tp34 that had been incubated with metal ions indicated that the binding site could accommodate the metals examined. The findings presented herein, coupled with bioinformatic analyses of related proteins, point to Tp34's likely role in metal ion homeostasis in T. pallidum.

Brautigam, Chad A.; Deka, Ranjit K.; Ouyang, Zhiming; Machius, Mischa; Knutsen, Gregory; Tomchick, Diana R.



Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.  

PubMed Central

A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B



Extracts from Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts as modulators of blood platelet adhesion and aggregation.  


A growing number of reports indicate that some species of clover (Trifolium) may have remarkable medical importance; however, the effects of these plants on blood platelets and hemostasis are inadequately recognized. This work was designed to study the effects of Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts on the functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were preincubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pallidum (phenolic fraction and clovamide fraction) and T. scabrum (phenolic fraction) at the final concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50?µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin (0.1?U/ml), thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP; 20?µM), or adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 1?µM) were used. The effects of Trifolium extracts on adhesion of blood platelets to fibrinogen and collagen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Platelet aggregation was monitored on a dual-channel Chronolog aggregometer. In these studies, we also compared the action of tested plant extracts with the effects of another antiplatelet plant-derived compound - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The performed assays demonstrated that the tested extracts might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of all tested extracts on adhesion of thrombin-stimulated platelets to collagen was found. Both extracts from T. pallidum and from T. scabrum reduced the thrombin-induced platelet adhesion to fibrinogen. Furthermore, in the presence of all three extracts, the platelet aggregation induced by thrombin was slightly inhibited. Our results also indicate that the tested plant extracts (at the highest concentrations used of 50?µg/ml), similar to purified resveratrol, inhibit selected steps of platelet activation stimulated by both proteolytic (thrombin) and nonproteolytic agonists (TRAP or ADP). In the comparative studies, T. pallidum and T. scabrum extracts was not found to be more effective antiaggregatory factor, than resveratrol. Extracts from T. pallidum and T. scabrum aerial parts reveal antiplatelet properties: the antiadhesive effect was similar to that of the reference compound resveratrol, whereas the antiaggregant effect was less marked. The results obtained suggest that these plants may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases, observed in menopausal or postmenopausal women. PMID:22646735

Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna



Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.  


Infections can act as environmental triggers that induce or promote systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. New technologies, developed recently, enable simultaneous assessment of multiple antibodies. Antibodies to specific infectious agents may shed light into the mechanisms of induction of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of seropositivity and the titers of antibodies to bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents in SLE patients compared with non-autoimmune controls. Sera from 260 individuals (120 SLE patients and 140 controls) were tested by the BioPlex 2200 Multiplexed Immunoassay method (BioRad) for the prevalence and titers of antibodies to eight infectious agents (Epstein-Barr virus: early antigen IgG, nuclear antigen IgG, viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM, heterophile IgM; cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM; Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM; rubella IgG and IgM; Treponema pallidum TPr15G, TPr17G, TPr47G; herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 IgG; hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B core antibodies. Cytomegalovirus IgM and Epstein-Barr virus early antigen IgG (but not other Epstein-Barr virus antigens) were significantly more prevalent in SLE patients than in controls. Conversely, positive titers of hepatitis B core and rubella IgG antibodies were less prevalent in the SLE patients than in controls. Other differences in titer positivity prevalence were not detected between patients and controls. The titers of the cytomegalovirus IgM, Toxoplasma IgG, Epstein-Barr virus early antigen, and viral capsid antigen IgG antibodies were significantly higher in SLE compared with controls. Our data suggest the importance of previous exposure to infectious agents in the induction and the prevention of SLE. PMID:19880558

Berkun, Y; Zandman-Goddard, G; Barzilai, O; Boaz, M; Sherer, Y; Larida, B; Blank, M; Anaya, J-M; Shoenfeld, Y



A role for the ventral pallidum in context-induced and primed reinstatement of alcohol seeking.  


The ventral pallidum (VP) is a major target of projections from the nucleus accumbens, and has been implicated in the reinstatement of psychostimulant seeking as part of a cortical-striatal-pallidal 'final common pathway' for relapse. Here, we studied the role of the VP in context-induced and primed reinstatement of alcoholic beer seeking, using a combination of microinjections and tract tracing studies. In experiment 1, rats were trained to respond to alcoholic beer in one context (A), and then extinguished in a second context (B), prior to testing for reinstatement (ABA renewal) and extinction (ABB). VP microinjection of the ?-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist CTAP prevented reinstatement. In experiment 2, VP microinjection of CTAP also prevented the primed reinstatement of alcoholic beer seeking after rats were trained, extinguished, and tested in the same context. In experiment 3, we employed retrograde neural tract tracing together with c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify the VP afferents recruited during context-induced reinstatement of alcoholic beer seeking. There was evidence for the recruitment of accumbens core?VP, basolateral amygdala?VP and paraventricular thalamus?VP pathways during context-induced reinstatement. These results indicate that the VP MORs are critical for context-induced reinstatement, and that the VP receives inputs from a number of regions known to be important in reinstatement of drug seeking. PMID:23773238

Perry, Christina J; McNally, Gavan P



Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts in the protection of human plasma components.  


Clovers (genus: Trifolium) have been used in traditional medicine by many cultures, but the biological activity of the most of these plants still remains unknown. The aim of our in vitro study was to assess the antioxidative action of phenolic extracts from aerial parts of Trifolium scabrum and Trifolium pallidum in human blood plasma, exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study we also demonstrate, for the first time the effects of the tested extracts on coagulative properties and fibrinolytic activity of blood plasma. The protective properties of the examined extracts (0.5-50 ?g/ml) against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress were estimated by the measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, thiol groups and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. The extracts considerably prevented the oxidative and nitrative damage to plasma proteins. Even the lowest doses of the Trifolium extracts (0.5 ?g/ml) were able to markedly reduce 3-nitrotyrosine formation (by about 50%) and to increase the level of -SH groups (by about 30%), in comparison to the plasma exposed to ONOO(-) in the absence of the extracts. The protective action of all the used concentrations of the Trifolium extracts in the prevention of lipid peroxidation was also found. The tested extracts influenced neither the coagulative properties nor fibrinolytic activity of plasma. Moreover, the extracts were able to significantly reduce the inhibitory effect of ONOO(-) on fibrinolytic activity of plasma (assessed with the use of a chromogenic substrate for plasmin). PMID:23335023

Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna



Detection of the Treponema pallidum gene and variation of treponemal DNA load before and after therapy.  


We explored a genetic detection method for Treponema pallidum (TP) in the peripheral blood of infected patients to compare the loads of treponemal DNA before and after therapy and to see if this new technique enabled assessment of therapeutic effect and detection of serum resistance. Polymerase chain reaction was used for a qualitative detection of TP DNA in peripheral blood and then a semiquantitative method was adopted to estimate the load of TP DNA in blood, both before and after treatment of syphilis. Among 30 untreated patients, three cases were TP DNA-positive. Among 42 treated patients with demonstrated serum resistance, three cases were TP DNA-positive. Five cases in which the rapid plasma reagin had become negative had no detectable TP DNA in their peripheral blood. The TP DNA load in blood after treatment was significantly lower than that before therapy. We conclude that the detection of TP DNA in peripheral blood of TP-infected patients is not yet sufficiently sensitive, but we observed that TP DNA load declines significantly after treatment. PMID:22581899

Wang, L N; Li, J; Huang, W; Zheng, H Y; Zuo, Y G; Liu, Y X; Wang, X F; Liu, X R



Evidence for a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein gene (mcp1) that encodes a putative sensory transducer in virulent Treponema pallidum.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and histopathological manifestations of syphilis and the invasive behavior of Treponema pallidum in tissue culture systems reflect the propensity for treponemes to migrate through skin, hematogenously disseminate, and invade targeted tissues. Treponemal motility is believed to be essential to this process and thereby an important facet of syphilis pathogenesis. By analogy with other bacterial pathogens, it is plausible that treponemal motility and tissue invasion are modulated by sensory transduction events associated with chemotactic responses. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence in T. pallidum of accessory molecules typically associated with sensory transduction events involving methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Intrinsic radiolabeling of T. pallidum in vitro with L-[methyl-3H] methionine revealed one methylated treponemal polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a highly conserved C-terminal domain within Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli MCPs was used in Southern blotting of T. pallidum DNA to identify and subsequently clone a putative T. pallidum MCP gene (mcp1). Computer analyses predicted a near-consensus promoter upstream of mcp1, and primer extension analysis employing T. pallidum RNA revealed a transcriptional initiation site. T. pallidum mcp1 encoded a 579-amino-acid (64.6-kDa) polypeptide which was highly homologous to at least 69 other known or putative sensory transducer proteins, with the highest degrees of homology existing between the C terminus of mcp1 and the C-terminal (signaling) domains of the other bacterial MCPs. Other salient features of Mcp1 included (i) six potential membrane-spanning domains at the N terminus, (ii) two predicted alpha-helical coiled coil regions containing at least three putative methylation sites, and (iii) homologies with two ligand-binding domains (LI-1 and LI-2) of the E. coli MCPs Trg and Tar. This study is the first to provide both metabolic and genetic evidence for an MCP sensory transducer in T. pallidum. The combined findings prompt key questions regarding the relationship(s) among sensory transduction, regulation of endoflagellar rotation, and chemotactic responses (in particular, the role of glucose) during virulence expression by T. pallidum.

Hagman, K E; Porcella, S F; Popova, T G; Norgard, M V



Monoclonal antibodies and immobilized antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies in both their free and immobilized state have been the object of considerable industrial and academic interest.\\u000a A variety of methods are used for preparing and immobilizing antibodies. Applications for monoclonal antibodies include the\\u000a preparation of therapeutics, diagnostics, and in affinity fractionation. Recent US patents on monoclonal and immobilized antibodies\\u000a and scientific literature on monoclonal antibodies are surveyed. A

Robert J. Linhardt; C. W. Abell; R. M. Denney; B. W. Altrock; R. Auerbach; S. D. Bernal; R. E. Canfield; P. H. Ehrlich; W. R. Moyle; T. S. Chan; T. W. Chang; N. T. Chang; J. A. Cidlowski; M. D. Viceps; R. J. Cote; D. M. Morrissey; A. N. Houghton; E. J. Beattie; H. F. Oettgen; L. J. Old; C. M. Croce; R. S. Cubicciotti; A. E. Karu; R. M. Krauss; J. S. Cullor; A. Deutsch; H. Brandwein; H. Platt; D. M. Hunter; A. Dubitsky; S. M. Durham; F. A. Dolbeare; J. W. Gray; G. R. Dreesman; C. E. Kendall; J. C. Egrie; A. R. Frackelton; H. N. Eisen; A. H. Ross; S. Gay; G. Geirnaert; J. E. Geltosky; E. H. Goldberg; E. Goldwasser; C. Kavinsky; T. L. Weiss; H. G. Gratzner; B. Hampar; M. Zweig; S. D. Showalter; H. H. Handley; M. C. Glassy; Y. Hagiwara; H. Hagiwara; C. M. Huang; S. N. Cohen; J. V. Hughes; E. M. Scolnick; J. E. Tomassini; R. Jefferis; J. Steensgaard; H. S. Kaplan; N. N. H. Teng; K. S. Earn; R. F. Calvo; L. Kass; J. R. Kettman; M. V. Norgard; M. B. Khazaeli; W. H. Beierwaltes; B. G. England; P. C. Kung; G. Goldstein; L. Lanier; J. Phillips; N. L. Warner; J. W. Larrick; A. R. Raubitschek; K. E. Truitt; H. Lazarus; J. F. Schwaber; J. Lewicki; C. Lewis; J. V. Olander; W. R. Tolbert; E. L. Milford; C. B. Carpenter; J. M. Paradysz; D. F. Mosher; J. L. Mulshine; J. D. Minna; K. A. Murray; D. M. Neville; R. J. Youle; M. Nicolson; I. Pastan; M. C. Willingham; D. J. Fitzgerald; A. Pucci; A. M. Smithyman; M. B. Slade; P. W. French; G. Wijffels; C. S. Pukel; K. O. Lloyd; L. R. Travassos; W. G. Dippold; R. P. Reckel; J. L. Harris; R. Wellerson; S. M. Shaw; P. M. Kaplan; E. L. Reinherz; S. F. Schlossman; S. C. Mener; J. Sakamoto; C. C. Cordon; E. Friedman; C. L. Finstad; W. E. Enker; M. R. Melamed; J. F. Oettgen; P. J. Scannon; L. E. Spitler; H. M. Lee; R. T. Kawahata; R. P. Mischak; J. Schlom; D. Colcher; M. Nuti; P. H. Hand; F. Austin; G. D. Shockman; D. E. Jackson; W. Wong; Z. Steplewski; H. Koprowski; M. Herlyn; M. Strand; I. S. Trowbridge; D. L. Urdal; C. J. March; S. K. Dower; J. R. Wands; V. R. Zurawski; C. A. White; R. Dulbecco; W. R. Allen; E. C. Arnold; M. Flasher; H. H. Freedman; T. D. Heath; P. Shek; D. Papahadjopoulos; M. Ikeda; S. Sakamoto; K. Suzuki; M. Kuboyama; Y. Harada; A. Kawashiri; E. Takahashi; H. S. Lee; S. Margel; R. C. Nowinski; A. S. Hoffman; J. W. Peterson; K. B. Platt; D. E. Reed; F. X. Real; M. J. Mattes; P. O. Livingston; A. Rembaum; R. C. K. Yen; R. Rosenstein; B. Schneider



Differential roles of ventral pallidum subregions during cocaine self-administration behaviors.  


The ventral pallidum (VP) is necessary for drug-seeking behavior. VP contains ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) subregions, which receive projections from the nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. To date no study has investigated the behavioral functions of the VPdl and VPvm subregions. To address this issue, we investigated whether changes in firing rate (FR) differed between VP subregions during four events: approaching toward, responding on, or retreating away from a cocaine-reinforced operandum and a cocaine-associated cue. Baseline FR and waveform characteristics did not differ between subregions. VPdl neurons exhibited a greater change in FR compared with VPvm neurons during approaches toward, as well as responses on, the cocaine-reinforced operandum. VPdl neurons were more likely to exhibit a similar change in FR (direction and magnitude) during approach and response than VPvm neurons. In contrast, VPvm firing patterns were heterogeneous, changing FRs during approach or response alone, or both. VP neurons did not discriminate cued behaviors from uncued behaviors. No differences were found between subregions during the retreat, and no VP neurons exhibited patterned changes in FR in response to the cocaine-associated cue. The stronger, sustained FR changes of VPdl neurons during approach and response may implicate VPdl in the processing of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior via projections to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. In contrast, the heterogeneous firing patterns of VPvm neurons may implicate VPvm in facilitating mesocortical structures with information related to the sequence of behaviors predicting cocaine self-infusions via projections to mediodorsal thalamus and ventral tegmental area. PMID:22806483

Root, David H; Ma, Sisi; Barker, David J; Megehee, Laura; Striano, Brendan M; Ralston, Carla M; Fabbricatore, Anthony T; West, Mark O



Comparative Genome Analysis of the Pathogenic Spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum  

PubMed Central

A comparative analysis of the predicted protein sequences encoded in the complete genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum provides a number of insights into evolutionary trends and adaptive strategies of the two spirochetes. A measure of orthologous relationships between gene sets, termed the orthology coefficient (OC), was developed. The overall OC value for the gene sets of the two spirochetes is about 0.43, which means that less than one-half of the genes show readily detectable orthologous relationships. This emphasizes significant divergence between the two spirochetes, apparently driven by different biological niches. Different functional categories of proteins as well as different protein families show a broad distribution of OC values, from near 1 (a perfect, one-to-one correspondence) to near 0. The proteins involved in core biological functions, such as genome replication and expression, typically show high OC values. In contrast, marked variability is seen among proteins that are involved in specific processes, such as nutrient transport, metabolism, gene-specific transcription regulation, signal transduction, and host response. Differences in the gene complements encoded in the two spirochete genomes suggest active adaptive evolution for their distinct niches. Comparative analysis of the spirochete genomes produced evidence of gene exchanges with other bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic hosts that seem to have occurred at different points in the evolution of the spirochetes. Examples are presented of the use of sequence profile analysis to predict proteins that are likely to play a role in pathogenesis, including secreted proteins that contain specific protein-protein interaction domains, such as von Willebrand A, YWTD, TPR, and PR1, some of which hitherto have been reported only in eukaryotes. We tentatively reconstruct the likely evolutionary process that has led to the divergence of the two spirochete lineages; this reconstruction seems to point to an ancestral state resembling the symbiotic spirochetes found in insect guts.

Subramanian, G.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Aravind, L.



Thyroid Antibodies  


... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... be done in my doctor's office? 1. Are thyroid antibodies part of routine testing? No, they are ...


Organization, Transcription, and Expression of the 59Region of thefla Operon ofTreponema phagedenisandTreponema pallidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alocusencodingpolypeptidesassociatedwithflagellarstructureandfunctionwasidentified,sequenced,and characterized in Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pallidum. This locus includes homologs of the FlgD, FlgE, MotA, MotB, FliL, and FliM polypeptides found in Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis. These polypeptides are extensively conserved between the two treponemes. Several additional polypeptides of un- known function, including Tap1, located upstream of FlgD, and ORF4, located between FlgE and MotA, were alsoidentified.TranscriptionanalysisusingRNAPCRindicatedthatthesegenesarelikelytranscribedaspart




Rate of clearance of virulent Treponema pallidum (Nichols) from the blood stream of normal, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-treated, and immune syphilitic rabbits.  

PubMed Central

The rate of clearance of virulent Treponema pallidum (Nichols) from the blood stream of normal rabbits and rabbits previously treated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG was similar, there being treponemes still circulating 8 h after intravenous inoculation. In contrast, immune syphilitic rabbits cleared the virulent treponemes within 1 to 2 hours. Rabbits with passive humoral immunity to T. pallidum (after the transfer of 70 ml of immune serum) showed a similar clearance rate to that of the immune rabbits. Rabbits previously treated with BCG and with passive humoral immunity did not show a synergistic enhanced clearance rate, it being similar to that of immune rabbits.

Graves, S



Comparison of the locomotor-activating effects of bicuculline infusions into the preoptic area and ventral pallidum.  


Ambulatory locomotion in the rodent is robustly activated by unilateral infusions into the basal forebrain of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline and picrotoxin. The present study was carried out to better localize the neuroanatomical substrate(s) underlying this effect. To accomplish this, differences in total locomotion accumulated during a 20-min test period following bicuculline versus saline infusions in male Sprague-Dawley rats were calculated, rank ordered and mapped on a diagram of basal forebrain transposed from immunoprocessed sections. The most robust locomotor activation was elicited by bicuculline infusions clustered in rostral parts of the preoptic area. Unilateral infusions of bicuculline into the ventral pallidum produced an unanticipatedly diminutive activation of locomotion, which led us to evaluate bilateral ventral pallidal infusions, and these also produced only a small activation of locomotion, and, interestingly, a non-significant trend toward suppression of rearing. Subjects with bicuculline infused bilaterally into the ventral pallidum also exhibited persistent bouts of abnormal movements. Bicuculline infused unilaterally into other forebrain structures, including the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, sublenticular extended amygdala and sublenticular substantia innominata, did not produce significant locomotor activation. Our data identify the rostral preoptic area as the main substrate for the locomotor-activating effects of basal forebrain bicuculline infusions. In contrast, slight activation of locomotion and no effect on rearing accompanied unilateral and bilateral ventral pallidal infusions. Implications of these findings for forebrain processing of reward are discussed. PMID:23423460

Zahm, Daniel S; Schwartz, Zachary M; Lavezzi, Heather N; Yetnikoff, Leora; Parsley, Kenneth P



Cellular Architecture of Treponema pallidum: Novel Flagellum, Periplasmic Cone, and Cell Envelope as Revealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography  

PubMed Central

High resolution cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was utilized to visualize Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, at the molecular level. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from 304 infectious organisms revealed unprecedented cellular structures of this unusual member in the spirochetal family. High resolution cryo-ET reconstructions provided the detailed structures of the cell envelope, which is significantly different from that of gram-negative bacteria. The 4 nm lipid bilayer of both outer and cytoplasmic membranes resolved in 3-D reconstructions, providing an important marker for interpreting membrane-associated structures. Abundant lipoproteins cover the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, in contrast to the rare outer membrane proteins visible by scanning probe microscopy. High resolution cryo-ET images also provided the first observation of T. pallidum chemoreceptor arrays, as well as structural details of the periplasmically located, cone-shaped structure at both ends of bacterium. Furthermore, 3-D subvolume averages of the periplasmic flagellar motors and filaments from living organisms revealed the novel flagellar architectures that may facilitate their rotation within the confining periplasmic space. Together, our findings provide the most detailed structural understanding of the periplasmic flagella and the surrounding cell envelope, which enable this enigmatic bacterium to efficiently penetrate tissue and escape host immune responses.

Liu, Jun; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Bradley, Sherille D.; Zheng, Yesha; Zhou, Z. Hong; Norris, Steven J.



21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...treponemal organisms) and control sera (standardized sera with which test results are compared) used in serological tests to identify reagin, an antibody-like agent, which is produced from the reaction of treponema microorganisms with body tissues. The...



21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treponemal organisms) and control sera (standardized sera with which test results are compared) used in serological tests to identify reagin, an antibody-like agent, which is produced from the reaction of treponema microorganisms with body tissues. The...



21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treponemal organisms) and control sera (standardized sera with which test results are compared) used in serological tests to identify reagin, an antibody-like agent, which is produced from the reaction of treponema microorganisms with body tissues. The...



A putative serpentine receptor gene tasA required for normal morphogenesis of primary stalk and branch structure in Polysphondylium pallidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruiting body of Polysphondylium pallidum is composed of whorls of branches along the axis of a primary stalk. In the course of fruiting body formation, the interval between neighboring whorls and the number and the spacing of branches in a whorl are highly regulated. In this study, using restriction enzyme mediated integration mutagenesis, we have obtained a mutant (strain

Yoshinori Kawabe; Hidekazu Kuwayama; Takahiro Morio; Hideko Urushihara; Yoshimasa Tanaka



Activation of projective neurons from the nucleus accumbens to ventral pallidum by a learned aversive taste stimulus in rats: a manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes a palatability shift of a taste stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) from ingestive to aversive. We previously found that the ventral pallidum (VP) mediates the palatability shift in CTA. Because the VP receives major projections from the nucleus accumbens (NAc), we examined whether the presentation of CS activates the NAc–VP projective neurons after the establishment of

T. Inui; C. Inui-Yamamoto; Y. Yoshioka; I. Ohzawa; T. Shimura



Attachment of Treponema pallidum to fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV, and collagen I, and blockage of attachment by immune rabbit IgG.  

PubMed Central

As shown by scanning electron and phase contrast microscopy, Treponema pallidum attached in vitro to basement membranes purified from kidney cortex tissues or from retinal vessels. This organism also attached to the extracellular matrix remaining after cultured cells had been solubilised with Triton X. Fibronectin, laminin, collagen, IV, collagen I, and hyaluronic acid are structural components of basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Experiments were performed to investigate the in vitro attachment of T pallidum to each of these components. Viable or heat inactivated treponemes were added to glass coverslips precoated with different concentrations of each component. After various times of incubation, coverslips were washed and the attached organisms were counted. Large numbers of viable organisms attached to each of these five components. In contrast, heat inactivation sharply reduced numbers of attached organisms. The IgG fractions of immune and non-immune rabbit serum samples were affinity purified using protein A. T pallidum was preincubated with both fractions, then incubated with either intact cultured cells or with coverslips coated with the five tissue components. The IgG from immune serum blocked treponemal attachment to the cultured cells and to fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV, and collagen I, but not to hyaluronic acid. These results are discussed in terms of attachment mechanisms of T pallidum and potential applications to in vivo infection. Images

Fitzgerald, T J; Repesh, L A; Blanco, D R; Miller, J N



Molecular Characterization of Syphilis in Patients in Canada: Azithromycin Resistance and Detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in Whole-Blood Samples versus Ulcerative Swabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood specimens of syphilis patients has been reported, it is uncertain at what stage of the disease such specimens are most suitable for the molecular diagnosis of syphilis. Also, few studies have directly compared the different gene targets for routine laboratory diagnostic usage in PCR assays. We examined 87 specimens from 68 patients

Irene E. Martin; Raymond S. W. Tsang; Karen Sutherland; Peter Tilley; Ron Read; Barbara Anderson; Colleen Roy; Ameeta E. Singh



Structure of rrn operons in pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes: sequence but not genomic position of intergenic spacers correlates with classification of Treponema pallidum and Treponema paraluiscuniculi strains  

PubMed Central

This study examined the sequences of the two rRNA (rrn) operons of pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes, comprising 11 strains of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), five strains of T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), two strains of T. pallidum ssp. endemicum (TEN), a simian Fribourg-Blanc strain and a rabbit T. paraluiscuniculi (TPc) strain. PCR was used to determine the type of 16S–23S ribosomal intergenic spacers in the rrn operons from 30 clinical samples belonging to five different genotypes. When compared with the TPA strains, TPc Cuniculi A strain had a 17 bp deletion, and the TPE, TEN and Fribourg-Blanc isolates had a deletion of 33 bp. Other than these deletions, only 17 heterogeneous sites were found within the entire region (excluding the 16S–23S intergenic spacer region encoding tRNA-Ile or tRNA-Ala). The pattern of nucleotide changes in the rrn operons corresponded to the classification of treponemal strains, whilst two different rrn spacer patterns (Ile/Ala and Ala/Ile) appeared to be distributed randomly across species/subspecies classification, time and geographical source of the treponemal strains. It is suggested that the random distribution of tRNA genes is caused by reciprocal translocation between repetitive sequences mediated by a recBCD-like system.

Cejkova, Darina; Zobanikova, Marie; Pospisilova, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Mikalova, Lenka; Weinstock, George M.



Antithyroid microsomal antibody  


Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... test is done to confirm the cause of thyroid problems, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis . The test may also ...


Evidence that the nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, and lateral hypothalamus are components of a lateralized feeding circuit  

PubMed Central

Pronounced feeding can be elicited by injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the medial shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh). This region of AcbSh has been shown to project to both the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the medial ventral pallidum (VPm). The current study examined the effects of unilateral LH or VPm lesions on the ingestive responses induced by injections of muscimol into the AcbSh on either the same or the opposite side of the brain. We found that lesions of either of these structures drastically attenuated feeding induced from the ipsilateral, as compared to the contralateral, AcbSh. The “ipsilateral/contralateral disruption design” employed here virtually rules out the possibility of nonspecific effects of the lesions and suggests that the VPm and LH play essential roles in mediating the ingestive effects of inactivation of the AcbSh.

Wirtshafter, David



Detection of antigenic determinants in the Treponema pallidum membrane protein TmpA using overlapping synthetic peptides.  


The antigenic structure of the 42 kDa membrane protein of Treponema Pallidum, TmpA, was studied using synthetic peptides. Ten overlapping peptides, 35-40 residues each, were synthesized in order to cover the entire sequence of the molecule. The antigenic activity of the fragments was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this way it was possible to demonstrate a significant antigenic activity of four peptides which were reactive with syphilitic sera. The N-terminal fragment TmpA1, 38 residues long, proved to be the most reactive. Its antigenic structure was therefore studied in more detail, by examining shorter fragments. The N-terminal portion of TmpA1, consisting of 19 residues, (ASGAKEEAEKKAAEQRALL) represents an important fragment of the molecule, and was specifically interactive with most of the syphilitic sera examined. PMID:8576575

Antoni, G; dal Maso, G; Berti, B; Soldatini, C; Cocola, F



Calcofluor staining of cellulose during microcyst differentiation in wild-type and mutant strains of Polysphondylium pallidum.  

PubMed Central

Calcofluor White ST was used to monitor the morphological events in the biogenesis of cellulose in the microcyst wall of the wild-type strain (WS-320) and two developmental mutants (mic-1 and mic-2) of Polysphondylium pallidum. During encystment, the cell surface acquires a Calcofluor-specific material which appears to be cellulose because of its sensitivity to purified cellulase. Cellulose-containing vesicles appear distributed throughout the cytoplasm of encysting cells of the three strains. Later, the cellulose-rich vesicles appear near the cell surface. Subsequently, the cell surface stains with Calcofluor, and the vesicles are no longer detectable. Intracellular vesicles resembling the cellulose-rich vesicles in size, in the timing of appearance, and in cellular location are also seen in thin sections. These vesicles are surrounded by a single unit membrane, and their amorphous matrix, which contains a dense irregular core, further implicates them as the basis for the bilayered microcyst wall. Images

Choi, A H; O'Day, D H



Organization, transcription, and expression of the 5' region of the fla operon of Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pallidum.  


A locus encoding polypeptides associated with flagellar structure and function was identified, sequenced, and characterized in Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pallidum. This locus includes homologs of the FlgD, FlgE, MotA, MOB, FliL, and FliM polypeptides found in Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis. These polypeptides are extensively conserved between the two treponemes. Several additional polypeptides or unknown function, including Tapl, located upstream of FlgD, and ORF4, located between FlgE and MotA, were also identified. Transcription analysis using RNA PCR indicated that these genes are likely transcribed as part of a single operon and comprise the 5' region of the treponemal fla operon. Primer extension analysis identified a putative promoter, preceding T. phagedenis tap1 in a region of divergent transcription. Pfla resembles the class II or class III motility-related promoters of S. typhimurium. FlgE and Tap1 were further characterized. Western blotting (immunoblotting) indicated that T. pallidum FlgE exhibited an unusual polypeptide ladder that was similar but not identical to that of T. phagedenis. Triton X-114 phase partitioning of T. phagedenis cells coupled with Western blotting revealed that Tap1 was located in the aqueous phase. Computer analysis indicated that Tap1 had no significant membrane spanning regions, suggesting that it resides primarily in the cytoplasm. The organization and expression of this operon are similar in both treponemes but different from those of previously described motility-related operons. These results indicate that despite extensive amino acid sequence conservation, the expression of spirochete flagellar polypeptides is different from that in other bacteria. PMID:8755894

Limberger, R J; Slivienski, L L; El-Afandi, M C; Dantuono, L A



Organization, transcription, and expression of the 5' region of the fla operon of Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pallidum.  

PubMed Central

A locus encoding polypeptides associated with flagellar structure and function was identified, sequenced, and characterized in Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pallidum. This locus includes homologs of the FlgD, FlgE, MotA, MOB, FliL, and FliM polypeptides found in Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis. These polypeptides are extensively conserved between the two treponemes. Several additional polypeptides or unknown function, including Tapl, located upstream of FlgD, and ORF4, located between FlgE and MotA, were also identified. Transcription analysis using RNA PCR indicated that these genes are likely transcribed as part of a single operon and comprise the 5' region of the treponemal fla operon. Primer extension analysis identified a putative promoter, preceding T. phagedenis tap1 in a region of divergent transcription. Pfla resembles the class II or class III motility-related promoters of S. typhimurium. FlgE and Tap1 were further characterized. Western blotting (immunoblotting) indicated that T. pallidum FlgE exhibited an unusual polypeptide ladder that was similar but not identical to that of T. phagedenis. Triton X-114 phase partitioning of T. phagedenis cells coupled with Western blotting revealed that Tap1 was located in the aqueous phase. Computer analysis indicated that Tap1 had no significant membrane spanning regions, suggesting that it resides primarily in the cytoplasm. The organization and expression of this operon are similar in both treponemes but different from those of previously described motility-related operons. These results indicate that despite extensive amino acid sequence conservation, the expression of spirochete flagellar polypeptides is different from that in other bacteria.

Limberger, R J; Slivienski, L L; El-Afandi, M C; Dantuono, L A



Broad specificity AhpC-like peroxiredoxin and its thioredoxin reductant in the sparse antioxidant defense system of Treponema pallidum  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the mechanisms by which Treponema pallidum (Tp), the causative agent of syphilis, copes with oxidative stress as it establishes persistent infection within its obligate human host. The Tp genomic sequence indicates that the bacterium’s antioxidant defenses do not include glutathione and are limited to just a few proteins, with only one, TP0509, offering direct defense against peroxides. Although this Tp peroxiredoxin (Prx) closely resembles AhpC-like Prxs, Tp lacks AhpF, the typical reductant for such enzymes. Functionally, TpAhpC resembles largely eukaryotic, nonAhpC typical 2-Cys Prx proteins in using thioredoxin (Trx, TP0919) as an efficient electron donor and exhibiting broad specificity toward hydroperoxide substrates. Unlike many of the eukaryotic Prxs, however, TpAhpC is relatively resistant to inactivation during turnover with hydroperoxide substrates. As is often observed in typical 2-Cys Prxs, TpAhpC undergoes redox-sensitive oligomer formation. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that TpTrx and TpAhpC are present at very high levels (over 100 and 300 ?M, respectively) in treponemes infecting rabbit testes; their redox potentials, at -242 ± 1 and -192 ± 2 mV, respectively, are consistent with the role of TpTrx as the cellular reductant of TpAhpC. Transcriptional analysis of select antioxidant genes confirmed the presence of high mRNA levels for ahpC and trx which diminish greatly when spirochetes replicate under in vitro growth conditions. Thus, T. pallidum has evolved an extraordinarily robust, broad-spectrum AhpC as its sole mechanism for peroxide defense to combat this significant threat to treponemal growth and survival during infection.

Parsonage, Derek; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Sun, Yongcheng; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Poole, Leslie B.




PubMed Central

Injection of a small bacteriophage ?X 174 into guinea pigs results in an accelerated elimination of phage detectable as early as 24 hours after injection. The immune nature of the accelerated elimination is indicated by its specificity, by the appearance of excess specific serum antibody after phage elimination, and by the prevention of accelerated elimination by 400 r whole body x-irradiation of guinea pigs prior to injection of phage. The early antibody response is considered to be a primary one since an analogous response occurs in newborn guinea pigs, antibody is not detectable in the sera of non-immunized animals, and the second challenge with ?X stimulates a serum antibody response 100-fold greater than that after primary immunization. The early detection of immune elimination appears to be due, in part, to the small amounts of phage employed, since larger doses of phage delay the time of onset of detectable immune elimination. The early rise of serum antibody in the primary and secondary response appears exponential with a similar rate constant of antibody formation. The rate constant is also independent of dose. These findings have led to the suggestion that during this exponential phase, the relative rate of antibody formation at a cellular level may be constant for a given antigen.

Uhr, Jonathan W.; Finkelstein, Martin S.; Baumann, Joyce B.



Identification of homologs for thioredoxin, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase in outer membrane fractions from Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterized candidate rare outer membrane (OM) proteins with apparent molecular masses of 19, 27, 38, and 38.5 kDa, which had been identified previously in OM fractions from Treponema pallidum (J. D. Radolf et al., Infect. Immun. 63:4244-4252, 1995). Using N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences, a probe for the 19-kDa candidate was PCR amplified and used to screen a T. pallidum genomic library in Lambda Zap II. The corresponding gene (tlp) encoded a homolog for periplasmic thioredoxin-like proteins (Tlp), which reduce c-type cytochromes. A degenerate oligonucleotide derived from the N terminus of the 27-kDa protein was used to PCR amplify a duplex probe from a T. pallidum genomic library in pBluescript II SK+. With this probe, the corresponding gene (ppiB) was identified and found to code for a presumptive periplasmic cyclophilin B-type peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PpiB). We postulate that PpiB assists the folding of proteins within the T. pallidum periplasmic space. The N terminus of the 38-kDa candidate was blocked to Edman degradation. However, internal sequence data revealed that it was basic membrane protein (Bmp), a previously characterized, signal peptidase I-processed protein. Triton X-114 phase partitioning revealed that despite its name, Bmp is hydrophilic and therefore likely to be periplasmic. The final candidate was also blocked to Edman degradation; as before, a duplex probe was PCR amplified with degenerate primers derived from internal sequences. The corresponding gene (glpQ) coded for a presumptively lipid-modified homolog of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Based upon findings with other treponemal lipoproteins, the hydrophilic GlpQ polypeptide is thought to be anchored by N-terminal lipids to the periplasmic leaflet(s) of the cytoplasmic membrane and/or OM. The discovery of T. pallidum periplasmic proteins with potentially defined functions provides fresh insights into a poorly understood aspect of treponemal physiology. At the same time, however, these findings also raise important issues regarding the use of OM preparations for identifying rare OM proteins of T. pallidum.

Shevchenko, D V; Akins, D R; Robinson, E J; Li, M; Shevchenko, O V; Radolf, J D



Antithyroglobulin antibody  


... no antibodies to thyroglobulin are found in your blood. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.


Use of theTreponema pallidum-Specific Captia Syphilis IgG Assay in Conjunction with the Rapid Plasma Reagin To Test for Syphilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Captia Syphilis IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for use in conjunction with the rapid plasma reagin test (RPR) as a method to test for syphilis. A total of 1,288 serum specimens were tested by the routine laboratory protocol of the RPR followed by microhemagluttination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) testing of RPR-reactive sera as well as the EIA-RPR




The Crystal Structure of Zn(II)Free Treponema pallidum TroA, a Periplasmic Metal-Binding Protein, Reveals a Closed Conformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that Treponema pallidum TroA is a periplasmic metal-binding protein (MBP) with a distinctive alpha-helical backbone. To better understand the mechanisms of metal binding and release by TroA, we determined the crystal structure of the apoprotein at a resolution of 2.5 Å and compared it to that of the Zn(II)-bound form (Protein Data Bank accession code 1toa). apo-TroA

Yong-Hwan Lee; Michael R. Dorwart; Karsten R. O. Hazlett; Ranjit K. Deka; Michael V. Norgard; Justin D. Radolf; Charles A. Hasemann



Fos expression following activation of the ventral pallidum in normal rats and in a model of Parkinson’s Disease: implications for limbic system and basal ganglia interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circuit-related consequences of activating the ventral pallidum (VP) are not well known, and lacking in particular is\\u000a how these effects are altered in various neuropathological states. To help to address these paucities, this study investigated\\u000a the brain regions affected by VP activation by quantifying neurons that stain for Fos-like immunoreactivity (ir). Fos-ir was\\u000a assessed after intra-pallidal injections of the

Michael S. Turner; Thackery S. Gray; Amanda L. Mickiewicz; T. Celeste Napier



New Tests for Syphilis: Rational Design of a PCR Method for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Clinical Specimens Using Unique Regions of the DNA Polymerase I Gene  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific PCR method to detect Treponema pallidum in clinical specimens was developed. PCR primers were designed based on two unique features of the DNA polymerase I gene (polA). The first distinctive characteristic is that the region codes for a high cysteine content and has low homology with similar regions of DNA polymerase I gene from known microorganisms. The second unique feature is the presence of four insertions in the gene. PCR tests using primers designed on the basis these regions reacted with various pathogenic T. pallidum subspecies but did not react with nonpathogenic treponemal species or other spirochetes. An additional 59 species of bacteria and viruses, including those that cause genital ulcers, tested negative. This PCR method is extremely robust and sensitive. The detection limit is about 10 to 25 organisms when analyzed on gel. However, the analytic sensitivity can be increased by at least 1 log, to a detection limit of a single organism, when the ABI 310 Prism Genetic Analyzer is used to detect fluorescence-labeled amplicons. We further used this test in a clinical setting and compared the results with results from a previously reported multiplex-PCR test (for T. pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus). We tested 112 genital ulcer specimens by the polA PCR, obtaining a sensitivity of 95.8% and a specificity of 95.7%. These results suggest that the polA PCR is applicable as a routine clinical diagnostic test for syphilis.

Liu, Hsi; Rodes, Berta; Chen, C.-Y.; Steiner, Bret



Ultrastructural Studies of Treponemes: Location of Axial Filaments and Some Dimensions of Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain), Treponema denticola, and Treponema reiteri  

PubMed Central

Ultrathin sections of Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain), T. denticola (microdentium), and T. reiteri have been studied in the electron microscope to determine the location of the axial filaments and some of the dimensions of these organisms. The axial filaments of T. pallidum (Nichols strain) have been seen to be tubular in cross section with an overall diameter of 21.0 ± 0.73 nm, and an electron-lucent core of 8.0 nm. The filaments were found to lie on the outside of the organism which had only one membranous structure surrounding the protoplasmic core. These findings were in contrast to those obtained for T. denticola and T. reiteri where the axial filaments did not exhibit a hollow core and were located between an outer membrane and an inner membrane surrounding the protoplasmic core. The outside diameter of T. denticola was determined to be 224.9 ± 2.83 nm, and that of T. reiteri as 331.0 ± 4.15 nm, contrasting with T. pallidum (Nichols strain) which had a diameter of 163.0 ± 1.9 nm. Images

Sykes, John A.; Miller, James N.



Fowl antibody  

PubMed Central

Fowls given one injection of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-bovine ?-globulin (DNP-BGG) intravenously or subcutaneously with complete Freund's adjuvant, or multiple injections intramuscularly, responded neither to the hapten nor to the carrier moieties of the antigen. DNP-BGG injected directly into the spleen gave rise to antibodies that precipitated with native BGG, in 0·9 per cent NaCl only, but not with the conjugated protein. Two subcutaneous injections of DNP-BGG mixed with complete adjuvant produced high levels of anti-DNP antibodies. These precipitated with DNP-ovalbumin only in 4 per cent NaCl; there were no precipitating antibodies to BGG. ImagesFIG. 1-4

Orlans, Eva; Saunders, B. Jill; Rose, M. Elaine



Efficient preparation and metal specificity of the regulatory protein TroR from the human pathogen Treponema pallidum.  


TroR is a putative metal-dependent regulatory protein that has been linked to the virulence of the human pathogen Treponema pallidum. It shares high homology with the well-known iron-dependent regulatory protein DtxR from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as well as the manganese-dependent MntR from Bacillus subtilis. However, it has been uncertain whether manganese or zinc is the natural cofactor of TroR to date. Herein, we established an efficient method named "double-fusion tagging" to obtain soluble TroR for the first time. A series of studies, including ICP, CD, fluorescence, ITC, and electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), were performed to resolve the discrepancies in its metal-binding specificity. In addition, bioinformatic analysis as well as mutation studies were carried out to find the genetic relationships of TroR with its homology proteins. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TroR is a manganese-dependent rather than a zinc-dependent regulatory protein. PMID:23945957

Liu, Yi; Li, Wei; Wei, Yaozhu; Jiang, Yindi; Tan, Xiangshi



Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, progress has been made in diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for\\u000a the treatment of tumors of the central nervous system. However, the outcome for patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) has\\u000a remained essentially unchanged. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), either unarmed or armed, to target and kill HGG cells\\u000a has appeared as a prospective

Abraham Boskovitz; David A. Reardon; Carol J. Wikstrand; Michael R. Zalutsky; Darell D. Bigner


Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected. Results Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis. Conclusions Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients.

Badie; Yavari, Zeinab; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Paydary, Koosha; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz



Phenolic fractions from Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts in human plasma protect against changes induced by hyperhomocysteinemia in vitro.  


Elevated concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) in human plasma, defined as hyperhomocysteinemia has been correlated with some diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and kidney disorders. Homocysteine occurs in human plasma in several forms, including the most reactive form of Hcy - its cyclic thioester - homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), which represents up to 0.29% of plasma total Hcy. It is suggested that Hcy and HTL may also act as oxidants, but various polyphenolic antioxidants are able to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by Hcy or HTL. The aim of our present study was to investigate in vitro oxidative changes in human plasma induced by the model of hyperhomocysteinemia in the presence of the phenolic fractions from selected clovers (Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts). Hyperhomocysteinemia was stimulated by a reduced form of Hcy (final dose 100 ?M) or HTL (final dose 1 ?M). The aim of our study was also to explain the effect of the phenolic fractions on the coagulation activity of human plasma treated with Hcy and its thiolactone. Tested phenolic fractions significantly inhibited the oxidative stress (measured by the total antioxidant level - TAS) in plasma treated with Hcy or HTL. The phenolic fractions from T. pallidum and T. scabrum also caused a distinct reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation (measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) induced by the model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Moreover, tested fractions modulated the coagulation properties of plasma treated with homocysteine and its thiolactone. It seems that antioxidative activities of the phenolic fractions from T. pallidum and T. scabrum aerial parts may be responsible for their medicinal properties during hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:22898612

Malinowska, Joanna; Ko?odziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wies?aw; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata



The TP0796 lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum is a bimetal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase with a potential role in flavin homeostasis.  


Treponema pallidum, an obligate parasite of humans and the causative agent of syphilis, has evolved the capacity to exploit host-derived metabolites for its survival. Flavin-containing compounds are essential cofactors that are required for metabolic processes in all living organisms, and riboflavin is a direct precursor of the cofactors FMN and FAD. Unlike many pathogenic bacteria, Treponema pallidum cannot synthesize riboflavin; we recently described a flavin-uptake mechanism composed of an ABC-type transporter. However, there is a paucity of information about flavin utilization in bacterial periplasms. Using a discovery-driven approach, we have identified the TP0796 lipoprotein as a previously uncharacterized Mg(2+)-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase within the ApbE superfamily. TP0796 probably plays a central role in flavin turnover by hydrolyzing exogenously acquired FAD, yielding AMP and FMN. Biochemical and structural investigations revealed that the enzyme has a unique bimetal Mg(2+) catalytic center. Furthermore, the pyrophosphatase activity is product-inhibited by AMP, indicating a possible role for this molecule in modulating FMN and FAD levels in the treponemal periplasm. The ApbE superfamily was previously thought to be involved in thiamine biosynthesis, but our characterization of TP0796 prompts a renaming of this superfamily as a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp). TP0796 is the first structurally and biochemically characterized FAD pyrophosphate enzyme in bacteria. This new paradigm for a bacterial flavin utilization pathway may prove to be useful for future inhibitor design. PMID:23447540

Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V



Reagents Data Portal Antibodies

NCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit.


Detection of the A2058G and A2059G 23S rRNA Gene Point Mutations Associated with Azithromycin Resistance in Treponema pallidum by Use of a TaqMan Real-Time Multiplex PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Macrolide treatment failure in syphilis patients is associated with a single point mutation (either A2058G or A2059G) in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene in Treponema pallidum strains. The conventional method for the detection of both point mutations uses nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestions, which is laborious and time-consuming. We initially developed a TaqMan-based real-time duplex PCR assay for detection of the A2058G mutation, and upon discovery of the A2059G mutation, we modified the assay into a triplex format to simultaneously detect both mutations. The point mutations detected by the real-time triplex PCR were confirmed by pyrosequencing. A total of 129 specimens PCR positive for T. pallidum that were obtained from an azithromycin resistance surveillance study conducted in the United States were analyzed. Sixty-six (51.2%) of the 129 samples with the A2058G mutation were identified by both real-time PCR assays. Of the remaining 63 samples that were identified as having a macrolide-susceptible genotype by the duplex PCR assay, 17 (27%) were found to contain the A2059G mutation by the triplex PCR. The proportions of macrolide-susceptible versus -resistant genotypes harboring either the A2058G or the A2059G mutation among the T. pallidum strains were 35.6, 51.2, and 13.2%, respectively. None of the T. pallidum strains examined had both point mutations. The TaqMan-based real-time triplex PCR assay offers an alternative to conventional nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses for the rapid detection of both point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in T. pallidum.

Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Nachamkin, Eli; Su, John R.; Ballard, Ronald C.



Detection of the A2058G and A2059G 23S rRNA gene point mutations associated with azithromycin resistance in Treponema pallidum by use of a TaqMan real-time multiplex PCR assay.  


Macrolide treatment failure in syphilis patients is associated with a single point mutation (either A2058G or A2059G) in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene in Treponema pallidum strains. The conventional method for the detection of both point mutations uses nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestions, which is laborious and time-consuming. We initially developed a TaqMan-based real-time duplex PCR assay for detection of the A2058G mutation, and upon discovery of the A2059G mutation, we modified the assay into a triplex format to simultaneously detect both mutations. The point mutations detected by the real-time triplex PCR were confirmed by pyrosequencing. A total of 129 specimens PCR positive for T. pallidum that were obtained from an azithromycin resistance surveillance study conducted in the United States were analyzed. Sixty-six (51.2%) of the 129 samples with the A2058G mutation were identified by both real-time PCR assays. Of the remaining 63 samples that were identified as having a macrolide-susceptible genotype by the duplex PCR assay, 17 (27%) were found to contain the A2059G mutation by the triplex PCR. The proportions of macrolide-susceptible versus -resistant genotypes harboring either the A2058G or the A2059G mutation among the T. pallidum strains were 35.6, 51.2, and 13.2%, respectively. None of the T. pallidum strains examined had both point mutations. The TaqMan-based real-time triplex PCR assay offers an alternative to conventional nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses for the rapid detection of both point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in T. pallidum. PMID:23284026

Chen, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Nachamkin, Eli; Su, John R; Ballard, Ronald C



Proposal of a new halobacterial genus Natrinema gen. nov., with two species Natrinema pellirubrum nom. nov. and Natrinema pallidum nom. nov.  


A phylogenetic analysis of 69 halobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences has been carried out, integrating data from new isolates, previously described halobacteria and cloned sequences from uncultivated halobacteria. Halobacterium halobium NCIMB 777, Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 784 and Halobacterium salinarium NCIMB 786, together with several other strains (strains T5.7, L11 and Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767) constitute a distinct lineage with at least 98.2% sequence similarity. These strains have been incorrectly assigned to the genus Halobacterium. Therefore, based on a variety of taxonomic criteria, it is proposed that Halobacterium salinarium NCIMB 786 is renamed as Natrinema pellirubrum nom. nov., the type species of the new genus Natrinema gen. nov., and that Halobacterium halobium NCIMB 777 and Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 784 are renamed as a single species, Natrinema pallidum nom. nov. It was notable that halobacteria closely related to the proposed new genus have been isolated from relatively low-salt environments. PMID:9828420

McGenity, T J; Gemmell, R T; Grant, W D



Studies on the life cycle of spirochetes; the life cycle of the Nichols pathogenic Treponema pallidum in the rabbit testis as seen by phase contrast microscopy.  


A series of observations with the phase contrast microscope on the occurrence of a complex life cycle in the pathogenic Treponema pallidum as it occurs in the syphilitic rabbit testis has been presented and it seems likely from these observations that there are two means of vegetative reproduction, consisting of (1) transverse division (the most important under usual conditions); and (2) the production of gemmae or buds which eventuate into unispirochetal cysts comparable to those described for saprophytic forms, within each of which single spirochetes develop and differentiate, and from which they subsequently emerge. In addition preliminary evidence is presented which suggests that a more complex process is involved in which multispirochetal cysts develop following aggregation of two or more organisms. Within each of these larger cysts numerous organisms develop and subsequently emerge as tangled ropes. Following emergence, they subsequently undergo transverse division and gemmae formation, and so reproduce vegetatively. Subsequent papers will elaborate upon these processes. PMID:15436933




Treponema pallidum Elicits Innate and Adaptive Cellular Immune Responses in Skin and Blood during Secondary Syphilis: A Flow-Cytometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Syphilis is caused by the spirochetal pathogen Treponema pallidum. The local and systemic cellular immune responses elicited by the bacterium have not been well studied in humans. Methods We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in skin and peripheral blood from 23 patients with secondary syphilis and 5 healthy control subjects recruited in Cali, Colombia. Dermal leukocytes were obtained from fluid aspirated from epidermal suction blisters raised over secondary syphilis skin lesions. Results Compared with peripheral blood (PB), blister fluids (BFs) were enriched for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, activated monocytes/macrophages, and CD11c+ monocytoid and CD11c? plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDCs and pDCs, respectively). Nearly all mDCs in BFs expressed the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptors CCR5 and DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and high levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–DR. Dermal pDCs expressed both HIV coreceptors without increases in HLA-DR intensity. Compared with normal blood, circulating mDCs in patients with syphilis expressed higher levels of both CCR5 and DC-SIGN, whereas circulating pDCs in patients expressed only higher levels of DC-SIGN. Most dermal T cells were CCR5+ and displayed a memory (CD27+/CD45RO+) or memory/effector (CD27?/CD45RO+) immunophenotype. A corresponding shift toward memory and memory/effector immunophenotype was clearly discernible among circulating CD4+ T cells. Compared with PB from control subjects, a larger percentage of CD4+ T cells in PB from patients with syphilis expressed the activation markers CD69 and CD38. Conclusions During secondary syphilis, T. pallidum simultaneously elicits local and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses that may set the stage for the bidirectional transmission of HIV.

Salazar, Juan C.; Cruz, Adriana R.; Pope, Constance D.; Valderrama, Liliana; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Saravia, Nancy G.; Radolf, Justin D.




PubMed Central

Archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) captured in New York, New York, USA and Millbrook, New York, USA, during 1985–86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, or VlsE) during different seasons, but there was no reactivity to outer surface protein (Osp)A or OspB. Seventy-six of the 102 sera (75%) analyzed were reactive with one or more of the antigens; 61 of the positive samples (80%) reacted to whole-cell antigens, followed by results for the p35 (58%, 44/76), VlsE (43%, 33/76), and p37 (29%, 22/76) antigens. Fifty-eight sera (76%) contained antibodies to the VlsE or p35 antigens with or without reactivity to whole-cell antigens. High antibody titers (?1:2,560) recorded for 52 sera indicate robust antibody production. In analyses for IgM antibodies in an ELISA containing whole-cell antigens, there were 30 positive sera; titers ranged from 1:160 to 1:640. There was minimal cross-reactivity when rabbit antisera to Treponema pallidum or four serovars of Leptospira interrogans were screened against B. burgdorferi antigens. Based on more-specific results, VlsE and p35 antigens appear to be useful markers for detecting possible B. burgdorferi infections.

Magnarelli, Louis A.; Norris, Steven J.; Fikrig, Erol



Mouse Homocytotropic Antibodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent observations on the ability of mouse antiserum to induce homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) have indicated that mice can also produce a homocytotropic antibody similar in its properties to human reagins. The mouse reagin-like antibody i...

I. Mota D. Wong E. H. Sadun R. W. Gore



ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)  


... Web Lupus Foundation of America American College of Rheumatology: Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association: ... 2009 April). Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA). American College of Rheumatology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www. ...


In vitro antibody production.  


This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. A generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production is presented along with a procedure for quantifying the number of antibody-producing cells by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays: the Cunningham-Szenberg technique and the Jerne-Nordin technique. The assay can be modified as described to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells. A protocol for preparing the resting B cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation is also described. PMID:18265070

Mond, J J; Brunswick, M



[VGKC-complex antibodies].  


Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). PMID:23568988

Watanabe, Osamu




PubMed Central

The composition of various isolated antibodies was determined by quantitative analyses for heavy chain subgroups and light chain types. Certain antibodies such as anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-A isoagglutinins were predominantly of the major ?G1-type. However, a high preponderance of molecules of the minor ?G2-subgroup was found for antibodies to dextran, levan, and teichoic acid. These findings explain some unusual features previously noted for anti-dextrans such as weak PCA reactions and lack of Gm antigens. Studies of several isolated antibodies from single heterozygous individuals showed a selective absence of genetic markers in certain antibodies and their presence in others. The "allelic exclusion" principle was clearly evident in the isolated antibodies of two different individuals. Large differences in the ratio of kappa to lambda light chains were observed for the same type of antibody from different individuals. Subfractionation of dextran antibodies by affinity for specific glycosidic linkage or combining site size produced marked changes in the ratios. The isomaltohexaose eluates of the dextran antibodies from two subjects were primarily kappa and the isomaltotriose eluates were predominantly lambda. The one anti-levan antibody studied was uniquely homogeneous, consisting exclusively of ?G2-heavy chains and kappa light chains. By these criteria as well as others, it closely resembled myeloma proteins.

Yount, William J.; Dorner, Marianne M.; Kunkel, Henry G.; Kabat, Elvin A.




PubMed Central

Rabbits were immunized with a hapten-protein conjugate and sera were collected for 189 days. The antihapten antibodies were purified by affinity chromatography, then the same animal that synthesized the antibody was reinjected with polymerized F(ab')2 fragments of antihapten antibodies. Sera were collected after autoimmunization and tested by an indirect radioimmunoassay technique for reaction with [125I]F(ab')2 fragments of the original antihapten antibody. Results showed that each individual responded to its own F(ab')2 and the antisera were specific for antihapten antibodies of that individual. Quantitative allotype assays established the immunoglobulin nature of the labeled test antigen. Inhibition assays showed that the reaction was specifically inhibitable with hapten. The relationship of this system with other idiotypic systems and the possible autoimmune implications of autoantiidiotypic antibodies are discussed.

Rodkey, L. Scott



Homocytotropic antibody in sheep  

PubMed Central

It has been possible to demonstrate, using the homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction, the presence of homocytotropic (reagin-like) antibody in the sera of sheep infected with Ostertagia. The presence of antibody was detectable with Evans blue dye, and a radiolabelled 131I technique. The antibody appeared to fulfil the criteria for homocytotropic antibody, and reacted with an allergenic extract (molecular weight 20,000–50,000) of Ostertagia. An in vitro radio-allergo-absorption method using IgG1A (a new sheep immunoglobulin sub-class) failed to detect homocytotropic antibody, although the Fc fragment of goat anti-sheep IgG1A was capable of blocking the PCA reaction, and of producing a reversed-type allergic skin reaction. This homocytotropic antibody is probably associated with the `self-cure' reaction in Ostertagia infection. ImagesFIG. 1

Hogarth-Scott, R. S.



Antibody therapeutics in cancer.  


In a relatively short period of time, monoclonal antibodies have entered the mainstream of cancer therapy. Their first use was as antagonists of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, but today monoclonal antibodies have emerged as long-sought vehicles for the targeted delivery of potent chemotherapeutic agents and as powerful tools to manipulate anticancer immune responses. With ever more promising results from the clinic, the future will likely see continued growth in the discovery and development of therapeutic antibodies and their derivatives. PMID:24031011

Sliwkowski, Mark X; Mellman, Ira



Biobarcodes: Antibodies and Nanosensors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity/demo, learners investigate biobarcodes, a nanomedical technology that allows for massively parallel testing that can assist with disease diagnosis. Learners define antibodies and learn how each antibody binds to a unique protein. Learners also discover how biobarcoding uses nanoparticles, antibodies, DNA and magnetism to detect diseases earlier than we could detect before. Learners assemble a jigsaw puzzle that models how biobarcodes work.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Industry, Oregon M.



RSV antibody test  


Respiratory syncytial virus antibody test; RSV serology ... Breese HC. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandel, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of ...


Antibodies as defensive enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies (Abs) and enzymes are structural and functional relatives. Abs with promiscuous peptidase activity are ubiquitous in healthy humans, evidently derived from germline variable domain immunoglobulin genes encoding the serine protease-like nucleophilic function. Exogenous and endogenous electrophilic antigens can bind the nucleophilic sites covalently, and recent evidence suggests that immunization with such antigens can induce proteolytic antibodies. Previously, Ab catalytic

Sudhir Paul; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Stephanie Planque; Sangeeta Karle; Hiroaki Taguchi; Carl Hanson; Marc E. Weksler



Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

Bakhtiar, Ray



Antibodies in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...


Expression of Recombinant Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

Frenzel, Andre; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas



Antibodies to pollen exines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies have been prepared to purified pollen exines of Calocedrus decurrens Florin. The location of the antigen is in the exine, as shown by light-and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. The greatest reduction in antibody binding follows treatment of the exine with chemicals known to alter sporopollenin. These results provide evidence that sporopollenin is antigenic. Exines of ten

D. Southworth; M. B. Singh; T. Hough; I. J. Smart; P. Taylor; R. B. Knox



Antibodies for biodefense.  


Potential bioweapons are biological agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins) at risk of intentional dissemination. Biodefense, defined as development of therapeutics and vaccines against these agents, has seen an increase, particularly in the US following the 2001 anthrax attack. This review focuses on recombinant antibodies and polyclonal antibodies for biodefense that have been accepted for clinical use. These antibodies aim to protect against primary potential bioweapons, or category A agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, botulinum neurotoxins, smallpox virus, and certain others causing viral hemorrhagic fevers) and certain category B agents. Potential for prophylactic use is presented, as well as frequent use of oligoclonal antibodies or synergistic effect with other molecules. Capacities and limitations of antibodies for use in biodefense are discussed, and are generally applicable to the field of infectious diseases. PMID:22123065

Froude, Jeffrey W; Stiles, Bradley; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe



Antibodies for biodefense  

PubMed Central

Potential bioweapons are biological agents (bacteria, viruses and toxins) at risk of intentional dissemination. Biodefense, defined as development of therapeutics and vaccines against these agents, has seen an increase, particularly in the US, following the 2001 anthrax attack. This review focuses on recombinant antibodies and polyclonal antibodies for biodefense that have been accepted for clinical use. These antibodies aim to protect against primary potential bioweapons or category A agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, botulinum neurotoxins, smallpox virus and certain others causing viral hemorrhagic fevers) and certain category B agents. Potential for prophylactic use is presented, as well as frequent use of oligoclonal antibodies or synergistic effect with other molecules. Capacities and limitations of antibodies for use in biodefense are discussed, and are generally applicable to the field of infectious diseases.

Froude, Jeffrey W; Stiles, Bradley; Pelat, Thibaut



Serum antibodies against genitourinary infectious agents in prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia patients: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of many human malignancies. Whether prostate cancer (PCa) - an important health issue in the aging male population in the Western world - belongs to these conditions has been a matter of research since the 1970 s. Persistent serum antibodies are a proof of present or past infection. The aim of this study was to compare serum antibodies against genitourinary infectious agents between PCa patients and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We hypothesized that elevated serum antibody levels or higher seroprevalence in PCa patients would suggest an association of genitourinary infection in patient history and elevated PCa risk. Methods A total of 434 males who had undergone open prostate surgery in a single institution were included in the study: 329 PCa patients and 105 controls with BPH. The subjects' serum samples were analysed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement fixation test and indirect immunofluorescence for the presence of antibodies against common genitourinary infectious agents: human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33, herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum. Antibody seroprevalence and mean serum antibody levels were compared between cases and controls. Tumour grade and stage were correlated with serological findings. Results PCa patients were more likely to harbour antibodies against Ureaplasma urealyticum (odds ratio (OR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-4.28). Men with BPH were more often seropositive for HPV 18 and Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09-0.61 and OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21-0.99, respectively) and had higher mean serum CMV antibody levels than PCa patients (p = 0.0004). Among PCa patients, antibodies against HPV 6 were associated with a higher Gleason score (p = 0.0305). Conclusions Antibody seropositivity against the analyzed pathogens with the exception of Ureaplasma does not seem to be a risk factor for PCa pathogenesis. The presence or higher levels of serum antibodies against the genitourinary pathogens studied were not consistently associated with PCa. Serostatus was not a predictor of disease stage in the studied population.



Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".  


The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush. PMID:17691940

Maggon, Krishan



Cannabinoid-1 receptors in the mouse ventral pallidum are targeted to axonal profiles expressing functionally opposed opioid peptides and contacting N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D terminals.  


The ventral pallidum (VP) is a major recipient of inhibitory projections from nucleus accumbens (Acb) neurons that differentially express the reward (enkephalin) and aversion (dynorphin)-associated opioid peptides. The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) is present in Acb neurons expressing each of these peptides, but its location in the VP is not known. To address this question, we used electron microscopic dual immunolabeling of the CB1R and either dynorphin 1-8 (Dyn) or Met(5)-enkephalin (ME) in the VP of C57BL/6J mice, a species in which CB1R gene deletion produces a reward deficit. We also used similar methods to determine the relationship between the CB1R and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE)-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an anandamide-synthesizing enzyme located presynaptically in other limbic brain regions. CB1R-immunogold was principally localized to cytoplasmic endomembranes and synaptic or extrasynaptic plasma membranes of axonal profiles, but was also affiliated with postsynaptic membrane specializations in dendrites. The axonal profiles included many single CB1R-labeled axon terminals as well as terminals containing CB1R-immunogold and either Dyn or ME immunoreactivity. Dually labeled terminals comprised 26% of all Dyn- and 17% of all ME-labeled axon terminals. Both single- and dual-labeled terminals formed mainly inhibitory-type synapses, but almost 16% of these terminals formed excitatory synapses. Approximately 60% of the CB1R-labeled axonal profiles opposed or converged with axon terminals containing NAPE-PLD immunoreactivity. We conclude that CB1Rs in the mouse VP have subcellular distributions consistent with on demand activation by endocannabinoids that can regulate the release of functionally opposed opioid peptides and also modulate inhibitory and excitatory transmission. PMID:22863674

Pickel, V M; Shobin, E T; Lane, D A; Mackie, K



Evaluation of a competitive enzyme immunoassay in screening for syphilis.  


A competitive immunoenzymatic method has been developed and evaluated for the serological screening of syphilis. The method detects both anti-Treponema Pallidum IgG and IgM. The kit, commercially known as "Syphilis Screen", is produced by DIESSE Diagnostica Senese (Siena, Italy); all the required reagents are included and are ready for use. The test is performed on undiluted serum and a single incubation step is necessary. The method can be easily automated, and the results do not require a subjective interpretation. A good correlation was found with the Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination (TPHA) technique: only 14 out of 2350 samples tested (2090 non reactive and 260 reactive) were found to be in disagreement. This test can be considered an alternative to the TPHA method in screening for syphilis. PMID:8673850

De Majo, E; Bianchini, G; Parri, F; Tocci, E; Monaci, M; Paoli, C



Humanized PAI-1 antibodies  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present application relates to compositions of humanized anti-PAI-1 antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof which convert PAI-1 to its latent form. One aspect relates to antibodies having one or more modifications in at least one amino acid residue of at least one of the framework regions of the variable heavy chain, the variable light chain or both. Another aspect relates to antibodies which bind and neutralize PAI-1 by converting PAI-1 to its latent form or increasing proteolytic cleavage. Another aspect relates to the use of humanized antibodies which inhibit or neutralize PAI-1 for the detection, diagnosis or treatment of a disease or condition associated with PAI-1 or a combination thereof.



Antibody Blood Tests  


... my positive antibody test suggests I may have celiac disease, how do I find out for sure? If ... For more information contact the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at 773.702.7593 or www.CeliacDisease. ...


Anti-cartilage antibody.  


Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change. PMID:389957

Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J



Anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies  


The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Kehoe, John (Saint Davids, PA); Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM)



Anti-cartilage antibody.  

PubMed Central

Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change. Images Fig. 1

Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J



Mining human antibody repertoires  

PubMed Central

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.



Malaria antibody test development  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Printable Version. Malaria antibody test development. FDA Workshop on Testing for Malarial Infections in Blood Donors July 12, 2006. ... More results from


Neutralizing antibodies against calcitonin.  


The use of calcitonin (CT) is established as a treatment of Paget's disease of bone and postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). Salmon calcitonin (sCT), which differs in 14 of the 32 amino acids from human calcitonin, has found a wider distribution world wide, although antibody formation against sCT has been reported in more than 70% of the patients on continuous sCT treatment. The clinical significance of these antibodies has been discussed controversially, because the occurrence of antibodies is not always associated with the development of secondary resistance. Using an in vitro bioassay, based on the CT-mediated increase of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) production of the human breast cancer cell line T 47 D we could identify a neutralizing activity against sCT in the serum of a subset of patients with formation of antibodies against sCT which was related to the development of secondary resistance. Antibody formation against human calcitonin (hCT) has been reported only once before. Binding and neutralizing antibodies were now observed in 1 of 33 patients with PMO treated with hCT. Due to a low neutralizing activity, clinical sequelae were not to be expected in this patient. The formation of neutralizing antibodies against calcitonin is common after treatment with salmon but a rare phenomenon after treatment with human calcitonin. We recommend monitoring of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone on long term treatment with sCT or hCT for neutralizing antibody formation in order to evaluate the therapeutic effect of treatment. PMID:8225203

Grauer, A; Reinel, H H; Ziegler, R; Raue, F



Antibody tumor penetration  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue.

Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane



Genetically engineered antibodies.  


The technology needed to genetically engineer antibodies is evolving rapidly and the potential utility of these novel reagents is being explored with vigor. The process includes cloning of the antibody genes, their in vitro manipulation and mutagenesis, expression in a suitable host/vector system, and, for commercial production, scale-up, purification, and product evaluation. At each step, significant advances have been achieved recently. For example: at first, antibody genes were cloned from genomic libraries by using adjacent DNA probes; techniques for rapid sequencing by primer extension of total mRNA allowed more specific screening with synthesized oligomers; finally, antibody genes can now be created de novo by chemical synthesis. Moreover, such synthesis allows total control over the antibody sequence so that molecules of any configuration can be produced. New reagents created in this way include murine antibodies whose constant regions and variable-region frameworks have been replaced with human sequence to enhance immunocompatibility with patients, to switch immunoglobulin class, or both. PMID:2673580

Moore, G P




PubMed Central

After injection of ovalbumin as a water-in-oil emulsion a pronounced adjuvant effect is demonstrable following the incorporation of tubercle bacillary wax into the oily phase of the mixture. With single doses of antigen (10 mg. ovalbumin) there is a 4- to 5-fold increase in the amount of antibody at the median of 3 week serum levels in animals receiving a small dose of wax (40 µg.). With a 5 mg. dose of wax there is an 8-fold increase in serum antibody levels at the median. A striking feature of the action of wax is the stimulation of a macrophage proliferation locally at the site of injection, and the production of morphological abnormalities in these cells. As judged by staining techniques for antibody content, these locally assembled cells are not active in the formation of antibody. Wax injected in mineral oil results in a remarkable systematized stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. The greatly increased serum antibody levels demonstrated after the use of tubercle bacillary wax in antigen mixtures is attributed to a widespread proliferation of plasma cell elements in the lymphatic glands, spleen and liver.

White, Robert G.; Coons, Albert H.; Connolly, Jeanne M.



Are Treponema pallidum Specific Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis Accurate Enough for Screening in Resource Limited Settings? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP) specific reference standards. Methods Five electronic databases (1980–2012) were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit. Results In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i) Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21), ii) SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50), iii) VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57), and iv) Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100), ii) Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29), iii) SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53), and iv) Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66). In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i) Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70), ii) SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61), iii) Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13), and iv) VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96), ii) VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98), iii) SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33), and iv) Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74). Conclusions Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening for syphilis.

Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant



Fos expression following activation of the ventral pallidum in normal rats and in a model of Parkinson's Disease: implications for limbic system and basal ganglia interactions.  


The circuit-related consequences of activating the ventral pallidum (VP) are not well known, and lacking in particular is how these effects are altered in various neuropathological states. To help to address these paucities, this study investigated the brain regions affected by VP activation by quantifying neurons that stain for Fos-like immunoreactivity (ir). Fos-ir was assessed after intra-pallidal injections of the excitatory amino acid agonist, NMDA, or the GABA(A) antagonist, bicuculline in normal rats and in those rendered Parkinsonian-like by lesioning dopaminergic neurons with the neurotoxin, 6-OHDA. We hypothesized that activation of the VP will alter the activity state of brain regions associated with both the basal ganglia and limbic system, and that this influence would be modified in the Parkinsonian state. Blocking tonically activated GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (50 ng/0.5 microl) elevated Fos-ir in the VP to 423% above the contralateral, vehicle-injected side. Likewise, intra-VP NMDA (0.23 microg or 0.45 microg/0.5 microl), dose-dependently increased the number of pallidal neurons expressing Fos-ir by 224 and 526%, respectively. At higher NMDA doses, the density of Fos-ir neurons was not elevated above control levels. This inverted U-shaped profile was mirrored by a VP output structure, the medial subthalamic nucleus (mSTN). The mSTN showed a 289% increase in Fos-ir neurons with intra-VP injections of 0.45 microg NMDA, and this response was halved following intra-VP injections of 0.9 microg NMDA. Of the 12 other brain regions measured, three showed VP NMDA-induced enhancements in Fos-ir: the frontal cortex, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, all regions associated with the basal ganglia. In a second study, we evaluated the NMDA activation profile in a rat model of Parkinson's Disease (PD) which was created by a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the rostral substantia nigra pars compacta. Comparisons of responses to intra-VP NMDA between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion revealed that Fos-ir cells in the pedunculopontine nucleus was reduced by 62%, whereas Fos-ir for the basolateral amygdala and STN was reduced by 32 and 42%, respectively. These findings support the concept that the VP can influence both the basal ganglia and the limbic system, and that that the nature of this influence is modified in an animal model of PD. As the VP regulates motivation and cognition, adaptations in this system may contribute to the mood and mnemonic disorders that can accompany PD. PMID:18663473

Turner, Michael S; Gray, Thackery S; Mickiewicz, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste




PubMed Central

Neutralizing activity against T2 bacteriophage appeared in cultures of lymph node cells from normal rats in response to their in vitro stimulation with a cell-free filtrate derived from homogenized rat macrophages which had been incubated with T2 bacteriophage. This activity was specifically directed against T2 bacteriophage. It resided in a fraction of the culture fluid which had the salting-out properties of serum globulin. Phage neutralization was inhibited by antibody specific for rat serum gamma globulin. Antibody production against T2 bacteriophage in cultures of lymph node cells from normal animals failed to occur if (a) T2 bacteriophage alone was added, (b) if the incubation period of macrophages and T2 phage was unduly shortened, (c) if the cell-free filtrate was heated at 80–100°C for 15 minutes, (d) if more than an optimal amount of T2 bacteriophage was added to the macrophages. Additional factors which prevented the formation of antibody were the heat inactivation of the lymph node cells or the addition to the culture medium of either streptomycin or ribonuclease. Finally, it was found that macrophages and lymph node cells had to be obtained from animals of one and the same species. All essential findings on the production of antibody to T2 bacteriophage in vitro could be confirmed by substitution of the chick embryo for the tissue culture medium. The results are discussed in terms of a possible mechanism of antibody production in which an RNAse-sensitive substance resulting from the interaction of macrophages and antigen is capable of stimulating antibody synthesis in lymphocytic cells.

Fishman, M.



Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies.  


Structural flexibility in germline gene-encoded antibodies allows promiscuous binding to diverse antigens. The binding affinity and specificity for a particular epitope typically increase as antibody genes acquire somatic mutations in antigen-stimulated B cells. In this work, we investigated whether germline gene-encoded antibodies are optimal for polyspecificity by determining the basis for recognition of diverse antigens by antibodies encoded by three VH gene segments. Panels of somatically mutated antibodies encoded by a common VH gene, but each binding to a different antigen, were computationally redesigned to predict antibodies that could engage multiple antigens at once. The Rosetta multi-state design process predicted antibody sequences for the entire heavy chain variable region, including framework, CDR1, and CDR2 mutations. The predicted sequences matched the germline gene sequences to a remarkable degree, revealing by computational design the residues that are predicted to enable polyspecificity, i.e., binding of many unrelated antigens with a common sequence. The process thereby reverses antibody maturation in silico. In contrast, when designing antibodies to bind a single antigen, a sequence similar to that of the mature antibody sequence was returned, mimicking natural antibody maturation in silico. We demonstrated that the Rosetta computational design algorithm captures important aspects of antibody/antigen recognition. While the hypervariable region CDR3 often mediates much of the specificity of mature antibodies, we identified key positions in the VH gene encoding CDR1, CDR2, and the immunoglobulin framework that are critical contributors for polyspecificity in germline antibodies. Computational design of antibodies capable of binding multiple antigens may allow the rational design of antibodies that retain polyspecificity for diverse epitope binding. PMID:23637590

Willis, Jordan R; Briney, Bryan S; DeLuca, Samuel L; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens



Human monoclonal antibodies: the residual challenge of antibody immunogenicity.  


One of the major reasons for seeking human monoclonal antibodies has been to eliminate immunogenicity seen with rodent antibodies. Thus far, there has yet been no approach which absolutely abolishes that risk for cell-binding antibodies. In this short article, I draw attention to classical work which shows that monomeric immunoglobulins are intrinsically tolerogenic if they can be prevented from creating aggregates or immune complexes. Based on these classical studies two approaches for active tolerization to therapeutic antibodies are described. PMID:24037833

Waldmann, Herman



Dementia and Antiphospholipid Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLAb) may cause both focal ischemic and diffuse brain damage and may be associated with dementia. We have examined the relationship of aPLAb to dementia in the elderly. Blood samples were obtained from 87 consecutive patients with dementia (74 ± 11 years old) and 69 controls (78 ± 9 years old), residents of an old age home who

A. Mosek; I. Yust; T. A. Treves; N. Vardinon; A. D. Korczyn; J. Chapman



Monoclonal Antibodies against Pectin  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies have been produced that recognize a conformation of homopolygalacturonic acid (pectic acid) induced by an optimum concentration of calcium and sodium of about 1 and 150 millinormal, respectively. The epitope recognized is probably part of the dimers of pectin chains associated according to the `egg box' model. Images Figure 2

Liners, Francoise; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Didembourg, Christian; Van Cutsem, Pierre



Natural antibodies to glycans.  


A wide variety of so-called natural antibodies (nAbs), i.e. immunoglobulins generated by B-1 cells, are directed to glycans. nAbs to glycans can be divided in three groups: 1) conservative nAbs, i.e. practically the same in all healthy donors with respect to their epitope specificity and level in blood; 2) allo-antibodies to blood group antigens; 3) plastic antibodies related to the first or the second group but discussed separately because their level changes considerably during diseases and some temporary conditions, in particular inflammation and pregnancy. Antibodies from the third group proved to be prospective markers of a number of diseases, whereas their unusual level (below or above the norm) is not necessarily the consequence of disease/state. Modern microarrays allowed the determination of the human repertoire, which proved to be unexpectedly broad. It was observed that the content of some nAbs reaches about 0.1% of total immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins of M class dominate for most nAbs, constituting up to 80-90%. Their affinity (to a monovalent glycan, in KD terms) were found to be within the range 10(-4)-10(-6) M. Antibodies to Gal?1-3GlcNAc (Le(C)), 4-HSO3Gal?1-4GalNAc (4'-O-SuLN), Fuc?1-3GlcNAc, Fuc?1-4GlcNAc, GalNAc?1-3Gal (Adi), Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Glc (P(k)), Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc (P1), GlcNAc?-terminated glycans, and hyaluronic acid should be noted among the nAbs revealed and studied during the last decade. At the same time, a kind of "taboo" is observed for a number of glycans: antibodies to Le(X) and Le(Y), and almost all gangliosides have not been observed in healthy persons. Many of the revealed nAbs were directed to constrained inner (core) part of glycan, directly adjoined to lipid of cell membrane or protein. The biological function of these nAbs remains unclear; for anti-core antibodies, a role of surveillance on appearance of aberrant, especially cancer, antigens is supposed. The first data related to oncodiagnostics based on quantitation of anti-glycan nAbs are reported. PMID:24010841

Bovin, N V



From antibodies to sperm to antibodies in transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. a) To assess the use of “panning” procedures for the detection of antibodies to sperm. b) To develop and use human monoclonal antibodies for the analysis of human transplantation antigens.Methods. “Panning” assays were developed. The procedures and their use in the analysis of mouse monoclonal antibodies to human sperm are described. B-lymphocytes from individuals sensitized by pregnancy, graft rejection,

Richard J. T Hancock



Trifunctional antibody ertumaxomab  

PubMed Central

Background: The trifunctional antibody ertumaxomab bivalently targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) on epithelial (tumor) cells and the T cell specific CD3 antigen, and its Fc region is selectively recognized by Fc? type I/III receptor-positive immune cells. As a trifunctional immunoglobulin, ertumaxomab therefore not only targets Her2 on cancer cells, but also triggers immunological effector mechanisms mediated by T and accessory cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells). Whether molecular effects, however, might contribute to the cellular antitumor efficiency of ertumaxomab are largely unknown. Methods: Potential molecular effects of ertumaxomab on Her2-overexpressing BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were evaluated. The dissociation constant Kd of ertumaxomab was calculated from titration curves that were recorded by flow cytometry. Treatment-induced changes in Her2 homodimerization were determined by flow cytometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements on a cell-by-cell basis. Potential activation / deactivation of Her2, ERK1/2, AKT and STAT3 were analyzed by western blotting, Immunochemistry and immunofluorescent cell staining. Results: The Kd of ertumaxomab for Her2-binding was determined at 265 nM and the ertumaxomab binding epitope was found to not overlap with that of the therapeutic anti-Her2 monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Ertumaxomab caused an increase in Her2 phosphorylation at higher antibody concentrations, but changed neither the rate of Her2-homodimerization /-phosphorylation nor the activation state of key downstream signaling proteins analyzed. Conclusions: The unique mode of action of ertumaxomab, which relies more on activation of immune-mediated mechanisms against tumor cells compared with currently available therapeutic antibodies for breast cancer treatment, suggests that modular or sequential treatment with the trifunctional bivalent antibody might complement the therapeutic activity of other anti-Her2/anti-ErbB receptor reagents.

Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Ortmann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan; Brockhoff, Gero



HTLV-I Antibody Testing  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. HTLV-I Antibody Testing (7/6/89) ... FROM: Director, Center of Biologics Evaluation and Research SUBJECT: HTLV-I Antibody Testing ... More results from


INSTI™ HIV-1 Antibody Test  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... November 29, 2010 Approval Letter - INSTI HIV-1 Antibody Test Kit Indicated for the detection of antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type ... More results from


Human Antibodies to Bovine ?-Globulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies to bovine ?-globulin (anti-BGG antibodies) were detectable by a radio-immunoassay in 70% of healthy blood donors but, generally, the titres were low. Significantly increased concentrations of anti-BGG antibodies were found in patients lacking IgA but not in patients with allergic disorders. The anti-BGG antibodies were shown to give rise to falsely high IgE values in the radio-immunosorbent test for

T. Foucard; H. Bennich; S. G. O. Johansson; U. Lundkvist



Antibody-Gold Cluster Conjugates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 fig...

J. F. Hainfeld



Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Venous Thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

NTIPHOSPHOLIPID antibodies (APLA) are a hetero- geneous group of antibodies that can be detected as lupus anticoagulants (LA) and anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLA).' It is generally assumed that an association exists between APLA and venous thromboembolism (VTE). This assumption is based primarily upon the results of cross- sectional studies of patients with systemic lupus erythemato- sus The results of studies in

J. S. Ginsberg; P. S. Wells; P. Brill-Edwards; D. Donovan; K. Moffatt; M. Johnston; P. Stevens; J. Hirsh



Antibody-gold cluster conjugates  


Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

Hainfeld, J.F.



Antibody-mediated radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies that react with antigens on the surface of tumor cells but not normal cells have great potential for cancer detection and therapy. If radiolabeled without loss of immunologic specificity, such antibodies may be able to deliver cytoxic amounts of radiation. Target- cell specificity and a high extraction coefficient are necessary with any radionuclide in order to minimize normal tissue irradiation. Tumor- cell-retention time and the rate of catabolized radionuclide will also influence ultimate applicability. Among the unanswered questions for choosing a radionuclide is the choice of particle emitter. Although classic beta emitters have been used in a number of clinical situations, they have not had a major impact on disease outcome except in diseases of the thyroid. Unfortunately, Auger emitters such as iodine 125 are cytotoxic only when localized within close proximity to the genome. On the other hand, alpha emitters such as astatine 211 eliminate the need for subcellular sequestration but not cell-specific localization. 34 references.

Bloomer, W.D.; Lipsztein, R.; Dalton, J.F.



Infertility and Antiphospholipid Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) play a pathogenic role in infertility is highly controversial. aPL have been suggested to represent one potential etiology of infertility, specifically in patients with unexplained implantation failure following in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rationale is appealing, as it represents a logical extension of the demonstrated pathogenicity of aPL in contributing to recurrent spontaneous abortion, where mechanisms

Lisa R. Sammaritano



PubMed Central

A rabbit antiserum against commercially available Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase has been prepared. Five precipitation bands were distinguished by immunoelectrophoresis, but only three of these contained demonstrable enzyme activity. In an in vitro system, activity of the commercial enzyme or of highly purified acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 70-82 per cent after incubation with antiserum. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the absence of serological cross reactions or enzyme inhibition with bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase or horse serum cholinesterase. Images

Williams, R. Michael



Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.  


The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism or pregnancy morbidity. Anti-thrombotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment given the high risk of recurrent thromboembolism that characterizes this condition. Despite the prothrombotic nature of APS, thrombocytopenia is present in a proportion of patients. which can complicate management and limit the use of antithrombotic therapy. The mechanism of APS-associated thrombocytopenia is multifactorial and its relation to thrombotic risk poorly characterized. However, the presence of thrombocytopenia does not appear to reduce thrombotic risk in patients with APS, who can develop thromboembolic complications necessitating antithrombotic treatment. In these cases, treatment of the thrombocytopenia may be necessary to facilitate administration of antithrombotic agents. Clinical trials have demonstrated that patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and venous thromboembolism should be treated with vitamin K antagonists (warfarin); that ischemic stroke may be treated with aspirin or warfarin; and that women with recurrent pregnancy loss should receive prophylactic-dose heparin and aspirin. However, application of these trial results to patients with APS-associated thrombocytopenia can be challenging since there are limited data on the optimal use of antithrombotic agents in this setting. Issues such as determining the platelet threshold at which antithrombotic agents can be safely used and managing patients with both bleeding and thromboembolic complications remain unresolved. Ultimately the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy, balanced against the severity of the thrombocytopenia and its potential bleeding risks, need to be assessed using an individualized patient approach. PMID:20008203

Lim, Wendy



Antibody Glycans Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glycosylation is one of the main IgG post-translational modifications and has essential roles in antibody effectors functions,\\u000a immunogenicity and plasmatic clearance. In this chapter we discuss and provide detailed protocols for IgG homogeneity and\\u000a determination of level of glycosylation by Capillary Electrophoresis-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (CE-SDS), for orthogonal glyco-profiling\\u000a of IgG-released glycans by Capillary Electrophoresis with a Laser-Induced Fluorescent Detector (CE-LIF)

Marie-Claire Janin-Bussat; Elsa Wagner-Rousset; Christine Klinguer-Hamour; Nathalie Corvaia; Alain Dorsselaer; Alain Beck


Therapeutic antibodies, vaccines and antibodyomes  

PubMed Central

The potential for antibodies to act as “magic bullets” for treatment of human disease was recognized a century ago, but its full realization has began to occur only during the last decade. A key to their current success is the ability to make libraries of antibodies/B cells, isolate a single species, and engineer it to be safe, efficacious and of high quality. Despite this progress, major challenges to the effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a vast majority of diseases remain. Limited success in the development of effective vaccines against diseases such as AIDS and cancer reflects our incomplete understanding of how antibodies are generated and function. Only a miniscule number of antibodies are characterized out of the universe of antibodies generated by the immune system. Knowledge of antibodyomes—the complete sets of antibodies—could help solve these and other challenges.



Poliovirus antibody in Northern Greece.  

PubMed Central

In order to study the serological status of the Northern Greek population to poliovirus, 881 sera from healthy people were examined for neutralizing antibody by the micrometabolic inhibition test. The people under examination were aged from 1 day to 70 years old. Overall, of the 881 sera examined, 704 (80%) had antibodies (titre greater than or equal to 4) to poliovirus 1, 742 (84%) had antibodies to poliovirus 2 and 715 (81%) had antibodies to poliovirus 3. Fifty-five per cent of the sera had antibodies to all three polioviruses while 3.3% had no poliovirus antibody at all. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of seropositivity to the various poliovirus types or between males and females. However the rates of seropositivity did vary with age.

Kyriazopoulou-Dalaina, V.



Clinical correlation of anticentromere antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective survey of all patients with a positive anticentromere antibody (ACA) determination was undertaken over a 3-years period of time in a university hospital. Forty-five patients were positive for anticentromere antibodies. The analysis of the clinical characteristics and diagnoses of the patients with anticentromere antibodies were correlated and showed a diverse array of symptoms. Only 4.4% had CREST syndrome,

M. Zuber; R. Gotzen; I. Filler



Function-first antibody discovery  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic antibodies may mediate antineoplastic effects by altering the biological functions of their target, by directly stimulating the demise of cancer cells or by activating antibody-dependent immune effector mechanisms. We have recently provided in vivo proof-of-concept for a “function-first” target and drug discovery platform in which antibodies against a multitude of tumor-associated antigens are screened for biological effects in a target-unbiased manner.

Frendeus, Bjorn



Monoclonal antibodies: versatile platforms for cancer immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies are important therapeutic agents for cancer. Recently, it has become clear that antibodies possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action. Many clinically useful antibodies can manipulate tumour-related signalling. In addition, antibodies exhibit various immunomodulatory properties and, by directly activating or inhibiting molecules of the immune system, antibodies can promote the induction of antitumour immune responses. These immunomodulatory properties can

Rishi Surana; Shangzi Wang; Louis M. Weiner



Half-life of polyreactive antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal polyreactive antibodies bind to a variety of self and foreign antigens. In contrast, monoclonal monoreactive antibodies bind to a single or restricted number of known antigens. The rate at which polyreactive antibodies are removed from the circulation compared to monoreactive antibodies has not been determined. In the present experiments, human monoclonal polyreactive and monoreactive antibodies of different isotypes were

George Sigounas; Nagaradona Harindranath; Giulia Donadel; Abner Louis Notkins



[Antithrombotic recombinant antibodies].  


Coronary syndromes, stroke and other ischaemic arterial diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and will probably remain it at least until 2020. Cardiovascular diseases kill 17 million people each year with an expected increase to 20 million in 2020 and 24 million in 2030. The global impact of recurrence and death during the 6 months following an acute coronary syndrome remains at 8-15% in the present state of medical practice. Acute ischaemic syndromes have a common aetiology that is the formation of a platelet-rich clot at the site of severe coronary stenosis and of eroded atherosclerotic plaques. Therapy consists of medical treatments associating thrombolysis, antiplatelet drugs, and the re-opening of the coronary artery by angioplasty. But these treatments do not prevent morbidity and mortality reaching 15% at 6 months. Finally the treatment of stroke is very limited. There is thus a real clinical need to improve existing treatments and to discover new molecules. Platelet activation is a critical step in ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why antiplatelet drugs are most often prescribed in these cases. Currently, only one recombinant antithrombotic antibody is used in therapy. This is a chimeric Fab, c7E3 or abciximab, which inhibits the final phase of platelet aggregation. Abciximab is prescribed in acute coronary syndromes treated by angioplasty. However, treatment by abciximab can induce severe complications, principally, hemorrages and thrombopenia. Other platelet receptors involved in the earlier steps of platelet activation, such as the phases of contact with and of activation by the subendothelium matrix, have been identified as potential targets for the development of antithrombotic antibodies and are described in this revue. PMID:17652972

Muzard, Julien; Loyau, Stéphane; Ajzenberg, Nadine; Billiald, Philippe; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine



Antibody Arrays in Cancer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody arrays have valuable applications in cancer re- search. Many different antibody array technologies have been developed, each with particular advantages, disad- vantages, and optimal applications. The methods have been demonstrated on various sample types, such as serum, plasma, and other bodily fluids; cell culture super- natants; tissue culture lysates; and resected tumor spec- imens. The applications to cancer research

Brian B. Haab



Laboratory testing for platelet antibodies.  


Laboratory testing for immune-mediated thrombocytopenias involves identification and classification of antibodies present in patient sera or attached to patient platelets. This article summarizes the available types of platelet antibody testing and applications in disorders such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, multiple platelet transfusion refractoriness, immune thrombocytopenia, and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:23757218

Heikal, Nahla M; Smock, Kristi J



Norovirus Monoclonal Antibodies and Peptides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is drawn to monoclonal antibodies that bind to a Norovirus, peptides that inhibit monoclonal antibody binding to a Norovirus, and peptides that inhibit binding of a Norovirus to a cell. The compositions of the invention find use as N...

M. Hardy



Chemical generation of bispecific antibodies  

PubMed Central

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are regarded as promising therapeutic agents due to their ability to simultaneously bind two different antigens. Several bispecific modalities have been developed, but their utility is limited due to problems with stability and manufacturing complexity. Here we report a versatile technology, based on a scaffold antibody and pharmacophore peptide heterodimers, that enables rapid generation and chemical optimization of bispecific antibodies, which are termed bispecific CovX-Bodies. Two different peptides are joined together using a branched azetidinone linker and fused to the scaffold antibody under mild conditions in a site-specific manner. Whereas the pharmacophores are responsible for functional activities, the antibody scaffold imparts long half-life and Ig-like distribution. The pharmacophores can be chemically optimized or replaced with other pharmacophores to generate optimized or unique bispecific antibodies. As a prototype, we developed a bispecific antibody that binds both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) simultaneously, inhibits their function, shows efficacy in tumor xenograft studies, and greatly augments the antitumor effects of standard chemotherapy. This unique antiangiogenic bispecific antibody is in phase-1 clinical trials.

Doppalapudi, Venkata R.; Huang, Jie; Liu, Dingguo; Jin, Ping; Liu, Bin; Li, Lingna; Desharnais, Joel; Hagen, Crystal; Levin, Nancy J.; Shields, Michael J.; Parish, Michelle; Murphy, Robert E.; Del Rosario, Joselyn; Oates, Bryan D.; Lai, Jing-Yu; Matin, Marla J.; Ainekulu, Zemeda; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lerner, Richard A.; Lappe, Rodney W.



Properties of protective malarial antibody  

PubMed Central

Properties of protective malarial antibody have been studied in cultures of P. knowlesi giving average parasite multiplication rates of sixfold in 24 hours. Parasite growth was assessed by incorporation of [3H]-leucine into protein. Immune serum has little effect upon the growth of intracellular parasites, but prevents reinvasion of red cells and inhibits the succeeding cycle of parasite development. Protective antibody is present in relatively low titre in immune sera even after long immunization and this may explain certain characteristic features of malarial immunity. Protective antibody in the sera studied is associated with IgG and IgM; its action is not complement dependent, but requires at least two combining sites per molecule. Anti-malarial antibody has several features in common with viral neutralizing antibody.

Cohen, S.; Butcher, G. A.



Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test  


... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Share this page: Was this ... I have an HIT antibody? 1. Can the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibody test be done in ...



PubMed Central

Guinea pig 7S?1 antibodies were demonstrated to mediate passive systemic or cutaneous anaphylaxis; guinea pig 7S?2 antibodies were unable to mediate these reactions. Gamma-2 antibodies specifically inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylactic reactions provoked by gamma-1 antibodies by competing for antigen. However, gamma-2 antibodies were unable to inhibit passive cutaneous sensitization of guinea pigs by a heterologous antibody system. Guinea pig 7S?2 antibodies appear to lack receptors for fixation to guinea pig tissues and do not compete with sensitizing antibody for receptor sites.

Ovary, Zoltan; Benacerraf, Baruj; Bloch, Kurt J.



Computer-aided antibody design  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials using antibodies with low toxicity and high efficiency have raised expectations for the development of next-generation protein therapeutics. However, the process of obtaining therapeutic antibodies remains time consuming and empirical. This review summarizes recent progresses in the field of computer-aided antibody development mainly focusing on antibody modeling, which is divided essentially into two parts: (i) modeling the antigen-binding site, also called the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and (ii) predicting the relative orientations of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains. Among the six CDR loops, the greatest challenge is predicting the conformation of CDR-H3, which is the most important in antigen recognition. Further computational methods could be used in drug development based on crystal structures or homology models, including antibody–antigen dockings and energy calculations with approximate potential functions. These methods should guide experimental studies to improve the affinities and physicochemical properties of antibodies. Finally, several successful examples of in silico structure-based antibody designs are reviewed. We also briefly review structure-based antigen or immunogen design, with application to rational vaccine development.

Kuroda, Daisuke; Shirai, Hiroki; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Nakamura, Haruki



Monoclonal antibodies to mouse butyrylcholinesterase.  


Our immunization strategy introduced recombinant mouse butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to naïve BChE knockout mice. An extraordinarily strong immune reaction gave rise to a whole spectrum of antibodies with different properties. Two selective and highly efficient monoclonal anti-mouse BChE antibodies 4H1 (IgG1) and 4 C9 (IgG2a), with Kd values in the nanomolar range were generated. ELISA detected BChE in as little as 20-50 nl of mouse plasma using 2 ?g (4H1) or 4 ?g (4C9). Both antibodies cross-reacted with BChE in dog plasma but only 4 H1 reacted with rat BChE, suggesting that the antibodies are targeted towards different epitopes. Surprisingly, neither recognized human BChE. The anti-mouse BChE antibodies were used in immunohistochemistry analysis of mouse muscle where they specifically stained the neuromuscular junction. The antibodies enable visualization of the BChE protein in the mouse tissue, thus complementing activity assays. They can be used to study a long-lasting question about the existence of mixed acetylcholinesterase/BChE oligomers in mouse tissues. Moreover, monoclonal anti-mouse BChE antibodies can provide a simple, fast and efficient way to purify mouse BChE from small amounts of starting material by using a single-step immunomagnetic bead-based protocol. PMID:23099085

Mrvova, Katarina; Obzerova, Lucia; Girard, Emmanuelle; Krejci, Eric; Hrabovska, Anna



Marketed therapeutic antibodies compendium.  


Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently being approved for marketing in Europe and the United States, as well as other countries, on a regular basis. As more mAbs become available to physicians and patients, keeping track of the number, types, production cell lines, antigenic targets, and dates and locations of approvals has become challenging. Data are presented here for 34 mAbs that were approved in either Europe or the United States (US) as of March 2012, and nimotuzumab, which is marketed outside Europe and the US. Of the 34 mAbs, 28 (abciximab, rituximab, basiliximab, palivizumab, infliximab, trastuzumab, alemtuzumab, adalimumab, tositumomab-I131, cetuximab, ibrituximab tiuxetan, omalizumab, bevacizumab, natalizumab, ranibizumab, panitumumab, eculizumab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, canakinumab, catumaxomab, ustekinumab, tocilizumab, ofatumumab, denosumab, belimumab, ipilimumab, brentuximab) are currently marketed in Europe or the US. Data for six therapeutic mAbs (muromonab-CD3, nebacumab, edrecolomab, daclizumab, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, efalizumab) that were approved but have been withdrawn or discontinued from marketing in Europe or the US are also included. PMID:22531442

Reichert, Janice M



Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies  

SciTech Connect

Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.



Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively  

PubMed Central

Members of the haloarchaeal genera Halosarcina and Halogeometricum (family Halobacteriaceae) are closely related to each other and show 96.6–98?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This is higher than the accepted threshold value (95?%) to separate two genera, and a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach of all four members of the two genera was conducted to clarify their relationships. Polar lipid profiles indicated that Halogeometricum rufum RO1-4T, Halosarcina pallida BZ256T and Halosarcina limi RO1-6T are related more to each other than to Halogeometricum borinquense CGMCC 1.6168T. Phylogenetic analyses using the sequences of three different genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB? and EF-2) strongly supported the monophyly of these four species, showing that they formed a distinct clade, separate from the related genera Halopelagius, Halobellus, Haloquadratum, Haloferax and Halogranum. The results indicate that the four species should be assigned to the same genus, and it is proposed that Halosarcina pallida and Halosarcina limi be transferred to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov. (type strain, BZ256T?=?KCTC 4017T?=?JCM 14848T) and Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. (type strain, RO1-6T?=?CGMCC 1.8711T?=?JCM 16054T).

Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Dyall-Smith, Mike L.



Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively.  


Members of the haloarchaeal genera Halosarcina and Halogeometricum (family Halobacteriaceae) are closely related to each other and show 96.6-98?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This is higher than the accepted threshold value (95?%) to separate two genera, and a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach of all four members of the two genera was conducted to clarify their relationships. Polar lipid profiles indicated that Halogeometricum rufum RO1-4(T), Halosarcina pallida BZ256(T) and Halosarcina limi RO1-6(T) are related more to each other than to Halogeometricum borinquense CGMCC 1.6168(T). Phylogenetic analyses using the sequences of three different genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB' and EF-2) strongly supported the monophyly of these four species, showing that they formed a distinct clade, separate from the related genera Halopelagius, Halobellus, Haloquadratum, Haloferax and Halogranum. The results indicate that the four species should be assigned to the same genus, and it is proposed that Halosarcina pallida and Halosarcina limi be transferred to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov. (type strain, BZ256(T)?=?KCTC 4017(T)?=?JCM 14848(T)) and Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. (type strain, RO1-6(T)?=?CGMCC 1.8711(T)?=?JCM 16054(T)). PMID:24097833

Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Dyall-Smith, Mike L; Cui, Heng-Lin



Technology trends in antibody purification.  


This article reviews technology trends in antibody purification. Section 1 discusses non-chromatography methods, including precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and high performance tangential flow filtration. The second addresses chromatography methods. It begins with discussion of fluidized and fixed bed formats. It continues with stationary phase architecture: diffusive particles, perfusive particles, membranes and monoliths. The remainder of the section reviews recent innovations in size exclusion, anion exchange, cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, immobilized metal affinity, mixed-mode, and bioaffinity chromatography. Section 3 addresses an emerging trend of formulating process buffers to prevent or correct anomalies in the antibodies being purified. Methods are discussed for preventing aggregate formation, dissociating antibody-contaminant complexes, restoring native antibody from aggregates, and conserving or restoring native disulfide pairing. PMID:22071423

Gagnon, Pete



Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification  


... Arraut, A. and Tran, S. (Updated 2011 July 22). Erythrocyte Alloimmunization and Pregnancy. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. ... org . Accessed November 2012. (© 1995-2012). Antibody Screen, Erythrocytes. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. ...


Evolution of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.  


Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a very important cause of cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, and repeated pregnancy losses in women. We present an extremely rare case of a 44-year-old man with antiphospholipid syndrome who collapsed and died suddenly. At autopsy, he was found to have both cerebral and myocardial infarction. In all young patients with cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, recurrent miscarriages, and unexplained low platelet count, one must consider the strong possibility of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. PMID:22940920

Baviskar, Rutuja R; Amonkar, Gayathri P; Chaudhary, Vinod A; Balasubramanian, Meenakshi; Mohite, Shailesh C; Puranik, Gururaj V



Bispecific Antibodies and Gene Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gene therapy is the transfer of therapeutic genes, via gene transfer vectors, into patients for therapeutic purposes. Different\\u000a gene therapy strategies are being pursued, including long-term gene correction of monogenetic diseases, eradication of tumor\\u000a cells in cancer patients, or genetic vaccination for infectious diseases. Bispecific antibodies and gene therapy are connected\\u000a in two ways. First, bispecific antibodies are tools of

Dirk M. Nettelbeck


Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule.

Vlasak, Josef



Neutralising Antibodies against Ricin Toxin  

PubMed Central

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have listed the potential bioweapon ricin as a Category B Agent. Ricin is a so-called A/B toxin produced by plants and is one of the deadliest molecules known. It is easy to prepare and no curative treatment is available. An immunotherapeutic approach could be of interest to attenuate or neutralise the effects of the toxin. We sought to characterise neutralising monoclonal antibodies against ricin and to develop an effective therapy. For this purpose, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against the two chains of ricin toxin (RTA and RTB). Seven mAbs were selected for their capacity to neutralise the cytotoxic effects of ricin in vitro. Three of these, two anti-RTB (RB34 and RB37) and one anti-RTA (RA36), when used in combination improved neutralising capacity in vitro with an IC50 of 31 ng/ml. Passive administration of association of these three mixed mAbs (4.7 µg) protected mice from intranasal challenges with ricin (5 LD50). Among those three antibodies, anti-RTB antibodies protected mice more efficiently than the anti-RTA antibody. The combination of the three antibodies protected mice up to 7.5 hours after ricin challenge. The strong in vivo neutralising capacity of this three mAbs combination makes it potentially useful for immunotherapeutic purposes in the case of ricin poisoning or possibly for prevention.

Prigent, Julie; Panigai, Laetitia; Lamourette, Patricia; Sauvaire, Didier; Devilliers, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Volland, Herve; Creminon, Christophe; Simon, Stephanie



Neutralization of HIV by antibodies.  


Antibodies can neutralize HIV-1 with potency and cross-reactivity that varies widely and is related but not correlated to their antigen-binding affinity. Therefore, in addition to measuring binding affinity, an evaluation of the antibody neutralizing activity in tissue cultures is important for development of antibody-based therapeutics, design of candidate vaccine immunogens, and understanding the mechanisms of virus entry, neutralization, and evasion of immune responses. The development of a standardized assay for measurement of the in vitro neutralizing activities of the antibody has remained a challenging goal in the last two decades. There are two types of widely used assays, which vary in details between different laboratories--assays based on cell line/pseudovirus and assays based on infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Here we describe in detail the PBMC-based assay, which is more laborious but in our opinion represents a closer approximation of the in vivo situation. As with all other in vitro assays the results of such measurements are only an indication of the antibody potency in vivo, and animal studies and ultimately clinical trials are needed for the development of such antibodies as potential prophylactics and therapeutics. PMID:19252841

Prado, Ilia; Fouts, Timothy R; Dimitrov, Antony S



Fertility studies with antisperm antibodies.  


Serum obtained from an infertile subject possessed antibodies that interacted with a human sperm glycoprotein with an estimated M(r) of 17,550 and pI of 5.65 containing 17.7% neutral hexoses and designated as the BS-17 component. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the BS-17 antigen blocked the capacity of human sperm to fertilize zona-free hamster ova in vitro; however, the antibodies did not influence the binding of human sperm to zone-free ova or alter the motility of human sperm. The antibodies inhibited the capacity of mouse sperm to fertilize ova upon in vivo insemination. The BS-17 antigen was detected in human, rat, mouse, rabbit, and hamster sperm by an immunocytochemical method, using polyclonal anti-BS-17 antibodies. Intense staining occurred over the surface of the acrosomal region of all mammalian sperm. The results suggest that the production of anti-BS-17 antibodies contribute to infertility by preventing the capacitation of sperm and/or by blocking the ability of capacitated sperm to fertilize the egg. PMID:8074581

Wei, S G; Wang, L F; Miao, S Y; Zong, S D; Koide, S S


Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody  

SciTech Connect

The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery.

Martin, E.W. Jr.; Mojzisik, C.M.; Hinkle, G.H. Jr.; Sampsel, J.; Siddiqi, M.A.; Tuttle, S.E.; Sickle-Santanello, B.; Colcher, D.; Thurston, M.O.; Bell, J.G.




PubMed Central

Passive immune lysis of antigen-coated erythrocytes provoked in vitro by guinea pig ?2 antihapten antibodies in the presence of complement, is inhibited by guinea pig ?1 antibodies directed against the same specificity. This inhibition of the lytic effect of complement-fixing ?2 antibodies is presumably due to the competition for antigen by non-lytic ?1 antibodies.

Kourilsky, F. M.; Bloch, Kurt J.; Benacerraf, B.; Ovary, Z.



Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama V HH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigen specific llama VHH antibody fragments were compared to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. The llama VHH antibody fragments and the mouse monoclonal antibodies investigated were shown to be highly specific for the protein antigen hCG or the hapten antigen RR-6. The affinity of the interaction between monovalent llama VHH antibody fragments and

R. H. J. van der Linden; L. G. J. Frenken; B. de Geus; M. M. Harmsen; R. C. Ruuls; W. Stok; L. de Ron; S. Wilson; P. Davis; C. T. Verrips



[Correlation between measles-neutralizing antibody and HI antibody, between measles-neutralizing antibody and PA antibody among pregnant women, and protective levels of three titration types].  


When measles antibody levels among pregnant women were measured with measles hemagglutinin inhibition (HI), 31% of subjects had negative HI antibody titers. When the same blood samples were tested with measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) and neutralizing (NT), the percentages of those with negative antibody levels were 1% and 3%. We conducted the correlation between antibody titers measured by the three types of titration. Correlation between NT and HI antibody titers higher than 1:8 and that between NT and PA antibody titers were good, but 81% of subjects whose HI antibody titer was below 1:8 and all women with HI antibody of 1:8 were found to have NT antibody titer higher than 1:4. NT antibody titer higher than 1:4 was found in 95% of women having PA antibody titer of 1:256 and in 99% of those with PA antibody titer of 1:512. Based on the relationships to measles NT antibody level, the majority of subjects with HI antibody titer higher than 1:8 or PA antibody level higher than 1:512 was reasonably assumed to be protected against clinical measles. PA seemed superior to HI in finding subjects with insufficient immunity against measles, because the former detects weak immunity more efficiently than the latter. PMID:18095465

Takayama, Naohide; Shoda, Akiko; Okazaki, Takayuki; Ichinohe, Sadato; Saika, Shizuko; Inaba, Noriyuki



Heterophile antibodies in Nigerian sera  

PubMed Central

A heterophile agglutinin was found at a titre of 1:4 or greater in 332 of 336 Nigerian sera investigated. The antibody was demonstrated to be an IgM macroglobulin. Although many of the sera tested had high IgM levels, only a slight correlation was found between titres of heterophile agglutinin and IgM levels. Absorption studies differentiated the Nigerian heterophile agglutinin from the antibodies seen in glandular fever and serum sickness. No correlation was found between the occurrence of high titres of heterophile agglutinin and infection with malaria, onchocerciasis, loaisis or schistosomiasis. None of the subjects investigated was known to have trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection in which heterophile antibodies are known to occur.

Greenwood, B. M.



Antibody-targeted cell fusion.  


Membrane fusion has many potential applications in biotechnology. Here we show that antibody-targeted cell fusion can be achieved by engineering a fusogenic viral membrane glycoprotein complex. Three different single-chain antibodies were displayed at the extracellular C terminus of the measles hemagglutinin (H) protein, and combinations of point mutations were introduced to ablate its ability to trigger fusion through the native viral receptors CD46 and SLAM. When coexpressed with the measles fusion (F) protein, using plasmid cotransfection or bicistronic adenoviral vectors, the retargeted H proteins could mediate antibody-targeted cell fusion of receptor-negative or receptor-positive index cells with receptor-positive target cells. Adenoviral expression vectors mediating human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted cell fusion were potently cytotoxic against EGFR-positive tumor cell lines and showed superior antitumor potency against EGFR-positive tumor xenografts as compared with control adenoviruses expressing native (untargeted) or CD38-targeted H proteins. PMID:14990955

Nakamura, Takafumi; Peng, Kah-Whye; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Harvey, Mary; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Cattaneo, Roberto; Russell, Stephen J



Epigenetics of the antibody response.  


Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia. PMID:23643790

Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo



Novel Antibody Vectors for Imaging  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive molecular imaging approaches include nuclear, optical, MRI, CT, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, which require accumulation of a signal delivered by a probe at the target site. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are high affinity molecules that can be used for specific, high signal delivery to cell surface molecules. However, their long circulation time in blood makes them unsuitable as imaging probes. Efforts to improve antibodies pharmacokinetics without compromising affinity and specificity have been made through protein engineering. Antibody variants that differ in antigen binding sites and size have been generated and evaluated as imaging probes to target tissues of interest. Fast clearing fragments such as single-chain Fv (scFv; 25 kDa) with one antigen binding site (monovalent) demonstrated low accumulation in tumors due the low exposure time to the target. Using scFv as building block to produce larger, bivalent fragments such as scFv dimers (diabodies, 50 kDa) and scFv-fusion proteins (80 kDa minibodies and 105 kDa scFv-Fc) resulted in higher tumor accumulation due to their longer residence time in blood. Imaging studies with these fragments following radiolabeling have demonstrated excellent, high contrast images in gamma cameras and PET scanners. Several studies have also investigated antibody fragments conjugated to fluorescence (near infrared dyes), bioluminescence (luciferases) and quantum dots for optical imaging and iron oxides nanoparticles for MRI. However, these studies indicate that there are several factors that influence successful targeting and imaging. These include stability of the antibody fragment, the labeling chemistry (direct or indirect), whether critical residues are modified, the number of antigen expressed on the cell, and whether the target has a rapid recycling rate or internalizes upon binding. The preclinical data presented are compelling and it is evident that antibody-based molecular imaging tracers will play an important future role in the diagnosis and management of cancer and other diseases.

Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.



Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

Waldmann, Thomas A.



Fully human antibodies specific to CADM1  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present disclosure provides isolated monoclonal antibodies, particularly human monoclonal antibodies, more particularly engineered antibodies resulting in increased binding to Fc receptors and/or increased potency for ADCC or immunoconjugates, which specifically bind to CADM1 with high affinity. Nucleic acid molecules encoding CADM1 antibodies, expression vectors, host cells and methods for expressing the CADM1 antibodies are also provided. Bispecific molecules and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the CADM1 antibodies are also provided. Methods for detecting CADM1, as well as methods for treating various cancers, including lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, are disclosed.



Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.  


Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic. PMID:24037837

Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses



9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. 113.452 Section 113.452 ...AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae...



9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. 113.452 Section 113.452 ...AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae...



Antibody responses in hyperthyroid rats.  


This study evaluated antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in hyperthyroid rats during treatment with triiodothyronine (T(3)). The immune response was evaluated by measuring plaque forming cells (PFC) in the spleen and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum of male Wistar rats (180+/-10 g) treated with 25 mug/day of triiodotironine (T(3)) during 7-12 days and immunized with SRBC at the 8th day of treatment. The results showed that anti-SRBC antibody production was significantly decreased in animals treated for 12 days when compared to normal rats immunized with the same antigen, as evaluated by the two assays. These results show that in this experimental model hyperthyroidism decreases antibody response. We previously observed the opposite effect, that is, an increase in this response in hypothyroid rats resulting from the treatment with propylthyouracil, a blocker of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. It is suggested that antibody production is affected by thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17499202

Bittencourt, C S; Azzolini, A E C S; Ferreira, D A; Assis-Pandochi, A I



Emerging antibody combinations in oncology  

PubMed Central

The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a general approach for specifically targeting and treating human disease. In oncology, the therapeutic utility of mAbs is usually evaluated in the context of treatment with standard of care, as well as other small molecule targeted therapies. Many anti-cancer antibody modalities have achieved validation, including the targeting of growth factor and angiogenesis pathways, the induction of tumor cell killing or apoptosis and the blocking of immune inhibitory mechanisms to stimulate anti-tumor responses. But, as with other targeted therapies, few antibodies are curative because of biological complexities that underlie tumor formation and redundancies in molecular pathways that enable tumors to adapt and show resistance to treatment. This review discusses the combinations of antibody therapeutics that are emerging to improve efficacy and durability within a specific biological mechanism (e.g., immunomodulation or the inhibition of angiogenesis) and across multiple biological pathways (e.g., inhibition of tumor growth and induction of tumor cell apoptosis).

Hariharan, Kandasamy



Anticardiolipin antibodies and ocular disease.  


This paper reviews anticardiolipin antibodies and ocular disease. Its aim is to present the latest knowledge regarding the relationship between the two. It focuses mainly on ocular features and treatment, but also describes the epidemiology, main systemic features, immunology, and immunopathology of the antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:16159716

Lima Cabrita, Filipe Vieira; Foster, C Stephen


Flexible antibodies with nonprotein hinges.  


There is a significant need for antibodies that can bind targets with greater affinity. Here we describe a novel strategy employing chemical semisynthesis to produce symmetroadhesins: antibody-like molecules having nonprotein hinge regions that are more flexible and extendible and are capable of two-handed binding. Native chemical ligation was carried out under mild, non-denaturing conditions to join a ligand binding domain (A? peptide) to an IgG1 Fc dimer via discrete oxyethylene oligomers of various lengths. Two-handed A?-Fc fusion proteins were obtained in quantitative yield and shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind an anti-A? antibody with a K(D) at least two orders of magnitude greater than the cognate A? peptide. MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the protein/nonprotein/protein structure of the two-handed molecules, demonstrating its power to characterize complex protein-nonprotein hybrids by virtue of desorption/ionization mediated by peptide sequences contained therein. We anticipate many applications for symmetroadhesins that combine the target specificity of antibodies with the novel physical, chemical and biological properties of nonprotein hinges. PMID:22075761

Capon, Daniel J; Kaneko, Naoki; Yoshimori, Takayuki; Shimada, Takashi; Wurm, Florian M; Hwang, Peter K; Tong, Xiaohe; Adams, Staci A; Simmons, Graham; Sato, Taka-Aki; Tanaka, Koichi



Flexible antibodies with nonprotein hinges  

PubMed Central

There is a significant need for antibodies that can bind targets with greater affinity. Here we describe a novel strategy employing chemical semisynthesis to produce symmetroadhesins: antibody-like molecules having nonprotein hinge regions that are more flexible and extendible and are capable of two-handed binding. Native chemical ligation was carried out under mild, non-denaturing conditions to join a ligand binding domain (A? peptide) to an IgG1 Fc dimer via discrete oxyethylene oligomers of various lengths. Two-handed A?–Fc fusion proteins were obtained in quantitative yield and shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind an anti-A? antibody with a KD at least two orders of magnitude greater than the cognate A? peptide. MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the protein/nonprotein/protein structure of the two-handed molecules, demonstrating its power to characterize complex protein-nonprotein hybrids by virtue of desorption/ionization mediated by peptide sequences contained therein. We anticipate many applications for symmetroadhesins that combine the target specificity of antibodies with the novel physical, chemical and biological properties of nonprotein hinges.

CAPON, Daniel J.; KANEKO, Naoki; YOSHIMORI, Takayuki; SHIMADA, Takashi; WURM, Florian M.; HWANG, Peter K.; TONG, Xiaohe; ADAMS, Staci A.; SIMMONS, Graham; SATO, Taka-Aki; TANAKA, Koichi



Antineuronal antibodies in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antineuronal antibodies (ANAs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of postinfectious movement disorders, such as Sydenham's chorea. However, their relevance in other movement disorders--in the absence of infectious triggers--remains much disputed. We sought to assess the frequency of ANAs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and to explore whether a specific phenotype is associated with the presence of ANAs. For this

Andrew J. Church; Davide Martino; Paul M. Candler; Kailash P. Bhatia; Gavin Giovannoni; Niall P. Quinn



Bispecific antibodies in cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon in vitro and animal studies, a number of Phase I and II clinical trials have been initiated to test whether bispecific antibodies could redirect immune effectors against tumor cells in cancer patients. Recently, results from those trials showed beneficial effects in some patients but it is clear many problems remain to be solved. In addition, molecular engineering approaches

David M Segal; George J Weiner; Louis M Weiner



Antibody Microchips to Study Metastasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis of my project is the behavior of an invasive tumor cell is largely determined by a collection of proteins on the surface of metastasis cell. I proposed to employ phage display single-chain variable fragment antibody library, mass spectromet...

Y. Zhang



Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Human Thymidylate Synthase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to monoclonal antibodies that are specific for the protein thymidylate synthase, and hybridomas producing these monoclonal antibodies. The invention further relates to methods of detection and diagnostic kits to test for the presence...

P. Johnston C. Allegra B. Chabner C. M. Liang



Uses of Monoclonal Antibody 8H9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 ...

N. K. Cheung



Antarctic seals carry antibodies against seal herpesvirus.  


Weddell seals in the Antarctica had high neutralizing antibody titres to seal- and feline herpesvirus and none against phocine distemper virus. Crab-eater seals were free of antibodies. This suggests an evolutionary wide spread of seal herpesvirus. PMID:1562238

Stenvers, O; Plötz, J; Ludwig, H



Tissue Specific Expression of Antibodies in Chickens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transgenes encoding exogenous antibodies are stably integrated into donor cells and are present in the somatic tissue of chimeric birds. The transgenes encode exogenous antibodies and are preferably expressed in the oviduct for collection in the egg. Tiss...

L. Zhu R. T. Etches W. Zhou



The antibody response in seabather's eruption.  


Thirty-six of 44 patients with seabather's eruption had specific IgG antibodies against Linuche unguilata (thimble jelly) medusae antigen. ELISA detected antibodies in serum stored for 10 years. The extent of the cutaneous eruption or sting severity was correlated with antibody titer. Antibodies were detected in patients acquiring the eruption in Florida, the Bahamas and Aruba, reflecting the habitat of these jellyfish. This serological assay can be useful to confirm the clinical diagnosis. PMID:7778134

Burnett, J W; Kumar, S; Malecki, J M; Szmant, A M



Antibody reactivity with Skinner HSV vaccine.  


Antibody reactivity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) was investigated in 15 subjects who received three subcutaneous immunisations with Skinner HSV vaccine. Humoral antibody responses were detected against type 1 HSV in every subject and against type 2 HSV in all but one subject; immuno-precipitating antibody responses were infrequently detected. There was no antibody reactivity against host-cell (MRC-5), foetal calf serum or rubella virus antigen. None of the vaccinated subjects developed clinical evidence of herpes genitalis. PMID:2828898

Muniu, E M; Durham, J; Shariff, D; Hartley, C E; Fuller, A; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Wilkins, G; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R



Development trends for monoclonal antibody cancer therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies are now established as a key therapeutic modality for a range of diseases. Owing to the ability of these agents to selectively target tumour cells, cancer has been a major focus of development programmes for monoclonal antibodies so far. Here, we overview trends in the clinical development and regulatory approval of monoclonal antibodies for cancer since 1980, with

Viia E. Valge-Archer; Janice M. Reichert



Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 8 chapters. Some of the titles are: Anti-DNA Antibodies in SLE: Historical Perspective; Specificity of Anti-DNA Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Monoclonial Autoimmune Anti-DNA Antibodies; and Structure--Function Analyses of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies.

Voss, E.W.



Mathematical and Experimental Analyses of Antibody Transport in Hollow-Fiber-Based Specific Antibody Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing hollow fiber-based specific antibody filters (SAFs) that selectively remove antibodies of a given specificity directly from whole blood, without separation of the plasma and cellular blood components and with minimal removal of plasma proteins other than the targeted pathogenic antibodies. A principal goal of our research is to identify the primary mechanisms that control antibody transport within

Mariah S. Hout; William J. Federspiel



Cloning and characterization of antikeratin human antibodies using a semisynthetic phage antibody library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antikeratin autoantibodies (AK auto Abs) are very important elements of the human immune system. To improve the outcome of studies on AK auto Abs, it is necessary to generate antikeratin human monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of present study was to isolate antikeratin human monoclonal antibodies by panning a phage antibody library. A semisynthetic phage antibody library with capacity of 4.0×10

Gang Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; Chun-Ying Li; Ning Lu; Tian-Wen Gao; Bing Hua; Yan Wang



Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in diagnosis of human leptospiral infection.  

PubMed Central

The PanBio Leptospira immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a commercially available screening test for the diagnosis of acute leptospiral infection. The ability of the test to diagnose early or recent Leptospira interrogans infection was assessed by testing sera with known microagglutination test (MAT) titers to serovars pomona, hardjo, copenhageni, and australis. The IgM ELISA detected all 41 cases of early or recent leptospiral infection (sensitivity, 100%), with a positive ELISA result seen in many cases before MAT antibody titers reached 1:50. Thirty-eight of 41 patients showed seroconversion (fourfold or greater increase in titer by MAT, 2 of 41 patients had a single sample with elevated titer, and 1 patient from whom leptospires were isolated from a blood sample failed to show MAT titers, despite a seroconversion (negative to positive result) in the ELISA. Follow-up sera obtained from 8 of 12 patients (67%) for 3 to 48 months after the acute stage of illness showed persisting IgM antibody. However, the range of levels detected in these samples (maximum ELISA ratio, 2.0) was lower than the range seen when infection was recent. Reactivity in the IgM ELISA was observed for only 1 of 59 serum samples from asymptomatic donors (specificity, 98%) and 16 of 233 serum samples from patients with Ross River virus, brucella, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, mycoplasma, Q-fever, toxoplasma, hepatitis A virus, Treponema pallidum, or Borrelia burgdorferi infection (specificity, 93%), with the majority of these patients showing lower levels of IgM in comparison to those in patients with leptospiral infection. We conclude that this ELISA is sufficiently sensitive for use as an initial screen for leptospiral infections, with subsequent confirmation of positive test results by MAT.

Winslow, W E; Merry, D J; Pirc, M L; Devine, P L



Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors.  


Inexpensive, noninvasive immunoassays can be used to quickly detect disease in humans. Immunoassay sensitivity and specificity are decidedly dependent upon high-affinity, antigen-specific antibodies. Antibodies are produced biologically. As such, antibody quality and suitability for use in immunoassays cannot be readily determined or controlled by human intervention. However, the process through which high-quality antibodies can be obtained has been shortened and streamlined by use of genetic engineering and recombinant antibody techniques. Antibodies that traditionally take several months or more to produce when animals are used can now be developed in a few weeks as recombinant antibodies produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cell types. Typically most immunoassays use two or more antibodies or antibody fragments to detect antigens that are indicators of disease. However, a label-free biosensor, for example, a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) needs one antibody only. As such, the cost and time needed to design and develop an immunoassay can be substantially reduced if recombinant antibodies and biosensors are used rather than traditional antibody and assay (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) methods. Unlike traditional antibodies, recombinant antibodies can be genetically engineered to self-assemble on biosensor surfaces, at high density, and correctly oriented to enhance antigen-binding activity and to increase assay sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Additionally, biosensor surface chemistry and physical and electronic properties can be modified to further increase immunoassay performance above and beyond that obtained by use of traditional methods. This review describes some of the techniques investigators have used to develop highly specific and sensitive, recombinant antibody-based biosensors for detection of antigens in simple or complex biological samples. PMID:22159424

Zeng, Xiangqun; Shen, Zhihong; Mernaugh, Ray



Viral Epitopes and Monoclonal Antibodies: Isolation of Blocking Antibodies that Inhibit Virus Neutralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability of pathogenic animal viruses to be completely neutralized by antibodies can lead to chronic viral infections in which infectious virus persists even in the presence of excess neutralizing antibody. A mechanism that results in this nonneutralized fraction of virus was defined by the topographical relationships of viral epitopes identified with monoclonal antibodies wherein monoclonal antibodies bind to virus and sterically block the binding of neutralizing antibodies.

Massey, Richard J.; Schochetman, Gerald



Antibody Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective pilot study of the serologic responses to overlapping recombinant fragments of the Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) in HIV-infected patients with pneumonia due to P. jirovecii and other causes. Similar baseline geometric mean antibody levels to the fragments measured by an ELISA were found in both groups. Serum antibodies to MsgC in P. jirovecii patients rose to a peak level 3–4 weeks (p<0.001) after recovery from pneumocystosis; baseline CD4+ count >50 cells/?L and first episode of pneumocystosis were the principal host factors associated with this rise (both p<0.001). Thus, MsgC shows promise as a serologic reagent and should be tested further in clinical and epidemiologic studies.

Daly, Kieran R.; Huang, Laurence; Morris, Alison; Koch, Judy; Crothers, Kristina; Levin, Linda; Eiser, Shary; Satwah, Supriya; Zucchi, Patrizia



Expression studies of catalytic antibodies  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the positive influence of human constant regions on the folding and bacterial expression of active soluble mouse immunoglobulin variable domains derived form a number of catalytic antibodies. Expression yields of eight hybridoma-and myeloma-derived chimeric Fab fragments are compared in both shake flasks and high-density fermentation. In addition the usefulness of this system for the generation of in vivo expression libraries is examined by constructing and expressing combinations of heavy and light chain variable regions that were not selected as a pair during an immune response. A mutagenesis study of one of the recombinant catalytic Fab fragments reveals that single amino acid substitutions can have dramatic effects on the expression yield. This system should be generally applicable to the production of Fab fragments of catalytic and other hybridoma-derived antibodies for crystallographic and structure-function studies. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Ulrich, H.D.; Patten, P.A.; Yang, P.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others



Antiphospholipid antibody effects on monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presence of autoantibodies is known to increase the risk of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome, the\\u000a mechanism by which these antibodies exert their effects is poorly understood. Several studies suggest that autoantibody-mediated\\u000a dysregulation of monocytes is one pathobiologic mechanism of this disease. Recent studies have focused on extra-and intracellular\\u000a interactions involved in monocyte activation and expression of procoagulant

Alisa S. Wolberg



Antibody quantity versus quality after influenza vaccination  

PubMed Central

The correlates for protection against influenza infection are incompletely characterized. We have applied an ELISA strategy that distinguishes antibodies against native viral surface antigens (potentially neutralizing) from antibodies directed against internal and denatured viral proteins (not neutralizing) to three groups of vaccinated subjects: (1) participants in a study of repeated annual vaccination (2) elderly subjects and (3) patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus compared to control subjects. Antibody increase after vaccination was inversely related to the level of pre-existing antibodies in all groups; most subjects had significant initial antibody levels and showed little increase in amount of antibody after vaccination, but the avidity of their serum antibodies tended to increase. Antibodies against denatured virus proteins varied with vaccine formulation; vaccines that are more recent have less total protein for the same amount of native hemagglutinin. We propose an index consisting of rank order of antibody level plus antibody avidity, both measured against native virus, plus hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer, as a useful measure of immunity against influenza.

Feng, JingQi; Gulati, Upma; Zhang, Xiaoju; Keitel, Wendy A.; Thompson, David M.; James, Judith A.; Thompson, Linda F.; Air, Gillian M.



Methods for radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies.  


The use of radionuclide labels allows to study the pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies, to control the specificity of their targeting and to monitor the response to an antibody treatment with high accuracy. Selection of label depends on the processing of an antibody after binding to an antigen, and on the character of information to be derived from the study (distribution of antibody in the extracellular space, target occupancy or determination of sites of metabolism). This chapter provides protocols for labelling of antibodies with iodine-125 (suitable also for other radioisotopes of iodine) and with indium-111. Since radiolabelling might damage and reduce the immunoreactive fraction and/or affinity of an antibody, the methods for assessment of these characteristics of an antibody are provided for control. PMID:24037848

Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Andersson, Karl



Determination of the specific antibody titer.  


The amount of specific antibody present in polyclonal antiserum, ascites fluid, or hybridoma supernatant can be quantitated by either solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by direct ELISA. In the solid-phase assay described here, serially diluted antiserum is incubated in microtiter wells previously coated with the relevant antigen. Bound antibody is detected by employing 125I-labeled anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. The amount of specific antibody in the antiserum is then determined from a standard curve generated with a specific antibody of known concentration. The unknown antiserum and the standard antibody are assayed in parallel. The support protocols describe the chloramine T and IODO-GEN procedures for radioiodination of the anti-immunoglobulin reagent. The use of the solid-phase RIA procedure to determine the light-chain and heavy-chain isotypes present in polyclonal antisera and fluids containing monoclonal antibodies is also described. PMID:18265072

Cooper, H M; Paterson, Y



Solubility evaluation of murine hybridoma antibodies  

PubMed Central

The successful development of antibody therapeutics depends on the molecules having properties that are suitable for manufacturing, as well as use by patients. Because high solubility is a desirable property for antibodies, screening for solubility has become an essential step during the early candidate selection process. In considering the screening process, we formed a hypothesis that hybridoma antibodies are filtered by nature to possess high solubility and tested this hypothesis using a large number of murine hybridoma-derived antibodies. Using the cross-interaction chromatography (CIC) method, we screened the solubility of 92 murine hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies and found that all of these molecules exhibited CIC profiles that are indicative of high solubility (>100mg/mL). Further investigations revealed that variable region N-linked glycosylation or isoelectric parameters are unlikely to contribute to the high solubility of these antibodies. These results support the general hypothesis that hybridoma monoclonal antibodies are highly soluble.

Spencer, Stacey; Bethea, Deidra; Raju, T. Shantha; Giles-Komar, Jill; Feng, Yiqing



Toward aggregation-resistant antibodies by design.  


Monoclonal antibodies are attractive therapeutics for treating a wide range of human disorders due to their exquisite binding specificity and high binding affinity. However, a limitation of antibodies is their highly variable and difficult-to-predict propensities to aggregate when concentrated during purification and delivery. Despite the large size and complex structure of antibodies, recent findings suggest that antibody solubility can be dramatically improved using rational design methods in addition to conventional selection methods. Here, we review key advances and unmet challenges in engineering the variable and constant regions of antibody fragments and full-length antibodies to resist aggregation without reducing their binding affinity. These experimental and computational discoveries should accelerate the development of robust algorithms for designing aggregation-resistant antibodies. PMID:23932102

Lee, Christine C; Perchiacca, Joseph M; Tessier, Peter M



Antibodies to laminin in Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

We have found that sera from humans with Chagas' disease and Rhesus monkeys infected with Trypanosoma cruzi contain IgM and IgG antibodies, which react with structures in a variety of connective tissues. These antibodies react with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components like collagen types I, III, IV, and V, fibronectin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, or chondronectin. The tissue-reacting antibodies were isolated by absorption to a laminin- Sepharose column. The bound fraction contained all the tissue-reacting antibodies. These antibodies strongly stained trypomastigotes and amastigotes, but weakly stained epimastigotes. These studies show that sera from T. cruzi-infected primates contain antilaminin antibodies, which may be produced by those host in response to a laminin-like molecule present in the parasite.



Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil



Passive immunization with allergen-specific antibodies.  


The induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies has been identified as a major mechanism responsible for the reduction of allergic inflammation in allergic patients treated by allergen-specific immunotherapy. Several studies suggest that allergen-specific IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with allergens block mast cell and basophil degranulation, IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells and IgE production. The availability of recombinant allergens and technologies for the production of recombinant human antibodies allows engineering of allergen-specific antibodies which can be used for passive immunization (i.e., therapy) and eventually for the prevention of allergy (i.e., prophylaxis). This chapter summarizes data supporting the possible use of allergen-specific antibodies for treatment and prophylaxis. Finally, concrete approaches for the treatment and prevention of allergy based on blocking antibodies are envisioned. PMID:21681684

Flicker, Sabine; Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Madritsch, Christoph; Valenta, Rudolf



Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy.

Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.



Nature and nurture of catalytic antibodies.  


Immunoglobulins (antibodies) frequently express constitutive functions. Two such functions are nucleophilic catalysis and the reversible binding to B-cell superantigens. Constitutive or "naturally-occurring" antibodies are produced spontaneously from germline genetic information. The antibody structural elements mediating the constitutive functions have originated over millions of years of phylogenic evolution, contrasting with antigen-driven, somatic sequence diversification of the complementarity determining regions (CDR) that underlies the better-known high affinity antigen binding function of antibodies. Often, the framework regions (FRs) play a dominant role in antibody constitutive functions. Catalytic antibody subsets with promiscuous, autoantigen-directed and microbe-directed specificities have been identified. Mucosal antibodies may be specialized to express high-level catalytic activity against microbes transmitted by the mucosal route, exemplified by constitutive production of IgA class antibodies in mucosal secretions that catalyze the cleavage of HIV gp120. Catalytic specificity can be gained by constitutive noncovalent superantigen binding at the FRs and by adaptive development of noncovalent classical antigen or superantigen binding, respectively, at the CDRs and FRs. Growing evidence suggests important functional roles for catalytic antibodies in homeostasis, autoimmune disease and protection against infection. Adaptive antibody responses to microbial superantigens are proscribed underphysiological circumstances. Covalent electrophilic immunogen binding to constitutively expressed nucleophilic sites in B-cell receptors bypasses the restriction on adaptive antibody production, and simultaneous occupancy of the CDR binding site by a stimulatory antigenic epitope can also overcome the downregulatory effect of superantigen binding at the FRs. These concepts may be useful for developing novel vaccines that capitalize and improve on constitutive antibody functions for protection against microbes. PMID:22903666

Paul, Sudhir; Planque, Stephanie A; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hanson, Carl V; Massey, Richard J



The Human Antibody Response Against WNV  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Experimental evidence has shown that antibody responses to West Nile virus (WNV) are critical for protection from WNV-mediated\\u000a disease. Antibody responses are also an important immune correlate of protection for the clinical evaluation of WNV vaccines.\\u000a However, little direct study has been carried out on the characteristics of the human antibody response to natural WNV infection.\\u000a Preliminary evidence suggests that

Mark Throsby; Jaap Goudsmit; John de Kruif


Recombinant Bispecific Antibodies for Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bispecific antibodies are molecules capable of simultaneously binding to two different antigens. While initially bispecific\\u000a antibodies have been developed mainly for cellular cancer immunotherapy through retargeting of effector cells to tumor cells,\\u000a recent developments include also dual targeting strategies and the retargeting of effector molecules, e.g. in radioimmunotherapy.\\u000a In addition to various applications, a plethora of bispecific antibody formats have

Dafne Müller; Roland E. Kontermann



Microsoft Academic Search

Eight of 69 (12%) healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with monovalent live-attenuated dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidates had atypical antibody responses, with depressed IgM:IgG antibody ratios and induction of high-titer hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing (NT) antibodies to all four DENV serotypes. These features suggested flavivirus exposure prior to DENV vaccination, yet no volunteer had a history of previous flavivirus infection, flavivirus vaccination,



Adenylyl cyclase antibodies, compositions and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to compositions and methods for diagnosing and treating cardiac conditions and neurodegenerative diseases using antibodies which specifically recognize and bind to the adenylyl cyclase 5 isoform in the heart and brain. These antibodies demonstrate high specificity to the AC5 isoform and do not cross react to any other AC5 isoform. The invention further relates to methods of delivery of drugs to the site of injured tissue using the antibodies of the present invention.



Tissue transglutaminase antibodies in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Tissue transglutaminase is the antigen for antiendomysial antibodies, whose power in screening for celiac disease is well known. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of an ELISA assay for tissue transglutaminase antibodies.METHODS:Tissue transglutaminase antibodies were analyzed in serum from 39 untreated celiac disease patients and 61 controls. Tissue transglutaminase was used as antigen, and test sera analyzed by ELISA.

F Biagi; H. J Ellis; J. Y Yiannakou; G Brusco; G. L Swift; P. M Smith; G. R Corazza; P. J Ciclitira




PubMed Central

The effect of challenge by antigen on persistence of clones of antibody-producing cells and on the induction of new clones was investigated through quantitative measurements of idiotypic specificities. In each of nine rabbits idiotypic specificities present in the earliest bleedings were completely replaced after a few months; subsequent changes occurred much more slowly. On a quantitative basis the population of molecules used as immunogen always reacted most effectively with the homologous anti-idiotypic antiserum. Little effect of increased antigen dose on the rate of change of idiotype was observed. Even large amounts of antigen administered every 2 wk caused only gradual changes in idiotypic specificities. This was attributed either to more effective capture of antigen by memory cells, as compared to precursor cells, or to the induction of tolerance in those clones that were not expressed. In two of three rabbits on a monthly injection schedule, the idiotypic specificities identified underwent very slow changes over a period as long as 17 months. Changes occurred more rapidly when antigen was administered every 2 wk. In each of four rabbits investigated, all idiotypic specificities identified before a 5 month rest period were still present afterwards, indicating the survival of essentially all clones of antibody-producing cells during that interval. Quantitative inhibition data indicated that some new clones of cells were initiated.

Spring, Susan B.; Schroeder, Kenneth W.; Nisonoff, Alfred



[Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)].  


ANCA are associated with small sized vessel vasculitis; one subtype is an antibody against myeloperoxidase(MPO), which stains in a perinuclear pattern(P-ANCA) indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) using a neutrophil substrate, and the other subtype is an antibody against proteinase-3(PR-3), which stains in a diffuse granular cytoplasmic pattern ANCA by IIF. PR-3 ANCA is more specific in Wegener's granulomatosis(WG) than the other primary vasculitides. MPO-ANCA can be found in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg Strauss Syndromes(CSS), drug-induced vasculitis, and environmental factor-induced such as silicosis vasculitis more frequently than WG. The value of the IIF test for ANCA detection can be greatly increased by the addition of a standardized antigen-specific ELISA. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV of the MPO and PR-3 ELISA were 6.6 to 4.8%, respectively. Close ANCA titer correlation was shown between MPO-ANCA ELISA and the activity of ANCA associated vasculitis. Renal manifestations and pulmonary manifestations are observed in 70-90% of AAV as the initial manifestation. The changes in titers of ANCA seem to reflect disease activity in 60-70% of AAV patients. A combination of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs is effective in relieving the clinical symptoms of AAV. PMID:12924248

Yoshida, Masaharu



Vibriobactin Antibodies: A Vaccine Strategy  

PubMed Central

A new target strategy in the development of bacterial vaccines, the induction of antibodies to microbial outer membrane ferrisiderophore complexes, is explored. A vibriobactin (VIB) analogue, with a thiol tether, 1-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5,9-bis[[(4S,5R)-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-4-oxazolyl]carbonyl]-14-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-1,5,9,14-tetraazatetradecane, was synthesized and linked to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antigenicity of the VIB microbial iron chelator conjugates and their iron complexes was evaluated. When mice were immunized with the resulting OVA-VIB conjugate, a selective and unequivocal antigenic response to the VIB hapten was observed; IgG monoclonal antibodies specific to the vibriobactin fragment of the BSA and OVA conjugates were isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development.

Bergeron, Raymond J.; Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; McManis, James S.; Wiegand, Jan; Green, Linda G.



Reducing the cost of HIV antibody testing.  


Available tests to detect antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a range of applications, and injudicious selection and inappropriate use can add a significant financial burden to budgets for AIDS programmes in developing countries. There are several ways by which the cost of HIV antibody testing can be reduced; they include use of tests appropriate for existing laboratory capabilities; adoption of cost-effective testing strategies; pooling of serum samples before testing; and ensuring best possible purchase prices. Each approach can significantly reduce the cost of HIV antibody testing alone or in combination, which increases the potential sustainability of antibody testing programmes, even in settings of limited resources. PMID:8100916

Tamashiro, H; Maskill, W; Emmanuel, J; Fauquex, A; Sato, P; Heymann, D



Cancer therapy with bispecific antibodies: Clinical experience  

PubMed Central

The binding of at least two molecular targets simultaneously with a single bispecific antibody is an attractive concept. The use of bispecific antibodies as possible therapeutic agents for cancer treatment was proposed in the mid-1980s. The design and production of bispecific antibodies using antibody- and/or receptor-based platform technology has improved significantly with advances in the knowledge of molecular manipulations, protein engineering techniques, and the expression of antigens and receptors on healthy and malignant cells. The common strategy for making bispecific antibodies involves combining the variable domains of the desired mAbs into a single bispecific structure. Many different formats of bispecific antibodies have been generated within the research field of bispecific immunotherapeutics, including the chemical heteroconjugation of two complete molecules or fragments of mAbs, quadromas, F(ab’)2, diabodies, tandem diabodies and single-chain antibodies. This review describes key modifications in the development of bispecific antibodies that can improve their efficacy and stability, and provides a clinical perspective on the application of bispecific antibodies for the treatment of solid and liquid tumors, including the promises and research limitations of this approach.

Thakur, Archana; Lum, Lawrence G



Enhanced HIV-1 neutralization by antibody heteroligation  

PubMed Central

Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against HIV-1 protects macaques against infection. However, HIV-1 uses several strategies to escape antibody neutralization, including mutation of the gp160 viral surface spike, a glycan shield to block antibody access to the spike, and expression of a limited number of viral surface spikes, which interferes with bivalent antibody binding. The latter is thought to decrease antibody apparent affinity or avidity, thereby interfering with neutralizing activity. To test the idea that increasing apparent affinity might enhance neutralizing activity, we engineered bispecific anti–HIV-1 antibodies (BiAbs) that can bind bivalently by virtue of one scFv arm that binds to gp120 and a second arm to the gp41 subunit of gp160. The individual arms of the BiAbs preserved the binding specificities of the original anti-HIV IgG antibodies and together bound simultaneously to gp120 and gp41. Heterotypic bivalent binding enhanced neutralization compared with the parental antibodies. We conclude that antibody recognition and viral neutralization of HIV can be improved by heteroligation.

Mouquet, Hugo; Warncke, Malte; Scheid, Johannes F.; Seaman, Michael S.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.



Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Central Inst. of Physical Research, Budapest (Hungary)



Camel Single-domain Antibodies as Modular Building Units in Bispecific and Bivalent Antibody Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-domain antibodies against various antigens are isolated from the unique heavy-chain antibodies of immunized camels and llamas. These minimal sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. We evaluated the feasibil- ity to produce soluble, functional bispecific and bivalent antibodies in Escherichia coli with camel single-domain antibody fragments as building blocks. Two

Katja Els Conrath; Mark Lauwereys; Lode Wyns; Serge Muyldermans



Competitive binding of antibodies and antigen--antibody complexes to receptors on spleen lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

We have confirmed that adherence of antibodies to spleen lymphocytes is stabilized when the antibodies form complexes with antigen. Furthermore, there is evidence that antibodies having both binding sites occupied are less easily supplanted from the lymphocyte receptor by unspecific IgG than antibodies carrying one antigen only. Based on these results a hypothetical model for a feed-back control of the humoral immune response is put forward.

Niederer, W.



A comparative trial of anti-glycoconjugate antibody assays: IgM antibodies to GM1  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgM class antibodies against the ganglioside GM1 have been found in a subgroup of patients with lower motor neuron syndromes and multifocal motor neuropathies (MMN). The pathogenic relevance of these antibodies is still unclear, but some MMN patients with IgM antibodies against GM1 seem to profit from immunosuppressive therapy. A reliable test for IgM antibodies against GMl may be useful

J. Zielasek; G. Ritter; S. Magi; H. P. Hartung; K. V. Toyka



Liver membrane antibodies in alcoholic liver disease. II. Antibodies to ethanol-altered hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, circulating liver membrane antibodies against normal rabbit hepatocytes and ethanol-altered rabbit hepatocytes have been sought in a series of patients with histologically confirmed alcoholic liver disease. Liver membrane antibodies against normal hepatocytes were found in 18 (28%) of the 65 sera examined, but with ethanol-altered hepatocytes as substrate liver membrane antibodies were found in 48

R S Anthony; M Farquharson; R N MacSween



The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components

Vivi Joosten; Christien Lokman; Cees AMJJ van den Hondel; Peter J Punt



Passively administered antibody suppresses the induction of measles virus antibodies by vaccinia-measles recombinant viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used vaccinia-measles recombinant viruses to study vaccination in the presence of pre-existing antibody. When mice were vaccinated with recombinants expressing either the haemagglutinin (H) or fusion (F) measles virus (MV) proteins, the humoral response to the MV protein was suppressed by passively administered polyclonal antibody. However, individual monoclonal antibodies (H or F) did not affect the response. Mice

R. Galletti; P. Beauverger; T. F. Wild



Characterization of an Antibody Depletion Assay for Analysis of Bactericidal Antibody Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum bactericidal antibodies are important for protection against systemic Neisseria meningitidis infections. Consequently, identifying the specific targets of bactericidal antibodies is important for understanding pro- tective immunity to meningococcal disease and for vaccine development and evaluation. We have developed a new assay that can be used to investigate the specificity of serum bactericidal antibodies. Prior to testing for bactericidal activity,

Wendell D. Zollinger; Elizabeth E. Moran; Deborah H. Schmiel



CAPTIATM Syphilis (T. Pallidum)-G  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... days. The same 6 samples were then replicated x 3 in each assay, separated by one week intervals for five weeks. The ... More results from


Engineered antibody fragments and the rise of single domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) products currently on the market and more than 100 in clinical trials, it is clear that engineered antibodies have come of age as biopharmaceuticals. In fact, by 2008, engineered antibodies are predicted to account for >30% of all revenues in the biotechnology market. Smaller recombinant antibody fragments (for example, classic monovalent antibody fragments (Fab, scFv))

Philipp Holliger; Peter J Hudson



Detection of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody responses with the borreliacidal antibody test, indirect fluorescent-antibody assay performed by flow cytometry, and western immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

Borreliacidal antibodies participate in the resolution of Lyme disease by clearing Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the host. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies is also valuable for determination of the specific serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. We show in this work that antibody detected by the borreliacidal antibody test did not correlate with antibody detected by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay or Western immunoblotting. Detection of borreliacidal antibody decreased with elimination of the spirochete from the host in the presence or absence of therapy. By contrast, the antibody responses detected by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay or Western immunoblotting remained elevated or continued to expand, respectively. This suggests that the borreliacidal antibody test is a prognostic indicator for clearance of the spirochete. Additional investigations with humans are needed to confirm the prognostic potential of the borreliacidal antibody test.

Creson, J R; Lim, L C; Glowacki, N J; Callister, S M; Schell, R F



Monoclonal antibodies in solid tumours.  


Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become an integral part of therapeutic strategies used to treat solid tumours. Directed against membrane-bound receptors or extracellular ligands with high specificity, they target elements upstream in the signal transduction pathways that contribute to malignant growth, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and spread. Several mAbs have now received regulatory approval - trastuzumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, bevacizumab and catumaxomab-across multiple solid tumour types, including breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancers, amongst others. Despite these successes there have been ample disappointments, which in turn is stimulating ongoing research and development efforts. Nevertheless, greater initiative and vision in this development process is needed, from intelligent compound design to enrichment of patient populations during clinical development, biomarker discovery and ultimately tailored, individualised treatment decisions. In this commentary we review those mAbs now in routine use for solid tumours, interesting aspects of their use and future directions. PMID:20406174

Markman, Ben; Tabernero, Josep



Radiolabeled antibodies for cancer imaging and therapy.  


Radiolabeled antibodies were studied first for tumor detection by single-photon imaging, but FDG PET stopped these developments. In the meantime, radiolabeled antibodies were shown to be effective in the treatment of lymphoma. Radiolabeling techniques are well established and radiolabeled antibodies are a clinical and commercial reality that deserves further studies to advance their application in earlier phase of the diseases and to test combination and adjuvant therapies including radiolabeled antibodies in hematological diseases. In solid tumors, more resistant to radiations and less accessible to large molecules such as antibodies, clinical efficacy remains limited. However, radiolabeled antibodies used in minimal or small-size metastatic disease have shown promising clinical efficacy. In the adjuvant setting, ongoing clinical trials show impressive increase in survival in otherwise unmanageable tumors. New technologies are being developed over the years: recombinant antibodies and pretargeting approaches have shown potential in increasing the therapeutic index of radiolabeled antibodies. In several cases, clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies. Finally, new radionuclides, such as lutetium-177, with better physical properties will further improve the safety of radioimmunotherapy. Alpha particle and Auger electron emitters offer the theoretical possibility to kill isolated tumor cells and microscopic clusters of tumor cells, opening the perspective of killing the last tumor cell, which is the ultimate challenge in cancer therapy. Preliminary preclinical and preliminary clinical results confirm the feasibility of this approach. PMID:22907380

Barbet, Jacques; Bardiès, Manuel; Bourgeois, Mickael; Chatal, Jean-François; Chérel, Michel; Davodeau, François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Gestin, Jean-François; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise



Monoclonal antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona.  

PubMed Central

Three monoclonal antibodies produced against Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona have been studied for their diagnostic usefulness. All three monoclonals reacted strongly in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test with serovar pomona and did not react with serovars grippotyphosa, canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae and hardjo.

Ainsworth, A J; Lester, T L; Capley, G



Antibody-based therapies for malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies are multifunctional glycoproteins that are found in blood and tissue fluids, and can protect against malaria by binding and neutralizing malaria parasites and preparing them for destruction by immune cells. Important technical advances mean that it is now possible to synthesize antibodies against important Plasmodium antigens that could be used for therapeutic purposes. These reagents could be designed to

Anthony A. Holder; Richard J. Pleass



Chicken antibodies: a clinical chemistry perspective.  


The chicken immune system has been studied for many years and these studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of the fundamental concepts of immunology and the development of different immunoglobulin classes. It is thus surprising that only a small fraction of the antibodies presently used in laboratories are of avian origin. A laying hen produces more yolk antibodies than a rabbit can produce during the same time period, and the animal care costs are lower for the chicken compared to the rabbit. Chicken antibodies offer many advantages to the traditional mammalian antibodies when used for the detection of mammalian antigen. Due to the evolutionary difference chicken IgY will react with more epitopes on a mammalian antigen, which will give an amplification of the signal. Chicken antibodies can also be used to avoid interference in immunological assays caused by the human complement system, rheumatoid factors, human anti-mouse IgG antibodies (HAMA) or human and bacterial Fc-receptors. The antibodies can be purified in large amounts from egg yolk, making laying hens highly efficient producers of polyclonal antibodies. PMID:10680951

Carlander, D; Stålberg, J; Larsson, A



Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of HIV-specific antibodies. The

Xiping Wei; Julie M. Decker; Shuyi Wang; Huxiong Hui; John C. Kappes; Xiaoyun Wu; Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez; Maria G. Salazar; J. Michael Kilby; Michael S. Saag; Natalia L. Komarova; Martin A. Nowak; Beatrice H. Hahn; Peter D. Kwong; George M. Shaw



Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibodies.  

PubMed Central

We report two cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with an antibody to phospholipids, namely the lupus anticoagulant. Both patients later developed further immunologically mediated conditions. The importance of screening for the lupus anticoagulant in addition to anticardiolipin antibodies in this condition and the need for follow-up of such patients is discussed. Images Figure 2

Boggild, M. D.; Sedhev, R. V.; Fraser, D.; Heron, J. R.



Anticardiolipin antibodies: occurrence in Behçet's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticardiolipin antibodies have recently been described in association with arterial and venous thrombosis, and with neurological symptoms, in connective tissue diseases. In a study of 70 patients with Behçet's syndrome 13 patients had these antibodies. Of these 13 patients eight had a history of either retinal vascular pathology, cerebral infarction, or thrombophlebitis. The association of retinal vascular disease and the

R G Hull; E N Harris; A E Gharavi; A Tincani; R A Asherson; G Valesini; A M Denman; G Froude; G R Hughes



454 antibody sequencing - error characterization and correction  

PubMed Central

Background 454 sequencing is currently the method of choice for sequencing of antibody repertoires and libraries containing large numbers (106 to 1012) of different molecules with similar frameworks and variable regions which poses significant challenges for identifying sequencing errors. Identification and correction of sequencing errors in such mixtures is especially important for the exploration of complex maturation pathways and identification of putative germline predecessors of highly somatically mutated antibodies. To quantify and correct errors incorporated in 454 antibody sequencing, we sequenced six antibodies at different known concentrations twice over and compared them with the corresponding known sequences as determined by standard Sanger sequencing. Results We found that 454 antibody sequencing could lead to approximately 20% incorrect reads due to insertions that were mostly found at shorter homopolymer regions of 2-3 nucleotide length, and less so by insertions, deletions and other variants at random sites. Correction of errors might reduce this population of erroneous reads down to 5-10%. However, there are a certain number of errors accounting for 4-8% of the total reads that could not be corrected unless several repeated sequencing is performed, although this may not be possible for large diverse libraries and repertoires including complete sets of antibodies (antibodyomes). Conclusions The experimental test procedure carried out for assessing 454 antibody sequencing errors reveals high (up to 20%) incorrect reads; the errors can be reduced down to 5-10% but not less which suggests the use of caution to avoid false discovery of antibody variants and diversity.



Monoclonal antibodies for bacterial identification and taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some uses of monoclonal antibodies in bacteriology are discussed with emphasis on identification and classification of microorganisms. It is pointed out that monoclonal antibodies are useful in diagnostic purposes, i.e., identification of bacteria and bacterial antigens in unknowns and classification of new isolates. They are also important for studying relationships among bacteria with phylogenetic significance and for elucidating their ecological

E. Conway de Macario; A. J. L. Macario



Cytolytic Antibodies to Melanocytes in Vitiligo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with vitiligo have been found to have circulating antibodies to pigment cells. To evaluate the functional activity of these antibodies, a highly sensitive europium release assay was used to compare complement-mediated cytolysis of human melanocytes by sera of 56 patients with vitiligo (20 with active disease, 25 with inactive disease, 11 with unidentified disease activity) and 47 control individuals.

Jian Cui; Yuko Arita; Jean-Claude Bystryn



Chemically Modified Antibodies as Diagnostic Imaging Agents  

PubMed Central

Summary Notable new applications of antibodies for imaging involve genetically extracting the essential molecular recognition properties of an antibody, and in some cases enhancing them by mutation, before protein expression. The classic paradigm of intravenous administration of a labeled antibody to image not only its target but also its metabolism can be improved on. Protocols in which molecular targeting with an engineered unlabeled protein derived from an antibody, followed by capture of a small probe molecule that provides a signal, are being developed to a high level of utility. This is accompanied by new strategies for probe capture such as irreversible binding, incorporation of engineered enzyme active sites, and antibody-ligand systems that generate a signal only upon binding or uptake.

Day, Jeffrey J.; Marquez, Bernadette V.; Beck, Heather E.; Aweda, Tolulope A.; Gawande, Prasad D.; Meares, Claude F.



Dual targeting strategies with bispecific antibodies  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases and other disorders. Most of the marketed antibodies are monospecific and therefore capable of interacting and interfering with a single target. However, complex diseases are often multifactorial in nature, and involve redundant or synergistic action of disease mediators or upregulation of different receptors, including crosstalk between their signaling networks. Consequently, blockade of multiple, different pathological factors and pathways may result in improved therapeutic efficacy. This result can be achieved by combining different drugs, or use of the dual targeting strategies applying bispecific antibodies that have emerged as an alternative to combination therapy. This review discusses the various dual targeting strategies for which bispecific antibodies have been developed and provides an overview of the established bispecific antibody formats.



Taking aim at cancer with monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

Conjugating radioisotopes to monoclonal antibodies could have certain advantages in cancer therapy. Radioactive compounds have the double-edged ability to kill cells that are up to centimeter or more away. This is a plausible way to overcome tumor heterogeneity, but it also means that normal cells near the tumor could be affected. Hybritech (San Diego, CA) has been supplying antibody linked to the radioisotope yttrium-90 for a number of clinical trials. Work at Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) has focused on polyclonal antibodies to hepatoma. Monoclonal antibodies will be used there soon, and trials could be expanded eventually to include breast, lung, and prostate cancer as well. Hybritech also expects that the yttrium-antibody conjugates developed with NCI will enter the clinic later this year for treating leukemia and lymphoma systems; treatments for melanomas should follow.

Klausner, A.



Kinetic screening in the antibody development process.  


Kinetic screening is of paramount importance when it is to select custom-made antibodies, tailored for their respective scientific, diagnostic, or pharmaceutical application. Here a kinetic screening protocol is described, using a Biacore A100 surface plasmon resonance biosensor instrument. The assay is based on an Fc-specific antibody capture system. Antibodies from complex mixtures, like from mouse hybridoma supernatants are captured on the sensor surface in an oriented manner. The method uses a single injection of one antigen concentration for the determination of six relevant screening parameters, which comprehensively describe the antibody's kinetic rate profile and its valence mode. The method enables the scientist to rank and finally select rare and outstanding antibodies according to their kinetic signatures. PMID:22723101

Schräml, Michael; Biehl, Matthias



Production of antibody against T-2 toxin.  

PubMed Central

Antibody against T-2 toxin was obtained after immunization of rabbits with bovine serum albumin-T-2 hemisuccinate conjugate. The antibody had greatest binding efficiency for T-2 toxin, less efficiency for HT-2, and least for T-2 triol. Cross-reaction of antibody with neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and 8-acetyl-neosolaniol was very weak. Diacetoxyscirpenol, trichodermin, vomitoxin, and verrucarin A essentially gave no cross-reaction with the antibody. The sensitivity of the binding assay for T-2 toxin detection was in the range of 1 to 20 ng per assay. Detailed methods for the preparation of the conjugate and the production of immune serum and methods for antibody determination are described.

Chu, F S; Grossman, S; Wei, R D; Mirocha, C J



Reshaping a therapeutic CD4 antibody.  

PubMed Central

An immunosuppressive rat antibody (Campath-9) against human CD4 has been reshaped for use in the management of autoimmunity and the prevention of graft rejection. Two different forms of the reshaped antibody were produced that derive their heavy chain variable region framework sequences from the human myeloma proteins KOL or NEW. When compared to a chimeric form of the CD4 antibody, the avidity of the KOL-based reshaped antibody was only slightly reduced, whereas that of the NEW-based reshaped antibody was very poor. The successful reshaping to the KOL-based framework was by a procedure involving the grafting of human framework sequences onto the cloned rodent variable region by in vitro mutagenesis.

Gorman, S D; Clark, M R; Routledge, E G; Cobbold, S P; Waldmann, H



Phage display technology for human monoclonal antibodies.  


During the last 15 years in vitro technologies opened powerful routes to combine the generation of large libraries together with fast selection procedures to identify lead candidates. One of the commonest methods is based on the use filamentous phages. Antibodies (Abs) can be displayed successfully on the surface of phage by fusing the coding sequence of the antibody variable (V) regions to the phage minor coat protein pIII. By creating large libraries, antibodies with affinities comparable to those obtained using traditional hybridomas technology can be selected by a series of cycles of selection on antigen. As in this system antibody genes are cloned simultaneously with selection they can be easily further engineered for example by increasing their affinity (to levels unobtainable in the immune system), modulating their specificity or their effector function (by recloning into a full-length immunoglobulin scaffold). This chapter describes the basic protocols for antibody library construction, handling, and selection. PMID:24037846

Deantonio, Cecilia; Cotella, Diego; Macor, Paolo; Santoro, Claudio; Sblattero, Daniele



Pathogen-specific antibodies: codependent no longer  

PubMed Central

Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise.

Janoff, Edward N.; Frank, Daniel N.



Regulation of secondary antibody responses in rodents  

PubMed Central

The regulation of secondary antibody production in mice is studied in adoptive transfer experiments. Mice immunized twice with chicken red blood cells (CRBC) in Freund's complete adjuvant (adjuvant) at 28 day intervals subsequently produce high levels of IgG anti-CRBC antibody for several weeks. Immunization with CRBC in saline also induces prolonged splenic production of IgG anti-CRBC antibody but at a much lower level. It was not possible to augment the level of antibody production in mice immunized with CRBC in saline by transfer of very large numbers of spleen cells from mice immunized with CRBC in adjuvant. Transfer experiments in the opposite direction failed to suppress antibody responses in mice immunized with CRBC in adjuvant. Similar experiments were carried out with mixed transfers into third party non-immune irradiated recipients. The requirement for continued antigen supply to maintain secondary antibody production was shown in that IgG anti-CRBC antibody production in non-immune recipients of immune spleen cells ceased within five days when the recipients were not given antigen. It is concluded that: (i) while strong regulation of secondary antibody production against CRBC exists, this is not a function of transferrable suppressors; (ii) increased antibody production in animals treated with adjuvant is not due to increases in the number of antigen-sensitive T or B lymphocytes; and (iii) the data are most easily explained by a hypothesis which implicates the rate of triggering of lymphocytes as the regulatory step in secondary antibody production. This could be a factor relating to the supply of antigen or the number of sites in secondary lymphoid tissue at which antigen can trigger.

Gagnon, R. F.; MacLennan, I. C. M.



The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Antibody Scientific Committee

The Antibody Scientific Committee provides scientific insight and guidance to the National Cancer Institute's Antibody Characterization Program. Specifically the members of this committee evaluate request from the external scientific community for development and characterization of antibodies by the program.


OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) ... In the course of this study, two specimens were confirmed to have antibodies to HIV-1 and were ... HIV-1 Antibody Test. ... More results from


Production of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies using Traditional and Novel Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent attempts to generate monoclonal antibodies against various biological immunogens have proven to be successful. This report discusses the traditional and novel technologies used to produce monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma monoclonal antibodies are h...

M. M. Dixon



Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor  


N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabeled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody. No Drawings

Kassis, A.I.; Khawli, L.A.



Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center.  


The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay), and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4%) of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA) can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center. PMID:22623840

Naidu, Narinder Kaur; Bharucha, Z S; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran



21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid...



21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid...



9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Antibody-based therapy in colorectal cancer.  


Treatment in patients with nonresectable and resectable colorectal cancer at the advanced stage is challenging, therefore intensive strategies such as chemotherapy, signaling inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to control the disease are required. mAbs are particularly promising tools owing to their target specificities and strong antitumor activities through multiple mechanisms, as shown by rituximab in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and trastuzumab in breast cancer. Three mAbs (cetuximab, bevacizumab and panitumumab) have been approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer in the USA and many other mAbs are being tested in clinical trials. The potential of antibody therapy is associated with several mechanisms including interference of vital signaling pathways targeted by the antibody and immune cytotoxicity selectively directed against tumor cells by tumor-bound antibody through the Fc portion of the antibody, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Moreover, recent experimental findings have shown that immune complexes formed by therapeutic mAbs with tumor-released antigens could augment the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells through activation of APCs. In addition, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints on hematopoietic cells have recently opened a new avenue for the treatment of cancer. In this review, we focus on mAb treatment in colorectal cancer and its immunological aspects. PMID:23638747

Noguchi, Takuro; Ritter, Gerd; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi



Antibodies to squalene in Gulf War syndrome.  


Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) is a multisystemic illness afflicting many Gulf War-era veterans. The molecular pathological basis for GWS has not been established. We sought to determine whether the presence of antibodies to squalene correlates with the presence of signs and symptoms of GWS. Participants in this blinded cohort study were individuals immunized for service in Desert Shield/Desert Storm during 1990-1991. They included 144 Gulf War-era veterans or military employees (58 in the blinded study), 48 blood donors, 40 systemic lupus erythematosus patients, 34 silicone breast implant recipients, and 30 chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Serum antibodies to squalene were measured. In our small cohort, the substantial majority (95%) of overtly ill deployed GWS patients had antibodies to squalene. All (100%) GWS patients immunized for service in Desert Shield/Desert Storm who did not deploy, but had the same signs and symptoms as those who did deploy, had antibodies to squalene. In contrast, none (0%) of the deployed Persian Gulf veterans not showing signs and symptoms of GWS have antibodies to squalene. Neither patients with idiopathic autoimmune disease nor healthy controls had detectable serum antibodies to squalene. The majority of symptomatic GWS patients had serum antibodies to squalene. PMID:10640454

Asa, P B; Cao, Y; Garry, R F



Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer  

SciTech Connect

Potential uses of monoclonal antibodies in anti-cancer treatment include passive serotherapy, radioisotope conjugates, toxin-linked conjugates, and chemotherapy-monoclonal antibody conjugates. The bases for these applications have been founded in research with heterologous antisera, and in some cases with monoclonal antibodies in animal tumor models. Human trials with passive serotherapy have already begun in both hematopoietic and solid tumor malignancies. Promising results have been reported in cutaneous T cell lymphoma with anti-T cell monoclonal antibody, and in nodular lymphoma with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody. Radioisotope conjugate work appears promising for imaging in both animals and humans, and this work will lay the foundation for possible therapeutic application of radio-immunotherapy. Toxin-linked conjugates are promising in vitro and may have application in autologous bone marrow transplantation. Research with chemotherapy conjugates is also underway. Preliminary results suggest that murine monoclonal antibodies will be well tolerated clinically except in the setting of circulating cells which bear the target antigen, where rapid infusions may be associated with intolerable side effects. In certain diseases, production of endogenous anti-mouse antibodies may also limit application. Advances in the technology for human-human hybridoma production may help solve some of these problems. 132 references.

Dillman, R.O.



Profiling Bladder Cancer Using Targeted Antibody Arrays  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy requiring a high degree of surveillance because of the frequent recurrences and the poor clinical outcome of invasive disease. To date, serum biomarkers for bladder cancer lack optimal sensitivity and specificity to assist in diagnosis and disease categorization. Here, we designed antibody arrays for bladder cancer by selecting antibodies against targets differentially expressed in bladder tumors. Serum protein profiles measured by an antibody array containing 254 antibodies discriminated bladder cancer patients from controls (n = 95) with a correct classification rate of 93.7%. A second independent antibody array containing 144 antibodies revealed that protein profiles provide predictive information by stratifying patients with bladder tumors (n = 37) based on their overall survival (P = 0.0479). In addition, serum proteins, such as c-met, that were top ranked at identifying bladder cancer patients were associated with pathological stage, tumor grade, and survival when validated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays containing bladder tumors (n = 173). This study provides experimental evidence for the use of several integrated technologies strengthening the process of biomarker discovery. Serum protein profiles obtained by antibody arrays represent comprehensive means for bladder cancer diagnosis and clinical outcome stratification, which could potentially assist in selection of cancer patients who would benefit from early, individualized therapeutic intervention.

Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lozano, Juan Jose; Haab, Brian B.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos



Glycosylation profiles of therapeutic antibody pharmaceuticals.  


Recombinant antibodies specific for human targets are often used as therapeutics and represent a major class of drug products. Their therapeutic efficacy depends on the formation of antibody complexes resulting in the elimination of a target molecule or the modulation of specific signalling pathways. The physiological effects of antibody therapeutics are known to depend on the structural characteristics of the antibody molecule, specifically on the glycosylation which is the result of posttranslational modifications. Hence, production of therapeutic antibodies with a defined and consistent glycoform profile is needed which still remains a considerable challenge to the biopharmaceutical industry. To provide an insight into the industries capability to control their manufacturing process and to provide antibodies of highest quality, we conducted a market surveillance study and compared major oligosaccharide profiles of a number of monoclonal antibody pharmaceuticals sampled on the Swiss market. Product lot-to-lot variability was found to be generally low, suggesting that a majority of manufacturers have implemented high quality standards in their production processes. However, proportions of G0, G1 and G2 core-fucosylated chains derived from different products varied considerably and showed a bias towards the immature agalactosidated G0 form. Interestingly, differences in glycosylation caused by the production cell type seem to be of less importance compared with process related parameters such as cell growth. PMID:21745568

Wacker, Christoph; Berger, Christoph N; Girard, Philippe; Meier, Roger



Antibody binding loop insertions as diversity elements  

PubMed Central

In the use of non-antibody proteins as affinity reagents, diversity has generally been derived from oligonucleotide-encoded random amino acids. Although specific binders of high-affinity have been selected from such libraries, random oligonucleotides often encode stop codons and amino acid combinations that affect protein folding. Recently it has been shown that specific antibody binding loops grafted into heterologous proteins can confer the specific antibody binding activity to the created chimeric protein. In this paper, we examine the use of such antibody binding loops as diversity elements. We first show that we are able to graft a lysozyme-binding antibody loop into green fluorescent protein (GFP), creating a fluorescent protein with lysozyme-binding activity. Subsequently we have developed a PCR method to harvest random binding loops from antibodies and insert them at predefined sites in any protein, using GFP as an example. The majority of such GFP chimeras remain fluorescent, indicating that binding loops do not disrupt folding. This method can be adapted to the creation of other nucleic acid libraries where diversity is flanked by regions of relative sequence conservation, and its availability sets the stage for the use of antibody loop libraries as diversity elements for selection experiments.

Kiss, Csaba; Fisher, Hugh; Pesavento, Emanuele; Dai, Minghua; Valero, Rosa; Ovecka, Milan; Nolan, Rhiannon; Phipps, M. Lisa; Velappan, Nileena; Chasteen, Leslie; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Pavlik, Peter; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.



Antibody production in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)  

PubMed Central

Serum antibody was found by radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) in thirty-one of thirty-five bullfrogs (BF) immunized with one of four protein antigens. Rabbit ?-globulin (RGG) and hen egg albumin were the best antigens, whereas human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin induced a less consistent immune response. Although a IgM to IgG sequence of antibody production usually was detected with RGG as antigen, a similar sequence was infrequent with the other antigens and the initial response was usually a IgG antibody. IgM antibody was detected in the serum for a prolonged interval (>100 days) and precipitating quantities of IgG antibody were found more than 1 year after antigen inoculation. As measured by haemagglutination, the IgM antibody was routinely inactivated by mercaptoethanol (ME) treatment and IgG antibody was frequently inactivated by ME, although it still had antigen binding capacity by RIEP. IgG hemagglutinins, which were resistant to ME treatment, were found in some sera obtained from BF after booster injections of antigen. Immunoelectrophoretic examination of normal or immune BF sera revealed a prominent precipitin line of slow ?-mobility which did not bind 131I-labelled antigen but did bind 59Fe. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5

Coe, J. E.; Peel, L. F.



Coeliac Disease-Associated Antibodies in Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background The possible relationship between psoriasis and coeliac disease (CD) has been attributed to the common pathogenic mechanisms of the two diseases and the presence of antigliadin antibodies in patients has been reported to increase the incidence of CD. Objective The aim of this report was to study CD-associated antibodies serum antigliadin antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, anti-endomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA and to demonstrate whether there is an increase in the frequency of those markers of CD in patients with psoriasis. Methods Serum antigliadin antibody IgG and IgA, antiendomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA were studied in 37 (19 males) patients with psoriasis and 50 (23 males) healthy controls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsies were performed in patients with at least one positive marker. Results Antigliadin IgA was statistically higher in the psoriasis group than in the controls (p<0.05). Serological markers were found positive in 6 patients with psoriasis and 1 person from the control group. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all these persons, with biopsies collected from the duodenum. The diagnosis of CD was reported in only one patient with psoriasis following the pathological examination of the biopsies. Whereas one person of the control group was found to be positive for antigliadin antibody IgA, pathological examination of the duodenal biopsies obtain from this patient were found to be normal. Conclusion Antigliadin IgA prominently increases in patients diagnosed with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis should be investigated for latent CD and should be followed up.

Akbulut, Sabiye; Gur, Gunes; Topal, Firdevs; Topal, Fatih Esad; Alli, Nuran; Saritas, Ulku



Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))



Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane  

SciTech Connect

Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. The authors examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) fractions, which were radiolabelled with /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I, respectively, shown to have equal antibody contents measured by in vitro binding to normal glomeruli, mixed in equal amounts, and injected in incremental doses to ten rats. At 1 hr the glomerular antibody binding of each fraction was directly related to the blood level (r . 0.95, r . 0.97) and delivery of antibody (r . 0.98, r . 0.98). Glomerular binding of cationic antibody was four times greater than anionic antibody over the entire range of deliveries studied (P less than 0.001). The authors conclude that glomerular deposition of anti-GBM antibody is directly related to blood concentration and delivery of antibody. Furthermore, the deposition of cationic antibodies to GBM antigens was significantly greater than the deposition of anionic antibodies.

Madaio, M.P.; Salant, D.J.; Adler, S.; Darby, C.; Couser, W.G.



The antibody approach of labeling blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

Srivastava, S.C.



The antibody approach of labeling blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

Srivastava, S.C.



The antibody approach of labeling blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

Srivastava, S.C.



[Antiviral humanized and human monoclonal antibodies].  


The paper considers the characteristics of monoclonal antibodies, methods for their experimental preparation, problems of their production, and possibilities of their use for the emergency prevention of viral infections and for the treatment of chronic diseases caused by human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and herpes viruses. The future of experimentally produced or clinically trialed monoclonal antibodies is mainly determined by commercial considerations. It is possible that simplification of industrial production technologies and a reduction in the cost of evidence-based methods for evaluation of clinical effectiveness will allow monoclonal antibodies to be extensively used for the prevention and treatment of viral infections. PMID:22171470

Lashkevich, V A


Emerging antibody products and Nicotiana manufacturing.  


Antibody based products are not widely available to address multiple global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity, and long manufacturing lead times. Nicotiana-based manufacturing of antibody products may now begin to address these challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in transient expression and altered glycosylation pathways. This review provides examples of emerging antibody-based products (mucosal and systemic) that could be competitive and commercially viable when the attributes of Nicotiana-based manufacturing (large scale, versatile, rapid, low cost) are utilized. PMID:21358287

Whaley, Kevin J; Hiatt, Andrew; Zeitlin, Larry



Anti-PDEF antibodies and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an isolated antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof that specifically binds with high affinity to at least a portion of a segment of human prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF). The anti-PDEF antibody of the present invention is effective in prognostic and diagnostic assays for detecting PDEF with immunohistochemistry. The present invention also relates to methods of making the anti-PDEF antibody disclosed herein. The present invention further relates to vaccines against cancers associated with positive expression of PDEF, as well as methods for treating those cancers. Vectors, diagnostic kits, and hybridomas are also disclosed.



[Anti-basal ganglia antibody].  


Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

Hayashi, Masaharu



Catumaxomab: a bispecific trifunctional antibody.  


The trifunctional bispecific monoclonal antibody catumaxomab has two binding specificities directed at epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the T-cell antigen CD3. With its Fc-fragment, catumaxomab additionally binds accessory cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells. The trifunctional approach thus leads to unrestricted but specific killing of epithelial tumor cells by major histocompatibility complex without the need for preactivation or external costimulation. The tumor-associated antigen EpCAM is strongly expressed in carcinomas of various origins including colon, rectum, ovarian, gastric, esophagus, lung, pancreas, breast and head and neck. Expression of EpCAM is often associated with an unfavorable prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Catumaxomab has been approved in Europe for the intraperitoneal treatment of malignant ascites in patients with EpCAM-positive epithelial tumors when standard therapy is not available or is no longer feasible. Basic preclinical and clinical findings with different routes of catumaxomab administration in various indications are summarized and discussed in this review. PMID:19927225

Sebastian, M; Kuemmel, A; Schmidt, M; Schmittel, A



Antibody Peptide Based Antifungal Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast killer phenomenon to the production of Ab-derived peptides characterized by in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity will be focused. In particular, Abs that mimic the antimicrobial activity of a killer toxin (“antibiobodies”) and antifungal peptides derived from antibiobodies (killer peptide) and other unrelated Abs [complementarity determining regions (CDR)-based and constant region (Fc)-based synthetic peptides] are described. Mycological implications in terms of reevaluation of the yeast killer phenomenon, roles of antibiobodies in antifungal immunity, of ?-glucans as antifungal targets and vaccines, and of Abs as sources of an unlimited number of sequences potentially active as new immunotherapeutic tools against fungal agents and related mycoses, are discussed.

Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperinde, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano



Antibodies to watch in 2010  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a burgeoning class of therapeutics, with more than 25 approved in countries worldwide. Novel molecules are entering clinical study at a rate of nearly 40 per year, and the commercial pipeline includes approximately 240 mAb therapeutics in clinical studies that have not yet progressed to regulatory approval or been approved. Of particular interest are the 26 mAbs that are currently at Phase 3, when safety and efficacy data critical to approval is established. Phase 3 study lengths are typically two to four years, so results for some studies might be announced in 2010, but data from others might not be presented until 2014. This overview of the 26 candidates provides a brief description of the background and the on-going Phase 3 studies of each mAb. Additional mAbs that have progressed to regulatory review or been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these, as well as Fc fusion proteins, have been excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the 26 candidates, only selected references are given, with a focus on recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies. Current as of October 2009, the results presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress can be measured.



Antiphospholipid antibodies: Paradigm in transition  

PubMed Central

Objectives This is a critical review of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Most prior reviews focus on the aPL syndrome (APS), a thrombotic condition often marked by neurological disturbance. We bring to attention recent evidence that aPL may be equally relevant to non-thrombotic autoimmune conditions, notably, multiple sclerosis and ITP. Organization After a brief history, the recent proliferation of aPL target antigens is reviewed. The implication is that many more exist. Theories of aPL in thrombosis are then reviewed, concluding that all have merit but that aPL may have more diverse pathological consequences than now recognized. Next, conflicting results are explained by methodological differences. The lupus anticoagulant (LA) is then discussed. LA is the best predictor of thrombosis, but why this is true is not settled. Finally, aPL in non-thrombotic disorders is reviewed. Conclusion The current paradigm of aPL holds that they are important in thrombosis, but they may have much wider clinical significance, possibly of special interest in neurology.

Horstman, Lawrence L; Jy, Wenche; Bidot, Carlos J; Ahn, Yeon S; Kelley, Roger E; Zivadinov, Robert; Maghzi, Amir H; Etemadifar, Masoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Minagar, Alireza



Cancer treatment kits using antibodies to aminophospholipids  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are the surprising discoveries that aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, are stable and specific markers accessible on the luminal surface of tumor blood vessels, and that the administration of an anti-aminophospholipid antibody alone is sufficient to induce thrombosis, tumor necrosis and tumor regression in vivo. This invention therefore provides anti-aminophospholipid antibody-based methods and compositions for use in the specific destruction of tumor blood vessels and in the treatment of solid tumors. Although various antibody conjugates and combinations are thus provided, the use of naked, or unconjugated, anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies is a particularly important aspect of the invention, due to simplicity and effectiveness of the approach.

Thorpe; Philip E. (Dallas, TX); Ran; Sophia (Dallas, TX)



[Avian yolk antibodies in diagnosis and research].  


Hens were immunized with bacterial polysaccharide (alginate), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and potato viruses (PVA, PVS, PVM, PVX, and PVY). The antibodies were isolated noninvasively from the yolks of laid eggs. The purified yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) were tested in an array of various assays and diagnostic techniques. The methods employed were precipitation reactions, immun-electrophoresis, ELISA (after biotinylation of IgY), immuno-gold electron microscopy, and western and immuno blotting. Some of these methods had to be modified according to the special requirements of avian antibodies. The special handling of this animal system is described in regard to antibody production. The results demonstrate that IgY derived from hens can replace IgG produced by traditional methods in mammals. The advantages of this alternate animal system are emphasized in respect to animal care, high productivity, and special suitability of avian antibodies for certain diagnostic purposes. PMID:9035974

Gross, M; Speck, J



Egg yolk antibodies for passive immunity.  


The avian egg contains all of the necessary nutrients and growth factors required for the developing embryo, including antibodies that are transported from the blood of the hen into the egg yolk to provide immunity to the chick. Since the discovery of egg yolk antibodies, now called immunoglobulin Y (IgY), in the late 1800s, this process has been harnessed to produce antigen-specific yolk antibodies for numerous applications in the medical and research fields, including in areas such as diagnostics and proteomics. However, one of the most valuable and promising areas of IgY research is its use for passive immunization to treat and prevent human and animal diseases. The following review covers the key features and advantages of IgY and the production and purification of IgY from the egg yolk, as well as highlights some of the most promising applications of egg yolk antibodies in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:22136128

Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Mine, Yoshinori



INSTI™ HIV-1Antibody Test Package Insert  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Information” brochure to the individual being tested. SPECIMEN COLLECTION AND TESTING PROCEDURE The INSTI ... HIV-1 Antibody Test can be ... More results from


Indirect Hemagglutination Assay for Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Antibody.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large scale immunization with purified pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines require the use of a rapid and specific means for determining antibody titers before and following immunization. A hemagglutination technique has many advantages providing the fol...

A. J. Ammann



Methods for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook includes detailed laboratory methods that will guide researchers, technicians, and students through their first experiences in producing monoclonal antibodies. It presents strategies and methods for immunizing mice, preparing lymphocytes from...

G. J. Letchworth J. A. Appleton



Monoclonal Antibodies to Cholesterol and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application relates to monoclonal antibodies which demonstrate specific reactivity to cholesterol and methods for the detection of high levels of cholesterol by contacting biological specimens containing cholesterol with the monoclonal antibod...

C. R. Alving G. M. Swartz



Antibodies against the calcium-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Plant microsomes contain a protein clearly related to a calcium-binding protein, calsequestrin, originally found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, responsible for the rapid release and uptake of Ca{sup 2+} within the cells. The location and role of calsequestrin in plant cells is unknown. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to plant calsequestrin, mice were immunized with a microsomal fraction from cultured cells of Streptanthus tortuosus (Brassicaceae). Two clones cross-reacted with one protein band with a molecular weight equal to that of calsequestrin (57 kilodaltons) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. This band is able to bind {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and can be recognized by a polyclonal antibody against the canine cardiac muscle calsequestrin. Rabbit skeletal muscle calsequestrin cross-reacted with the plant monoclonal antibodies. The plant monoclonal antibodies generated here are specific to calsequestrin protein.

Chou, Mei; Jensen, K.G.; Sjolund, R.D. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Krause, K.H.; Campbell, K.P. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))



Polynucleotides encoding anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies  


The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Kehoe, John (Saint Davids, PA); Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM)



Antibodies From Humans Receiving Investigational Influenza ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... CBER) have shown that antibodies from people who received high doses of a new type of vaccine against H5N1 (avian influenza or “bird flu”) block ... More results from


BK060056, Antibody Check 4.1  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Automates the process used with the current manual method (paper and pencil) panels to identify unexpected antibodies. ... More results from


Production of Pure Antibody to Interferon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antibody-purified human leukocyte interferons stabilized in mouse albumin or SDS were used to define optimal immunization schedules in mice utilizing only modest quantities of the antigen. The two major species of human leukocyte interferon were isolated ...

K. Paucker C. A. Ogburn J. S. Erickson B. J. Dalton



HIV-1 Antibody Test Kit Controls  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Controls to reach room temperature before testing with INSTI ... of the INSTI™ HIV-1 Antibody Test Kit Package ... 7. All Controls should be tested in the ... More results from


Recombinant Antibodies Specific to Bacillus Anthracis Spores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recombinant antibody and DNA technologies have been used to improve the sensitivity and specificity of rapid assays for the detection of B. anthracis spores. We have identified a spore coat gene, cotK, which demonstrates substantial sequence variation amo...

T. Leighton



Monoclonal antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor: the identification of blocking and stimulating antibodies.  


Monoclonal antibodies to the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor have been obtained from fusions of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells immunized with solubilized thyroid membrane preparations. Two monoclonal antibodies which inhibit 125I-TSH binding and are reactive with the glycoprotein component of the bovine TSH receptor (11E8 and 13D11), are shown to inhibit basal and TSH stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in bovine thyroid membranes and human thyroid cells. Both antibodies also inhibit 125I-TSH binding in vitro, whether binding is measured at pH 6.0 in low salts and at 0-4 C or at pH 7.4 in 50 mM NaCl and at 37 C. The glycoprotein component is thus a portion of the physiologic TSH receptor in vivo and 125I-TSH binding studies apparently measure the high affinity glycoprotein component under nonphysiologic conditions and conditions more representative of the physiologic milieu. A third monoclonal antibody whose interaction with thyroid membranes is prevented by TSH is shown to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in bovine thyroid membranes and human thyroid cells. This stimulating antibody only weakly inhibits 125I-TSH binding to thyroid membranes or to the glycoprotein component of the TSH receptor. The 22A6 antibody does, however, immunoprecipitate mixed brain gangliosides, in distinct contrast to the monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein receptor component, i.e., 11E8 and 13D11. The results support the speculation that autoimmune antibodies which inhibit TSH binding to thyroid membranes are not necessarily identical to antibodies which stimulate function; that antibodies directed at the high affinity initial site of TSH interaction with a cell can behave as blocking rather than stimulating antibodies and that a possible relationship exists between stimulating antibodies and the low affinity TSH binding sites (gangliosides) on thyroid membranes. PMID:6296219

Valente, W A; Yavin, Z; Yavin, E; Grollman, E F; Schneider, M; Rotella, C M; Zonefrati, R; Toccafondi, R S; Kohn, L D


Egg Yolk antibody and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hen transfers her serum immumnoglobulin G to the egg yolk (IgY) and gives im|munity to her offspring. Therefore, the hen\\u000a egg can be an effective supplier of a large amount of antigen specific antibody that accumulates in the egg yolk. Antigen\\u000a specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as pure

Mujo Kim; Shinji Higashiguchi; Yoshitomo Iwamoto; Han-Chul Yang; Hong-Yon Cho; Hajime Hatta



[Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae in ankylosing spondylitis].  


The authors investigated the incidence of antibodies against Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in a group of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in a group of healthy controls in all main immunoglobulin classes. The results revealed that in patients with ankylosing spondylitis there is a significantly higher incidence of specific antibodies of class IgA against Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli. This supports the thesis on the aetiopathogenetic interrelationship between enteric bacteria and the development of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:2676185

Mateicka, F; Kozáková, D; Cebecauer, L; Ondrasík, M; Bosmanský, K



Monoelonal Antibodies Against the Flavivirus West Nile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies having three different specificities have been prepared against the Egypt 101 strain of West Nile virus (WNV). All were reactive against the envelope glycoprotein in radioimmune precipitation tests, and all enhanced WNV replication in the mouse macrophage line P388D 1. One antibody, which is of IgG2a subclass, had strong neutralizing activity against the homologous virus, although it



Single domain camel antibodies: current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigen-binding capacity of the paired variable domains of an antibody is well established. The observation that the isolated heavy chains of anti-hapten antibodies retain some antigen-binding capacity in the absence of light chains led to attempts to obtain an even smaller antigen-binding unit in a VH format. Unfortunately, the poor solubility, the reduced affinity for the antigen and the

Serge Muyldermans



Histology of the bone marrow antibody response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The histology of the specific and non-specific antibody response in mouse and rat bone marrow was studied after subcutaneous\\u000a priming and intravenous boosting with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Cells producing specific antibody against HRP were found\\u000a only occasionally in the bone marrow after subcutaneous priming. After the intravenous boost injection their number gradually\\u000a increased. These anti-HRP forming cells were found as

A. A. Geldof; G. F. Rimmelzwaan; H. L. Langevoort



[Calcitonin antibodies in experimental diabetes mellitus].  


Antibodies to calcitonin appear in blood of rats with experimental alloxan diabetes. This phenomenon is observed only under high blood sugar. At the stage of latent diabetes, i.e. during alloxan administration to the body and low blood sugar no antibodies to calcitonin are detected. It is possible that appearance of autoantibodies to calcitonin is one of pathogenetic factors of hyperglycemia development in rats with alloxan diabetes. PMID:3886041

Kulikova, L I; Tsvetkov, V S; Bondarenko, M F; Gordienko, S P



Antifertility effect of progesterone antibodies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early embryo development and implantation were arrested in ICR mice which were passively immunized with a mouse monoclonal\\u000a progesterone antibody given as a single intraperitoneal injection at 12 hrs or 60 hrs post coitum (p.c.). Unimplanted embryos\\u000a were recovered from the reproductive tract of the antibody-treated mice and none of these progressed to the blastocyst stage.\\u000a The most pronounced effect

Do Young Yoon; Jae Wha Kim; Soo Weon Hwang; Myung Ja Choi; In Seong Choe; Jong Bae Kim; Tae Wha Chung



Monoclonal antibodies against heparin and heparinoids.  


The antigenicity of glycosaminoglycans and galactosaminoglycans is very weak. Accordingly, only a few reports on the successful production of monoclonal antibodies against glycosaminoglycans and galactosaminoglycans have been published. Antibodies have been raised against the heparinlike compounds heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate. The production of heparin antibodies was reported. But further analysis showed that the antibodies were not directed against native heparin but against heparin conjugates or chemically modified heparins. After immunization with a heparin-bovine serum albumin conjugate, prepared by reductive amination, a monoclonal antibody against heparin and heparin fractions was obtained (Huhle et al: Semin Thromb Hemostas 20:193-204, 1995). For further analysis, tyramine, which was covalently bound to low-molecular-mass heparin (LMMH) by endpoint attachment (Malsch et al: Anal Biochem 217:255-264, 1994), was labeled with iodine-125 at the aryl residue. The tracer antibody complex was immunoprecipitated by goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin IgG. H1.18 recognized specifically intact heparin and heparin fractions. The lower detection limit for heparin preparations was 100 ng/mL. The H1.18 antibody was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. H1.18 remained biologically and functionally active after purification. The smallest disaccharide that was detected by H1.18 was found to be iduronic acid-anhydromannose, obtained by nitrous acid degradation of LMMH. Endpoint attachment of tyramine to anhydromannose did not modify the binding of the disaccharide to H1.18, indicating the importance of iduronic acid for binding of glycosaminoglycans to the antibody. PMID:9156406

Huhle, G; Harenberg, J; Malsch, R; Heene, D L



Enhanced Hemolytic Antibody Response Following Thermal Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence of a significantly enhanced humoral immune response to sheep red cells following thermal injury, as assayed by direct hemolytic antibody plaque formation. An increase in the number of 19 S IgM antibody-secreting cells from the spleen was observed in rats up to 16 days after a 30-percent total body surface area, third-degree, scald burn. Since this

R. F. Mortensen; K. Eurenius



Studies with an antibody to rat lysozyme  

PubMed Central

An antibody to rat lysozyme has been prepared and its activity and specificity studied by inhibition and double diffusion techniques. By means of this antibody together with fluorescent anti-rabbit globulin, the distribution of lysozyme in rat and mouse polymorphs and macrophages has been examined and some changes which follow phagocytosis demonstrated. ImagesFIGS. 5-7FIGS. 8-13FIG. 14FIGS. 2-4

Glynn, A. A.; Parkman, R.



Monoclonal antibodies as catalysts for cyanide removal  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that hydrogen cyanide reacts with alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones to form stable compounds under physiological conditions (temperature, pH). Although spontaneous reaction is too slow for protection against cyanide intoxication, rate enhancement in the presence of a suitable catalyst would permit the use of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones (enones) as prophylactics for cyanide exposure. Based on the accepted mechanism for this 1,4-addition reaction, we have designed and synthesized sized a transition state analog (TSA), conjugated it to protein and used the conjugate to produce more than 300 monoclonal antibodies which bind the TSA. Approximately 10% of these antibodies have been purified from ascites and tested for catalysis of the addition reaction of cyanide to enone. Product formation was measured by HPLC. Four antibodies have been found which significantly enhance the initial velocity of the reaction. The TSA markedly diminishes the reaction velocity, indicating the involvement of the antibody binding site in the observed enhancement. Preliminary kinetic analysis on one antibody gave values of K sub (enone) and K sub KCN 51 uM and 9.6 mM, respectively. The value of k sub (cat) was 2.33 hr-1. The data suggest a rate enhancement of 2 x 10 to the 4th power for the encounter of the enone with the antibody-cyanide complex, whereas the rate enhancement for encounter of cyanide with the antibody-enone complex is 70. To utilize the potential of genetic engineering for modifying the proper-lies of anti-TSA monoclonal antibodies, we are cloning heavy and light chain genes for sequencing and subsequent site-specific mutagenesis.

Cook, C.E.; Whisnant, C.C.; Miller, D.B.; Allen, D.A.; Basta, P.V.



Production of Antibody in Insect Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of recombinant antibodies. The baculovirus – insect\\u000a cell system directs transient expression of recombinant antibodies in batch culture upon infection of insect cells with a\\u000a recombinant baculovirus, while stably transformed insect cells allow constitutive or inducible production. Both systems provide\\u000a rapid, simple ways of producing considerable amounts of

Hideki Yamaji


Development of humanized antibodies as cancer therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent success in the development of monoclonal antibody-based anti-cancer drugs has largely benefitted from the advancements made in recombinant technologies and cell culture production. These reagents, derived from the antibodies of mouse origin, while maintaining the exquisite specificity and affinity to the tumor antigens, have low immunogenicity and toxicity in human. High-level expressing cell clones are generated and used to

Zhengxing Qu; Gary L. Griffiths; William A. Wegener; Chien-Hsing Chang; Serengulam V. Govindan; Ivan D. Horak; Hans J. Hansen; David M. Goldenberg



Bispecific antibodies with natural architecture produced by co-culture of bacteria expressing two distinct half-antibodies.  


By enabling the simultaneous engagement of two distinct targets, bispecific antibodies broaden the potential utility of antibody-based therapies. However, bispecific-antibody design and production remain challenging, owing to the need to incorporate two distinct heavy and light chain pairs while maintaining natural nonimmunogenic antibody architecture. Here we present a bispecific-antibody production strategy that relies on co-culture of two bacterial strains, each expressing a half-antibody. Using this approach, we produce 28 unique bispecific antibodies. A bispecific antibody against the receptor tyrosine kinases MET and EGFR binds both targets monovalently, inhibits their signaling, and suppresses MET and EGFR-driven cell and tumor growth. Our strategy allows rapid generation of bispecific antibodies from any two existing antibodies and yields milligram to gram quantities of bispecific antibodies sufficient for a wide range of discovery and preclinical applications. PMID:23831709

Spiess, Christoph; Merchant, Mark; Huang, Arthur; Zheng, Zhong; Yang, Nai-Ying; Peng, Jing; Ellerman, Diego; Shatz, Whitney; Reilly, Dorothea; Yansura, Daniel G; Scheer, Justin M



Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for sporotrichosis.  


Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that affects both humans and animals worldwide. This subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent, Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exhibits considerable genetic variability, and recently, it was suggested that this taxon consists of a complex of species. Sporotrichosis is caused by traumatic inoculation of the fungus, which is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte that can be isolated from soil and plant debris. The infection is limited to cutaneous forms, but recently, more severe clinical forms of this mycosis have been described, especially among immunocompromised individuals. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of sporotrichosis are not well understood. Some studies suggest that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against S. schenckii. In contrast, the role of the humoral immune response in protection against this fungus has not been studied in detail. In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induced a specific humoral response in infected animals, primarily against a 70-kDa molecule, indicating a possible role of specific antibodies against this molecule in infection control. In another study by our group, we produced a mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein of S. schenckii to better understand the effect of the passive immunization of mice infected with S. schenckii. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFUs in various mice organs when the mAb was injected before or during S. schenckii infection. Similar results were observed when T-cell-deficient mice were used. The drugs of choice in the treatment of sporotrichosis require long periods, and relapses are frequently observed, primarily in immunocompromised patients. The strong protection induced by the mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein makes it a strong candidate as a therapeutic vaccine against sporotrichosis. PMID:23226146

Almeida, Sandro R



Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.  


The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies. PMID:21584780

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jaros?aw; Pejsak, Zygmunt



Construction of human antibody gene libraries and selection of antibodies by phage display.  


Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy.The prerequisite for successful generation and development of human recombinant antibodies using phage display is the construction of a high-quality antibody gene library. Here, we describe the methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.The success also depends on the panning strategy for the selection of binders from these libraries. In this article, we describe a panning strategy that is high-throughput compatible and allows parallel selection in microtiter plates. PMID:24037844

Frenzel, André; Kügler, Jonas; Wilke, Sonja; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael



Antibacterial antibody pattern in seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SNSA).  


The occurrence of some anti-bacterial antibodies was studied in sera from 31 healthy donors (HD) and 101 patients with different rheumatic diseases. The cases investigated included 7 Psoriatic Arthritis (PA), 35 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 17 Undifferentiated Seronegative Spondyloarthritis (U-SNSA), 13 Behçet's syndrome, 18 Enteric Arthropathies (EA), 7 Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and 4 Reiter's syndrome. A complement fixation test was carried out to detect the presence and to evaluate the titer of the specific antibodies against the relative bacterial antigens. The antigens used were prepared for the complement fixation test by Virion Laboratories: Yersinia Enterocolitica 0:3 type (YEC), Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis (YPT), Campylobacter Jejuni (CJ) and Campylobacter Intestinalis (CI), Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT). The results indicate a statistically significant difference between the HD group and the seronegative polyarthritis one (PA, U-SNSA, Behçet, EA, AS, Reiter as a whole) as far as antibody production against YEC, CI and YPT is concerned. On the contrary, a significant difference between the HD group and RA patients for specific anti bacterial antibodies was only found against CT. Further detailed analysis of the behavior of the antibody pattern in any disease groups was carried out to identify a possible specific and featured antibody profile for some given rheumatic disorder. PMID:3229028

Lapadula, G; Covelli, M; Numo, R


New role of antibody in bacterial isolation.  


To eliminate the interference caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the isolation of Salmonella, a rabbit polyclonal antibody against P. aeruginosa was prepared by inoculating four New Zealand rabbits with the pathogen. The antiserum was purified using saturated ammonium sulfate and added into Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium with soya (RVS) broth and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate novobiocin broth (MKTTn broth) to evaluate whether it could inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa. Observations by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that P. aeruginosa was attacked and destroyed by the antibody when incubated for 10 min at 37 degrees C. The activity of the antibody was also effective against 11 other strains of P. aeruginosa. Twenty-six strains of Salmonella were mixed with P. aeruginosa in RVS and MKTTn broth at 37 degrees C for 12 h, respectively, and the cultures were plated on Salmonella chromogenic medium (SCM; Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). Only Salmonella grew on SCM; five colonies were randomly selected for identification by VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Additionally, when mixed with two strains of Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 700323 and YG001), the prepared antibody did not affect the growth of E. cloacae. The results demonstrated that the microbicidal activity of the antibody did not affect the tested Salmonella sp. or E. cloacae strains. Therefore, the antibody generated could be used to increase the accuracy of Salmonella isolation. PMID:22468362

Xiao, Xizhi; Chen, Yu; Deng, Mingjun; Gao, Hongwei; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Yuan, Fei; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Zhang, Yanming


Antilactoferrin antibodies in autoimmune liver disease  

PubMed Central

Antilactoferrin antibodies have been reported in patients with several autoimmune disorders, including primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical significance of such autoreactivity in patients with autoimmune and viral chronic liver disease. Sera from 39 patients with autoimmune hepatitis, 51 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 17 with autoimmune cholangitis, 24 with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 28 with HCV-related chronic hepatitis were studied. Positivity for antilactoferrin antibodies was evaluated by Western immunoblotting with purified human lactoferrin. Antilactoferrin antibodies were detected more often in autoimmune liver disorders (25% autoimmune hepatitis, 25% primary biliary cirrhosis, 35% autoimmune cholangitis, 29% primary sclerosing cholangitis) than in HCV-related chronic hepatitis (3·5%, P < 0·02 versus all). Positivity for antilactoferrin antibodies was not associated with a particular clinical or biochemical profile of the underlying liver disease. No correlation was observed between antilactoferrin reactivity and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Antilactoferrin antibodies are present significantly more often in autoimmune than in viral liver disorders, but they cannot be considered the serological marker of a specific autoimmune liver disease.

Muratori, L; Muratori, P; Zauli, D; Grassi, A; Pappas, G; Rodrigo, L; Cassani, F; Lenzi, M; Bianchi, F B




PubMed Central

The isoimmune response of fowl inoculated with RBC coated with antibody was investigated. Anti-B antiserum from a single animal was used to coat different donor type RBC. With each donor type RBC the immune response to the coated determinants is suppressed. Enhancement of the immune response to noncoated determinants occurs when they are products of an allelic gene or belong to a different blood group system. Coating some B antigen determinants suppresses the response to noncoated determinants of the same antigen, i.e., determinants which are products of the same B gene. Varying the quantity of passive antibody revealed that the degree of suppression and the degree of enhancement are negatively correlated. These findings support the concept that antibody-coated determinants function as carrier for noncoated determinants, provided a certain physical association exists between them. A further interpretation of these studies is that in certain situations an antibody to one antigen may interfere with events which lead to an immune response to a different antigen. The possibility, that the protection afforded by ABO incompatibility against Rh isoimmunization is because of a similar phenomenon, is discussed. A hypothesis is presented which states that where the immune response to certain antigens behaves as a dominantly inherited trait, and is associated with histocompatibility type, the nonresponder animals possess an antibody (perhaps cell bound) which interferes with the response to determinants for which it does not have specificity. Responders are assumed to lack this antibody because it has specificity for their major histocompatibility antigens.

McBride, Raymond A.; Schierman, Louis W.



Monoclonal antibody to chicken oviduct progesterone receptor.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to molybdate-stabilized chicken oviduct progesterone receptor were raised in a Wistar rat and detected by interaction with homogeneous radioiodinated progesterone receptor. Spleen cells of this rat were then fused with mouse Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells and the antibodies produced by the hybrid cells were detected by double immunoprecipitation using the 125I-labeled receptor. Cells of one of the positive cultures were then cloned by limiting dilution and one hybridoma cell line was studied. The monoclonal antibody produced was an IgG2b, and it reacted with the molybdate-stabilized "8-9S" form of the chicken oviduct progesterone receptor, labeled with either [3H]progesterone or [3H]ORG 2058 (a high-affinity synthetic progestin). Kd for the 8-9S progesterone receptor was approximately equal to 1 nM. Progesterone receptor-monoclonal antibody complexes were labeled with radioactive progesterone, suggesting that antibody does not prevent hormone binding. By using a [35S]methionine-labeled antibody, we were able to detect the progesterone receptor independently of its characteristic function of binding radioactive hormone. No crossreaction with human progesterone receptor was detected.

Radanyi, C; Joab, I; Renoir, J M; Richard-Foy, H; Baulieu, E E



A mutagenesis study of a catalytic antibody  

SciTech Connect

The authors have generated seven site-specific mutations in the genes encoding the variable region of the heavy chain domain (V{sub H}) of the phosphocholine-binding antibody S107.S107 is a member of a family of well-characterized highly homologous antibodies that bind phosphorylcholine mono- and diesters. Two of these antibodies, MOPC-167 and T15, have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl N-trimethylammonioethyl carbonate. Two conserved heavy-chain residues, Tyr-33 and Arg-52, were postulated to be involved in binding and hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylcholine carbonate esters. To more precisely define the catalytic roles of these residues, three Arg-52 mutants (R52K, R52Q, R52C) and four Tyr-33 mutants (Y33H, Y33F, Y33E, Y33D) of antibody S107 were generated. The genes encoding the V{sub H} binding domain of S107 were inserted into plasmid pUC-fl, and in vitro mutagenesis was performed. These results not only demonstrate the importance of electrostatic interactions in catalysis by antibody S107 but also show that catalytic side chains can be introduced into antibodies to enhance their catalytic efficiency.

Jackson, D.Y.; Prudent, J.R.; Baldwin, E.P.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))



Anti Transglutaminase Antibodies Cause Ataxia in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the presence of anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and anti-gliadin antibodies. Amongst the neurological dysfunctions associated with CD, ataxia represents the most common one. Methods We analyzed by immunohistochemistry, the anti-neural reactivity of the serum from 20 CD patients. To determine the role of anti-TG2 antibodies in ataxia, two anti-TG2 single chain variable fragments (scFv), isolated from a phage-display IgA antibody library, were characterized by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and injected in mice to study their effects on motor coordination. We found that 75% of the CD patient population without evidence of neurological involvement, has circulating anti-neural IgA and/or IgG antibodies. Two anti-TG2 scFvs, cloned from one CD patient, stained blood vessels but only one reacted with neurons. This anti-TG2 antibody showed cross reactivity with the transglutaminase isozymes TG3 and TG6. Intraventricular injection of the anti-TG2 or the anti-TG2/3/6 cross-reactive scFv provoked transient, equally intensive ataxia in mice. Conclusion The serum from CD patients contains anti-TG2, TG3 and TG6 antibodies that may potentially cause ataxia.

Boscolo, Sabrina; Lorenzon, Andrea; Sblattero, Daniele; Florian, Fiorella; Stebel, Marco; Marzari, Roberto; Not, Tarcisio; Aeschlimann, Daniel; Ventura, Alessandro; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Tongiorgi, Enrico



Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens  

SciTech Connect

During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

David Bradley



Structural features of the reactions between antibodies and protein antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies bind protein antigens over large sterically and electrostatically complementary sur- faces. Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds, and occa- sionally ion pairs provide stability to antibody-antigen complexes. In addition, water molecules contribute hydrogen bonds linking antigen and antibody, and in- crease the complementarity of antigen-antibody inter- faces. In qualification to a strict 'lock and key' mechan- ism, evidence of



Characterization of Humanized Antibodies Secreted by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1() antibodies and an Fab fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatog- raphy proved

Michael Ward; Cherry Lin; Doreen C. Victoria; Bryan P. Fox; Judith A. Fox; David L. Wong; Hendrik J. Meerman; Jeff P. Pucci; Robin B. Fong; Meng H. Heng; Naoya Tsurushita; Christine Gieswein; Minha Park; Huaming Wang



Rabbit monoclonal antibody: potential application in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

By targeting antigens specifically, monoclonal antibodies represent a new class of therapeutic agents for the clinical management of various diseases including cancers. Monoclonal antibody technology has been greatly developed by reducing murine content in antibodies to minimize side effects in clinical applications. However, several intrinsic disadvantages of antibodies with murine origin limit the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies based targeted therapy. The development of rabbit monoclonal antibody technology provides an alternative source of monoclonal antibodies with higher specificity and less cost for the development of routine targeted therapy against cancers.

Feng, Lifeng; Wang, Xian; Jin, Hongchuan



Avidity of onconeural antibodies is of clinical relevance.  


Onconeural antibodies are important in the detection of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). The avidity of Hu, Yo, and CRMP5 antibodies from 100 patients was determined by immunoprecipitation (IP), and 13 of the Yo positive sera were also tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). There was a significant association between the results from IP and SPR. Yo antibodies had higher avidity than Hu and CRMP5 antibodies, and both high- and low-avidity antibodies were associated with tumors and PNS. High-avidity Yo antibodies were mainly associated with ovarian cancer, whereas high-avidity Hu and CRMP5 antibodies were mainly associated with small-cell lung cancer. Low-avidity CRMP5 and Yo antibodies were less often detected by a commercial line blot than high-avidity antibodies. The failure to detect low-avidity onconeural antibodies may result in under diagnosis of PNS. PMID:23733227

Totland, Cecilie; Ying, Ming; Haugen, Mette; Mazengia, Kibret; Storstein, Anette; Aarseth, Jan; Martinez, Aurora; Vedeler, Christian



Effects of various drugs on insulin antibodies  

PubMed Central

1. Insulin antibodies were induced in young guinea-pigs of both sexes weighing 300-400 g and housed in a room maintained at 28° C±2° C, by subcutaneous injection of 2 ml of freshly prepared insulin antigen emulsion between the shoulders once every month. 2. To estimate the titre of serum antibody the serum was incubated with a known concentration of insulin for 90 min at 37° C and the insulin not bound to antibody was estimated by the rat hemidiaphragm method. 3. No significant (P>0·5) development of insulin antibody could be detected in the serum samples collected 1 month after the first and 15 days after the second monthly injections in groups of ten male guinea-pigs and six female guinea-pigs. However, the titre of insulin antibody in the serum of these groups of guinea-pigs 15 days after the third monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion was significantly (P<0·01) raised. There was no further increase in the titre of insulin antibody in the sera 15 days after the fourth and fifth monthly injections of insulin antigen emulsion. Thus the peak titre was reached 15 days after the third monthly injection of the antigen. 4. Two groups of ten male guinea-pigs each received testosterone propionate or diethylstilboestrol daily for 1 week after each monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion. Two other groups of six female guinea-pigs each received testosterone propionate or diethylstilboestrol in a similar manner. One more group of ten female guinea-pigs received both sex hormones for 1 week after each monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion. Testosterone facilitated the induction of insulin antibody in the serum of males but did not affect the antibody titre in the female guinea-pigs. Diethylstilboestrol facilitated the induction of insulin antibody in the serum of groups of either sex, the peak titre being attained after the second monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion. The response of the females which received both sex hormones was similar to that of females which received diethylstilboestrol alone. 5. Fifteen days after the third monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion a group of ten guinea-pigs received hydrocortisone subcutaneously each day for 1 month. The serum antibody titre was estimated at the end of the drug treatment, and was significantly (P<0·01) reduced. 6. Fifteen days after the third monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion three different groups of five-six guinea-pigs each received tolbutamide, chlorpropamide or phenformin orally every day for a month. Antibody titres of the serum were estimated at the end of this period; there was no significant (P>0·05) reduction in groups receiving chlorpropamide or phenformin, but the serum antibody titre of the group receiving tolbutamide was significantly (P<0·01) raised. 7. Fifteen days after the third monthly injection of insulin antigen emulsion different groups of five-six guinea-pigs received one of the following: 5-bromouracil, 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, 6-azauridine, busulphan, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, actinomycin-D or mytomycin-C intraperitoneally each day for 5 days. The serum antibody titre of all the groups of guinea-pigs was significantly (P<0·01) reduced. On the other hand the serum antibody titre of a control group of six guinea-pigs receiving normal saline intraperitoneally each day for 5 days was not significantly (P>0·5) affected.

Gulati, O. D.; Patel, D. G.



Inhibition of Specific Binding of Antibody to the Rh0(D) Factor of Red Cells in Antibody Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake by red cells of I131-labeled nonagglutinating antibody to the Rh0(D) factor was dependent on the proportion of cells to antibody during sensitization. Inhibition of antibody binding by red cells in the region of antibody excess occurred with Rh0(D) positive red cells that were both papain modified and untreated; the inhibition was independent of the Rh phenotype.

S. P. Masouredis; Mary Edith Dupuy; Margaret Elliot



Specificity of antibodies: Unexpected cross-reactivity of antibodies directed against the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific antibodies are essential tools for identifying individual proteins in biological samples. While generation of antibodies is often straightforward, determination of the antibody specificity is not. Here we illustrate this by describing the production and characterization of antibodies to excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3). We synthesized 13 peptides corresponding to parts of the EAAT3 sequence and immunized 6 sheep

S. Holmseth; Y. Dehnes; L. P. Bjørnsen; J.-L. Boulland; D. N. Furness; D. BERGLESc; N. C. Danbolt



Antibodies and cancer therapy: versatile platforms for cancer immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have emerged as important therapeutics for cancer. Recently, it has become clear that antibodies possess multiple clinically relevant mechanisms of action. Many clinically useful antibodies can manipulate tumour-related signalling. In addition, antibodies exhibit various immunomodulatory properties and, by directly activating or inhibiting molecules of the immune system, antibodies can promote the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. These immunomodulatory properties can form the basis for new cancer treatment strategies.

Surana, Rishi; Wang, Shangzi



Cytokine binding by polysaccharide-antibody conjugates.  


Cytokine-neutralizing antibodies are used in treating a broad range of inflammatory conditions. We demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? were still active when conjugated to high molecular weight polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are hydrophilic, but their size makes them unable to circulate in the bloodstream when delivered to tissues, opening up the possibility of localized treatment of inflammatory conditions. To explore this new class of protein-polysaccharide conjugates, we covalently modified interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? monoclonal antibodies with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and carboxymethylcellulose. Rigorous purification using dialysis with a 300 kDa-cutoff membrane removed unconjugated monoclonal antibodies. We characterized the composition of the constructs and demonstrated using molecular binding affinity measurements and cell assays that the conjugates were capable of binding proinflammatory cytokines. The binding affinities of both the unconjugated antibodies for their cytokines were measured to be approximately 120 pM. While all conjugates had pM-level binding constants, they ranged from 40 pM for the hyaluronic acid-(anti-interleukin-1?) conjugate to 412 pM for the carboxymethylcellulose-(anti-interleukin-1?) conjugate. Interestingly, the dissociation time constants varied more than the association time constants, suggesting that conjugation to a high molecular weight polysaccharide did not interfere with the formation of the antibody-cytokine complex but could stabilize or destabilize it once formed. Conjugation of cytokine-neutralizing antibodies to high molecular weight polymers represents a novel method of delivering anticytokine therapeutics that may avoid many of the complications associated with systemic delivery. PMID:20726535

Sun, Liang Tso; Buchholz, Kyle S; Lotze, Michael T; Washburn, Newell R



Potential therapeutic roles for antibody mixtures.  


With the enormous success of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) as human therapeutics, there are increasing efforts underway to explore new molecular entities that mimic rMAbs to replicate this huge success. In addition to naked intact rMAbs, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), FAb and F(ab')2 fragments and also Fc fusion proteins have been developed and/or marketed as human therapeutics to treat different human diseases, including life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Several hundreds more intact rMAbs, ADCs, FAb, F(ab')2 fragments and Fc fusion proteins are currently undergoing human clinical trials. In addition to these molecules, new type of antibody fragments such as single-chain Fvs (scFvs), VH, scFv-Fc, scFv-CH, scFAb, scFv-zipper, diabodies, bispecific antibodies and similar types of constructs are also being investigated to be developed as human monotherapeutics. Further, there are quite a few current examples of combinations of biologics being developed. For example, currently, several biopharmaceutical companies are developing combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. Accordingly, the question posed here is whether it is time to consider the possibility of developing a broader range of combinations of therapeutic biologics. Combinations of small organic molecules have been successfully used as therapeutics for many years to treat many diseases, so the context of using polypharmacology to treat human diseases is not novel. For the past several decades, intravenous immunoglobulins have successfully been used in treating various autoimmune diseases. In this context, several biotechnology companies are exploring the use of combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. This editorial discusses these current efforts and the potential future role of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. PMID:23886377

Raju, T Shantha; Strohl, William R



Patient With Homer-3 Antibodies and Cerebellitis  

PubMed Central

Importance Homer proteins are a family of scaffolding proteins of the postsynaptic density. Homer-3 colocalizes and modulates the activity of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5). Cerebellitis has been reported in association with antibodies to mGluR1. We describe the second patient with cerebellitis and Homer-3 antibodies and report a novel, highly specific immunoblot assay. Observations A 38-year-old man had acute onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. He developed a pancerebellar syndrome during the ensuing week. Extensive studies did not reveal any tumor. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a white blood cell count of 60/µL (to convert to ×109 per liter, multiply by 0.001). Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings were normal. For 2 years, the patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids, with partial improvement of the cerebellar ataxia. The patient was negative for onconeural (Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2, Tr, amphiphysin, and Ma2), glutamic acid decarboxylase, and mGluR1 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain revealed immunostaining of the cerebellar molecular layer. Homer-3 antibodies were demonstrated by immunoblot of recombinant Homer-3. The clinical features of this patient and a previously described patient with Homer-3 antibodies are similar to those of patients with mGluR1 antibodies. Conclusions and Relevance We report the second case of autoimmune cerebellar ataxia associated with Homer-3 antibodies. The presence of Homer-3 autoantibodies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with subacute cerebellar ataxia of unknown cause.

Hoftberger, Romana; Sabater, Lidia; Ortega, Angel; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc



Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody elicits broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies in monkeys.  

PubMed Central

Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against human, polyclonal, anti-gp120 antibodies (Ab1) and were selected for binding to broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies in sera positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One anti-idiotype mAb (Ab2), 3C9, was found to be specific for human anti-gp120 antibodies directed against an epitope around the conserved CD4 attachment site of gp120. The 3C9 reactive human anti-gp120 antibodies (3C9+ Ab) neutralized MN, IIIB, RF, and four primary isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Cynomolgus monkeys were immunized with 3C9 in adjuvant to test whether this anti-idiotype mAb could induce neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies. The results show that purified anti-anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab3) from 3C9 immune sera bind to an epitope around the CD4 attachment site of gp120SF and gp120IIIB. Furthermore, purified gp120-specific Ab3 neutralize MN, IIIB, and RF isolates. These results demonstrate that primates immunized with an anti-idiotype mAb produce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Since this anti-idiotype mAb was selected by identifying a clonotypic marker, its biological activity can be explained as the results of clonotypic B-cell stimulation.

Kang, C Y; Nara, P; Chamat, S; Caralli, V; Chen, A; Nguyen, M L; Yoshiyama, H; Morrow, W J; Ho, D D; Kohler, H



Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in monoclonal antibody-mediated tumor immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is critical in monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated cancer therapy. We recently showed that a tumor-specific mAb in combination with cyclophosphamide inhibited tumor cell growth and induced ADCC-synapses between tumor and effector cells in vivo, opening perspectives to enhance anti-tumor responses by manipulating the immune system.

Hubert, Pascale; Amigorena, Sebastian



Estimation of post-vaccination antibody titre against goat pox and determination of protective antibody titre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats maintained in farm\\/under rural condition by individual owners with definite history of vaccination were vaccinated with Freeze Dried Tissue Culture Goat Pox Vaccine and antibody titre was determined up to 1 year post-vaccination period. A few experimental goats were vaccinated and subsequently challenged with isolated virulent field virus and antibody titre of vaccinated animals observed at different intervals was

D. Barman; A. Chatterjee; C. Guha; U. Biswas; J. Sarkar; T. K. Roy; B. Roy; S. Baidya



Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination.  


Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere with vaccine antigen processing that reduces the subsequent immune response. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick will respond to vaccination, but they are also susceptible to viral infection. This study examines the effect of MAb on seroconversion to different viral-vectored avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines. Chicks were given passively transferred antibodies (PTA) using AIV hyperimmunized serum, and subsequently vaccinated with a fowlpox-AIV recombinant vaccine (FPr) or a Newcastle disease virus-AIV recombinant vaccine (NDVr). Our results indicate that passively transferred antibodies led to significant reduction of seroconversion and clinical protection from virulent challenge in recombinant virus vaccinated chicks thus demonstrating maternal antibody interference to vaccination. The passive antibody transfer model system provides an important tool to evaluate maternal antibody interference to vaccination. PMID:23398721

Faulkner, Olivia B; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Suarez, David L



Antibody Response to Bacterial Antigens: Characteristics of Antibody Response to Somatic Antigens of Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

The character of the antibody response in the rabbit to Salmonella typhimurium somatic (O) antigen was similar to the response to each of several serotypes of Shigella flexneri O antigens, namely a predominance of production of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody. Lipopolysaccharide protein (LPSP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fractions of Salmonella O antigen differed significantly in both quantitative and qualitative aspects of their immunogenicity. LPSP elicited high levels of agglutinins and also induced the production of a significant amount of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody at a late period. LPS antigen elicited low levels of agglutinins which were exclusively IgM antibody. These results suggested that the chemical nature of the antigen is one important factor in the determination of the character of the antibody response. Further, it is suggested that the protein moiety of the O antigen complex is a carrier active in allowing induction of early IgM and of late IgG antibodies; in contrast, the lipid moiety may compete with this action of the carrier protein, thereby suppressing IgG antibody in the primary stage of the antibody-forming process.

Fukazawa, Y.; Shinoda, T.; Yomoda, T.; Tsuchiya, T.



Antiidiotypic antibodies to sperm in sera of fertile women that neutralize antisperm antibodies.  

PubMed Central

The presence of antiidiotypic antibodies (ab-2) to sperm was investigated in the sera of fertile, infertile, and virgin women using sperm-specific anti-FA-1 monoclonal antibody Fab'.ab-2 were detected in 71% (17/24) of sera from fertile women and in none (0/12) of the sera from virgin females by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot procedure, and immunoprecipitation procedure. Sera from infertile women that had antisperm antibodies showed a minimal presence of ab-2, with only three sera (13%, 3/23) demonstrating the presence of low levels of ab-2. The ab-2 present in fertile women were capable of neutralizing the fertilization-inhibitory activity of anti-FA-1 antibody in a concentration-dependent manner in a human sperm penetration assay (SPA) of zona-free hamster oocytes. ab-2 were also capable of inhibiting the binding of antisperm antibodies to the sperm surface as determined by the immunobead binding technique. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of ab-2 in the sera of fertile women that are capable of neutralizing antisperm antibodies present in sera of infertile women. These findings suggest that the inability to detect antisperm antibody activity in the sera of fertile women may be due to higher levels of ab-2 present in these sera than levels found in sera of infertile women, although both groups may be producing antisperm antibody response after sexual exposure to sperm. Images

Naz, R K; Ahmad, K; Menge, A C



Specificities of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors in sera from myasthenia gravis patients measured by monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of antibody specificities in sera from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) was determined by the ability of monoclonal antibodies against defined determinants on the acetylcholine receptor molecule to inhibit binding of the serum antibodies to receptor from human muscle. We found that MG patients produce fundamentally the same pattern of specificities as that produced by animals immunized with receptor purified from fish electric organs or mammalian muscle. Most of the antibodies are directed at the "main immunogenic region' which is located on the extracellular surface of the alpha subunit and is distinct from the acetylcholine binding site. Regions on the beta and gamma subunits near the main immunogenic region are also significantly immunogenic. In one patient the proportions of antibodies to various regions are constant over time despite changes in total antibody amount and clinical state. Between patients there is no obvious correlation between antibody specificities and clinical state. These data suggest that the autoimmune response in MG is stimulated by human receptor rather than a crossreacting (e.g., viral) antigen and that in both MG and experimental autoimmune MG the pattern of specificities produced is determined by the inherently immunogenic structural features of the receptor molecule. They also suggest that the wide differences in clinical state sometimes observed between patients with the same total concentration of antireceptor antibody are due primarily to differences in endogenous factors which affect the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission rather than to the presence of especially pathogenic antireceptor specificities.

Tzartos, S J; Seybold, M E; Lindstrom, J M



Single chain variable fragment antibodies against Shiga toxins isolated from a human antibody phage display library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga toxins (Stxs) are involved in the pathogenesis of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and other severe systemic complications following enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in humans. Passive immunotherapies using monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be effective for neutralizing the toxic effects of Stxs. However, animal-derived monoclonal antibodies are sometimes immunogenic and their production is both laborious and expensive. We here report the

Paola Neri; Naoko Shigemori; Susumu Hamada-Tsutsumi; Kentaro Tsukamoto; Hideyuki Arimitsu; Toshiyasu Shimizu; Yasushi Akahori; Yoshikazu Kurosawa; Takao Tsuji



A mutagenesis study of a catalytic antibody.  

PubMed Central

We have generated seven site-specific mutations in the genes encoding the variable region of the heavy chain domain (VH) of the phosphocholine-binding antibody S107. S107 is a member of a family of well-characterized highly homologous antibodies that bind phosphorylcholine mono- and diesters. Two of these antibodies, MOPC-167 and T15, have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl N-trimethylammonioethyl carbonate. Two conserved heavy-chain residues, Tyr-33 and Arg-52, were postulated to be involved in binding and hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylcholine carbonate esters. To more precisely define the catalytic roles of these residues, three Arg-52 mutants (R52K, R52Q, R52C) and four Tyr-33 mutants (Y33H, Y33F, Y33E, Y33D) of antibody S107 were generated. The genes encoding the VH binding domain of S107 were inserted into plasmid pUC-fl, and in vitro mutagenesis was performed. The wild-type and mutant S107 antibodies were expressed in P-3X63-Ag8.653 (P-3) myeloma cells by using a modified SV2 shuttle vector. The catalytic properties of wild-type antibody S107 are similar to those of the phosphocholine-specific antibody T15, which has the same VH protein sequence. In general, mutations at Tyr-33 had little effect on catalytic activity, whereas mutations at Arg-52 that result in loss of the positively charged side chain significantly lower the catalytic activity of S107. One mutant, Y33H, catalyzed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl N-trimethylammonioethyl carbonate with a kcat of 5.7 min-1 and a Km of 1.6 mM at pH 7.5. These results not only demonstrate the importance of electrostatic interactions in catalysis by antibody S107 but also show that catalytic side chains can be introduced into antibodies to enhance their catalytic efficiency.

Jackson, D Y; Prudent, J R; Baldwin, E P; Schultz, P G



Metabolic engineering of monoclonal antibody carbohydrates for antibody-drug conjugation.  


The role that carbohydrates play in antibody function and pharmacokinetics has made them important targets for modification. The terminal fucose of the N-linked glycan structure, which has been shown to be involved in modulation of antibody-directed cellular cytotoxicity, is a particularly interesting location for potential modification through incorporation of alternative sugar structures. A library of fucose analogues was evaluated for their ability to incorporate into antibody carbohydrates in place of the native fucose. A number of efficiently incorporated molecules were identified, demonstrating the ability of fucosyltransferase VIII to utilize a variety of non-natural sugars as substrates. Among these structures was a thiolated analogue, 6-thiofucose, which was incorporated into the antibody carbohydrate with good efficiency. This unnatural thio-sugar could then be used for conjugation using maleimide chemistry to produce antibody-drug conjugates with pronounced cytotoxic activities and improved homogeneity compared to drug attachment through hinge disulfides. PMID:24050213

Okeley, Nicole M; Toki, Brian E; Zhang, Xinqun; Jeffrey, Scott C; Burke, Patrick J; Alley, Stephen C; Senter, Peter D



Single Domain Intracellular Antibodies from Diverse Libraries  

PubMed Central

Interfering intracellular antibodies are valuable for biological studies as drug surrogates and as potential macromolecular drugs per se. Their application is still limited because of the difficulty of acquisition of functional intracellular antibodies. We describe the use of the new intracellular antibody capture procedure (IAC3) to facilitate direct isolation of functional single domain antibody fragments using four independent target molecules (LMO2, TP53, CRAF1, and Hoxa9) from a set of diverse libraries. Initially, these have variability in only one of the three antigen-binding CDR regions of VH or VL and first round single domains are affinity matured by iterative randomization of the two other CDRs and reselection. We highlight the approach using a single domain binding to LMO2 protein. Our results show that interfering with LMO2 protein function demonstrates a role specifically in erythroid differentiation, confirm a necessary and sufficient function for LMO2 as a cancer therapy target in T-cell neoplasia and allowed for the first time production of soluble recombinant LMO2 protein by co-expression with intracellular domain antibodies. Co-crystallization of LMO2 and the anti-LMO2 VH protein was successful. These results demonstrate that this third generation IAC3 offers a robust toolbox for various biomedical applications and consolidates functional features of the LMO2 protein complex, which includes the importance of Lmo2-Ldb1 protein interaction.

Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Sewell, Helen; Waters, Simon; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Rabbitts, Terence H.



Glycosylation of antibody therapeutics: optimisation for purpose.  


Recombinant antibody therapeutics represent a significant success story in terms of clinical benefit delivered and revenue (profit) generated within the biopharmaceutical industry. Additionally, it is estimated that 30% of new drugs likely to be licensed during the next decade will be based on antibody products. High volume production with the maintenance of structural and functional fidelity of these large biological molecules results in high "cost of goods" that can limit their availability to patients, due to the strain it puts on national and private health budgets. The challenge in reducing cost of goods is that each antibody is unique, both in structure and function. Optimal clinical efficacy will require engineering of antibody genes to deliver products with enhanced activities produced by cell lines engineered to deliver antibody homogeneous for pre-selected post-translational modifications, that is, protein structures and glycoforms. A "universal" production vehicle cannot meet these demands and several production mammalian cells are now available, alternatives to mammalian cell lines are also reaching maturity. Advances in downstream processing also need to be realised whilst chemical changes during processing and storage must be minimised. PMID:19183902

Jefferis, Roy



Defining antibody targets in Streptococcus oralis infection.  

PubMed Central

Immunoblotting of sera from 12 neutropenic patients with Streptococcus oralis septicemia and 18 patients with endocarditis due to viridans group streptococci revealed immunodominant S. oralis antigens at 85 and 180 kDa. The former cross-reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody to hsp90. The latter was identified by sequencing positive clones obtained by screening a genomic expression library of S. oralis with pooled sera from patients who had been infected with S. oralis. Antibody eluted from one of these clones reacted with the 180-kDa antigen of S. oralis. Southern blotting confirmed the origin of the clone from S. oralis. The derived amino acid sequence showed 76.2% homology with the PAc protein precursor of Streptococcus mutans and 73.8% homology with the SpaA protein precursor of Streptococcus sobrinus. Epitope mapping of the derived amino acid sequence with sera from patients with viridans group streptococcal endocarditis delineated nine epitopes. Peptides 1 (TMYPNRQPGSGWDSS) and 2 (WYSLNGKIRAVDVPK), representing two of these epitopes, and peptide 3 (YEVEKPLEPAPVAPS), representing the repeat proline region, were synthesized. These three peptides were used to screen a phage antibody display library derived from a patient who had recovered from S. oralis infection. Two of the human recombinant antibodies produced (SORAL 3 and SORAL 4 against peptide 3) and a human recombinant antibody (B3.7) against the conserved epitope (LKVIRK) of hsp90 gave statistically significant protection, compared with control groups, in a mouse model of lethal S. oralis infection.

Burnie, J P; Brooks, W; Donohoe, M; Hodgetts, S; al-Ghamdi, A; Matthews, R C



Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H



Enzymatic antibody modification by bacterial transglutaminase.  


Enzymatic posttranslational modification of proteins permits more precise control over conjugation site than chemical modification of reactive amino acid side chains. Ideally, protein modification by an enzyme yields completely homogeneous conjugates with improved properties for research or therapeutic use. As an example, we here provide a protocol for bacterial transglutaminase (BTGase)-mediated conjugation of cadaverine-derivatized substrates to an IgG1, resulting in stable bond formation between glutamine 295 of the antibody heavy chain and the substrate. This procedure requires enzymatic removal of N-linked glycans from the antibody and yields a defined substrate/antibody ratio of 2:1. Alternatively, a mutant aglycosylated IgG1 variant may be generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutation introduces an additional glutamine and yields a substrate/antibody ratio of 4:1 after coupling. Finally, we describe an ESI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method to analyze the uniformity of the resulting conjugates. The presented approach allows the facile generation of homogeneous antibody conjugates and can be applied to any IgG1 and a wide range of cadaverine-derivatized substrates. PMID:23913149

Dennler, Patrick; Schibli, Roger; Fischer, Eliane



Antibody phage display technology and its applications.  


In recent years, the use of display vectors and in vitro selection technologies has transformed the way in which we generate ligands, such as antibodies and peptides, for a given target. Using this technology, we are now able to design repertoires of ligands from scratch and use the power of phage selection to select those ligands having the desired (biological) properties. With phage display, tailor-made antibodies may be synthesized and selected to acquire the desired affinity of binding and specificity for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis, or for immunotherapy of human disease. This review addresses recent progress in the construction of, and selection from phage antibody libraries, together with novel approaches for screening phage antibodies. As the quality of large naïve and synthetic antibody repertoires improves and libraries becomes more generally available, new and exciting applications are pioneered such as the identification of novel antigens using differential selection and the generation of receptor a(nta)gonists. A combination of the design and generation of millions to billions of different ligands, together with phage display for the isolation of binding ligands and with functional assays for identifying (and possibly selecting) bio-active ligands, will open even more challenging applications of this inspiring technology, and provide a powerful tool for drug and target discovery well into the next decade. PMID:9661810

Hoogenboom, H R; de Bruïne, A P; Hufton, S E; Hoet, R M; Arends, J W; Roovers, R C



Detection of antibodies against paramyxoviruses in tortoises.  


Sera from a total of 202 tortoises from six countries and nine species were tested for antibodies against four different reptilian paramyxoviruses (ferlaviruses, ferlaVs) by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The viruses used were a tortoise PMV (tPMV) and three squamatid PMV isolates, each belonging to a different subgroup of ferlaV within the genus Ferlavirus. HI tests revealed that antibodies against ferlaVs occurred regularly in the tested samples (5.5%). One and a half percent of the tested samples have measurable antibody titers against the group A isolate, 3% had antibodies against the group B isolate, and 1% had antibodies against the group C isolate. The significantly highest number of positive reactions was detected against the tortoise isolate (5%). Most of the animals that tested positive for one of the snake isolates also tested positive in HI assays with the tortoise isolate. Of the samples from different origins, the sera from Great Britain showed the highest percentage of positive tested animals (10.3%, n = 39), followed by those from Spain (10%, n = 10), while none of the samples from Madagascar or Italy scored positive. Since in most cases animals from one country came from the same collection, this does not represent the real prevalence of ferlaV in tortoises in these countries but rather indicates that ferlaVs occur in a number of different countries and tortoise species. PMID:23805552

Rösler, Reinhild; Abbas, Maha Diekan; Papp, Tibor; Marschang, Rachel E



Antibodies to selected minor target antigens in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA).  


In patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, indirect immunofluorescence (IF) distinguishes between cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) and perinuclear (P-ANCA) neutrophil staining patterns. In patients with primary systemic vasculitis such as Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome, these IF staining patterns correspond broadly with antibodies to the two major antigens: the C-ANCA pattern is associated generally with antibodies to serine protease 3 (PR3) and the P-ANCA pattern with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO). However, some sera positive for ANCA by IF are negative for anti-PR3 and anti-MPO antibodies, suggesting the presence of antibodies to minor antigens of PMN granules. We tested sera from a previously well-defined clinical cohort of patients for antibodies to four possible minor antigens: bactericidal permeability increasing protein, elastase, cathepsin G and lactoferrin. IF-positive (+) sera had significantly higher antibody frequencies to the minor antigens than did the IF-negative (-) sera (P < 0.01). Patients with IF(+) PR3(-)MPO(-) sera showed the most varied reactivity to the minor antigens. Among the IF(+) groups, the IF(+) PR3(+)/MPO(-) sera showed the lowest reactivity to the minor antigens. Patients with well-defined ANCA specificities, e.g. the PR3-ANCA response associated with Wegener's granulomatosis, are less likely than are other patient subsets to have antibodies to minor antigen targets. Autoantibodies to these minor antigens contribute to the overall pattern of ANCA identified by IF and help to explain why the correlation between IF and enzyme immunoassays show discrepancies. While the pathophysiological significance of antibodies to minor target antigens needs further evaluation, they may be markers of inflammation associated with disease processes. PMID:17614969

Talor, M V; Stone, J H; Stebbing, J; Barin, J; Rose, N R; Burek, C L



Antibodies to selected minor target antigens in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)  

PubMed Central

In patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, indirect immunofluorescence (IF) distinguishes between cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) and perinuclear (P-ANCA) neutrophil staining patterns. In patients with primary systemic vasculitis such as Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and Churg–Strauss syndrome, these IF staining patterns correspond broadly with antibodies to the two major antigens: the C-ANCA pattern is associated generally with antibodies to serine protease 3 (PR3) and the P-ANCA pattern with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO). However, some sera positive for ANCA by IF are negative for anti-PR3 and anti-MPO antibodies, suggesting the presence of antibodies to minor antigens of PMN granules. We tested sera from a previously well-defined clinical cohort of patients for antibodies to four possible minor antigens: bactericidal permeability increasing protein, elastase, cathepsin G and lactoferrin. IF-positive (+) sera had significantly higher antibody frequencies to the minor antigens than did the IF-negative (?) sera (P < 0·01). Patients with IF? PR3?MPO? sera showed the most varied reactivity to the minor antigens. Among the IF? groups, the IF? PR3?/MPO? sera showed the lowest reactivity to the minor antigens. Patients with well-defined ANCA specificities, e.g. the PR3-ANCA response associated with Wegener's granulomatosis, are less likely than are other patient subsets to have antibodies to minor antigen targets. Autoantibodies to these minor antigens contribute to the overall pattern of ANCA identified by IF and help to explain why the correlation between IF and enzyme immunoassays show discrepancies. While the pathophysiological significance of antibodies to minor target antigens needs further evaluation, they may be markers of inflammation associated with disease processes.

Talor, M V; Stone, J H; Stebbing, J; Barin, J; Rose, N R; Burek, C L



Antibody-based bacterial toxin detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a one step assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin or Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled toxins. In the two-step assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified antitoxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or antitoxin IgG in a dose-dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

Menking, Darrell E.; Heitz, Jonathon M.; Anis, Nabil A.; Thompson, Roy G.



Antibody therapy for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.  


Although it is believed that altered conformations exposing cryptic regions are intermediary and critical steps in the mechanism of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid formation, no effective therapy targeting this step is available. In this study, to establish the antibody therapy for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), we generated a monoclonal anti-TTR antibody, which specifically reacts with surface epitopes of TTR (MAb ATTR) and evaluated its binding affinity and specificity for TTR amyloid fibrils. MAb ATTR showed specific binding affinity for TTR amyloid fibrils, but not for native form of TTR. Moreover, MAb ATTR indeed showed the high consistency with Congo red positive areas in tissue specimens from FAP ATTR V30M patients, indicating that MAb ATTR showed binding affinity and specificity for TTR amyloid fibrils in vitro and in vivo. MAb ATTR may have a potential to suppress TTR amyloid deposition and become a candidate for the antibody therapy for FAP. PMID:22506915

Su, Yu; Jono, Hirofumi; Torikai, Masaharu; Hosoi, Akihiko; Soejima, Kenji; Guo, Jianying; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Misumi, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Shinriki, Satoru; Shono, Makoto; Obayashi, Konen; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Sugawara, Keishin; Ando, Yukio



Immunocytochemistry with internally labeled monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

One of the advantages of the production of monoclonal antibodies by tissue culture methods is that they can be internally labeled by using appropriate radioactive amino acid in the culture fluid. Thus, radioactive immunological probes of high specific activity can be prepared. Here we report applications of these internally labeled monoclonal antibodies for the direct localization of immunoreactive sites in the central nervous system of the rat at both light and electron microscopic levels (radioimmunocytochemistry). We explored the combined use of radioimmunocytochemistry with immunoenzymatic methods for the simultaneous detection of two antigenic sites: substance P and serotonin or substance P and enkephalin. In neurobiology this procedure could help to clarify certain aspects of transmitter-specific synaptic interactions and the coexistence of neuroactive substances in single neuronal cell bodies or nerve terminals. We also describe the application of radioimmunocytochemistry with internally labeled monoclonal antibodies to quantify the immunoreactions in discrete microscopic areas.

Cuello, A.C. (Department of Pharmacology, Oxford, United Kingdom); Priestley, J.V.; Milstein, C.



Antibody-Based Therapies in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

The unmet need for improved multiple myeloma (MM) therapy has stimulated clinical development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting either MM cells or cells of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. In contrast to small-molecule inhibitors, therapeutic mAbs present the potential to specifically target tumor cells and directly induce an immune response to lyse tumor cells. Unique immune-effector mechanisms are only triggered by therapeutic mAbs but not by small molecule targeting agents. Although therapeutic murine mAbs or chimeric mAbs can cause immunogenicity, the advancement of genetic recombination for humanizing rodent mAbs has allowed large-scale production and designation of mAbs with better affinities, efficient selection, decreasing immunogenicity, and improved effector functions. These advancements of antibody engineering technologies have largely overcome the critical obstacle of antibody immunogenicity and enabled the development and subsequent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of therapeutic Abs for cancer and other diseases.

Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.



Method for altering antibody light chain interactions  


A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL); Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins (Evanston, IL); Raffen, Rosemarie (Elmhurst, IL); Schiffer, Marianne (Downers Grove, IL)



Multiplex serology of paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies.  


Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are devastating neurological disorders secondary to cancer, associated with onconeural autoantibodies. Such antibodies are directed against neuronal antigens aberrantly expressed by the tumor. The detection of onconeural antibodies in a patient is extremely important in diagnosing a neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic (70% is not yet known to have cancer) and in directing the search for the underlying neoplasm. At present six onconeural antibodies are considered 'well characterized' and recognize the antigens HuD, CDR62 (Yo), amphiphysin, CRMP-5 (CV2), NOVA-1 (Ri), and Ma2. The gold standard of detection is the characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern on brain tissue sections combined with confirmation by immunoblotting using recombinant purified proteins. Since all six onconeural antibodies are usually analyzed simultaneously and objective cut-off values for these analyses are warranted, we developed a multiplex assay based on Luminex technology. Reaction of serial dilutions of six onconeural standard sera with microsphere-bound antigens showed lower limits of detection than with Western blotting. Using the six standard sera at a dilution of 1:200, the average within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 4% (range 1.9-7.3%). The average between-run within-day CV was 5.1% (range 2.9-6.7%) while the average between-day CV was 8.1% (range 2.8-11.6%). The shelf-life of the antigen coupled microspheres was at least two months. The sensitivity of the multiplex assay ranged from 83% (Ri) to 100% (Yo, amphiphysin, CV2) and the specificity from 96% (CV2) to 100% (Ri). In conclusion, Luminex-based multiplex serology is highly reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of onconeural antibodies. Conventional immunoblotting for diagnosis of onconeural antibodies in the setting of a routine laboratory may be replaced by this novel, robust technology. PMID:23500780

Maat, Peter; Brouwer, Eric; Hulsenboom, Esther; VanDuijn, Martijn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Smitt, Peter A E Sillevis



Antibody-based diagnostic for 'refractory' periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Objective About 10–15% of US adults are ‘refractory’ to therapy for chronic periodontitis. Recently, studies suggest that these patients have elevated lysine decarboxylase activity in the sulcular microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine whether an elevated IgG antibody response to lysine decarboxylase, alone or with antibody to other bacterial antigens and baseline clinical measurements, would predict ‘refractory’ patients with high accuracy. Methods Chronic periodontitis patients were treated using scaling and root planing (SRP) followed by maintenance SRP and 3-monthly re-examinations. If there was a loss of mean full mouth attachment or more than three sites appeared with >2.5mm new loss within a year, the subjects were re-treated (modified Widman flap surgery and systemically administered tetracycline). If attachment loss as above recurred, the subjects were ‘refractory’. Baseline clinical measurements and specific antibody responses were used in a logistic regression model to predict ‘refractory’ subjects. Results Antibody to a peptide portion of lysine decarboxylase (HKL-Ab) and baseline bleeding on probing (BOP) prevalence measurements predicted attachment loss 3 months after initial therapy [pIAL = loss (0) or gain (1)]. IgG antibody contents to a purified antigen from Actinomyces spp. (A-Ab) and streptococcal d-alanyl glycerol lipoteichoic acid (S-Ab) were related in ‘refractory’ patients (R2 = 0.37, p < 0.01). From the regression equation, the relationship between the antibodies was defined as linear (pLA/S-Ab = 0) or non-linear pLA/S-Ab = 1). Using pLA/S-Ab, pIAL and age, a logistic regression equation was derived from 48 of the patients. Of 59 subjects, 37 had 2–4mm attachment loss and were assigned as ‘refractory’ or successfully treated with 86% accuracy. Conclusion HKL-Ab facilitated an accurate prediction of therapeutic outcome in subjects with moderate periodontitis.

Levine, M.; LaPolla, S.; Owen, W.L.; Socransky, S.S.



Antibodies to citrullinated peptides in tuberculosis.  


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by symmetric polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity, and bone erosions. Recently, research has been conducted on anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) to which there are greater sensitivity and specificity than RF. However, these antibodies have also been described in infectious diseases, particularly tuberculosis (TB), placing the high specificity of the test in doubt. The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of ACPAs in TB, RA, and healthy controls. Patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, RA (ACR criteria), in addition to healthy controls were included. ACPAs were researched by: anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), anti-modified citrullinated vimentin (MCV), and RF by ELISA. The study was conducted in 50 TB patients, 50 with RA, and 20 controls. Anti-CCP antibodies were found in 39 (78 %) of the RA patients (median titer, 128 U), whereas anti-MCV antibodies were found in 25 (50 %). Of the patients with TB, two (4 %) had positivity for anti-CCP and anti-MCV and no patient in the control group tested positive for these antibodies. Sensitivity of anti-CCP for RA was 78 % (confidence interval (CI), 63 to 88 %) and specificity was 97 % (CI, 89 to 99 %) while the sensitivity of anti-MCV was 50 % (CI, 35-64 %) and specificity was 97 % (CI, 89 to 99 %). RF was positive in 40 samples (80 %) of RA, in 30 (60 %) of TB, and in 1 (5 %) of the controls. Our findings showed high sensitivity of anti-CCP and high specificity of both anti-CCP and anti-MCV antibodies for RA, even in a population with high incidence of tuberculosis. The higher frequency of positivity of ACPA in TB observed in previous studies may be attributed to methodological factors. PMID:23344687

Lima, I; Oliveira, R C; Atta, A; Marchi, S; Barbosa, L; Reis, E; Reis, M G; Santiago, M B



The art of antibody process development.  


Biopharmaceutical drug development is an intricate path that spans a dozen years from discovery through registration. The development of a therapeutic antibody presents substantial challenges, particularly with respect to the creation and implementation of manufacturing process technologies. Process development and large scale biotherapeutic manufacturing is an art generally only practiced within industry. As a consequence, these technologies may be seen as something of a 'black box' by many in the medical community. This article provides insight into the current art of antibody process development leading to market entry of novel, life-saving medicines. PMID:18598918

Steinmeyer, David E; McCormick, Ellen L



Circulating antigen-antibody complexes in onchocerciasis.  

PubMed Central

The presence of circulating antigen-antibody complexes in the sera of patients with onchocerciasis was investigated using the Clq and conglutinin solid-phase binding assays. Only 50% of patients' sera had demonstrable complexes, levels of complexes were unrelated to microfilarial load and specific anti-onchocercal antibody titres and results with the two tests for complexes were not correlated. Both IgM- and IgG-containing complexes were commonly involved but there was no correlation between the levels of complexes containing these isotypes. Evidence for the presence of IgE in complexes of sera from a minority of individuals was also obtained.

Steward, M W; Sisley, B; Mackenzie, C D; El Sheikh, H



Basic immunology of antibody targeted radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Antibody targeted radiotherapy brings an important new treatment modality to Radiation oncology clinic. Radiation dose to tumor and normal tissues are determined by a complex interplay of antibody, antigen, tumor, radionuclide, and host-related factors. A basic understanding of these immunologic and physiologic factors is important to optimally utilize this therapy in the clinic. Preclinical and clinical studies need to be continued to broaden our understanding and to develop new strategies to further improve the efficacy of this promising form of targeted therapy.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail:



Yeast display of engineered antibody domains.  


Yeast display is an efficient technology for selection of antibodies and other proteins with high affinity and thermal stability. Here, we describe a method for affinity maturation of engineered antibody domains (eAds) using yeast display. EAd yeast libraries of relatively large size (?10?) were generated and subjected to alternating rounds of magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), and random mutagenesis. The highest affinity clones from the final round of maturation were identified and analyzed. We discuss extensively each key step, and provide detailed protocols and helpful notes. PMID:22735947

Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S



Assay for antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of detecting an immune response to a paratuberculosis-specific antigen, comprising incubating a sample from a subject with the paratuberculosis-specific antigen and detecting the presence of an antibody in the sample as an indication of an immune response to the paratuberculosis-specific antigen. The antigen may be obtained from a novel M. paratuberculosis strain JTC303. The antigen may be obtained from the JTC303 culture filtrate. Also provided are antibodies to the paratuberculosis-specific antigen, and a diagnostic kit for the detection of an immune response to a paratuberculosis-specific antigen in a mammal.



Passive Immunization with Allergen-Specific Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies has been identified as a major mechanism responsible for the reduction of\\u000a allergic inflammation in allergic patients treated by allergen-specific immunotherapy. Several studies suggest that allergen-specific\\u000a IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with allergens block mast cell and basophil degranulation, IgE-facilitated allergen\\u000a presentation to T cells and IgE production. The availability of recombinant allergens and

Sabine Flicker; Elisabeth Gadermaier; Christoph Madritsch; Rudolf Valenta


Basic immunology of antibody targeted radiotherapy.  


Antibody targeted radiotherapy brings an important new treatment modality to the radiation oncology clinic. Radiation dose to tumor and normal tissues are determined by a complex interplay of antibody, antigen, tumor, radionuclide, and host-related factors. A basic understanding of these immunologic and physiologic factors is important to optimally utilize this therapy in the clinic. Preclinical and clinical studies need to be continued to broaden our understanding and to develop new strategies to further improve the efficacy of this promising form of targeted therapy. PMID:16979446

Wong, Jeffrey Y C



Differential induction of lupus associated antinuclear antibodies in MRL mice by monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies.  


The effect of monoclonal autoantibodies on immunoregulation was investigated in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. Passive transfer of KSm2 (a monoclonal IgG2a antibody directed against the 16 kD polypeptide of Sm) induced IgG antibodies to the other major immunoreactive polypeptides of Sm (28 and 29 kD) in all mice studied, and to polypeptides of the closely related antigen nRNP/Sm in 63% of the mice. In addition an increment in IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies, and in IgA and IgM anti-Sm antibodies, over control levels was observed. These effects were not due to polyclonal activation since anti-histone antibody levels were unaffected. Two other IgG2a monoclonal antibodies: KSm5 (directed against the 28 and 29 kD Sm polypeptides) and OX 12 (directed against an irrelevant antigen) failed to modulate the autoimmune responses of the mice in any way. These results demonstrate specific antibody-mediated connectivity between B cell clones producing autoantibodies against three distinct antigens. PMID:3496996

Stocks, M R; Williams, D G; Maini, R N



Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potency  

PubMed Central

The primary mode of prevention of adult disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae is vaccination with anti-capsular polysaccharide vaccine; however, its effects are less in the targeted older population than in young persons. Few studies have examined the mechanism behind this limited effectiveness. We have measured antibody concentrations and opsonization titers for multiple serotypes amongst both old adults and young, healthy controls. To avoid specificity problems associated with pneumococcal antibody ELISA, we absorbed the serum samples with c-polysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide of 22F type. Antibody concentrations were found to be similar for six out of the seven tested serotypes, while opsonization titers were significantly higher in six out of seven serotypes in the younger population. Antibody potency, as measured by the ratio of opsonization titer to antibody concentration, was found to be significantly higher for the younger subjects for all serotypes. We conclude that, while all ages of adults make similar concentrations of antibodies in response to pneumococcal vaccine, the effectiveness of those antibodies is significantly reduced in the older adult population.

Schenkein, Jeremy; Park, Saeyoung; Nahm, Moon H



Aglycosylated antibodies and antibody fragments produced in a scalable in vitro transcription-translation system  

PubMed Central

We describe protein synthesis, folding and assembly of antibody fragments and full-length aglycosylated antibodies using an Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system. We use DNA template design and high throughput screening at microliter scale to rapidly optimize production of single-chain Fv (scFv) and Fab antibody fragments that bind to human IL-23 and IL-13?1R, respectively. In addition we demonstrate production of aglycosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG1) trastuzumab. These antibodies are produced rapidly over several hours in batch mode in standard bioreactors with linear scalable yields of hundreds of milligrams/L over a 1 million-fold change in scales up to pilot scale production. We demonstrate protein expression optimization of translation initiation region (TIR) libraries from gene synthesized linear DNA templates, optimization of the temporal assembly of a Fab from independent heavy chain and light chain plasmids and optimized expression of fully assembled trastuzumab that is equivalent to mammalian expressed material in biophysical and affinity based assays. These results illustrate how the open nature of the cell-free system can be used as a seamless antibody engineering platform from discovery to preclinical development of aglycosylated monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments as potential therapeutics.

Yin, Gang; Garces, Eudean D; Yang, Junhao; Zhang, Juan; Tran, Cuong; Steiner, Alexander R; Roos, Christine; Bajad, Sunil; Hudak, Susan; Penta, Kalyani; Zawada, James; Pollitt, Sonia



B cells contribute to MS pathogenesis through antibody-dependent and antibody-independent mechanisms.  


For many years, central dogma defined multiple sclerosis (MS) as a T cell-driven autoimmune disorder; however, over the past decade there has been a burgeoning recognition that B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of certain MS disease subtypes. B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. This review highlights evidence for antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell involvement in MS pathogenesis. PMID:22690126

Wilson, Heather L



The natural antibody response to E. coli includes antibodies of the IgD class.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to E. coli of the IgM, IgG and IgA class are readily demonstrable in normal human serum. Using the sensitive red cell-linked antigen-antiglobulin system, it has been demonstrated that antibodies of the IgD class are also part of this normal response. The IgD antibody titre is low and often could only be demonstrated in partially purified IgD preparations. The availability of purified IgD paraproteins and their Fabdelta and Fcdelta fragments, as well as antisera specific for these fragments, allowed the necessary critical specificity controls to be performed. Images FIG. 2

Sewell, H F; Chambers, L; Maxwell, V; Matthews, J B; Jefferis, R



Fluorescent neoglycoproteins: antibody-aminodextran-phycobiliprotein conjugates.  


New, highly amino-substituted dextran or aminodextran (hereafter denoted Amdex) of various sizes between about 20 and 1000 kDa molecular mass and degrees of amino-substitution between 7 and 40% were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These aminodextrans together with others commercially available were shown by static light scattering, viscosity, and refractive index measurements to adopt a globular structure in aqueous salt solutions. Antibody and fluorescent protein dye, phycoerythrin, or its tandems with cyanin 5. 1 and TEXAS RED, were covalently conjugated to the aminodextrans. The conjugates contained multiple dye molecules and were shown by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy to assume either globular structure or aggregates thereof. Streptavidin could be substituted for antibody to prepare streptavidin-aminodextran-PE conjugates, which were then used with biotinylated antibody to label subpopulations of white blood cells. The conjugates yielded up to 20-fold amplification of fluorescence intensity over direct antibody-dye conjugates in labeling white blood cells for flow cytometry. PMID:10563780

Siiman, O; Wilkinson, J; Burshteyn, A; Roth, P; Ledis, S


Antibody therapeutics: isotype and glycoform selection.  


Recombinant monoclonal antibody (rMAb) therapy may be instituted to achieve one of two broad outcomes: i) killing of cells or organisms (e.g., cancer cells, bacteria); and ii) neutralisation of soluble molecules (e.g., cytokines in chronic disease or toxins in infection). The choice of rMAb isotype is a critical decision in the development of a therapeutic antibody as it will determine the biological activities triggered in vivo. It is not possible, however, to accurately predict the in vivo activity because multiple parameters impact on the functional outcome, for example, IgG subclass, IgG-Fc glycoform, epitope density, cellular Fc receptors polymorphisms and so on. The present understanding of the molecular interactions between IgG-Fc and effector ligands in vitro has allowed the generation of new antibody structures with altered/improved effector function profiles that may prove optimal for given disease indications. Thus, when maximal antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity is indicated a non-fucosylated IgG1 format may be optimal; when minimal activity is indicated an aglycosylated IgG2 may be the form of choice. PMID:17727329

Jefferis, Roy