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Sample records for anti-tumor effects synergistically

  1. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid and radiotherapy against metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morii, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Yuhki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Okushin, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis suffered from a metastatic femoral fracture. After undergoing radiotherapy, he was only treated with supportive care, except for the administration of zoledronic acid (ZA). Thereafter, the initially elevated serum α-fetoprotein and des-gamma carboxyprothrombin levels declined to within the normal ranges. Hepatic and metastatic adrenal tumors, distant from the radiation field, exhibited a surprising regression. ZA is known to inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, bone-residential macrophages, and has been reported to have a direct anti-tumor effect. ZA may adjust the immunological milieu in tumor microenvironments by inhibiting the tumor-associated macrophages. Because radiotherapy can enhance the presentation of tumor-associated antigens, ZA and radiotherapy may exert synergistic anti-tumor effects. PMID:26466697

  2. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Wantao

    2008-01-01

    Background Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. Methods In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Results Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. Conclusion The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:18522733

  3. Bortezomib-induced unfolded protein response increases oncolytic HSV-1 replication resulting in synergistic, anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Hurwitz, Brian S; Bolyard, Chelsea; Yu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Jianying; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Rath, Kellie S; He, Shun; Bailey, Zachary; Eaves, David; Cripe, Timothy P; Parris, Deborah S.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Yu, Jianhua; Old, Matthew; Kaur, Balveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib is an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. We tested the impact of combining bortezomib with oHSV for anti-tumor efficacy. Methods The synergistic interaction between oHSV and bortezomib was calculated using Chou-Talalay analysis. Viral replication was evaluated using plaque assay and immune fluorescence. Western-blot assays were used to evaluate induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inhibitors targeting Hsp90 were utilized to investigate the mechanism of cell killing. Anti-tumor efficacy in vivo was evaluated using subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts of glioma and head and neck cancer. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and two-sided log rank test. Results Combination treatment with bortezomib and oHSV, 34.5ENVE, displayed strong synergistic interaction in ovarian cancer, head & neck cancer, glioma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Bortezomib treatment induced ER stress, evident by strong induction of Grp78, CHOP, PERK and IRE1α (western blot analysis) and the UPR (induction of hsp40, 70 and 90). Bortezomib treatment of cells at both sublethal and lethal doses increased viral replication (p value <0.001), but inhibition of Hsp90 ablated this response, reducing viral replication and synergistic cell killing. The combination of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in multiple different tumor models in vivo. Conclusions The dramatic synergy of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE is mediated by bortezomib- induced UPR and warrants future clinical testing in patients. PMID:24815720

  4. Combined expression of miR-34a and Smac mediated by oncolytic vaccinia virus synergistically promote anti-tumor effects in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wen; Wang, Shibing; Yang, Chunmei; Huang, Xianbo; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Wei; Shen, Jianping; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model. The results demonstrated that the novel OVV can effectively infect MM cell lines, and forcefully enhance the exogenous gene (miR-34a or Smac) expression. Furthermore, utilization of VV-miR-34a combined with VV-Smac synergistically inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism is proposed that blocking of Bcl-2 by VV-miR-34a increases the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and then synergistically amplifies the antitumor effects of Smac-induced cell apoptosis. Our study is the first to utilize OVV as the vector for miR-34a or Smac expression to treat MM, and lays the groundwork for future clinical therapy for MM. PMID:27552933

  5. Combined expression of miR-34a and Smac mediated by oncolytic vaccinia virus synergistically promote anti-tumor effects in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wen; Wang, Shibing; Yang, Chunmei; Huang, Xianbo; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Wei; Shen, Jianping; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model. The results demonstrated that the novel OVV can effectively infect MM cell lines, and forcefully enhance the exogenous gene (miR-34a or Smac) expression. Furthermore, utilization of VV-miR-34a combined with VV-Smac synergistically inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism is proposed that blocking of Bcl-2 by VV-miR-34a increases the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and then synergistically amplifies the antitumor effects of Smac-induced cell apoptosis. Our study is the first to utilize OVV as the vector for miR-34a or Smac expression to treat MM, and lays the groundwork for future clinical therapy for MM. PMID:27552933

  6. Resveratrol synergistically augments anti-tumor effect of 5-FU in vitro and in vivo by increasing S-phase arrest and tumor apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dun, Jiening; Chen, Xueyan; Gao, Haixia; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Yongjian

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that natural dietary agents, in combination with chemical agents, can improve the therapeutic response of cancers to chemotherapy and reduce the associated side-effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of anticancer effects for the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and resveratrol (Res). In these studies, we employed the cancer cell lines TE-1 and A431 and an animal model of skin cancer. The presented results provide the first evidence that Res can enhance the anti-tumor potency of 5-FU by inducing S-phase arrest. The combination of Res and 5-FU demonstrates synergistic efficacy, causing tumor regression in a two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. There was clear evidence of Res augmenting the growth inhibitory effect of 5-FU on the TE-1 and A431 cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo studies, the tumor regression rate in the combination group increased significantly after four weeks of treatment (P < 0.01). The combination of 5-FU and Res significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells and the level of activated caspase-3, cleaved PARP and p53 proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, the 5-FU/Res combination enabled a more effective inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells than 5-FU alone. The results of this study suggest that chemotherapy using natural dietary agents with chemical agents represents a superior cancer treatment option. PMID:25736303

  7. Preparation of the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions and their synergistic anti-tumor effects with diethyldithiocarbamate in vivo.

    PubMed

    Daocheng, Wu; Mingxi, Wan

    2010-11-01

    We prepared the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions (ADM-CSLMs) and evaluated their in vivo antitumor effects in combination with Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). Two types of ADM-CSLMs, adriamycin liposome-lipiodol microemulsion(ADM-LLM) and adriamycin microsphere lipiodol microemulsion (ADM-MLM), were prepared through the emulsification method. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of ADM-CSLMs were measured by the high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The size and shape of the ADM-CSLMs were determined by an atom force microscopy (AFM), a transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a particle size analyzer, respectively. The synergistic effects of DDC and ADM-CSLMs for cancer treatment of carcinoma drug-resistance cell was evaluated by the MTT method, the activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected by chemiluminescence, and the ADM accumulation in cells was measured by flow cytometry. Walker-256 carcinoma was transplanted to the livers of the male SD rats, ADM-CSLMs were administrated to the livers of the rats by intervention hepatic artery embolization through microsurgery. The tumor growth and animal survival were evaluated. The results show that the average diameter of ADM-LLM and ADM-MLM were 4.23 ± 1.2 μm and 4.67 ± 1.4 μm, respectively, and their ADM encapsulation efficiency were 83.7% and 87.2% with respect to loading efficiency of 82 μg/ml and 91 μg/ml. The tumor growth and animal survival in two of the ADM-CSLMs combined with DDC groups were significantly higher than that of ADM only treatment, ADM liposome combined with DDC (P < 0.01), as well as the ADM microsphere combined with DDC (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADM-CSLMs are useful carriers for the treatment of carcinoma and their anti-tumor effect can be enhanced by DDC in a suitable concentration. PMID:20888179

  8. Two clinical drugs deubiquitinase inhibitor auranofin and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram trigger synergistic anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liao, Yuning; Liu, Ningning; Hua, Xianliang; Cai, Jianyu; Yang, Changshan; Long, Huidan; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Lan, Xiaoying; Zang, Dan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Shi, Xianping; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2016-01-19

    Inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) is emerging as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. It was recently reported that auranofin (Aur), a gold (I)-containing compound used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is a proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor. Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, is currently in clinical use for treating alcoholism. Recent studies have indicated that DSF can also act as an antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of combining DSF and Aur on apoptosis induction and tumor growth in hepatoma cancer cells. Here we report that (i) the combined treatment of Aur and DSF results in synergistic cytotoxicity to hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Aur and DSF in combination induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could efficiently block apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition induced by Aur and DSF combined treatment, and ROS is not required for Aur+DSF to induce apoptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate a model of synergism between DSF and proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor Aur in the induction of apoptosis in hepatoma cancer cells, identifying a potential novel anticancer strategy for clinical use in the future. PMID:26625200

  9. Two clinical drugs deubiquitinase inhibitor auranofin and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram trigger synergistic anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ningning; Hua, Xianliang; Cai, Jianyu; Yang, Changshan; Long, Huidan; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Lan, Xiaoying; Zang, Dan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Shi, Xianping; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) is emerging as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. It was recently reported that auranofin (Aur), a gold (I)-containing compound used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is a proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor. Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, is currently in clinical use for treating alcoholism. Recent studies have indicated that DSF can also act as an antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of combining DSF and Aur on apoptosis induction and tumor growth in hepatoma cancer cells. Here we report that (i) the combined treatment of Aur and DSF results in synergistic cytotoxicity to hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Aur and DSF in combination induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could efficiently block apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition induced by Aur and DSF combined treatment, and ROS is not required for Aur+DSF to induce apoptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate a model of synergism between DSF and proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor Aur in the induction of apoptosis in hepatoma cancer cells, identifying a potential novel anticancer strategy for clinical use in the future. PMID:26625200

  10. [Research progress on anti-tumor effect of Huaier].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ai-lin; Hu, Zhong-dong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-12-01

    Huaier (Trametes robiniophila) has been widely used as an adjuvant drug for cancer treatment in China. The anti-cancer effect of Huaier extract has been confirmed in liver cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and so on. The main mechanisms by which Huaier exerts an anti-neoplastic effect include inhibition of the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, induction of apoptosis of cancer cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of the invasion and migration of cancer cells, regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes expression, improving immunity, and reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells. In order to provide references for further study and clinical application on anti-tumor effect of Huaier, the latest research progress on anti-tumor effect of Huaier in recent years is summarized in this paper. PMID:27245026

  11. Anti-tumor effects and cellular mechanisms of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Han, Guohua; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin contained in a variety of plants, such as grapes, berries and especially in the dried roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation activity, and to reverse the effects of aging. Its ability to suppress cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and suppress the metastasis and invasion in a number of cell lines has prompted a large interest from people for its use as an anti-tumor component. In this review, evidence of resveratrol's anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms are recapitulated. First, we present the anti-apoptosis, anti-invasion/metastasis and anti-inflammation effect of resveratrol; second, the main signaling pathways involved in these activities are described and summarized with the studies of different tumors involved. Resveratrol not only induces apoptosis of tumor cells through intrinsic/extrinsic pathways and cell cycle arrest, but also inhibits the invasion and metastasis abilities of tumors via modulating collagen degradation-related molecular targets. Altogether, the present findings suggest the anti-tumor potential of resveratrol against various types of cancers. PMID:25788047

  12. Valproic Acid Enhances the Anti-tumor Effect of (-)-gossypol to Burkitt Lymphoma Namalwa Cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Ni, Zhen Hong; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xing Hua; Zou, Zhong Min

    2015-10-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell neoplasm. New therapeutic methods are needed to overcome the adverse effect of intensive chemotherapy regimens. Valproic acid and (-)-gossypol are two kinds of chemical compounds used as new anti-tumor drugs in recent years. To investigate the anti-tumor effect of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol, Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells were cultured and treated with valproic acid and (-)-gossypol at different concentrations. The proliferation of Namalwa cells was dramatically suppressed after the combination treatment with 2 mmol/L valproic acid and 5 μmol/L (-)-gossypol. The combined treatment also enhanced intrinsic apoptosis by down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Moreover, the autophagy flux significantly increased in Namalwa cells after combined treatment. However, the enhanced autophagy showed little effect on cell survival with present regimen. The results confirmed that combination of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol had synergistic anti-tumor effect to Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells. The related mechanisms might include the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and avianized pro-survival role of autophagy. PMID:26582100

  13. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  14. A traditional Chinese medicine formulation consisting of Rhizoma Corydalis and Rhizoma Curcumae exerts synergistic anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Li; He, Tong-Chuan; Li, Ying-Bo; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2009-11-01

    Synergy analysis of anticancer agents is an important approach to determining the ratio and/or dose of drugs for clinical combination therapy. However, this method is rarely used to evaluate the composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulation. 'Yanhusuo San' (YHSS), which consists of yanhusuo (Rhizoma Corydalis) and Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), has been an archaic Chinese medicine prescription since the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD). We previously demonstrated that either yanhusuo or ezhu has strong anticancer effect. Herein, we sought to determine the possible synergic effect between these two Chinese herbs. We measured the IC50 of each herb extract and both extracts at different ratios of doses by MTT assay. Isobologram and combination index (CI) analyses were used to evaluate the synergistic effect of yanhusuo and ezhu in different fixed ratios. Our results indicated that a combination of two herbal extracts exhibits the strongest anticancer cell proliferation effect at the ratio of 3:2 (ezhu to yanhusuo; referred to as E3Y2). Using Boyden Chamber assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy analysis, we found that E3Y2 could markedly reduce the cell invasion ability and induce cytochrome c release rather than single use, but E3Y2 could not influence the cell cycle distribution. When the levels of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and p-Rb were determined by Western blot analysis, we found that the E3Y2 significantly suppresses the level of p-ERK. Thus, our studies provide a plausible molecular basis of the synergistic anti-tumor effect of ezhu and yanhusuo. PMID:19787224

  15. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered "killer" transfer RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-12

    A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA(Ser)(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA(Ser) with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA(Ser)(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA(Ser)(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA(Ser)(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA(Ser)(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent. PMID:22989754

  16. Differential Fc-receptor engagement drives an anti-tumor vaccinal effect

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, David J.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Passively-administered anti-tumor mAbs rapidly kill tumor targets via FcγR-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), a short-term process. However, anti-tumor mAb treatment can also induce a vaccinal effect, in which mAb-mediated tumor death induces a long-term anti-tumor cellular immune response. To determine how such responses are generated, we utilized a murine model of an anti-tumor vaccinal effect against a model neoantigen. We demonstrate that FcγR expression by CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells is required to generate anti-tumor T cell responses upon ADCC-mediated tumor clearance. Using FcγR-humanized mice, we demonstrate that anti-tumor huIgG1 must engage hFcγRIIIA on macrophages to mediate ADCC, but also engage hFcγRIIA, the sole hFcγR expressed by human DCs, to generate a potent vaccinal effect. Thus, while next-generation anti-tumor antibodies with enhanced binding to only hFcγRIIIA are now in clinical use, ideal anti-tumor antibodies must be optimized for both cytotoxic effects as well as hFcγRIIA engagement on DCs to stimulate long-term anti-tumor cellular immunity. PMID:25976835

  17. Late administration of murine CTLA-4 blockade prolongs CD8-mediated anti-tumor effects following stimulatory cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sckisel, Gail D.; Mirsoian, Annie; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Tietze, Julia K.; Chen, Mingyi; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that immunostimulatory therapies such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD40 (αCD40) can be combined to deliver synergistic anti-tumor effects. While this strategy has shown success, efficacy varies depending on a number of factors including tumor type and severe toxicities can be seen. We sought to determine whether blockade of negative regulators such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) could simultaneously prolong CD8+ T cell responses and augment T cell anti-tumor effects. We devised a regimen in which anti-CTLA-4 was administered late so as to delay contraction and minimize toxicities. This late administration both enhanced and prolonged CD8 T cell activation without the need for additional IL-2. The quality of the T cell response was improved with increased frequency of effector/effector memory phenotype cells along with improved lytic ability and bystander expansion. This enhanced CD8 response translated to improved anti-tumor responses both at the primary and metastatic sites. Importantly, toxicities were not exacerbated with combination. This study provides a platform for rational design of immunotherapy combinations to maximize anti-tumor immunity while minimizing toxicities. PMID:26423422

  18. l-arginine and docetaxel synergistically enhance anti-tumor immunity by modifying the immune status of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Du, Yunting; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Yonghui; Jin, Feng

    2016-06-01

    l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been reported to enhance the function of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, in cancer models thereby countering the suppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The balance of the active immune cells is one factor that determines the progression of cancers in vivo. Docetaxel (DTX), an immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent, is now widely used in several types of malignancies including breast cancer. We hypothesized that the combination of DTX and l-Arg would elicit a more robust antitumor response than either molecule alone. To test this hypothesis we utilized BALB/c mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. DTX and l-Arg synergistically limited tumor growth in vivo and moderately increased the life span of tumor bearing mice. The anti-tumor effects were associated with the proliferation of splenic CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th1 effector cells, as well as increased serum levels of interferon gamma. More importantly, DTX+l-Arg effectively increased anti-tumor immunity within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, the combined therapy increased the number of myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, potent activators of the T cell response, and enhanced expression of the maturation markers CD86 and MHC II (required for antigen presentation). The combination therapy also reduced the proliferation of MDSCs. These data suggest that DTX+l-Arg may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients. PMID:27003114

  19. Synergistic anti-tumor efficacy of immunogenic adenovirus ONCOS-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GM-CSF) and standard of care chemotherapy in preclinical mesothelioma model.

    PubMed

    Kuryk, Lukasz; Haavisto, Elina; Garofalo, Mariangela; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Pesonen, Sari; Ranki, Tuuli; Vassilev, Lotta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-15

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare cancer type caused mainly by asbestos exposure. The median overall survival time of a mesothelioma cancer patient is less than 1-year from diagnosis. Currently there are no curative treatment modalities for malignant mesothelioma, however treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can help to improve patient prognosis and increase life expectancy. Pemetrexed-Cisplatin is the only standard of care (SoC) chemotherapy for malignant mesothelioma, but the median PFS/OS (progression-free survival/overall survival) from the initiation of treatment is only up to 12 months. Therefore, new treatment strategies against malignant mesothelioma are in high demand. ONCOS-102 is a dual targeting, chimeric oncolytic adenovirus, coding for human GM-CSF. The safety and immune activating properties of ONCOS-102 have already been assessed in phase 1 study (NCT01598129). In this preclinical study, we evaluated the antineoplastic activity of combination treatment with SoC chemotherapy (Pemetrexed, Cisplatin, Carboplatin) and ONCOS-102 in xenograft BALB/c model of human malignant mesothelioma. We demonstrated that ONCOS-102 is able to induce immunogenic cell death of human mesothelioma cell lines in vitro and showed anti-tumor activity in the treatment of refractory H226 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) xenograft model. While chemotherapy alone showed no anti-tumor activity in the mesothelioma mouse model, ONCOS-102 was able to slow down tumor growth. Interestingly, a synergistic anti-tumor effect was seen when ONCOS-102 was combined with chemotherapy regimens. These findings give a rationale for the clinical testing of ONCOS-102 in combination with first-line chemotherapy in patients suffering from malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27287512

  20. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  1. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  2. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  3. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee; Chung, Jin Woong

    2012-10-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  4. Combined Treatment of Herbal Mixture Extract H9 with Trastuzumab Enhances Anti-tumor Growth Effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyi; Han, Sora; Jeong, Ae Lee; Park, Jeong Su; Jung, Seung Hyun; Choi, Kang-Duk; Yang, Young

    2015-07-01

    Extracts from Asian medicinal herbs are known to be successful therapeutic agents against cancer. In this study, the effects of three types of herbal extracts on anti-tumor growth were examined. Among the three types of herbal extracts, H9 showed stronger anti-tumor growth effects than H5 and H11 in vivo. To find the molecular mechanism by which H9 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, the levels of apoptotic markers were examined. Proapoptotic markers, including cleaved PARP and cleaved caspases 3 and 9, were increased, whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was decreased by H9 treatment. Next, the combined effect of H9 with the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) on tumor growth was examined using 4T1-tumor-bearing mice. The combined treatment of H9 with AC did not show additive or synergetic anti-tumor growth effects. However, when tumor-bearing mice were co-treated with H9 and the targeted anti-tumor drug trastuzumab, a delay in tumor growth was observed. The combined treatment of H9 and trastuzumab caused an increase of natural killer (NK) cells and a decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Taken together, H9 induces the apoptotic death of tumor cells while increasing anti-tumor immune activity through the enhancement of NK activity and diminishment of MDSC. PMID:25791851

  5. Synergistically Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy by Co-delivery Doxorubicin and Curcumin Polymeric Micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Ma, Wenzhuan; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-09-01

    P-gp mediated drug efflux has been recognized as a major obstacle limiting the success of cancer chemotherapy. To overcome this issue, doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur; P-gp inhibitor and apoptosis inhibitor) co-encapsulated pegylated polymeric micelles ((DOX+Cur)-PMs) were designed, prepared and characterized to simultaneously deliver chemotherapeutic drug and multidrug resistance (MDR) modulator to tumor sites. The (DOX+Cur)-PMs were spherical nano-size particle, with a loading content of 6.83%, and high colloidal stability. Co-delivery micelles exhibited excellent cytotoxicity by reversing MDR, promoting cellular uptake and enhancing cellular apoptosis in MCF7/Adr cells. The tumor growth inhibitory effect of (DOX+Cur)-PMs in 4T1-bearing mice was more effective compared with the combination solution of DOX and Cur and even DOX-PMs. In conclusion, simultaneous delivery of DOX and Cur by (DOX+Cur)-PMs has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for overcoming MDR and improving antitumor efficacy. PMID:25981672

  6. Combination of gold nanoparticle-conjugated TNF-α and radiation therapy results in a synergistic anti-tumor response in murine carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Nathan A.; Quick, Matthew C.; Hardee, Matthew E.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Dent, Judith A.; Paciotti, Giulio F.; Nedosekin, Dmitry; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although remarkable preclinical antitumor effects have been shown for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) alone and in combination with radiation, clinical use is hindered by systemic dose-limiting toxicities. Here, we investigated the physiological and anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy combined with the novel nanomedicine CYT-6091, a 27-nm average diameter polyethylene glycol-TNF coated gold nanoparticle which passed through Phase I trials recently. Methods Physiological and anti-tumor effects of single and fractionated radiation in combination with CYT-6091 were studied in the murine 4T1 breast carcinoma and SCCVII head and neck tumor squamous cell carcinoma models. Results In the 4T1 murine breast tumor model we observed a significant reduction in tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) 24h after CYT-6091 alone and combined with a radiation dose of 12 Gy (p<0.05 vs control), whereas radiation alone (12Gy) had negligible effect on IFP. In the SCCVII head and neck tumor model, the baseline IFP was not markedly elevated and there was little additional change in IFP post single dose radiation or combined therapy (p>0.05 vs control) despite extensive observed vascular damage. The IFP reduction in the 4T1 model was also associated with marked vascular damage and extravasation of red blood cells into the tumor interstitium. A sustained reduction in tumor cell density was observed in the combined therapy group compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Finally, we observed a >2-fold delay in tumor growth when CYT-6091 was combined with a single 20 Gy irradiation- notably irrespective of treatment sequence. Moreover, when hypofractionated radiation (12 Gy × 3) was applied in combination with CYT-6091 treatment, a >5-fold growth delay was observed in the combined treatment group of both tumor models and determined to be synergistic. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gold-labeled TNF nanoparticles in combination with single or fractionated high-dose radiation

  7. Proteomic analysis of anti-tumor effects by tetrandrine treatment in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhixiang; Wang, Keming; Wei, Jia; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Baorui

    2010-11-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of Hang-Fang-Chi (Stephenia tetrandra S Moore), exhibits broad pharmacological effects, including anti-tumor activity. Recently, the beneficial effects of TET on cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, radiosensitization, circumventing multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and antiangiogenesis have been examined extensively. To explore the potential molecular mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of TET, we applied proteomic tools to profile the proteins in HepG2 cells subjected to TET treatment. The levels of 39 proteins in cells exposed to TET (IC₅₀=5±0.6 μg/ml) for 48 h were observed to undergo significant alterations. Six proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) using peptide fingerprinting from 10 protein spots (density difference >1.5-fold between the control and TET-treated group). Among them, 5 proteins were downregulated (proteasome activator complex subunit 3, 40S ribosomal protein S12, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, destrin, transaldolase) and 1 protein was upregulated (guanylate kinase 1) by TET treatment in HepG2 cells as determined by spot volume (P<0.05). Most of the identified proteins were associated with tumor growth, migration, and anti-tumor drug resistance. These data will be helpful in elucidating the molecular mechanism of TET's anti-tumor effect in HepG2 cells. PMID:20554191

  8. Anti-Tumor Effects From Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy Using Liposomal Bubbles and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy has the potential to be a minimally invasive therapy that could prevent cancer metastasis and recurrence. Recently, in order to induce effective anti-tumor immunity, we developed a novel antigen delivery system for DCs by the combination of ultrasound (US) and liposomal bubbles (Bubble Liposomes: BLs) with entrapped perfluoropropane gas. In this study, we investigated the induction of antigen specific immune responses in vivo and the anti-tumor effect caused by immunization of DCs treated with BLs and US. For the immunization of DCs which had delivered antigen, using BLs and US, the mice induced antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were found to be the main effector cells in DC-based cancer immunotherapy. In addition, immunization with DCs that had been pulsed with antigen using BLs and US completely suppressed tumor growth Therefore, immunization of DCs with this antigen delivery system has promise for the efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses.

  9. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. PMID:23267837

  10. Anti-tumor effect and influence of Gekko gecko Linnaeus on the immune system of sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Han, Shiyu; Zhang, Yuanlong; Zheng, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Gekko gecko Linnaeus (GgL) is an extract used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of GgL and its effect on the immune system of mice. Sarcoma 180-bearing mice were used as the animal model, and cisplatin was applied as the positive control drug. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group was treated with a different drug or drug concentration. The effects of GgL were evaluated based on its anti-tumor activity and prolongation of the lifespan, the lymphocyte transformation rate and pathological changes observed in the tumors. The results suggest that GgL has anti-tumor activities and up-regulates the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides original data related to the anti-tumor and immune up-regulating function of GgL. PMID:21475868

  11. Induction of potent anti-tumor responses while eliminating systemic side effects via liposome-anchored combinatorial immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Brandon; Liu, Haipeng; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2011-01-01

    Immunostimulatory therapies that activate immune response pathways are of great interest for overcoming the immunosuppression present in advanced tumors. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies and CpG oligonucleotides have previously demonstrated potent, synergistic anti-tumor effects, but their clinical use even as monotherapies is hampered by dose-limiting inflammatory toxicity provoked upon systemic exposure. We hypothesized that by anchoring immuno-agonist compounds to lipid nanoparticles we could retain the bio-activity of therapeutics in the local tumor tissue and tumor-draining lymph node, but limit systemic exposure to these potent molecules. We prepared PEGylated liposomes bearing surface-conjugated anti-CD40 and CpG and assessed their therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity compared to soluble versions of the same immuno-agonists, injected intratumorally in the B16F10 murine model of melanoma. Anti-CD40/CpG-liposomes significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced a survival benefit similar to locally injected soluble anti-CD40+CpG. Biodistribution analyses following local delivery showed that the liposomal carriers successfully sequestered anti-CD40 and CpG in vivo, reducing leakage into systemic circulation while allowing draining to the tumor-proximal lymph node. Contrary to locally administered soluble immunotherapy, anti-CD40/CpG liposomes did not elicit significant increases in serum levels of ALT enzyme, systemic inflammatory cytokines, or overall weight loss, confirming that off-target inflammatory effects had been minimized. The development of a delivery strategy capable of inducing robust anti-tumor responses concurrent with minimal systemic side effects is crucial for the continued progress of potent immunotherapies toward widespread clinical translation. PMID:21514665

  12. Anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MICHISHITA, Masaki; OHTSUKA, Aya; NAKAHIRA, Rei; TAJIMA, Tsuyoshi; NAKAGAWA, Takayuki; SASAKI, Nobuo; ARAI, Toshiro; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa

    2015-01-01

    Feline mammary carcinomas are characterized by rapid progression and metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a single drug therapy of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma expressing VEGF protein. Bevacizumab treatment suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis and enhancing apoptosis; however, it did not affect the tumor proliferation index. Thus, bevacizumab had anti-tumor effects on a xenograft model, and this may be useful for the treatment of feline mammary carcinoma. PMID:26616000

  13. Combined inhibition of MEK and Plk1 has synergistic anti-tumor activity in NRAS mutant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Vujic, I; Sanlorenzo, M; Ma, J; Kim, ST; Kleffel, S; Schatton, T; Rappersberger, K; Gutteridge, R; Ahmad, N; Ortiz/Urda, S

    2015-01-01

    About one third of cancers harbor activating mutations in rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS) oncogenes. In melanoma, aberrant neuroblastoma-RAS (NRAS) signaling fuels tumor progression in about 20% of patients. Current therapeutics for NRAS driven malignancies barely impact overall survival. To date, pathway interference downstream of mutant NRAS seems to be the most promising approach. In this study, data revealed that mutant NRAS induced Plk1 expression, and pharmacologic inhibition of Plk1 stabilized the size of NRAS mutant melanoma xenografts. The combination of MEK and Plk1 inhibitors resulted in a significant growth reduction of NRAS mutant melanoma cells in vitro, and regression of xenografted NRAS mutant melanoma in vivo. Independent cell cycle arrest and increased induction of apoptosis underlies the synergistic effect of this combination. Data further suggest that the p53 signaling pathway is of key importance to the observed therapeutic efficacy. This study provides in vitro, in vivo and first mechanistic data, that a MEK/Plk1 inhibitor combination might be a promising treatment approach for patients with NRAS driven melanoma. Since mutant NRAS signaling is similar across different malignancies, this inhibitor combination could also offer a previously unreported treatment modality for NRAS mutant tumors of other cell origins. PMID:26016894

  14. Synergistic anti-tumor activity through combinational intratumoral injection of an in-situ injectable drug depot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Yeon; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Park, Kinam; Kim, Moon Suk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe combinational chemotherapy via intratumoral injection of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-fluorouracil (Fu) to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of systemically administered Fu and Dox in cancer patients. As the key concept in this work, mixture formulations of Dox-loaded microcapsules (Dox-M) and Fu-loaded Pluronic(®) hydrogels (Fu-HP) or Fu-loaded diblock copolymer hydrogels (Fu-HC) have been employed as drug depots. The in vitro and in vivo drug depot was designed as a formulation of Dox-M dispersed inside an outer shell of Fu-HP or Fu-HC after injection. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC formulations are free flowing at room temperature, indicating injectability, and formed a structural gelatinous depot in vitro and in vivo at body temperature. The Fu-HP, Fu-HC, Dox-M/Fu-HP, Dox-M/Fu-HC, and Dox-M formulations were easily injected into tumor centers in mice using a needle. Dox-M/Fu-HC produced more significant inhibitory effects against tumor growth than that by Dox-M/Fu-HP, while Fu-HP, Fu-HC and Dox-M had the weakest inhibitory effects of the tested treatments. The in vivo study of Dox and Fu biodistribution showed that high Dox and Fu concentrations were maintained in the target tumor only, while distribution to normal tissues was not observed, indicating that Dox and Fu concentrations below their toxic plasma concentrations should not cause significant systemic toxicity. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC drug depots described in this work showed excellent performance as chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The results reported here indicate that intratumoral injection using combination chemotherapy with Dox-M/Fu-HP or Dox-M/Fu-HC could be of translational research by enhancing the synergistic inhibitory effects of Dox and Fu on tumor growth, while reducing their systemic toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:26874285

  15. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  16. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  17. Nitric oxide involvement in the anti-tumor effect of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador on human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mossalayi, M Djavad; Alkharrat, Abir; Malvy, Denis

    2006-06-01

    Lectins from different types of mistletoe (Viscum album, VA) have cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that may be relevant in the inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism of this anti-tumoral activity remains unknown, although recent investigations point out the induction of anti-tumoral cytotoxic T cell activation. In this study therapeutically available mistletoe extracts (Iscador) prepared from Quercus (VA-Q), apple (Malus, VA-M) or pine (Pinus, VA-P) were used to investigate their capacity to induce tumor regression through the modulation of another T helper-1 (Th-1)-mediated anti-tumoral activity: the activation of macrophages. Macrophages are essential targets for both pro- or anti-inflammatory drugs and constitute an essential member of the anti-tumoral immune response. Freshly isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages are activated and various VA extracts are directly incorporated to cultures to assay their properties on the inflammatory and/or tumor cytotoxic responses. The data indicate that immunomodulatory activities of VA extracts differ according to their origin. VA-M and VA-P were able to increase anti-tumoral activity of activated human macrophages, with a possible role for nitric oxide in this effect. PMID:16927526

  18. Violacein inhibits matrix metalloproteinase mediated CXCR4 expression: potential anti-tumor effect in cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Platt, Derek; Amara, Suneetha; Mehta, Toral; Vercuyssee, Koen; Myles, Elbert L; Johnson, Terrance; Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup

    2014-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) play an important role in the tumor metastasis through cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines. Violacein a small molecule produced by Chromobacterium violaceum and has been implicated with anti-cancer effects. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of violacein mediated downregulation of CXCL12/CXCR4, chemokine-receptor ligand interaction. Zymography analysis demonstrated that violacein significantly inhibited the cytokine (TNFα and TGFβ) mediated MMP-2 activation in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. MMP-2 plays a critical role in the secretion of inflammatory chemokine, CXCL12, involved in cell migration and cancer metastasis. ELISA analysis demonstrated that violacein inhibited the secretion of CXCL12 from the activated MCF-7 cells. Further, we show that MMP-2/-9 act synergistically at two distinct steps towards the membrane expression of the tumor metastasis chemokine receptor, CXCR4. Violacein efficiently downregulated the CXCR4 membrane expression through MMP-9 inhibition. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a unique anti-tumor mechanism of action of violacein through reduction of CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction. These studies could offer a novel venue for violacein in cancer therapy. PMID:25450700

  19. Anti-tumor effect of inhibition of IL-6 signaling in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Daiki; Adams, April; Warner, Kristy A; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Pearson, Alexander T; Misawa, Kiyoshi; McLean, Scott A; Wolf, Gregory T; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most frequent malignant salivary gland cancer. Response to chemoradiotherapy is modest, and therefore radical surgery remains the standard-of-care. Emerging evidence suggests that Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling correlates with the survival of cancer stem cells and resistance to therapy. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling with tocilizumab (humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody) sensitizes MEC to chemotherapy using human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell lines (UM-HMC) and correspondent xenograft models. In vitro, we observed that tocilizumab inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation but had no measurable effect in MEC cell viability (UM-HMC-1,-3A,-3B). In contrast, the anti-tumor effect of single agent tocilizumab on MEC xenografts was comparable to paclitaxel or cisplatin. Combination of tocilizumab with cisplatin or paclitaxel enhanced the inhibitory effect of chemotherapy on xenograft growth (P < 0.05), time to failure (P < 0.01), decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and tumor microvessel density (P < 0.05) without added systemic toxicities. Notably, tocilizumab decreased the fraction of MEC cancer stem cells (ALDH(high)CD44(high)) in vitro, and prevented paclitaxel-induced increase in the fraction of cancer stem cells in vivo (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that tocilizumab enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional chemotherapy in preclinical models of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and suggest that patients might benefit from combination therapy with an inhibitor of IL-6R signaling and chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel. PMID:26287605

  20. Anti-tumor effect of inhibition of IL-6 signaling in mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Daiki; Adams, April; Warner, Kristy A.; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Pearson, Alexander T.; Misawa, Kiyoshi; McLean, Scott A.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most frequent malignant salivary gland cancer. Response to chemoradiotherapy is modest, and therefore radical surgery remains the standard-of-care. Emerging evidence suggests that Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling correlates with the survival of cancer stem cells and resistance to therapy. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling with tocilizumab (humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody) sensitizes MEC to chemotherapy using human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell lines (UM-HMC) and correspondent xenograft models. In vitro, we observed that tocilizumab inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation but had no measurable effect in MEC cell viability (UM-HMC-1,-3A,-3B). In contrast, the anti-tumor effect of single agent tocilizumab on MEC xenografts was comparable to paclitaxel or cisplatin. Combination of tocilizumab with cisplatin or paclitaxel enhanced the inhibitory effect of chemotherapy on xenograft growth (P < 0.05), time to failure (P < 0.01), decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and tumor microvessel density (P < 0.05) without added systemic toxicities. Notably, tocilizumab decreased the fraction of MEC cancer stem cells (ALDHhighCD44high) in vitro, and prevented paclitaxel-induced increase in the fraction of cancer stem cells in vivo (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that tocilizumab enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional chemotherapy in preclinical models of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and suggest that patients might benefit from combination therapy with an inhibitor of IL-6R signaling and chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel. PMID:26287605

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Tumor Effects of 11-Dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-I; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Jiing-Chuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 μg/mL of 11-dehydrosinulariolide was applied, the CAL-27 cells viability was reduced to a level of 70% of the control sample. The wound healing function decreased as the concentration of 11-dehydrosinulariolide increased. The results in this study indicated that treatment with 11-dehydrosinulariolide for 6 h significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of CAL-27 cells, observed by flow cytometric measurement and microscopic fluorescent observation. A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling (revealed on a 2-DE map) of CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide and that of CAL-27 cells without the treatment. A total of 28 differential proteins (12 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) in CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Some of the differential proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, protein folding, and energy metabolism. The results of this study provided clues for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells and could be valuable information for drug development and progression monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:21822415

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency. PMID:26508306

  3. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  4. Bystander Activation and Anti-Tumor Effects of CD8+ T Cells Following Interleukin-2 Based Immunotherapy Is Independent of CD4+ T Cell Help

    PubMed Central

    Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Zamora, Anthony E.; Mirsoian, Annie; Koehn, Brent; Blazar, Bruce R.; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that immunotherapy combining agonistic anti-CD40 and IL-2 (IT) results in synergistic anti-tumor effects. IT induces expansion of highly cytolytic, antigen-independent “bystander-activated” (CD8+CD44high) T cells displaying a CD25−NKG2D+ phenotype in a cytokine dependent manner, which were responsible for the anti-tumor effects. While much attention has focused on CD4+ T cell help for antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion, little is known regarding the role of CD4+ T cells in antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8+ T cell expansion. Utilizing CD4 deficient mouse models, we observed a significant expansion of bystander-memory T cells following IT which was similar to the non-CD4 depleted mice. Expanded bystander-memory CD8+ T cells upregulated PD-1 in the absence of CD4+ T cells which has been published as a hallmark of exhaustion and dysfunction in helpless CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, compared to CD8+ T cells from CD4 replete hosts, these bystander expanded cells displayed comparable (or enhanced) cytokine production, lytic ability, and in vivo anti-tumor effects suggesting no functional impairment or exhaustion and were enriched in an effector phenotype. There was no acceleration of the post-IT contraction phase of the bystander memory CD8+ response in CD4-depleted mice. The response was independent of IL-21 signaling. These results suggest that, in contrast to antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion, CD4+ T cell help is not necessary for expansion and activation of antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8+ T cells following IT, but may play a role in regulating conversion of these cells from a central memory to effector phenotype. Additionally, the expression of PD-1 in this model appears to be a marker of effector function and not exhaustion. PMID:25119341

  5. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of layered double hydroxides nanoparticles as delivery for podophyllotoxin.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xue, Meng; Wang, Wenrui; Zhu, Rongrong; Wang, Shilong; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Xiaoyu

    2010-03-30

    In this research, we intercalated anti-tumor drug podophyllotoxin (PPT) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the cellular uptake and in vivo anti-tumor inhibition of PPT-LDH. The nanohybrids were prepared by a two-step method with the size of 80-90nm and the zeta potential of 20.3mV. The in vitro cytotoxicity experiment indicated that PPT-LDH nanoparticles show better anti-tumor efficacy than PPT and are more readily taken up by Hela cells. PPT-LDH shows a long-term suppression effect on the tumor growth, and enhances the apoptotic process of tumor cells. The in vivo tests reveal that delivery of PPT via LDH nanoparticles is more efficient, but the mice toxicity of PPT in PPT-LDH hybrids is reduced in comparison with PPT alone. Pharmacokinetics study displays a prolonged circulation time and an increased bioavailability of PPT-LDH than PPT. These observations imply that LDH nanoparticles are the potential carrier of anti-tumor drugs in a range of new therapeutic applications. PMID:20045452

  6. TWEAK mediates anti-tumor effect of tumor-infiltrating macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi . E-mail: ktakeda@med.juntendo.ac.jp; Nakayama, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko

    2005-06-03

    TWEAK induces diverse cellular responses, including pro-inflammatory chemokine production, migration, proliferation, and cell death through the TWEAK receptor, Fn14. In the present study, we examined the effect of TWEAK or Fn14 expression in tumor cells on tumor outgrowth in vivo. Administration of neutralizing anti-TWEAK mAb significantly reduced the frequency of tumor rejection and shortened the survival of mice intraperitoneally inoculated with TWEAK-sensitive Fn14-expressing tumor cells. Moreover, anti-TWEAK mAb treatment promoted the subcutaneous growth of TWEAK-sensitive Fn14-expressing tumor cells, and this promotion was abolished by the inhibition of macrophage infiltration but not NK cell depletion. In contrast, administration of anti-TWEAK mAb had no apparent effect on the growth of TWEAK-resistant tumor cells, even if tumor cells expressed Fn14. On the other hand, TWEAK expression in tumor cells had no significant effect on subcutaneous tumor growth. These results indicate that TWEAK mediates anti-tumor effect of macrophages in vivo.

  7. Anti-tumor effects in mice induced by survivin-targeted siRNA delivered through polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feifei; Huang, Wei; Li, Yunfei; Liu, Shan; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Yuli; Jia, Lihua; Gao, Zhonggao

    2013-07-01

    Recently, survivin has been attracting great attention because it plays an important role in inhibiting the apoptosis process of tumor cells. Down-regulating the expression of survivin gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a promising method for anti-tumor therapy. However, lack of appropriate siRNA delivery vector has significantly hindered the successful application of survivin-targeted siRNA in anti-tumor therapy. The purpose of this study was to use polysaccharide vector TAT-g-CS we synthesized to deliver functional siRNA and evaluate its in vivo anti-tumor activity. TAT-g-CS vector was firstly synthesized and well structurally characterized. MTT assay showed that TAT-g-CS vector exhibited good biocompatibility. TAT-g-CS complexed with siRNA offering nanoparticles with an average particle size of 212.2 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.121, and the zeta potential of the nanoparticles was +18.58 mV. Results from reporter gene assay suggested that luciferase-targeted siRNA when delivered by TAT-g-CS could down-regulate the expression of luciferase gene with 75.3% reduction. Most importantly, we use siRNA(Sur) targeting survivin gene to assess the in vitro and in vivo delivery capacity of TAT-g-CS and its anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that TAT-g-CS/siRNA(Sur) nanoparticles not only strongly inhibited the in vitro proliferation of 4T1-Luc tumor cells via inducing cell apoptosis, but also effectively inhibited the in vivo growth and metastasis of malignant breast tumor, which suggested that TAT-g-CS/siRNA nanoparticle was a highly efficient non-viral system for siRNA delivery, especially for anti-tumor therapy based on siRNA therapeutics. PMID:23632321

  8. The Safety and Anti-Tumor Effects of Ozonated Water in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kohei; Azuma, Kazuo; Mori, Takuro; Kawamoto, Kinya; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Itoh, Fumio; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Ozonated water is easier to handle than ozone gas. However, there have been no previous reports on the biological effects of ozonated water. We conducted a study on the safety of ozonated water and its anti-tumor effects using a tumor-bearing mouse model and normal controls. Local administration of ozonated water (208 mM) was not associated with any detrimental effects in normal tissues. On the other hand, local administration of ozonated water (20.8, 41.6, 104, or 208 mM) directly into the tumor tissue induced necrosis and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells. There was no significant difference in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells following administration of ozonated water. The size of the necrotic areas was dependent on the concentration of ozonated water. These results indicate that ozonated water does not affect normal tissue and damages only the tumor tissue by selectively inducing necrosis. There is a possibility that it exerts through the production of reaction oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the induction of necrosis rather than apoptosis is very useful in tumor immunity. Based on these results, we believe that administration of ozonated water is a safe and potentially simple adjunct or alternative to existing antineoplastic treatments. PMID:26506343

  9. Supercritical fluid extracts of rosemary leaves exhibit potent anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Su, Jeng-De; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Ho, Shin-Shien; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical fluid SF-CO2 treatment of Rosemarinus officinalis L. fresh leaves under optimum conditions (80 degrees C at 5,000 psi) yielded 5.3% of extract supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-80, in which five major active principles were identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), viz., rosmarinic acid, carnosol, 12-methoxycarnosic acid, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. Total phenolic content was 155.8 mg/ gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g in SFE-80, which showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging of 81.86% at 0.01 mg/ml. When treated in RAW 264.7, apparent dose-dependent NO inhibition occurred at dosages of 1.56 to 6.25 microg/ml, and more drastically at 12.5 and 25 microg/ml. At 0.5 to 5.0 microg/ml, SFE-80 exhibited dose-dependent viability suppression and significant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in Hep 3B, whereas no effect was found in Chang liver cells. Furthermore, no effect was observed in RAW 264.7 at dosages of 3.13 to 25 microg/ml, indicating that SFE-80 exhibited a noncytotoxic character. Conclusively, rosemary can be considered an herbal anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. PMID:17827696

  10. Transferrin-mediated fullerenes nanoparticles as Fe(2+)-dependent drug vehicles for synergistic anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hou, Lin; Jiao, Xiaojing; Ji, Yandan; Zhu, Xiali; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate (AS) is an iron-dependent drug, which has been used extensively as anti-malarial drugs worldwide with no obvious side effects. Recently, studies have shown that AS also possess profound cytotoxicity against tumor cells. However, simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic AS and Fe(2+) into tumor cells remains a major challenge. Herein, we report a new kind of active-targeting preparations which could not only specially target to tumor cells but also synchronously transfer AS and irons into tumor tissue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was grafted onto fullerene to get a water-soluble biomaterial (HA-C60) with excellent biocompatibility, and then combined with transferrin (Tf) to obtain a multi-functional drug delivery system (HA-C60-Tf) with significant tumor-targeting efficacy and powerful photodynamic therapy capacity. Finally, AS was adsorbed on HA-C60-Tf with a high loading efficacy of 162.4% (weight ratio of AS: HA-C60-Tf). Compared with free AS, remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy of AS-loaded HA-C60-Tf nanoparticles was realized both in a cultured MCF-7 cells in vitro and in a tumor-bearing murine model in vivo, due to increased intracellular accumulation of AS in tumor and activated mechanism by co-delivery of Tf and AS analogs. Furthermore, with laser irradiation in vivo, the relative tumor volume (V/V0) of HA-C60-Tf/AS declined by half, from 1.72 ± 0.12 to 0.84 ± 0.07, suggesting a new way with multi-mechanism for tumor treatment was developed. PMID:25453964

  11. Anti-tumor effects of dehydroaltenusin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Naoki; Kokai, Yasuo; Ohtani, Seiji; Sahara, Hiroeki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takahashi, Shunya; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Noriyuki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki . E-mail: mizushin@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp

    2007-01-12

    In the screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols), dehydroaltenusin was found to be an inhibitor of pol {alpha} from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We succeeded in chemically synthesizing dehydroaltenusin, and the compound inhibited only mammalian pol {alpha} with IC{sub 50} value of 0.5 {mu}M, and did not influence the activities of other replicative pols such as pols {delta} and {epsilon}, but also showed no effect on pol {alpha} activity from another vertebrate, fish, or from a plant species. Dehydroaltenusin also had no influence on the other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The compound also inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells with LD{sub 50} values of 38.0-44.4 {mu}M. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HeLa cells, dehydroaltenusin was shown to be a promising suppressor of solid tumors. Histopathological examination revealed that increased tumor necrosis and decreased mitotic index were apparently detected by the compound in vivo. Therefore, dehydroaltenusin could be of interest as not only a mammalian pol {alpha}-specific inhibitor, but also as a candidate drug for anti-cancer treatment.

  12. Anti-Tumor Effects of Second Generation β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors on Cholangiocarcinoma Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Waihong; de la Monte, Suzanne; Thomas, John-Michael; Olsen, Mark; Carlson, Rolf; Yu, Tunan; Dong, Xiaoqun; Wands, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has a poor prognosis due to widespread intrahepatic spread. Aspartate β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a transmembrane protein and catalyzes the hydroxylation of aspartyl and asparaginyl residues in calcium binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domains of various proteins, including Notch receptors and ligands. ASPH is highly overexpressed (>95%) in human CCA tumors. We explored the molecular mechanisms by which ASPH mediated the CCA malignant phenotype and evaluated the potential of ASPH as a therapeutic target for CCA. The importance of expression and enzymatic activity of ASPH for CCA growth and progression was examined using shRNA “knockdown” and a mutant construct that reduced its catalytic activity. Second generation small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of β-hydroxylase activity were developed and used to target ASPH in vitro and in vivo. Subcutaneous and intrahepatic xenograft rodent models were employed to determine anti-tumor effects on CCA growth and development. It was found that the enzymatic activity of ASPH was critical for mediating CCA progression, as well as inhibiting apoptosis. Mechanistically, ASPH overexpression promoted Notch activation and modulated CCA progression through a Notch1-dependent cyclin D1 pathway. Targeting ASPH with shRNAs or a SMI significantly suppressed CCA growth in vivo. PMID:26954680

  13. Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.

    PubMed

    Delle Monache, Simona; Sanità, Patrizia; Trapasso, Elena; Ursino, Maria Rita; Dugo, Paola; Russo, Marina; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Calapai, Gioacchino; Angelucci, Adriano; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Based on the growing deal of data concerning the biological activity of flavonoid-rich natural products, the aim of the present study was to explore in vitro the potential anti-tumoral activity of Citrus Bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ), determining its molecular interaction with cancer cells. Here we show that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ. The SH-SY5Y antiproliferative effect elicited by BJ was not due to a cytotoxic action and it did not induce apoptosis. Instead, BJ stimulated the arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and determined a modification in cellular morphology, causing a marked increase of detached cells. The inhibition of adhesive capacity on different physiologic substrates and on endothelial cells monolayer were correlated with an impairment of actin filaments, a reduction in the expression of the active form of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that in turn caused inhibition of cell migration. In parallel, BJ seemed to hinder the association between the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and FAK. Our data suggest a mechanisms through which BJ can inhibit important molecular pathways related to cancer-associated aggressive phenotype and offer new suggestions for further studies on the role of BJ in cancer treatment. PMID:23613861

  14. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Tumoral Effects of Citrus bergamia Juice

    PubMed Central

    Delle Monache, Simona; Sanità, Patrizia; Trapasso, Elena; Ursino, Maria Rita; Dugo, Paola; Russo, Marina; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Calapai, Gioacchino; Angelucci, Adriano; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Based on the growing deal of data concerning the biological activity of flavonoid-rich natural products, the aim of the present study was to explore in vitro the potential anti-tumoral activity of Citrus Bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ), determining its molecular interaction with cancer cells. Here we show that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ. The SH-SY5Y antiproliferative effect elicited by BJ was not due to a cytotoxic action and it did not induce apoptosis. Instead, BJ stimulated the arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and determined a modification in cellular morphology, causing a marked increase of detached cells. The inhibition of adhesive capacity on different physiologic substrates and on endothelial cells monolayer were correlated with an impairment of actin filaments, a reduction in the expression of the active form of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that in turn caused inhibition of cell migration. In parallel, BJ seemed to hinder the association between the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and FAK. Our data suggest a mechanisms through which BJ can inhibit important molecular pathways related to cancer-associated aggressive phenotype and offer new suggestions for further studies on the role of BJ in cancer treatment. PMID:23613861

  15. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Rainer J.; Champ, Colin E.; Otto, Christoph; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. Methods We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD). For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR) or hazard ratio (HR) between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI) = [0.73, 0.97]) and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87]), indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation) which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04]). Conclusions There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors. PMID:27159218

  16. Anti-tumor effects of genetic vaccines against HPV major oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazário; Paolini, Francesca; Massa, Silvia; Curzio, Gianfranca; Illiano, Elena; Duarte Silva, Anna Jéssica; Franconi, Rosella; Bissa, Massimiliano; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Venuti, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Expression of HPV E5, E6 and E7 oncogenes are likely to overcome the regulation of cell proliferation and to escape immunological control, allowing uncontrolled growth and providing the potential for malignant transformation. Thus, their three oncogenic products may represent ideal target antigens for immunotherapeutic strategies. In previous attempts, we demonstrated that genetic vaccines against recombinant HPV16 E7 antigen were able to affect the tumor growth in a pre-clinical mouse model. To improve this anti-HPV strategy we developed a novel approach in which we explored the effects of E5-based genetic immunization. We designed novel HPV16 E5 genetic vaccines based on two different gene versions: whole E5 gene and E5Multi. The last one is a long multi epitope gene designed as a harmless E5 version. Both E5 genes were codon optimized for mammalian expression. In addition, we demonstrated that HPV 16 E5 oncogene is expressed in C3 mouse cell line making it an elective model for the study of E5 based vaccine. In this mouse model the immunological and biological activity of the E5 vaccines were assessed in parallel with the activity of anti-E7 and anti-E6 vaccines already reported to be effective in an immunotherapeutic setting. These E7 and E6 vaccines were made with mutated oncogenes, the E7GGG mutant that does not bind pRb and the E6F47R mutant that is less effective in inhibiting p53, respectively. Results confirmed the immunological activity of genetic formulations based on attenuated HPV16 oncogenes and showed that E5-based genetic immunization provided notable anti-tumor effects. PMID:25483514

  17. Promotion of initial anti-tumor effect via polydopamine modified doxorubicin-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiaohu; Qiu, Wangwang; Chen, Xinliang; Zheng, Qi; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Drug-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes are not conducive to adhesion between materials and tissues due to the strong hydrophobicity of PLLA, which possibly attenuate the drugs’ effect loaded on the materials. In the present work, we developed a facile method to improve the hydrophilicity of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded electrospun PLLA fibrous membranes, which could enhance the anti-tumor effect at the early stage after implantation. A mussel protein, polydopamine (PDA), could be easily grafted on the surface of hydrophobic DOX-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes (PLLA-DOX/pDA) in water solution. The morphology analysis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers displayed that though the fiber diameter was slightly swollen, they still maintained a 3D fibrous structure, and the XPS analysis certified that pDA had successfully been grafted onto the surface of the fibers. The results of surface wettability analysis showed that the contact angle decreased from 136.7° to 0° after grafting. In vitro MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers was the strongest, and the stereologic cell counting assay demonstrated that the adhesiveness of PLLA/pDA fiber was significantly better than PLLA fiber. In vivo tumor-bearing mice displayed that, after one week of implantation, the tumor apoptosis and necrosis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers were the most obvious from histopathology and TUNEL assay. The caspase-3 activity of PLLA-DOX/pDA group was the highest using biochemical techniques, and the Bax: Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in PLLA-DOX/pDA group through qRT-PCR analysis. All the results demonstrated that pDA can improve the affinity of the electrospun PLLA membranes and enhance the drug effect on tumors. PMID:25337186

  18. Doxorubicin loaded silica nanorattles actively seek tumors with improved anti-tumor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fuping; Li, Linlin; Liu, Tianlong; Hao, Nanjing; Liu, Huiyu; Tan, Longfei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Xinglu; Peng, Bo; Yan, Chuanmiao; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2012-05-01

    Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX-FA-SNs showed lower cytotoxicity in folate receptor negative normal mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells) compared with free DOX. In vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging indicated specific tumor targeting and uptake of FA-SNs in nude mice bearing subcutaneous HeLa cell-derived xenograft tumors. In vivo anti-tumor experiments demonstrated that DOX-FA-SNs (10 mg kg-1 of DOX) significantly regressed the tumor growth and reduced toxicity compared with free DOX. These results have great significance in developing and optimizing SNs as effective intracellular delivery and specific tumor targeting vehicles.Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX

  19. Optimized anti-tumor effects of anthracyclines plus Vinca alkaloids using a novel, mechanism-based application schedule.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Harald; Schrembs, David; Moritz, Christian; Wachter, Franziska; Haldar, Subrata; Graubner, Ulrike; Nathrath, Michaela; Jeremias, Irmela

    2011-12-01

    Application of anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on the same day represents a hallmark of polychemotherapy protocols for hematopoietic malignancies. Here we show, for the first time, that both drugs might act most efficiently if they are applied on different days. Proof-of-concept studies in 18 cell lines revealed that anthracyclines inhibited cell death by Vinca alkaloids in 83% of cell lines. Importantly, in a preclinical mouse model, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. Both drugs acted in a sequence-dependent manner and the strongest anti-tumor effect was obtained if both drugs were applied on different days. Most notably for clinical relevance, in 34% of 35 fresh primary childhood leukemia cells tested in vitro, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. As underlying mechanism, doxorubicin activated p53, p53 induced cell-cycle arrest, and cell-cycle arrest disabled inactivation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members by vincristine; therefore, vincristine was unable to activate downstream apoptosis signaling. As molecular proof, antagonism was rescued by knockdown of p53, whereas knockdown of cyclin A inhibited vincristine-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest evaluating anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on different days in future trials. Selecting drug combinations based on mechanistic understanding represents a novel conceptional strategy for potent polychemotherapy protocols. PMID:21926351

  20. Oligoesculin fraction induces anti-tumor effects and promotes immune responses on B16-F10 mice melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mokdad Bzeouich, Imen; Mustapha, Nadia; Sassi, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Chebil, Latifa; Luis, José; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-08-01

    Laccase was used to enzymatically polymerize esculin. Oligoesculin fraction was obtained after ultrafiltration through a 5-kDa membrane. Several studies have been carried out to prove the effectiveness of natural substances such as immunomodulators to promote the anti-cancer activity in situ. The purpose of our report was to explore whether the anti-tumor potential of the oligoesculin fraction in vitro and in vivo is linked to its immunological mechanisms in melanoma-bearing mice. We revealed that oligoesculin fraction reduced B16-F10 proliferation and migration in vitro in a dose-related manner. Moreover, melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity were inhibited in these melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent way. The anti-tumor potential of oligoesculin fraction was also assessed in vivo. Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration of oligoesculin fraction, at 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 21 days, reduced tumor size and weight with percentages of inhibition of 94 and 87 %, respectively. Oligoesculin fraction was effective in promoting lysosomal activity and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages in tumor-implanted mice. In addition, the activities of natural killer (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and macrophages were significantly enhanced by oligoesculin fraction. These findings suggested that this polymer with its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties could be used for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26960691

  1. Synergistic innate and adaptive immune response to combination immunotherapy with anti-tumor antigen antibodies and extended serum half-life IL-2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Eric F; Gai, Shuning A; Opel, Cary F; Kwan, Byron H; Surana, Rishi; Mihm, Martin C; Kauke, Monique J; Moynihan, Kelly D; Angelini, Alessandro; Williams, Robert T; Stephan, Matthias T; Kim, Jacob S; Yaffe, Michael B; Irvine, Darrell J; Weiner, Louis M; Dranoff, Glenn; Wittrup, K Dane

    2015-04-13

    Cancer immunotherapies under development have generally focused on either stimulating T cell immunity or driving antibody-directed effector functions of the innate immune system such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We find that a combination of an anti-tumor antigen antibody and an untargeted IL-2 fusion protein with delayed systemic clearance induces significant tumor control in aggressive isogenic tumor models via a concerted innate and adaptive response involving neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, and CD8(+) T cells. This combination therapy induces an intratumoral "cytokine storm" and extensive lymphocyte infiltration. Adoptive transfer of anti-tumor T cells together with this combination therapy leads to robust cures of established tumors and development of immunological memory. PMID:25873172

  2. Synergistic innate and adaptive immune response to combination immunotherapy with anti-tumor antigen antibodies and extended serum half-life IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Eric F.; Gai, Shuning A.; Opel, Cary F.; Kwan, Byron H.; Surana, Rishi; Mihm, Martin C.; Kauke, Monique J.; Moynihan, Kelly D.; Angelini, Alessandro; Williams, Robert T.; Stephan, Matthias T.; Kim, Jacob S.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Weiner, Louis M.; Dranoff, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer immunotherapies under development have generally focused on either stimulating T-cell immunity or driving antibody-directed effector functions of the innate immune system such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We find that a combination of an anti-tumor antigen antibody and an untargeted IL-2 fusion protein with delayed systemic clearance induces significant tumor control in aggressive isogenic tumor models via a concerted innate and adaptive response involving neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, and CD8+ T-cells. This combination therapy induces an intratumoral “cytokine storm” and extensive lymphocyte infiltration. Adoptive transfer of anti-tumor T-cells together with this combination therapy leads to robust cures of established tumors and establishment of immunological memory. PMID:25873172

  3. Gamma delta T cells are activated by polysaccharide K (PSK) and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of PSK

    PubMed Central

    Inatsuka, Carol; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Disis, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells. The current study was undertaken to study the effect of PSK on gamma delta (γδ) T cells, another important arm of the innate immunity. In vitro experiments using mouse splenocytes showed that γδ T cells produce IFN-γ after treatment with PSK and have up-regulated expression of CD25, CD69, and CD107a. To investigate whether the effect of PSK on γδ T cells is direct or indirect, purified γδ T cells were cultured either alone or together with bone marrow-derived DC in a co-culture or trans-well system and then stimulated with PSK. Results showed that direct cell-to-cell contact between γδ T cells and DC is required for optimal activation of γδ T cells. There was also reciprocal activation of DC by PSK-activated γδ T cells, as demonstrated by higher expression of costimulatory molecules and enhanced production of IL-12 by DC in the presence of γδ T cells. PSK can also co-stimulate γδ T cells with anti-TCR and anti-CD3 stimulation, in the absence of DC. Finally, in vivo treatment with PSK activates γδ T cells among the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and depleting γδ T cells during PSK treatment attenuated the anti-tumor effect of PSK. All together, these results demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated by PSK and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of PSK. PMID:23685781

  4. Augmented anti-tumor effect of dendritic cells genetically engineered by interleukin-12 plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masataka; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to genetically engineer dendritic cells (DC) for biological activation and evaluate their anti-tumor activity in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Mouse DC were incubated on the surface of culture dishes which had been coated with the complexes of a cationized dextran and luciferase plasmid DNA complexes plus a cell adhesion protein, Pronectin, for gene transfection (reverse transfection). When compared with the conventional transfection where DC were transfected in the medium containing the complexes, the level of gene expression by the reverse method was significantly higher and the time period of gene expression was prolonged. Following the reverse transfection of DC by a plasmid DNA of mouse interleukin-12 (mIL-12) complexed with the cationized dextran, the mIL-12 protein was secreted at higher amounts for a longer time period. When injected intratumorally into mice carrying a mass of B16 tumor cells, the DC genetically activated showed significant anti-tumor activity. PMID:20338099

  5. Comparison of the Anti-tumor Effects of Two Platinum Agents (Miriplatin and Fine-Powder Cisplatin)

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Shobu Nitta, Norihisa Ohta, Shinichi Sonoda, Akinaga Otani, Hideji Tomozawa, Yuki Nitta-Seko, Ayumi Tsuchiya, Keiko Tanka, Toyohiko Takahashi, Masashi Murata, Kiyoshi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of miriplatin-lipidol and fine-powder cisplatin-lipiodol suspensions. Methods: Assessment of the cytotoxicity of two drugs was performed: a soluble derivative of miriplatin (DPC) and fine-powder cisplatin. We randomly divided 15 rabbits with transplanted VX2 liver tumors into three equal groups. They were infused via the proper hepatic artery with a miriplatin-lipiodol suspension (ML), a fine-powder cisplatin-lipiodol suspension (CL), or saline (control) and the tumor growth rate was determined on MR images acquired before and 7 days after treatment. The concentration of platinum (PCs) in blood was assayed immediately, and 10, 30, and 60 min, and 24 h and 7 days after drug administration. Its concentration in tumor and surrounding normal liver tissues was determined at 7 days postadministration. Results: At high concentrations, fine-powder cisplatin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than DPC. At low concentrations, both agents manifested weak cytotoxicity. While there was no difference between the tumor growth rate of the ML and the CL groups, the difference between the controls and ML- and CL-treated rabbits was significant. The blood PCs peaked at 10 min and then gradually decreased over time. On the other hand, no platinum was detected at any point after the administration of ML. There was no difference between the ML and CL groups in the PCs in tumor tissues; however, in normal hepatic tissue, the PCs were higher in ML- than CL-treated rabbits. Conclusions: We confirmed the anti-tumor effect of ML and CL. There was no significant difference between the anti-tumor effect of ML and CL at 7 days postadministration.

  6. Water-soluble extract of Saxifraga stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Saxifraga stolonifera is an evergreen and herbaceous plant well known in Korea, Japan and western China, which has great potential applications in gardening and pharmacology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera extraction on lung tumors of Lewis mice. By the measurement of MS/MS, we found that there were four main bioactive components in methanol extract of S. stolonifera, including gallic acid, norbergenin, protocatechuic acid and bergenin, and the results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and bergenin in methanol extract of S. stolonifera were 5.150, 1.492, 24.559mg/g, respectively. Animal experiment showed that the mean tumor weight of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice treated with water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera was obviously smaller than model group (cis-DDP), and its inhibition rate was 49.2%. In addition, histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical assay confirmed the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera. Investigation of four haematological parameters revealed that the Lewis mice fed with S. stolonifera showed good resilience in the level of leukocyte, haemoglobin, blood platelets and red blood cell compared with the model group. In addition, RT-PCR suggested that the relative expression of pro-apoptosis gene p53, Sox and Bax was enhanced, while the relative expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2 was diminished in comparison with model group. These results suggested that water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung tumors. PMID:27575479

  7. Acute inflammation induces immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells associated with anti-tumor responses in a tumor mouse model.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L; Attia, Zeinab I; Galal, Sohaila M

    2016-03-01

    Given the self nature of cancer, anti-tumor immune response is weak. As such, acute inflammation induced by microbial products can induce signals that result in initiation of an inflammatory cascade that helps activation of immune cells. We aimed to compare the nature and magnitude of acute inflammation induced by toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs) on the tumor growth and the associated inflammatory immune responses. To induce acute inflammation in tumor-bearing host, CD1 mice were inoculated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) (5 × 10(5) cells/mouse), and then treated with i.p. injection on day 1, day 7 or days 1 + 7 with: (1) polyinosinic:polycytidylic (poly(I:C)) (TLR3L); (2) Poly-ICLC (clinical grade of TLR3L); (3) Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) (coding for TLR9L); (4) Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (coding for TLR9L); and (5) Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA). Treatment with poly(I:C), Poly-ICLC, BCG, CFA, or IFA induced anti-tumor activities as measured by 79.1%, 75.94%, 73.94%, 71.88% and 47.75% decreases, respectively in the total number of tumor cells collected 7 days after tumor challenge. Among the tested TLRLs, both poly(I:C) (TLR3L) and BCG (contain TLR9L) showed the highest anti-tumor effects as reflected by the decrease in the number of EAc cells. These effects were associated with a 2-fold increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing the myeloid markers CD11b(+)Ly6G(+), CD11b(+)Ly6G(-), and CD11b(+)Ly6G(-). We concluded that Provision of the proper inflammatory signal with optimally defined magnitude and duration during tumor growth can induce inflammatory immune cells with potent anti-tumor responses without vaccination. PMID:26966565

  8. Acute inflammation induces immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells associated with anti-tumor responses in a tumor mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed L.; Attia, Zeinab I.; Galal, Sohaila M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the self nature of cancer, anti-tumor immune response is weak. As such, acute inflammation induced by microbial products can induce signals that result in initiation of an inflammatory cascade that helps activation of immune cells. We aimed to compare the nature and magnitude of acute inflammation induced by toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs) on the tumor growth and the associated inflammatory immune responses. To induce acute inflammation in tumor-bearing host, CD1 mice were inoculated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) (5 × 105 cells/mouse), and then treated with i.p. injection on day 1, day 7 or days 1 + 7 with: (1) polyinosinic:polycytidylic (poly(I:C)) (TLR3L); (2) Poly-ICLC (clinical grade of TLR3L); (3) Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) (coding for TLR9L); (4) Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (coding for TLR9L); and (5) Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA). Treatment with poly(I:C), Poly-ICLC, BCG, CFA, or IFA induced anti-tumor activities as measured by 79.1%, 75.94%, 73.94%, 71.88% and 47.75% decreases, respectively in the total number of tumor cells collected 7 days after tumor challenge. Among the tested TLRLs, both poly(I:C) (TLR3L) and BCG (contain TLR9L) showed the highest anti-tumor effects as reflected by the decrease in the number of EAc cells. These effects were associated with a 2-fold increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing the myeloid markers CD11b+Ly6G+, CD11b+Ly6G−, and CD11b+Ly6G−. We concluded that Provision of the proper inflammatory signal with optimally defined magnitude and duration during tumor growth can induce inflammatory immune cells with potent anti-tumor responses without vaccination. PMID:26966565

  9. The Effect of MicroRNA-124 Overexpression on Anti-Tumor Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiau-Mei; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Hu, Ling-Yueh; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Chu, Hou-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating various physiological processes, including growth and development. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-124 (miR-124) participates not only in regulation of early neurogenesis but also in suppression of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-124 was associated with reduced DNA repair capacity in cultured cancer cells and increased sensitivity of cells to DNA-damaging anti-tumor drugs, specifically those that cause the formation of DNA strand-breaks (SBs). We then examined which DNA repair–related genes, particularly the genes of SB repair, were regulated by miR-124. Two SB repair–related genes, encoding ATM interactor (ATMIN) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), were strongly affected by miR-124 overexpression, by binding of miR-124 to the 3¢-untranslated region of their mRNAs. As a result, the capacity of cells to repair DNA SBs, such as those resulting from homologous recombination, was significantly reduced upon miR-124 overexpression. A particularly important therapeutic implication of this finding is that overexpression of miR-124 enhanced cell sensitivity to multiple DNA-damaging agents via ATMIN- and PARP1-mediated mechanisms. The translational relevance of this role of miR-124 in anti-tumor drug sensitivity is suggested by the finding that increased miR-124 expression correlates with better breast cancer prognosis, specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy. These findings suggest that miR-124 could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy with DNA-damaging agents. PMID:26115122

  10. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  11. Mannosylated protamine as a novel DNA vaccine carrier for effective induction of anti-tumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaoyan; Dai, Shuang; Jiao, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Yuekui; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2016-06-15

    Gene immunotherapy has been developed as a promising strategy for inhibition of tumor growth. In the study, mannosylated protamine sulphate (MPS) was used as a novel DNA vaccine carrier to enhance transfection efficiency and anti-tumor immune responses. Anti-GRP DNA vaccine (pGRP) was selected as a model gene and condensed by MPS to form MPS/pGRP nanoparticles. The cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of MPS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were evaluated. The effect of the nanoparticles in enhancing GRP-specific humoral immune response was then evaluated by nasal vaccination of nanoparticles in mice. The results demonstrated that both the cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of MPS nanoparticles in macrophages were higher than those of protamine nanoparticles. MPS/pGRP nanoparticles stimulated the production of higher titers (3.9×10(3)) of specific antibodies against GRP than those of protamine/pGRP nanoparticles (6.4×10(2), p<0.01) and intramuscular injection pGRP solution (2.5×10(3), p<0.05). Furthermore, the inhibitory rate in MPS/pGRP nanoparticles group (65.80%) was significantly higher than that in protamine/pGRP nanoparticles group (35.13%) and pGRP solution group (43.39%). Hence, it is evident that MPS is an efficient targeting gene delivery carrier which could improve in vitro transfection efficiency as well as anti-tumor immunotherapy in mice. PMID:27106528

  12. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials1. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza™, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations. BRCA1 and BRCA2 play essential roles in repairing DNA double strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition2,3. Here we show that receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907. Phosphorylation of PARP1 Tyr907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Combining c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models. Similar synergistic effects were observed in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that PARP1 pTyr907 abundance may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients bearing tumors with high c-Met expression who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  13. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G; Lee, Gilbert R; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-02-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with mutations in BRCA genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have essential roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907 (PARP1 pTyr907 or pY907). PARP1 pY907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. The combination of c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models, and we observed similar synergistic effects in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that the abundance of PARP1 pY907 may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients whose tumors show high c-Met expression and who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  14. Aerosol delivery of beclin1 enhanced the anti-tumor effect of radiation in the lungs of K-rasLA1 mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Young; Lim, Hwang-Tae; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Noh, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Arote, Rohidas; Kim, Doo-Yeol; Chae, Chanhee; Lee, Kee-Ho; Kim, Mi-Sook; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy alone has several limitations for treating lung cancer. Inhalation, a non-invasive approach for direct delivery of therapeutic agents to the lung, may help to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of radiation. Up-regulating beclin1, known as a tumor suppressor gene that plays a major role in autophagy, may sensitize tumors and lead to tumor regression in lungs of K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. To minimize the side-effects of radiotherapy, fractionated exposures (five times, 24-h interval) with low dose (2 Gy) of radiation to the restricted area (thorax, 2 cm) were conducted. After sensitizing the lungs with radiation, beclin1, complexed with a nano-sized biodegradable poly(ester amine), was prepared and delivered into the murine lung via aerosol three times/week for four weeks. In a histopathological analysis, animals treated with beclin1 and radiation showed highly significant tumor regression and low progression to adenocarcinoma. An increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles and secondary lysosomes was detected. Dissociation of beclin1-bcl2 stimulated autophagy activation and showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the Akt-mTOR pathway, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The combination of radiation with non-invasive aerosol delivery of beclin1 may provide a prospect for developing novel therapy regimens applicable in clinics. PMID:22843615

  15. Increased anti-tumor effects using IL2 with anti-TGFβ reveals competition between mouse NK and CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Maite; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Sungur, Can M.; Chen, Mingyi; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in the removal of immunosuppressive pathways in cancer, the combination of IL2 with antibodies to neutralize TGFβ, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, was assessed. Combination immunotherapy resulted in significantly greater anti-tumor effects. These were correlated with significant increases in the numbers and functionality of NK cells, NK progenitors and activated CD8 T cells resulting in the observed anti-tumor effects. Combination immunotherapy was also accompanied with lesser toxicities than IL2 therapy alone. Additionally, we observed a dual competition between NK and activated CD8 T cells such that after immunotherapy, the depletion of either effector population resulted in the increased total expansion of the other population and compensatory anti-tumor effects. This study demonstrates the efficacy of this combination immunotherapeutic regimen as a promising cancer therapy and illustrates the existence of potent competitive regulatory pathways between NK and CD8 T cells in response to systemic activation. PMID:25000978

  16. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel-loaded targeted chitosan-based polymeric micelle.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber; Hasanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Rostami, Mahboubeh; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2016-06-01

    A water-insoluble anti-tumor agent, paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully incorporated into novel-targeted polymeric micelles based on tocopherol succinate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA in comparison to Anzatax® in tumor bearing mice. The micellar formulation showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity against mice breast cancer cell line, 4T1, due to the folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. The IC50 value of PTX, a concentration at which 50% cells are killed, was 1.17 and 0.93 µM for Anzatax® and PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA, as measured by reduction in tumor volume of 4T1 mouse breast cancer injected in Balb/c mice was significantly greater than that of Anzatax®. Pharmacokinetic study in tumor bearing mice revealed that the micellar formulation prolonged the systemic circulation time of PTX and the AUC of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was obtained 0.83-fold lower than Anzatax®. Compared with Anzatax®, the Vd, T1/2ß and MRT of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was increased by 2.76, 2.05 and 1.68-fold, respectively. As demonstrated by tissue distribution, the PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles increased accumulation of PTX in tumor, therefore, resulted in anti-tumor effects enhancement and drug concentration in the normal tissues reduction. Taken together, our evaluations show that PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelle is a potential drug delivery system of PTX for the effective treatment of the tumor and systematic toxicity reduction, thus, the micellar formulation can provide a useful alternative dosage form for intravenous administration of PTX. PMID:25188785

  17. Comparison of the Anti-tumor Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors as Well as Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Jun; Yamada, Takaaki; Egashira, Nobuaki; Ueda, Mitsuyo; Zukeyama, Nina; Ushio, Soichiro; Masuda, Satohiro

    2015-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) on several types of cancer cells have been reported. However, comparison of the anti-tumor effects of these drugs on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells has not been studied. We compared the anti-tumor effects of four SSRIs and two SNRIs on HepG2 cells. SSRIs and duloxetine dose-dependently decreased cell viability. Milnacipran had no effect on cell viability. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration was lower in the order of: sertraline, paroxetine, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, escitalopram, and milnacipran. Exposure to sertraline (2 µM) significantly increased caspase-3/7 activity. These results suggest that, of the agents tested here, sertraline had the highest sensitivity to HepG2 cells, and activation of the caspase pathway is involved in the anti-tumor effects of sertraline in HepG2 cells. PMID:26328498

  18. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of a new compound: B-9-3 through interference with VEGFR2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wen

    2016-05-01

    B-9-3, a derivative of harmine, was first synthesized in our laboratory. We have reported that B-9-3 has an anti-proliferative effect against human lung cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration. In the present study, we first studied that the anti-tumor angiogenesis effect and the molecular mechanism of B-9-3-induced tumor vascular degrade and mortify in lung cancer. In vitro, the results showed that B-9-3 selectively inhibited the proliferation of endothelial cells IC50 = 6.16 μg/ml) and vascular fibroblasts (IC50 = 12.59 μg/ml) and induced regression of tumor cells of the following: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), Mouse fore-stomach carcinoma (MFC), Human ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3), and prostate cancer (22RV1). Moreover, B-9-3 could significantly increase the apoptosis rate (80.95 %) of vascular endothelial cells, while inhibiting migration of endothelial cells, capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, neovascularization of the rat thoracic aorta ring, and the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) predominantly through blocking VEGFR2 signaling pathway. In vivo, we investigated the anti-tumor rate and the signal transduction mechanism of B-9-3 by LCC-bearing C57BL/6 mice. The data showed that the tumor inhibition ratio of high dose (20 mg/kg) of B-9-3 was 72.9 %, and quantification of CD34 marker indicated a marked reduction in the number of neovessels after B-9-3 treatment as compared with control group (66.87 %). Remarkably, using IHC and q-RT-PCR, we found that downregulation of the expression of VEGFR2, VEGF-A, and TGFβ1 in tumor confers enhancement to the angiogenesis effect of B-9-3. These data suggest that the angiogenesis inhibitor B-9-3 selectively induces apoptosis of endothelial cells, in part through disruption of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling. PMID:26611645

  19. Nimotuzumab increases the anti-tumor effect of photodynamic therapy in an oral tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Ng, Qin Feng; Thong, Patricia S.P.; Soo, Khee-Chee

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 90% of all oral cancers and is characterized with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in oral cancer and is a target for cancer therapy and prevention. In this present work, we evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with an EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in oral cancer cell lines and OSCC xenograft tumor model. PDT is a promising and minimally invasive treatment modality that involves the interaction of a photosensitizer, molecular oxygen and light to destroy tumors. We demonstrated that EGFR inhibitors nimotuzumab and cetuximab exhibits anti-angiogenic properties by inhibiting the migration and invasion of oral cancer cell lines and human endothelial cells. The EGFR inhibitors also significantly reduced tube formation of endothelial cells. Chlorin e6-PDT in combination with nimotuzumab and cetuximab reduced cell proliferation in different oral cancer and endothelial cells. Furthermore, our in vivo studies showed that the combination therapy of PDT and nimotuzumab synergistically delayed tumor growth when compared with control and PDT treated tumors. Downregulation of EGFR, Ki-67 and CD31 was observed in the tumors treated with combination therapy. Analysis of the liver and kidney function markers showed no treatment related toxicity. In conclusion, PDT outcome of oral cancer can be improved when combined with EGFR inhibitor nimotuzumab. PMID:25918252

  20. Nimotuzumab increases the anti-tumor effect of photodynamic therapy in an oral tumor model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Ng, Qin Feng; Thong, Patricia S P; Soo, Khee-Chee

    2015-05-30

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 90% of all oral cancers and is characterized with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in oral cancer and is a target for cancer therapy and prevention. In this present work, we evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with an EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in oral cancer cell lines and OSCC xenograft tumor model. PDT is a promising and minimally invasive treatment modality that involves the interaction of a photosensitizer, molecular oxygen and light to destroy tumors. We demonstrated that EGFR inhibitors nimotuzumab and cetuximab exhibits anti-angiogenic properties by inhibiting the migration and invasion of oral cancer cell lines and human endothelial cells. The EGFR inhibitors also significantly reduced tube formation of endothelial cells. Chlorin e6-PDT in combination with nimotuzumab and cetuximab reduced cell proliferation in different oral cancer and endothelial cells. Furthermore, our in vivo studies showed that the combination therapy of PDT and nimotuzumab synergistically delayed tumor growth when compared with control and PDT treated tumors. Downregulation of EGFR, Ki-67 and CD31 was observed in the tumors treated with combination therapy. Analysis of the liver and kidney function markers showed no treatment related toxicity. In conclusion, PDT outcome of oral cancer can be improved when combined with EGFR inhibitor nimotuzumab. PMID:25918252

  1. Hydrogel-PLGA delivery system prolongs 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated anti-tumor effects in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maran, Avudaiappan; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Buenz, Colleen M; Shogren, Kristen L; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that affects children and young adults. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring estrogen metabolite, kills osteosarcoma cells, but does not affect normal osteoblasts. In order to effectively target osteosarcoma and improve the therapeutic index of the drug 2-ME, we have encapsulated 2-ME in a composite of oligo-(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and investigated the effect of polymer composition on 2-ME release kinetics and osteosarcoma cell survival. The in vitro study shows that 2-ME can be released in a controlled manner over 21-days. The initial burst releases observed on day 1 were 50% and 32% for OPF and OPF/PLGA composites, respectively. The extended release kinetics show that 100% of the encapsulated 2-ME is released by day 12 from OPF, whereas the OPF/PLGA composites showed a release of 85% on day 21. 2-ME released from the polymers was biologically active and blocked osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro. Also, comparison of 2-ME delivery in osteosarcoma cells in culture, shows that direct treatment has no effect after 3 days, whereas polymer-mediated delivery produces anti-tumor effects that could be sustained for 21 days. These findings show that the OPF and PLGA polymeric system may prove to be useful in controlled and sustained delivery of 2-ME and could be further explored in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23355512

  2. The anti-tumor effect of Euchema serra agglutinin on colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yuki; Sugahara, Takuya; Ueno, Masashi; Fukuta, Yusuke; Ochi, Yukari; Akiyama, Koichi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Masuda, Seizo; Kawakubo, Akihiro; Kato, Keiichi

    2006-09-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) is a lectin derived from a marine red alga E. serra and binds specifically to mannose-rich sugar chains. Previous reports have indicated that ESA associates with several cancer cells via sugar chains on cell surfaces and induces apoptotic cell death. In this study, we investigated the effect of ESA on Colon26 mouse colon adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. ESA induced cell death against Colon26 cells in vitro, and the expression of caspase-3 and the translocation of phosphatidylserine in ESA-treated Colon26 cells suggested that this cell death was induced through apoptosis. An intravenous injection of ESA significantly inhibited the growth of Colon26 tumors in BALB/c mice; moreover, DNA fragmentation was detected in tumor cells following ESA treatment. These results indicated that ESA is effective as an anti-cancer drug not only in vitro but also in vivo. The side-effects of ESA were not considered to be serious because the decrease in body weight of the mice injected with it was negligible. These observations suggest that ESA has the potential to be an effective anti-tumor drug. PMID:16940804

  3. Anti-tumor effects of bemiparin in HepG2 and MIA PaCa-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Alur, İhsan; Dodurga, Yavuz; Seçme, Mücahit; Elmas, Levent; Bağcı, Gülseren; Gökşin, İbrahim; Avcı, Çığır Biray

    2016-07-10

    Recent researches have demonstrated improved survival in oncologic patients treated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) which are anticoagulant drugs. We evaluated "second generation" LMWH bemiparin and its in vitro anti-tumor effects on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells. The aim of the study is to investigate anti-cancer mechanism of bemiparin in HepG2 and Mia-Paca-2 cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects of bemiparin were determined by XTT assay. IC50 dose of bemiparin was found to be 200IU/mL in the 48th hour in the MiaPaCa-2 cell line and 50IU/mL in the 48th hour in the HepG2 cell line. CCND1 (cyclin D1), CDK4, CDK6, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, Bcl-2, BID, DR4, DR5, FADD, TRADD, Bax, gene mRNA expressions were evaluated by Real-time PCR. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CCND1 expression was reduced in HepG2 dose the group cells when compared with the control group cells and p53, caspase-3, caspase p21, caspase-8 and expressions were increased in the dose group cells when compared with the control group cells. CCND1, CDK4 and CDK6 expressions were reduced in MIA PaCa-2 dose group cells when compared with the control group cells and p53 expression was increased in the dose group cells when compared with the control group cells. Other expressions of genes were found statistically insignificant both of cell lines. It was found that bemiparin in HepG2 and MIA PaCa-2 cells suppressed invasion, migration, and colony formation by using matrigel invasion chamber, and colony formation assay, respectively. In conclusion, it is thought that bemiparin indicates anti-tumor activity by affecting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation on cancer cells. PMID:27048831

  4. Triterpenoids Amplify Anti-Tumoral Effects of Mistletoe Extracts on Murine B16.F10 Melanoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Strüh, Christian M.; Jäger, Sebastian; Kersten, Astrid; Schempp, Christoph M.; Scheffler, Armin; Martin, Stefan F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mistletoe extracts are often used in complementary cancer therapy although the efficacy of that therapy is controversially discussed. Approved mistletoe extracts contain mainly water soluble compounds of the mistletoe plant, i.e. mistletoe lectins. However, mistletoe also contains water-insoluble triterpenoids (mainly oleanolic acid) that have anti-tumorigenic effects. To overcome their loss in watery extracts we have solubilized mistletoe triterpenoids with cyclodextrins, thus making them available for in vivo cancer experiments. Experimental design B16.F10 subcutaneous melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice were treated with new mistletoe extracts containing both water soluble compounds and solubilized triterpenoids. Tumor growth and survival was monitored. In addition, histological examinations of the tumor material and tumor surrounding tissue were performed. Results Addition of solubilized triterpenoids increased the anti-tumor effects of the mistletoe extracts, resulting in reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival of the mice. Histological examination of the treated tumors showed mainly tumor necrosis and some apoptotic cells with active caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. A significant decrease of CD31-positive tumor blood vessels was observed after treatment with solubilized triterpenoids and different mistletoe extracts. Conclusion We conclude that the addition of solubilized mistletoe triterpenoids to conventional mistletoe extracts improves the efficacy of mistletoe treatment and may represent a novel treatment option for malignant melanoma. PMID:23614029

  5. Anti-tumoral effects of a trypsin inhibitor derived from buckwheat in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chong-Zhi; Feng, Ma-Li; Hao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Zhi-Juan; Li, Yu-Ying; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Native buckwheat, a common component of food products and medicine, has been observed to inhibit cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of recombinant buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (rBTI) on hepatic cancer cells and the mechanism of apoptosis involved. Apoptosis in the H22 cell line induced by rBTI was identified using MTT assays, DNA electrophoresis, flow cytometry, morphological observation of the nuclei, measurement of cytochrome C and assessment of caspase activation. It was identified that rBTI decreases cell viability by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. rBTI-induced apoptosis occurred in association with mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol, as well as the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that rBTI specifically inhibited the growth of the H22 hepatic carcinoma cell line in vitro and in vivo in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner, while there were minimal effects on the 7702 normal liver cell line. In addition, rBTI‑induced apoptosis in H22 cells was, at least in part, mediated by a mitochondrial pathway via caspase-9. PMID:25901645

  6. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. PMID:26876874

  7. [Immunomodulative effects of Chinese herbs in mice treated with anti-tumor agent cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Wan, L L; Mitsuishi, T; Kodama, K; Kurashige, S

    1994-07-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbs were administered with antitumor agent, cyclophosphamide (CY), and their effects on macrophages and lymphocytes were studied. Number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased and their chemotactic activity was suppressed by treatment with CY. Blastogenic responsiveness to Concanavalin A and NK cell activity of spleen lymphocytes were suppressed significantly in CY-treated mice. Extracts of Lithospermi radix, Astragali radix and Glycyrrhizae radix showed protective effects on immunosuppressive mice. The number of macrophages, chemotactic activity of macrophages and blastogenic response of lymphocytes were recovered to the same or more than that of normal levels. An extract of Ginseng radix showed protective effects on the number and functions of macrophages by treatment with CY but did not show any effects on the lymphocytic blastogenesis. On the contrary it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the NK cell activity. These results suggest that Chinese herbs could modulate cellular immune response, especially in the activation of macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. PMID:7932098

  8. Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of SIP-S: A sulfated polysaccharide with anti-metastatic effect.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Jiang, Wenjie; Du, Fangling; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-09-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that SIP-S had anti-metastatic activity and inhibited the growth of metastatic foci. Here we report the anti-tumor and immunoregulatory potential of SIP-S. SIP-S could significantly inhibit tumor growth in S180-bearing mice, and the inhibition rates was 43.7% at 30 mg/kg d. Besides, SIP-S could improve the thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice and the mice treated with CTX. The combination of SIP-S (15 mg/kg d) with CTX (12.5 mg/kg d) showed higher anti-tumor potency than CTX (25 mg/kg d) alone. These results indicated that SIP-S had immunoenhancing and anticancer activity, and the immunoenhancing activity might be one mechanism for its anti-tumor activity. Flow cytometry results showed that SIP-S could induce tumor cells apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that SIP-S could upregulate the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax, and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein PARP-1 in tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, SIP-S has anti-tumor activity, which may be associated with its immunostimulating and pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:26050887

  9. Effects of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α (anti-TNF) agents on Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Stein, C. Michael; Perrien, Daniel S.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review TNF inhibitors are effective for achieving disease control in several inflammatory diseases. Although anti-TNF agents can inhibit bone loss in vitro, their role in the prevention of clinically relevant outcomes such as osteoporosis and fractures has not been clearly established. Recent findings There are many studies of the effects of TNF inhibitors on markers of bone turnover; however few have measured bone mineral density (BMD) or fractures. Most of these studies have small sample sizes and a minority had a placebo control group. Overall these studies suggest that the anti-resorptive effects of anti-TNF therapy are related to control of disease activity. Summary The antiresorptive effects of TNF inhibitors are likely related to their anti-inflammatory properties. Studies to date have not demonstrated any advantages of TNF inhibitors over traditional non biologic therapies in the prevention of bone loss and fractures. PMID:22810364

  10. Anti-tumoral effect of desmethylclomipramine in lung cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno-Borbone, Lucilla; Giacobbe, Arianna; Compagnone, Mirco; Eramo, Adriana; De Maria, Ruggero; Peschiaroli, Angelo; Melino, Gerry

    2015-07-10

    Lung cancer is the most feared of all cancers because of its heterogeneity and resistance to available treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cell population responsible for lung cancer chemoresistance and are a very good model for testing new targeted therapies. Clomipramine is an FDA-approved antidepressant drug, able to inhibit in vitro the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch and potentiate the pro-apoptotic effects of DNA damaging induced agents in several cancer cell lines. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of desmethylclomipramine (DCMI), the active metabolite of Clomipramine, on the CSCs homeostasis. We show that DCMI inhibits lung CSCs growth, decreases their stemness potential and increases the cytotoxic effect of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Being DCMI an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch, we also verified the effect of Itch deregulation on CSCs survival. We found that the siRNA-mediated depletion of Itch induces similar anti-proliferative effects on lung CSCs, suggesting that DCMI might exert its effect, at least in part, by inhibiting Itch. Notably, Itch expression is a negative prognostic factor in two primary lung tumors datasets, supporting the potential clinical relevance of Itch inhibition to circumvent drug resistance in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26219257

  11. Anti-tumoral effect of desmethylclomipramine in lung cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bongiorno-Borbone, Lucilla; Giacobbe, Arianna; Compagnone, Mirco; Eramo, Adriana; De Maria, Ruggero; Peschiaroli, Angelo; Melino, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most feared of all cancers because of its heterogeneity and resistance to available treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cell population responsible for lung cancer chemoresistance and are a very good model for testing new targeted therapies. Clomipramine is an FDA-approved antidepressant drug, able to inhibit in vitro the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch and potentiate the pro-apoptotic effects of DNA damaging induced agents in several cancer cell lines. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of desmethylclomipramine (DCMI), the active metabolite of Clomipramine, on the CSCs homeostasis. We show that DCMI inhibits lung CSCs growth, decreases their stemness potential and increases the cytotoxic effect of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Being DCMI an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch, we also verified the effect of Itch deregulation on CSCs survival. We found that the siRNA-mediated depletion of Itch induces similar anti-proliferative effects on lung CSCs, suggesting that DCMI might exert its effect, at least in part, by inhibiting Itch. Notably, Itch expression is a negative prognostic factor in two primary lung tumors datasets, supporting the potential clinical relevance of Itch inhibition to circumvent drug resistance in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26219257

  12. Ex vivo evaluation of the effect of regulatory T cells on the anti-tumor activity of bortezomib in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ercetin, Ayse Pinar; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Aktas, Safiye; Yuksel, Faize; Solmaz, Serife Medeni; Sevindik, Gokmen Omur; Katgi, Abdullah; Piskin, Ozden; Undar, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer characterized by malignant proliferation of plasma cells and their precursors. Immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are increased in the peripheral blood of patients with MM. On the basis of this finding, we sought to evaluate the ex vivo effect of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells on the anti-tumor effect of the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib on MM cells. We collected peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration samples from 20 patients with newly diagnosed MM and isolated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultivated in RPMI at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 72 hours. The LD50 doses of bortezomib, isolated Treg cells, and their combination were added. After 24 hours, the viability of CD138+ myeloma cells was evaluated by WST-1. We compared the anti-tumor effect of bortezomib alone and in combination with Treg expansion and statistically analyzed the measured differences with respect to the clinical parameters of the patients. Treg cells had varied effects on bortezomib, increasing, decreasing, or not changing its anti-tumor effect. The increased in vitro anti-tumor effect of bortezomib after Treg cell expansion was correlated in patients who did not develop bortezomib resistance in vivo (p = 0.022). These patients with in vivo non-bortezomib-resistant MM also responded to Treg expansion with decreased cell viability (p = 0.024). Our data indicate that the ex vivo expansion of Treg cells increased the cytotoxic effect of bortezomib in clinically sensitive cases. PMID:26774384

  13. Combined inhibition of the mevalonate pathway with statins and zoledronic acid potentiates their anti-tumor effects in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Andy; Thiele, Stefanie; Browne, Andrew J; Rauner, Martina; Zinna, Valentina M; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D

    2016-05-28

    Amino-bisphosphonates are antiresorptive drugs for the treatment of osteolytic bone metastases, which are frequently caused by breast and other solid tumors. Like statins, amino-bisphosphonates inhibit the mevalonate pathway. Direct anti-tumor effects of amino-bisphosphonates and statins have been proposed, although high concentrations are required to achieve these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the treatment of different human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-Bone, and MDA-Met) by combined inhibition of the mevalonate pathway using statins and zoledronic acid at the same time significantly reduces the concentrations required to achieve a meaningful anti-tumor effect over a single agent approach (50% reduction of cell vitality and 4-fold increase of apoptosis; p < 0.05). The effects were mediated by suppressed protein geranylation that caused an accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA and CDC42. Importantly, the knockdown of both proteins prior to mevalonate pathway inhibition reduced apoptosis by up to 65% (p < 0.01), indicating the accumulation of the GTP-bound GTPases as the mediator of apoptosis. Our results point to effective anti-tumor effects in breast cancer by the combination of statins and zoledronic acid and warrant further validation in preclinical settings. PMID:26968247

  14. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  15. Anti-tumor effect via passive anti-angiogenesis of PEGylated liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin in drug resistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-07-25

    The PEGylated liposomal (PEG-LP) Doxorubicin, PEG-LP (DOX), with a diameter of around 100nm, accumulates in tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and is used clinically for the treatment of several types of cancer. However, there are a number of tumor types that are resistant to DOX. We report herein on a unique anti-tumor effect of PEG-LP (DOX) in a DOX-resistant tumor xenograft model. PEG-LP (DOX) failed to suppress the growth of the DOX-resistant tumors (ex. non-small cell lung cancer, H69AR; renal cell carcinoma, OSRC-2) as observed in the xenograft model. Unexpectedly, tumor growth was suppressed in a DOX-resistant breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenograft model. We investigated the mechanism by which PEG-LP (DOX) responses differ in different drug resistant tumors. In hyperpermeable OSRC-2 tumors, PEG-LP was distributed to deep tumor tissues, where it delivers DOX to drug-resistant tumor cells. In contrast, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen, pericytes, cancer-associated fibroblasts render MDA-MB-231 tumors hypopermeable, which limits the extent of the penetration and distribution of PEG-LP, thereby enhancing the delivery of DOX to the vicinity of the tumor vasculature. Therefore, a remarkable anti-angiogenic effect with a preferential suppression in tumor growth is achieved. Based on the above findings, it appears that the response of PEG-LP (DOX) to drug-resistant tumors results from differences in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27234700

  16. AntiTumor and Immunoregulatory Effects of Fermented Papaya Preparation (FPP: SAIDOPS501).

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinki; Eikawa, Shingo; Kaya, Savas; Imao, Mitsuko; Aji, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Various beneficial effects have been described for fermented papaya preparation (FPP: SAIDOPS501) based on its antioxidative and antiinflammatory functions. The present study was designed to determine the effects of FPP on carcinogenesis in vivo, and immunomodulatory function in vitro. Mice were injected with RL male 1 cells subcutaneously or 3methylcholantherene (MCA) intravenously to induce cancer and orally or intraperitoneally treated with FPP solution. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis, treated with FPP, and subjected to measurement of cytokine production and changes in Foxp3expressing regulatory T cell (Treg) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Administration of FPP suppressed tumor size and the incidence of malignancy. In vitro, treatment of PBMC with FPP induced IL1?, TNFα and IFNγ production. Moreover, FPP suppressed proliferation of PHAstimulated Foxp3expressing Treg. These results suggest that FPP has chemotherapeutic properties. PMID:27509932

  17. Anti-tumor effect of SLPI on mammary but not colon tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Reiteri, R Macarena; Payés, Cristian; Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Sánchez, Mercedes L; Maffia, Paulo C; Diament, Miriam; Karas, Romina; Orqueda, Andrés; Rizzo, Miguel; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo; Klein, Slobodanka; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, H Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor that was related to cancer development and metastasis dissemination on several types of tumors. However, it is not known the effect of SLPI on mammary and colon tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of SLPI on mammary and colon tumor growth. The effect of SLPI was tested on in vitro cell apoptosis and in vivo tumor growth experiments. SLPI over-expressing human and murine mammary and colon tumor cells were generated by gene transfection. The administration of murine mammary tumor cells over-expressing high levels of SLPI did not develop tumors in mice. On the contrary, the administration of murine colon tumor cells over-expressing SLPI, developed faster tumors than control cells. Intratumoral, but not intraperitoneal administration of SLPI, delayed the growth of tumors and increased the survival of mammary but not colon tumor bearing mice. In vitro culture of mammary tumor cell lines treated with SLPI, and SLPI producer clones were more prone to apoptosis than control cells, mainly under serum deprivation culture conditions. Herein we demonstrated that SLPI induces the apoptosis of mammary tumor cells in vitro and decreases the mammary but not colon tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, SLPI may be a new potential therapeutic tool for certain tumors, such as mammary tumors. PMID:22767220

  18. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; D’Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G.; Bu, Xiu R.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents. PMID:26121643

  19. Willow Leaves' Extracts Contain Anti-Tumor Agents Effective against Three Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    El-Shemy, Hany A.; Aboul-Enein, Ahmed M.; Aboul-Enein, Khalid Mostafa; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2007-01-01

    Many higher plants contain novel metabolites with antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties. However, in the developed world almost all clinically used chemotherapeutics have been produced by in vitro chemical synthesis. Exceptions, like taxol and vincristine, were structurally complex metabolites that were difficult to synthesize in vitro. Many non-natural, synthetic drugs cause severe side effects that were not acceptable except as treatments of last resort for terminal diseases such as cancer. The metabolites discovered in medicinal plants may avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs, because they must accumulate within living cells. The aim here was to test an aqueous extract from the young developing leaves of willow (Salix safsaf, Salicaceae) trees for activity against human carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In vivo Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) were injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The willow extract was fed via stomach tube. The (EACC) derived tumor growth was reduced by the willow extract and death was delayed (for 35 days). In vitro the willow extract could kill the majority (75%–80%) of abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from seven patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 13 with AML (acute myeloid leukemia). DNA fragmentation patterns within treated cells inferred targeted cell death by apoptosis had occurred. The metabolites within the willow extract may act as tumor inhibitors that promote apoptosis, cause DNA damage, and affect cell membranes and/or denature proteins. PMID:17264881

  20. Effects of psoralens as anti-tumoral agents in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Panno, Maria Luisa; Giordano, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the biological properties of coumarins, widely distributed at the highest levels in the fruit, followed by the roots, stems and leaves, by considering their beneficial effects in the prevention of some diseases and as anti-cancer agents. These compounds are well known photosensitizing drugs which have been used as pharmaceuticals for a broad number of therapeutic applications requiring cell division inhibitors. Despite this, even in the absence of ultraviolet rays they are active. The current paper mainly focuses on the effects of psoralens on human breast cancer as they are able to influence many aspects of cell behavior, such as cell growth, survival and apoptosis. In addition, analytical and pharmacological data have demonstrated that psoralens antagonize some metabolizing enzymes, affect estrogen receptor stability and counteract cell invasiveness as well as cancer drug resistance. The scientific findings summarized highlight the pleiotropic functions of phytochemical drugs, given that recently their target signals and how these are modified in the cells have been identified. The encouraging results in this field suggest that multiple modulating strategies based on coumarin drugs in combination with canonical chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy could be a useful approach to address the treatment of many types of cancer. PMID:25114850

  1. Selenium Induces an Anti-tumor Effect Via Inhibiting Intratumoral Angiogenesis in a Mouse Model of Transplanted Canine Mammary Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyu; Guo, Mengyao; Liu, Yuzhu; Mu, Weiwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Li, Chengye; Qiu, Changwei

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) has been widely reported to possess anti-tumor effects. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and is required to supply oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. To explore whether the anti-tumor effect of Se was associated with angiogenesis in vivo, we studied the effects of sodium selenite (Sel) and methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumors induced by canine mammary tumor cells (CMT1211) in mice; cyclophosphamide (CTX) served as a positive control. The results showed that the Se content was significantly increased in the Sel and MSA groups. Se significantly inhibited the tumor weights and volumes. Large necrotic areas and scattered and abnormal small necrotic areas were observed in the Se treatment group. Immunofluorescence double staining showed a reduction in the microvessel density (MVD) and increment in the vessel maturation index (VMI) compared with the untreated control group. As expected, the protein and mRNA levels of the angiogenesis factors angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were decreased in the Se-treated tumors by IHC, as shown by western blotting and RT-QPCR. We also found that organic Se MSA provided stronger inhibition of tumor growth compared with inorganic sodium selenite (Sel). Altogether, our results indicated that Se exerted anti-tumor effects in vivo at least partially by inhibiting angiogenic factors. PMID:26507439

  2. Anti-tumor effect of RGD modified PTX loaded liposome on prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunjie; Zhou, Yaojun; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Cui, Li; Xu, Xianlin; Xu, Renfang; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report an active targeting liposomal formulation directed by a novel peptide (RGD) that specifically binds to the integrins receptors overexpressed on prostatic cancer cells. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo tumor drug targeting delivery of RGD modified liposomes on PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 5.2 times higher than that of LP on PC-3 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 3.2 times higher than that of LP on DU145 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of RGD-LP-PTX against PC-3 cells and DU145 cells were much stronger compared to that of LP-PTX and free PTX, respectively. The tumor spheroids experiment revealed that RGD-LP-PTX was more efficaciously internalized into tumor spheroids than LP in both PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. Compared to LP-PTX and free PTX, RGD-LP-PTX showed the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vivo. In brief, the RGD-LP may be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for prostatic cancer. PMID:26550128

  3. Exploring the anti-tumoral effects of tick saliva and derived components.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Prado; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods with an outstanding ability to remain attached to its host for considerable periods while blood-feeding and remaining unnoticed. Their success results from the ability to modulate hemostatic and host immune responses. The ability to "bypass" a host's defenses, prevent blood clotting and wound healing makes ticks utterly interesting animals for the development of new drugs. Studies worldwide on various tick species have shown that tick saliva possesses a wide array of lipidic and proteic biomolecules with useful properties. These include not only immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-clotting properties, but also cytotoxic and cytolitic properties that act against various cell types, and anti-angiogenic properties, which have gained increasing prominence. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier and other sites for publications regarding tick saliva and its effects on cancer cells and angiogenesis. Our aim was to compile a list of molecules with potential for host adaptation and for the development of new cancer treatment drugs. PMID:26079950

  4. Anti-Tumoral Effects of Anti-Progestins in a Patient-Derived Breast Cancer Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Esber, Nathalie; Cherbonnier, Clément; Resche-Rigon, Michèle; Hamze, Abdallah; Alami, Mouad; Fagart, Jérôme; Loosfelt, Hugues; Lombès, Marc; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone-dependent disease in which estrogen signaling targeting drugs fail in about 10 % due to resistance. Strong evidences highlighted the mitogen role of progesterone, its ligands, and the corresponding progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms in mammary carcinoma. Several PR antagonists have been synthesized; however, some of them are non-selective and led to side or toxic effects. Herein, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of a commercially available PR modulator, ulipristal acetate (UPA), and a new selective and passive PR antagonist "APR19" in a novel preclinical approach based on patient-derived breast tumor (HBCx-34) xenografted in nude mice. As opposed to P4 that slightly reduces tumor volume, UPA and APR19 treatment for 42 days led to a significant 30 % reduction in tumor weight, accompanied by a significant 40 % retardation in tumor growth upon UPA exposure while a 1.5-fold increase in necrotic areas was observed in APR19-treated tumors. Interestingly, PR expression was upregulated by a 2.5-fold factor in UPA-treated tumors while APR19 significantly reduced expression of both PR and estrogen receptor α, indicating a potential distinct molecular mechanism among PR antagonists. Cell proliferation was clearly reduced in UPA group compared to vehicle conditions, as revealed by the significant reduction in Ki-67, Cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Likewise, an increase in activated, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was also demonstrated upon UPA exposure. Collectively, our findings provide direct in vivo evidence for anti-progestin-mediated control of human breast cancer growth, given their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities, supporting a potential role in breast cancer therapy. PMID:26941094

  5. Additive Anti-Tumor Effects of Lovastatin and Everolimus In Vitro through Simultaneous Inhibition of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Maurer, Julian; Spöttl, Gerald; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Reuther, Clemens; Young, Karen; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Grossman, Ashley; Auernhammer, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mTORC1-inhibitor everolimus shows limited efficacy in treating patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and poor outcome in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma or hepatic carcinoma. We speculated that any effect may be enhanced by antogonising other signaling pathways. Methods Therefore, we tested the effect of lovastatin—known to inhibit both ERK and AKT signaling—and everolimus, separately and in combination, on cell viability and signaling pathways in human midgut (GOT), pancreatic (BON1), and pulmonary (H727) NET, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, Huh7), and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC, MTT) cell lines. Results Lovastatin and everolimus separately significantly reduced cell viability in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells at clinically relevant doses (P ≤ 0.05). However, high doses of lovastatin were necessary to affect GOT or BON1 cell viability. Clinically relevant doses of both drugs showed additive anti-tumor effects in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells (P ≤ 0.05), but not in BON1 or GOT cells. In all cell lines investigated, lovastatin inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling. Subsequently, combination treatment more strongly inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling than everolimus alone, or at least attenuated everolimus-induced EGFR or AKT activation. Vice versa, everolimus constantly decreased pp70S6K and combination treatment more strongly decreased pp70S6K than lovastatin alone, or attenuated lovastatin-induced p70S6K activation: in BON1 cells lovastatin-induced EGFR inhibition was least pronounced, possibly explaining the low efficacy and consequent absent additive effect. Conclusion In summary, clinically relevant doses of lovastatin and everolimus were effective separately and showed additive effects in 5 out of 7 cell lines. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting several interacting signaling pathways simultaneously when attempting to attenuate tumor growth. However, the variable

  6. In vivo tumor targeting and anti-tumor effects of 5-fluororacil loaded, folic acid targeted quantum dot system.

    PubMed

    Bwatanglang, Ibrahim Birma; Mohammad, Faruq; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Hussein, Mohd Zubir; Abu, Nadiah; Mohammed, Nurul Elyani; Nordin, Noraini; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we modulated the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) using a carrier system with enhanced targeting efficacy towards folate receptors (FRs) expressing malignant tissues. The 5-FU drug was loaded onto Mn-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated with chitosan (CS) biopolymer and conjugated with folic acid (FA) based on a simple wet chemical method. The formation of 5-FU drug loaded composite was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the in vivo biodistribution and tumor targeting specificity of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS in the tumor-bearing mice was conducted based on the Zn(2+) tissue bioaccumulation using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. In addition to the characterization, the in vitro release profile of 5-FU from the conjugates investigated under diffusion controlled method demonstrated a controlled release behaviour as compared against the release behaviour of free 5-FU drug. The as-synthesized 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS nanoparticle (NP) systemically induced higher level of apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro as compared to cells treated with free 5-FU drug following both cell cycle and annexin assays, respectively. Also, the in vivo toxicity assessment of the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs as compared to the control did not cause any significant increase in the activities of the liver and kidney function biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, based on the FA-FRs chemistry, the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS NPs specifically accumulated in the tumor of the tumor-bearing mice and thus contributed to the smaller tumor size and less event of metastasis was observed in the lungs when compared to the tumor-bearing mice groups treated with the free 5-FU drug. In summary, the results demonstrated that the 5-FU@FACS-Mn:ZnS QDs exhibits selective anti-tumor effect in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells in vitro and 4TI breast

  7. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo *

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

  8. Fasting protects against the side effects of irinotecan but preserves its anti-tumor effect in Apc15lox mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Sander A; Bijman-Lagcher, Wendy; IJzermans, Jan NM; Smits, Ron; de Bruin, Ron WF

    2015-01-01

    Irinotecan is a widely used topoisomerase-I-inhibitor with a very narrow therapeutic window because of its severe toxicity. In the current study we have examined the effects of fasting prior to irinotecan treatment on toxicity and anti-tumor activity. FabplCre;Apc15lox/+ mice, which spontaneously develop intestinal tumors, of 27 weeks of age were randomized into 3-day fasted and ad libitum fed groups, followed by treatment with a flat-fixed high dose of irinotecan or vehicle. Side-effects were recorded until 11 days after the start of the experiment. Tumor size, and markers for cell-cycle activity, proliferation, angiogenesis, and senescence were measured. Fasted mice were protected against the side-effects of irinotecan treatment. Ad libitum fed mice developed visible signs of discomfort including weight loss, lower activity, ruffled coat, hunched-back posture, diarrhea, and leukopenia. Irinotecan reduced tumor size in fasted and ad libitum fed groups similarly compared to untreated controls (2.4 ± 0.67 mm and 2.4 ± 0.82 mm versus 3.0 ± 1.05 mm and 2.8 ± 1.08 mm respectively, P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced proliferation, a reduced number of vascular endothelial cells, and increased levels of senescence in tumors of both irinotecan treated groups. In conclusion, 3 days of fasting protects against the toxic side-effects of irinotecan in a clinically relevant mouse model of spontaneously developing colorectal cancer without affecting its anti-tumor activity. These results support fasting as a powerful way to improve treatment of colorectal carcinoma patients. PMID:25955194

  9. Peripheral Opioid Antagonist Enhances the Effect of Anti-Tumor Drug by Blocking a Cell Growth-Suppressive Pathway In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yumi; Ashikawa, Maho; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Komatsu, Masayuki; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagase, Hiroshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Sasaki, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to “wake up” these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX) enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc) by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF) and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs). The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:25853862

  10. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masami; Chiwaki, Fumiko; Sawada, Yumi; Ashikawa, Maho; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Komatsu, Masayuki; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagase, Hiroshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Sasaki, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to "wake up" these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX) enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc) by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF) and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs). The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:25853862

  11. Combination of treatment with death receptor 5-specific antibody with therapeutic HPV DNA vaccination generates enhanced therapeutic anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih Wen; Monie, Archana; Trimble, Cornelia; Alvarez, Ronald D; Huh, Warner K; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Straughn, J Michael; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Yagita, Hideo; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2008-08-12

    There is currently a vital need for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the control of advanced stage cancers. Antigen-specific immunotherapy and the employment of antibodies against the death receptor 5 (DR5) have emerged as two potentially promising strategies for cancer treatment. In the current study, we hypothesize that the combination of treatment with the anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, MD5-1 with a DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 antigen (CRT/E7(detox)) administered via gene gun would lead to further enhancement of E7-specific immune responses as well as anti-tumor effects. Our results indicated that mice bearing the E7-expressing tumor, TC-1 treated with MD5-1 monoclonal antibody followed by CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccination generated the most potent therapeutic anti-tumor effects as well as highest levels of E7-specific CD8+ T cells among all the groups tested. In addition, treatment with MD5-1 monoclonal antibody was capable of rendering the TC-1 tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Our findings serve as an important foundation for future clinical translation. PMID:18598733

  12. A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Lin, Su-I; Chen, I-Hua; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Chiang, I-Ping; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is attractive for antigen-specific T cell-mediated anti-tumor therapy, especially in induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this report, we evaluated human CTL epitope-induced anti-tumor effects in human lung cancer xenograft models. The tumor associated antigen L6 (TAL6) is highly expressed in human lung cancer cell lines and tumor specimens as compared to normal lung tissues. TAL6 derived peptides strongly inhibited tumor growth, cancer metastasis and prolonged survival time in HLA-A2 transgenic mice immunized with a formulation of T-helper (Th) peptide, synthetic CpG ODN, and adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 (ISA-51). Adoptive transfer of peptide-induced CTL cells from HLA-A2 transgenic mice into human tumor xenograft SCID mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, combination of CTL-peptide immunotherapy and gemcitabine additively improved the therapeutic effects. This pre-clinical evaluation model provides a useful platform to develop efficient immunotherapeutic drugs to treat lung cancer and demonstrates a promising strategy with benefit of antitumor immune responses worthy of further development in clinical trials. PMID:26621839

  13. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a novel AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist with anti-hypertension and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaolu; Zhu, Weibo; Da, Yajing; Zhu, Linfeng; Qie, Li; Yan, Yijia; Wang, Li; Tang, Hesheng; Chen, Zhi-long

    2015-01-01

    A new compound 2-(4-((2-butyl-5-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indol-1-yl) benzamide (1) was designed, synthesized and evaluated as a novel AT1 receptor antagonist. Compound 1 displayed high affinity to AT1 receptor with an IC50 value of 1.65 ± 0.2 nM in radio-ligand binding assays. It had an efficient and long-lasting effect in reducing blood pressure which could last for more than 12 h at the dose of 10 mg/kg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Acute toxicity tests suggested that compound 1 was safe with the LD50 value of 2519.81 mg/kg. Besides, in vitro and in vivo tests suggested its anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, respectively. So compound 1 could be considered as a novel anti-hypertension, anti-tumor candidate and deserved further investigation. PMID:25919352

  14. Anti-Tumor Effect of Pinus massoniana Bark Proanthocyanidins on Ovarian Cancer through Induction of Cell Apoptosis and Inhibition of Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Bai, Jing; Jiang, Guoqiang; Li, Xinli; Wang, Jing; Wu, Dachang; Owusu, Lawrence; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2015-01-01

    Pinus massoniana bark proanthocyanidins (PMBPs), an active component isolated from Pinus massoniana bark, has been reported to possess a wide range of biochemical properties. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of PMBPs on ovarian cancer. The results indicated that PMBPs significantly reduced the growth of ovarian cancer cells and induced dose-dependent apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms involved were elucidated to include the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the activation of Caspase 3/9, suggesting that PMBPs triggered apoptosis through activation of mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. In addition, wound healing and transwell chamber assays revealed that PMBPs could suppress migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. PMBPs dramatically inhibited MMP-9 activity and expression, blocked the activity of NFκB and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Our findings suggest that PMBPs has the potential to be developed as an anti-tumor drug for ovarian cancer treatment and/ or disease management. PMID:26539720

  15. Suppression of HSP27 increases the anti-tumor effects of quercetin in human leukemia U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XI; DONG, XIU-SHUAI; GAO, HAI-YAN; JIANG, YONG-FANG; JIN, YING-LAN; CHANG, YU-YING; CHEN, LI-YAN; WANG, JING-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits the growth of leukemia cells and induces apoptosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been reported to promote the development of leukemia by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis through various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated HSP27 knockdown on the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells. Cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector pCMV-G-NR-U6-shHSP27 (shHSP27), which expressed shRNA specifically targeting the HSP27 gene, alone or in combination with quercetin. The results showed that shHSP27 and quercetin synergistically inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl2-to-Bax ratio. Furthermore, this combined treatment significantly suppressed the infiltration of tumor cells and the expression of angiogenesis-associated proteins HIF1α and VEGF. Compared with shHSP27 or quercetin alone, shHSP27 plus quercetin markedly decreased the protein expression of cyclinD1 and thus blocked the cell cycle at G1 phase. The Notch/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is important in tumor aggressiveness; quercetin plus shHSP27 significantly decreased Notch 1 expression and the phosphorylation levels of the downstream signaling proteins AKT and mTOR. The inhibitory effects of quercetin plus shHSP27 on this pathway may thus have been responsible for the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferations and infiltration as well as enhancement of apoptosis. Therefore, these findings collectively suggested that suppression of HSP27 expression amplified the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells, and that quercetin in combination with shHSP27 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for human leukemia. PMID:26648539

  16. Separation and purification of an anti-tumor peptide from rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) and the effect on cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Qiang; Xie, Huihui; Shi, Jiayi; Ju, Xingrong

    2016-05-18

    Rapeseed peptides were prepared by means of the combined methods of the laboratory bacteria enzyme synergy and the solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal. The rapeseed peptides were separated and purified with the tumor cell in vitro anti-proliferative activity as an index. Moreover, a kind of rapeseed peptide component RSP-4-3-3 (rapeseed anti-tumor peptide RSP-4-3-3) with high activity was selected. Furthermore, by using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the analysis result of its possible amino acid sequence showed that it was Trp-Thr-Pro (408.2 Da). Inverted microscope observation technology and western blot experiments were applied to explore the antitumor impact of the rapeseed peptide RSP-4-3-3 on tumor cells. The results showed that the rapeseed antitumor peptide RSP-4-3-3 could significantly change the morphological features of the HepG2 cells in vitro and cause apoptosis, thus inhibiting the proliferation of the HepG2 cells. PMID:27116475

  17. The Anti-Tumor Effect of A3 Adenosine Receptors Is Potentiated by Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Cultured Neural Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2012-01-01

    A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the development of cancer and their activation is involved in the inhibition of tumor growth. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cancer have been controversially discussed and the detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the past we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A2A and A3AR density and functionality in human neutrophils, human and bovine synoviocytes, and bovine chondrocytes. In the same cells, PEMF exposure increased the anti-inflammatory effect mediated by A2A and/or A3ARs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-tumor effect of A3ARs in PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines in comparison with rat cortical neurons. Saturation binding assays and mRNA analysis revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A2A and A3ARs that are well coupled to adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production. The activation of A2A and A3ARs resulted in the decrease of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) levels in tumor cells, whilst only A3ARs are involved in the increase of p53 expression. A3AR stimulation mediated an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation evaluated by thymidine incorporation. An increase of cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in PC12 and U87MG cells, but not in cortical neurons, was observed following A3AR activation. The effect of the A3AR agonist in tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and blocked by using a well-known selective antagonist. Together these results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increases the anti-tumor effect modulated by A3ARs. PMID:22761760

  18. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  19. Electrotransfer of Plasmid DNA Encoding an Anti-Mouse Endoglin (CD105) shRNA to B16 Melanoma Tumors with Low and High Metastatic Potential Results in Pronounced Anti-Tumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Sersa, Gregor; Prosen, Lara; Bosnjak, Masa; Stimac, Monika; Razborsek, Urska; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Endoglin overexpression is associated with highly proliferative tumor endothelium and also with some tumors, including melanoma. Its targeting has anti-tumor effectiveness, which can also be obtained by RNA interference. The aim of our study was to explore the anti-tumor effectiveness of endoglin silencing by electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against endoglin in two murine B16 melanoma variants with different metastatic potential on cells, spheroids and subcutaneous tumors in mice. The results demonstrate that endoglin silencing with gene electrotransfer reduces the proliferation, survival and migration of melanoma cells and also has anti-tumor effectiveness, as the therapy resulted in a high percentage of tumor cures (23% and 58% on B16F1 and B16F10 tumors, respectively). The effectiveness of the therapy correlated with endoglin expression in melanoma cells; in vitro the effects were more pronounced in B16F1 cells, which express more endoglin than B16F10. However, the opposite was observed in vivo in tumors, where there was a higher expression of endoglin and better anti-tumor effectiveness in the B16F10 tumor. In conclusion, targeting endoglin for the treatment of melanoma seems to be a concept worthy of further exploration due to the increased therapeutic effect of the therapy based on simultaneous vascular targeting and its direct effect on tumor cells. PMID:26712792

  20. Electrotransfer of Plasmid DNA Encoding an Anti-Mouse Endoglin (CD105) shRNA to B16 Melanoma Tumors with Low and High Metastatic Potential Results in Pronounced Anti-Tumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Sersa, Gregor; Prosen, Lara; Bosnjak, Masa; Stimac, Monika; Razborsek, Urska; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Endoglin overexpression is associated with highly proliferative tumor endothelium and also with some tumors, including melanoma. Its targeting has anti-tumor effectiveness, which can also be obtained by RNA interference. The aim of our study was to explore the anti-tumor effectiveness of endoglin silencing by electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against endoglin in two murine B16 melanoma variants with different metastatic potential on cells, spheroids and subcutaneous tumors in mice. The results demonstrate that endoglin silencing with gene electrotransfer reduces the proliferation, survival and migration of melanoma cells and also has anti-tumor effectiveness, as the therapy resulted in a high percentage of tumor cures (23% and 58% on B16F1 and B16F10 tumors, respectively). The effectiveness of the therapy correlated with endoglin expression in melanoma cells; in vitro the effects were more pronounced in B16F1 cells, which express more endoglin than B16F10. However, the opposite was observed in vivo in tumors, where there was a higher expression of endoglin and better anti-tumor effectiveness in the B16F10 tumor. In conclusion, targeting endoglin for the treatment of melanoma seems to be a concept worthy of further exploration due to the increased therapeutic effect of the therapy based on simultaneous vascular targeting and its direct effect on tumor cells. PMID:26712792

  1. Anti-Tumor Effect of a Novel Soluble Recombinant Human Endostatin: Administered as a Single Agent or in Combination with Chemotherapy Agents in Mouse Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenhong; Dai, Wei; Jiang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis has become an attractive target in cancer treatment. Endostatin is one of the potent anti-angiogenesis agents. Its recombinant form expressed in the yeast system is currently under clinical trials. Endostatin suppresses tumor formation through the inhibition of blood vessel growth. It is anticipated that combined therapy using endostatin and cytotoxic compounds may exert an additive effect. In the present study, we expressed and purified recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin) that contained 3 additional amino acid residues (arginine, glycine, and serine) at the amino-terminus and 6 histidine residues in its carboxyl terminus. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. Coli and refolded into a soluble form in a large scale purification process. The protein exhibited a potent anti-tumor activity in bioassays. Furthermore, rhEndostatin showed an additive effect with chemotherapy agents including cyclophosphamide (CTX) and cisplatin (DDP). Methods rhEndostatin cDNA was cloned into PQE vector and expressed in E. Coli. The protein was refolded through dialysis with an optimized protocol. To establish tumor models, nude mice were subcutaneously injected with human cancer cells (lung carcinoma A549, hepatocellular carcinoma QGY-7703, or breast cancer Bcap37). rhEndostatin and/or DDP was administered peritumorally to evaluate the rate of growth inhibition of A549 tumors. For the tumor metastasis model, mice were injected intravenously with mouse melanoma B16 cells. One day after tumor cell injection, a single dose of rhEndostatin, or in combination with CTX, was administered intravenously or at a site close to the tumor. Results rhEndostatin reduced the growth of A549, QGY-7703, and Bcap37 xenograft tumors in a dose dependent manner. When it was administered peritumorally, rhEndostatin exhibited a more potent inhibitory activity. Furthermore, rhEndostatin displayed an additive effect with CTX or DDP on the inhibition of metastasis of B16 tumors

  2. Isorhamnetin augments the anti-tumor effect of capeciatbine through the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling cascade in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Manu, Kanjoormana A; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Ramachandran, Lalitha; Li, Feng; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Arfuso, Frank; Kumar, Alan Prem; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-07-10

    Development of drug resistance to standard chemotherapy is a common phenomenon that leads to poor prognosis in patients. Thus, novel agents that can attenuate chemoresistance are urgently needed. Therefore, we analyzed whether isorhamnetin (IH), a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, can enhance the potential efficacy of capecitabine in gastric cancer. The potential effect of IH on viability was analyzed by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis, and NF-κB activation by DNA binding as well as Western blot assays. The in vivo effect of IH was also examined on the growth of subcutaneously implanted tumors in nude mice. IH inhibited the viability, potentiated the apoptotic effects of capecitabine, abrogated NF-κB activation, and suppressed the expression of various NF-κB regulated gene products in tumor cells. In a gastric cancer xenograft model, administration of IH alone (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) significantly suppressed the tumor growth alone as well as in combination with capecitabine. IH further reduced NF-κB activation and the expression of various proliferative and oncogenic biomarkers in tumor tissues. Overall, our results demonstrate that IH can significantly enhance the anti-tumor effects of capecitabine through the negative regulation of NF-κB regulated oncogenic genes. PMID:25827070

  3. Fiber-mutant technique can augment gene transduction efficacy and anti-tumor effects against established murine melanoma by cytokine-gene therapy using adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuka; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kanehira, Makiko; Nishino, Naoko; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuyasu; Hayakawa, Takao; Mayumi, Tadanori

    2002-03-01

    Melanoma cells are relatively resistant to adenovirus vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer due to the low expression of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which acts as a primitive Ad-receptor. Therefore, extremely high doses of Ad are required for effective gene therapy against melanoma. In the present study, we investigated whether fiber-mutant Ad containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the fiber knob could promote gene delivery and anti-tumor effects in the murine B16 BL6 tumor model. B16 BL6 cells (in vitro) and tumors (in vivo) infected with RGD fiber-mutant Ad containing a tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (Ad-RGD-TNFalpha) produced more TNFalpha than those infected with conventional Ad-TNFalpha. In addition, Ad-RGD-TNFalpha required about one-tenth the dosage of Ad-TNFalpha for induction of equal therapeutic effects upon intratumoral injection into established B16 BL6 tumors. Furthermore, the combination of both TNFalpha- and interleukin 12-expressing RGD fiber-mutant Ads exhibited more effective tumor regression than the Ad expressing each alone. These results suggested that the fiber-mutant for altering Ad-tropism is a very potent technology for advancing gene therapy for melanoma. PMID:11809531

  4. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments. PMID:26593985

  5. An aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall induces anti-tumor effects in melanoma-injected mice via modulation of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Krifa, Mounira; Skandrani, Ines; Pizzi, Antonio; Nasr, Nouha; Ghedira, Zied; Mustapha, Nadia; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor potential of the aqueous gall extract (G extract) from Limoniastrum guyonianum and to elucidate its immunological mechanisms, in part, by assessing its effects on the growth of transplanted tumors and the immune response in these tumor-bearing mice. Here, mice were inoculated with B16F10 mouse tumor cells and then treated intraperitoneally with G extract at 25 or 50 mg extract/kg BW for 7, 14, or 21 days. At each timepoint, effects of the extract on the tumor growth, splenocytes proliferation, NK cell activity, and CTL activity among splenocytes isolated from the mice were measured. G extract-induced tumor growth inhibition was associated with characteristic apoptotic changes in the tumor cells, like nuclear condensation. In addition, the extract inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity among melanoma cells in a concentration-related manner. G extract did not only significantly inhibit the growth of the transplantable tumor, but also remarkably increased splenocytes proliferation and both NK and CTL activities in tumor-bearing mice. The extract was also seen to have promoted lysosomal activity of host macrophages and gave rise to enhanced cellular anti-oxidant activity in several cell types in mice. PMID:24705020

  6. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kurio, Naito; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Ikeda, Masahiko; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new fluorine substituted derivatives as angiotensin II receptor antagonists with anti-hypertension and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Da, Ya-jing; Yuan, Wei-dong; Xin, Ting; Nie, Yong-yan; Ye, Ying; Yan, Yi-Jia; Liang, Li-sha; Chen, Zhi-long

    2012-12-15

    The synthesis and pharmaceutical activity of new potent non-tetrazole angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists were described. These compounds were fluorine substituted derivatives of Losartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan with carboxylic acid group as replacements to the known potent tetrazole moiety at the 2'-biphenyl position. Their activities were evaluated by Ang II receptor binding assay as well as by in vivo assay. All of the synthesized compounds showed nanomolar affinity for the AT(1) receptor subtype. The vivo biological evaluation showed that compounds 1a, 2 and 4 produced a dose-dependent antihypertensive effect both in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and renal hypertensive rats (RHR). Compound 4 especially showed an efficient and long-lasting effect in reducing blood pressure which can last more than 24 h at dose of 10 mg/kg in SHR, which was much better than control Losartan and Valsartan. Compound 4 can also inhibit the prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. So compound 4 was selected for in-depth investigation as potent, novel and long-lasting non-tetrazole anti-hypertension and anti-tumor drug candidate. PMID:23122933

  8. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kurio, Naito; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Ikeda, Masahiko; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr(397) inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases. PMID:21338601

  9. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G.; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogenetic factors. Moreover, acadesine was highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, commonly used in combination therapy for MCL. Gene expression profiling analysis in harvested tumors suggested that acadesine modulates immune response, actin cytoskeleton organization and metal binding, pointing out a substantial impact on metabolic processes by the nucleoside analog. Rituximab also induced changes on metal binding and immune responses. The combination of both drugs enhanced the gene signature corresponding to each single agent, showing an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, metabolic stress, apoptosis and proliferation. These effects could be important as aberrant apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MCL. In summary, our results suggest that acadesine exerts a cytotoxic effect in MCL in combination with rituximab, by decreasing the proliferative and survival signatures of the disease, thus supporting the clinical examination of this strategy in MCL patients. PMID:24519895

  10. TLR7/8 agonists promote NK-DC cross-talk to enhance NK cell anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixia; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Cai

    2015-12-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer death. Immunotherapy is considered a promising treatment with the aim to boost or arouse HCC-specific immune responses. TLR7 and TLR8 agonists are effective immunomodulators and have been applied topically for the treatment of certain skin tumors and viral infections. Here, we explored the role of TLR7 and TLR8 agonists on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells. We demonstrated that these agonists could directly activate NK cells, promoting the maturation of immature DCs. Meanwhile, DCs also assisted in the function of NK cells, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immune responses to HCC. Importantly, the combination therapy with NK cells stimulated with DCs and TLR7/8 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) significantly suppresses the growth of human HepG2 liver carcinoma xenografts. This study provides a new immunotherapeutic approach for human HCC based on DC-NK cross-talk and also suggests that TLR7 and/or TLR8 agonists, particularly GDQ, may serve as potent innate and adaptive immune response immunomodulators in tumor therapy. PMID:26433159

  11. Turmeric enhancing anti-tumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins by influencing their metabolic profiling in tumors of H22 hepatocarcinoma mice.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Chai, Hongyan; Qiu, Peiyu; Liu, Zhen; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jiaming; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-12-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponins combined with turmeric (RT) showed well anti-hepatocarcinoma activities in our previous research. The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of the biochemical response to RT and capture metabolic variations during intragastric administration of their compatibility. In the experiment, histopathological examination and (1)H NMR method were developed and validated for the metabolic profiling of RT intervention in H22 tumor growth. Data were analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). As a result, Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) or RT induced inflammatory cell infiltration in tumors. RT also mediated the tumor microenvironment to promote anti-tumor immunity of mice. RT significantly inhibited tumor growth rate through suppressing levels of amino acids containing alanine, asparagine, glutamine, putrescine, and sarcosine, lipid compounds, and carbohydrates like myo-inositol and arabinose in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these results uncovered unexpectedly poor nutritional conditions in the RT-treated tumor tissues whose effect was stronger than RPS's. Therefore, RT could be a novel anticancer agent that targets on cancer metabolism through starving tumors reducing viability of cancer cells. PMID:26471217

  12. Development of natural anti-tumor drugs by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Che; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Wu, Ho-Shing; Wei, Yu-Hong

    2011-05-01

    Discoveries of tumor-resistant pharmacological drugs have mainly resulted from screening of natural products and their analogs. Some are also discovered incidentally when studying organisms. The great biodiversity of microorganisms raises the possibility of producing secondary metabolites (e.g., mevastatin, lovastatin, epothilone, salinosporamide A) to cope with adverse environments. Recently, natural plant pigments with anti-tumor activities such as β-carotene, lycopene, curcumin and anthocyanins have been proposed. However, many plants have a long life cycle. Therefore, pigments from microorganisms represent another option for the development of novel anti-tumor drugs. Prodigiosin (PG) is a natural red pigment produced by microorganisms, i.e., Serratia marcescens and other gram-negative bacteria. The anti-tumor potential of PG has been widely demonstrated. The families of PG (PGs), which share a common pyrrolylpyrromethene (PPM) skeleton, are produced by various bacteria. PGs are bioactive pigments and are known to exert immunosuppressive properties, in vitro apoptotic effects, and in vivo anti-tumor activities. Currently the most common strain used for producing PGs is S. marcescens. However, few reports have discussed PGs production. This review therefore describes the development of an anti-tumor drug, PG, that can be naturally produced by microorganisms, and evaluates the microbial production system, fermentation strategies, purification and identification processes. The application potential of PGs is also discussed. PMID:21277252

  13. Effect of anti-asthma Chinese medicine Chuankezhi on the anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Jing; Pan, Ke; Wang, Qi-Jing; Xu, Zheng-Di; Weng, De-Sheng; Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Chuankezhi (CKZ), a new Chinese medicine, plays an important role in immunoregulation. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have been commonly used for immunotherapy in recent years. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory effect of CKZ on CIK cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and CIK cells were generated by culturing monocytes with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2. Different concentrations of CKZ were added on day 2. After incubation for 14 days in culture, the antitumor effects of CIK cells were measured by cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometry was used to explore the effect of CKZ on CIK cell immunophenotype, intracellular cytokine production, and apoptosis. The effect of CKZ on the antitumor activity of CIK cells in nude mice was also investigated. CKZ increased the percentage of CD3+CD56+ CIK cells but did not significantly change the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, or CD4+CD25+ CIK cells. CKZ-conditioned CIK cells showed a greater ability to kill tumor cells, as well as a higher frequency of IFN-γ and TNF-α production, compared with the CIK cells in the control group. CKZ also suppressed the apoptosis of CIK cells in vitro. Furthermore, CKZ combined with CIK cells had a stronger suppressive effect on tumor growth in vivo than the CIK, CKZ, or normal saline control groups. Our results indicate that CKZ enhances the antitumor activity of CIK cells and is a potential medicine for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:23470144

  14. Synergistic Antifungal Effect of Glabridin and Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li Ping; Zhang, Jun Dong; Li, Qun; Shen, Hui; Chen, Si Min; He, Li Juan; Yan, Lan; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing in recent years. The present study mainly investigated glabridin (Gla) alone and especially in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida Glabratas) by different methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) indicated that Gla possessed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. After combining with FLC, Gla exerted a potent synergistic effect against drug-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis at lower concentrations when interpreted by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). Disk diffusion test and time-killing test confirming the synergistic fungicidal effect. Cell growth tests suggested that the synergistic effect of the two drugs depended more on the concentration of Gla. The cell envelop damage including a significant decrease of cell size and membrane permeability increasing were found after Gla treatment. Together, our results suggested that Gla possessed a synergistic effect with FLC and the cell envelope damage maybe contributed to the synergistic effect, which providing new information for developing novel antifungal agents. PMID:25058485

  15. CF102 an A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonist Mediates Anti-Tumor and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, S.; STEMMER, S.M.; ZOZULYA, G.; OCHAION, A.; PATOKA, R.; BARER, F.; BAR-YEHUDA, S.; RATH-WOLFSON, L.; JACOBSON, K.A.; FISHMAN, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Gi protein-associated A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is a member of the adenosine receptor family. Selective agonists at the A3AR, such as CF101 and CF102 were found to induce anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we examined the differential effect of CF102 in pathological conditions of the liver. The anti-inflammatory protective effect of CF101 was tested in a model of liver inflammation induced by Concanavalin A (Con. A) and the anti-cancer effect of CF102 was examined in vitro and in a xenograft animal model utilizing Hep-3B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The mechanism of action was explored by following the expression levels of key signaling proteins in the inflamed and tumor liver tissues, utilizing Western blot (WB) analysis. In the liver inflammation model, CF102 (100 μg/kg) markedly reduced the secretion of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase in comparison to the vehicle-treated group. Mechanistically, CF102 treatment decreased the expression level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β, NF-κB, and TNF-α and prevented apoptosis in the liver. This was demonstrated by decreased expression levels of Fas receptor (FasR) and of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in liver tissues. In addition, CF102-induced apoptosis of Hep-3B cells both in vitro and in vivo via de-regulation of the PI3K-NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, CF102 acts as a protective agent in liver inflammation and inhibits HCC tumor growth. These results suggest that CF102 through its differential effect is a potential drug candidate to treat various pathological liver conditions. PMID:21660967

  16. CF102 an A3 adenosine receptor agonist mediates anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Stemmer, S M; Zozulya, G; Ochaion, A; Patoka, R; Barer, F; Bar-Yehuda, S; Rath-Wolfson, L; Jacobson, K A; Fishman, P

    2011-09-01

    The Gi protein-associated A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3) AR) is a member of the adenosine receptor family. Selective agonists at the A(3) AR, such as CF101 and CF102 were found to induce anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we examined the differential effect of CF102 in pathological conditions of the liver. The anti-inflammatory protective effect of CF101 was tested in a model of liver inflammation induced by Concanavalin A (Con. A) and the anti-cancer effect of CF102 was examined in vitro and in a xenograft animal model utilizing Hep-3B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The mechanism of action was explored by following the expression levels of key signaling proteins in the inflamed and tumor liver tissues, utilizing Western blot (WB) analysis. In the liver inflammation model, CF102 (100 µg/kg) markedly reduced the secretion of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase in comparison to the vehicle-treated group. Mechanistically, CF102 treatment decreased the expression level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β, NF-κB, and TNF-α and prevented apoptosis in the liver. This was demonstrated by decreased expression levels of Fas receptor (FasR) and of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in liver tissues. In addition, CF102-induced apoptosis of Hep-3B cells both in vitro and in vivo via de-regulation of the PI3K-NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, CF102 acts as a protective agent in liver inflammation and inhibits HCC tumor growth. These results suggest that CF102 through its differential effect is a potential drug candidate to treat various pathological liver conditions. PMID:21660967

  17. Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin by Inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy. PMID:25000190

  18. Anti-tumoral effect of arsenic compound, sodium metaarsenite (KML001), in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Sun; Hwang, Deok Won; Kim, Eun Shil; Kim, Jung Soon; Kim, Sujong; Chung, Hwa Jin; Lee, Sang Kook; Yi, Jun Ho; Uhm, Jieun; Won, Young Woong; Park, Byeong Bae; Choi, Jung Hye; Lee, Young Yiul

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used in traditional medicine for several centuries. KML001 (sodium metaarsenite; NaAsO2) is an orally bio-available arsenic compound with potential anti-cancer activity. However, the effect of KML001 has not been studied in lymphoid neoplasms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of KML001 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and to compare its efficacy with As2O3. KML001 inhibited cellular proliferation in all tested lymphoma cell lines as well as JurkatR cells (adriamycin-resistant Jurkat cells) in a dose-dependent manner, while As2O3 was not effective. Cell cycle regulatory protein studies have suggested that KML001 induces G1 arrest via p27-induced inhibition of the kinase activities of CDK2, 4, and 6. Treatment of KML001 induced apoptosis in Jurkat and JurkatR cells. The apoptotic process was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic molecule), up-regulation of Bax (proapoptotic molecule), and inhibition of caspase-3, -8, and -9. In addition, cell signaling including the STAT, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways were inhibited in KML001-treated Jurkat and JurkatR cells. Furthermore, targeting the telomere by KML001 was observed in the Jurkat and JurkatR cells. The In vivo anti-tumoral activity of KML001 was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. Interestingly, partial responses were seen in two lymphoma patients treated with 10 mg/day (follicular lymphoma for 16 weeks and mantle cell lymphoma for 24 weeks) without severe toxicities. These findings suggest that KML001 may be a candidate agent for the treatment of de novo, refractory, and relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. PMID:26581399

  19. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects. PMID:24212665

  20. Resveratrol potentiates the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of curcumin in head and neck carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Masuelli, Laura; Stefano, Enrica Di; Fantini, Massimo; Mattera, Rosanna; Benvenuto, Monica; Marzocchella, Laura; Sacchetti, Pamela; Focaccetti, Chiara; Bernardini, Roberta; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Izzi, Valerio; Mattei, Maurizio; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Lista, Florigio; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The survival rate of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) patients has not considerably changed over the last two decades. Polyphenols inhibit the growth of cancer cells. We determined whether the combination of Resveratrol (RES) and Curcumin (CUR) enhanced their in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities on HNSCC cell lines compared to the single compounds. We provide evidence that RES potentiated the apoptotic effect and reduced the IC50 of CUR on HNSCC cell lines. The model of compounds interaction indicated the onset of an additive effect of the two compounds compared to the single treatment after decrease of their concentrations. RES+CUR compared to CUR increased the PARP-1 cleavage, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the inhibition of ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, and the expression of LC3 II simultaneously with the formation of autophagic vacuoles. RES and CUR induced cytoplasmic NF-κB accumulation. RES+CUR administrations were safe in BALB/c mice and reduced the growth of transplanted salivary gland cancer cells (SALTO) more efficiently than CUR. Overall, combinations of CUR and RES was more effective in inhibiting in vivo and in vitro cancer growth than the treatment with CUR. Additional studies will be needed to define the therapeutic potential of these compounds in combination. PMID:25296980

  1. Potent anti-tumor effects of a dual specific oncolytic adenovirus expressing apoptin in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive drug platform of cancer gene therapy, but efficacy and specificity are important prerequisites for success of such strategies. Previous studies determined that Apoptin is a p53 independent, bcl-2 insensitive apoptotic protein with the ability to specifically induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we generated a conditional replication-competent adenovirus (CRCA), designated Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, and investigated the effectiveness of the CRCA a gene therapy agent for further clinical trials. Results The observation that infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin significantly inhibited growth of the melanoma cells, protecting normal human epidermal melanocytes from growth inhibition confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction of this therapeutic approach. The in vivo assays performed by using C57BL/6 mice containing established primary or metastatic tumors expanded the in vitro studies. When treated with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, the subcutaneous primary tumor volume reduction was not only observed in intratumoral injection group but in systemic delivery mice. In the lung metastasis model, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin effectively suppressed pulmonary metastatic lesions. Furthermore, treatment of primary and metastatic models with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin increased mice survival. Conclusions These data further reinforce the previously research showing that an adenovirus expressing Apoptin is more effective and advocate the potential applications of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in the treatment of neoplastic diseases in future clinical trials. PMID:20085660

  2. Gold-gold sulfide nanoshell as a novel intensifier for anti-tumor effects of radiofrequency fields

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hamid Reza; Bahreyni-Toosi, Mohammad Hossein; Meybodi, Naser Tayebi; Esmaily, Habibollah; Soudmand, Samaneh; Eshghi, Hossein; Soudmand, Samaneh; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of various nanoparticles exposed to radiofrequency (RF) waves on cancerous tissues. In this study, a colon carcinoma tumor model was irradiated by RF in the presence of gold-gold sulfide (GGS) nanoshells. Materials and Methods: Synthesis and characterization of GGS nanoshells were initially performed. CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected into the flank of BALB/c mice to create the colon carcinoma tumor models. Then the tumors were subjected to different treatments. Treatment factors included intratumoral injection of GGS and RF radiation. Different groups were considered as control with no treatment, receiving GGS, RF irradiated and simultaneous administration of GGS and RF. Efficacy of the treatments was evaluated by daily monitoring of tumor volume and recording the relative changes in it, the time needed for a 5-fold increase in the volume of tumor (T5) and utilizing pathologic studies to determine the lost volume of the tumors. Results: In comparison with control group, tumor growth was not markedly inhibited in the groups receiving only GGS or RF, while in the group receiving GGS and RF, tumor growth was effectively inhibited compared with the other groups. In addition, the lost volume of the tumor and T5 was markedly higher in groups receiving GGS and RF compared with other groups. Conclusion: This study showed that RF radiation can markedly reduce the tumor growth in presence of GGS. Hence, it can be predicted that GGS nanoshells convert sub-lethal effects of noninvasive RF fields into lethal damages. PMID:25429343

  3. Potential anti-tumor effects of FTY720 associated with PP2A activation: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Ion; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Manso, Rebeca; González-Alonso, Paula; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya (†) ) is an FDA-approved immunosuppressant currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. However, a large number of studies over the last few years have shown that FTY720 shows potent antitumor properties that suggest its potential usefulness as a novel anticancer agent. Interestingly, the restoration of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity mediated by FTY720 could play a key role in its antitumor effects. Taking into account that PP2A inactivation is a common event that determines poor outcome in several tumor types, FTY720 could serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for cancer patients with such alterations. PMID:26950691

  4. Anti-Tumor Effects of Metformin in Animal Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Hernanda, Pratika Y.; Bramer, Wichor M.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van Luijk, Judith; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported that metformin can reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in diabetes patients. However, the direct anti-HCC effects of metformin have hardly been studied in patients, but have been extensively investigated in animal models of HCC. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies evaluating the effects of metformin on HCC. Methods We collected the relevant studies by searching EMBASE, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed Publisher, and Google Scholar. Studies were included according to the following inclusion criteria: HCC, animal study, and metformin intervention. Study quality was assessed using SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures: tumor growth (tumor volume, weight and size), tumor number and incidence. Results The search resulted in 573 references, of which 13 could be included in the review and 12 included in the meta-analysis. The study characteristics of the included studies varied considerably. Two studies used rats, while the others used mice. Only one study used female animals, nine used male, and three studies didn’t mention the gender of animals in their experiments. The quality of the included studies was low to moderate based on the assessment of their risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed that metformin significantly inhibited the growth of HCC tumour (SMD -2.20[-2.96,-1.43]; n=16), but no significant effect on the number of tumors (SMD-1.05[-2.13,0.03]; n=5) or the incidence of HCC was observed (RR 0.62[0.33,1.16]; n=6). To investigate the potential sources of significant heterogeneities found in outcome of tumor growth (I2=81%), subgroup analyses of scales of growth measures and of types of animal models used were performed. Conclusion Metformin appears to have a direct anti-HCC effect in animal models. Although the intrinsic limitations of animal studies, this systematic review could provide an important

  5. Anti-tumor effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): implication for cancer therapy. A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Zhang, Shaun Xiaoliu

    2016-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein and a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. It is widely expressed in human fetal and adult tissues but its expression decreases with age and in malignant tissues. The main anti-cancer activities of PEDF derive from its dual effects, either indirectly on the tumor microenvironment (indirect antitumor action) or directly on the tumor itself (direct antitumor influence). The indirect antitumor activities of PEDF were uncovered from the early findings that it stimulates retinoblastoma cell differentiation and that additionally it possesses anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic and anti-metastatic properties. The mechanisms of its direct antitumor effect, however, have not been fully elucidated. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the multifunctional activities of PEDF and, in particular, its anti-cancer signaling mechanisms. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using novel phosphaplatin compounds that can upregulate PEDF expression as a chemotherapy for cancer treatment. PMID:26746675

  6. Improved in vivo anti-tumor effects of IgA-Her2 antibodies through half-life extension and serum exposure enhancement by FcRn targeting

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Saskia; Nederend, Maaike; Jansen, J.H. Marco; Reiding, Karli R.; Jacobino, Shamir R.; Meeldijk, Jan; Bovenschen, Niels; Wuhrer, Manfred; Valerius, Thomas; Ubink, Ruud; Boross, Peter; Rouwendal, Gerard; Leusen, Jeanette H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody therapy is a validated treatment approach for several malignancies. All currently clinically applied therapeutic antibodies (Abs) are of the IgG isotype. However, not all patients respond to this therapy and relapses can occur. IgA represents an alternative isotype for antibody therapy that engages FcαRI expressing myeloid effector cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. IgA Abs have been shown to effectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of IgA Abs in mice, daily injections are required to reach an effect comparable to IgG Abs. The relatively long half-life of IgG Abs and serum albumin arises from their capability of interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As IgA Abs lack a binding site for FcRn, we generated IgA Abs with the variable regions of the Her2-specific Ab trastuzumab and attached an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the heavy or light chain (HCABD/LCABD) to extend their serum half-life. These modified Abs were able to bind albumin from different species in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cell lysis of IgA-Her2-LCABD Abs in vitro was similar to unmodified IgA-Her2 Abs. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that the serum exposure and half-life of the modified IgA-Her2 Abs was extended. In a xenograft mouse model, the modified IgA1 Abs exhibited a slightly, but significantly, improved anti-tumor response compared to the unmodified Ab. In conclusion, empowering IgA Abs with albumin-binding capacity results in in vitro and in vivo functional Abs with an enhanced exposure and prolonged half-life. PMID:26466856

  7. The anti-tumor effects of cordycepin-loaded liposomes on the growth of hepatoma 22 tumors in mice and human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng-Kai; Tao, Zhi; Ouyang, Zhao; Cao, Jiang-Ye; Geng, Di; Liu, Jin; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Liposomes have successfully been used for decades to encapsulate and protect drugs that are prone to deactivation in the body. The present study aimed to demonstrate the use of liposomes to encapsulate cordycepin, an adenosine analog that quickly loses its activity in vivo. The cordycepin-loaded liposomes were prepared by the ammonium sulfate gradient approach, and its in vitro and in vivo antitumour activities were evaluated using BEL-7402 cells and hepatocellular carcinoma H22 transplanted tumors, respectively. An MTT assay was used to observe the cytotoxicity of cells treated with cordycepin and cordycepin-loaded liposomes in vitro. High-content screening (HSC) was carried out using Hoechst 33342 to detect apoptotic cells and the ratio of cells in different cell cycle stages. The data demonstrated that both the cordycepin and the cordycepin-loaded liposomes resulted in clear cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 18.97 and 29.39 μg/mL, respectively. The latter showed significantly strong inhibitory effects on H22 tumor growth in mice, while the former did not show any inhibitory effects on tumor growth. In addition, the HSC assay showed that the cordycepin-loaded liposomes resulted in a higher rate of apoptosis than the cordycepin alone in BEL-7402 cells. Further data analysis revealed that the cells treated with cordycepin-loaded liposomes were predominately arrested at the G2/M phase (p < 0.05), while those treated with cordycepin alone were arrested in the G0/G1 phase (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that liposomes can enhance and maintain the in vivo anti-tumor activity of cordycepin. PMID:26984179

  8. Effects of Psoralen as an Anti-tumor Agent in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Cheng, Kai; Han, Yong; Zhang, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-05-01

    Psoralen is a major active component of Psoralea corylifolia. In the present study, we analyzed psoralen-induced changes in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms of the anticancer effect on MCF-7/ADR cells. We measured cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity of psoralen. The cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, accumulation and efflux of rhodamine123 (Rh123), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression levels of MCF-7/ADR cells treated with psoralen were all detected by flow cytometry (FCM). We assessed P-gp ATPase activity by monitoring ATP consumption. We evaluated the activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) involved in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results showed that psoralen inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7/ADR cells as shown by G0/G1 phase arrest rather than encouraging apoptosis. It was also observed that psoralen reversed MDR through inhibiting ATPase activity rather than reducing P-gp expression. Our results further showed that psoralen inhibited the migration abilities of MCF-7/ADR cells by repressing EMT possibly through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. Our findings provided a systematic and detailed description of the anti-cancer effect of psoralen on MCF-7/ADR cells for the exploration of natural compounds as novel anticancer agents. PMID:26902225

  9. Potentiation of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Merocyanine 540-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy by Amifostine and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, Ichiro; Miyagi, Kiyoko; Sampson, Reynée W.

    2005-01-01

    Leukemia and lymphoma cells are much more sensitive to Merocyanine 540 (MC540)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) than normal pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and normal granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM). By contrast, most solid tumor cells are only moderately sensitive to MC540-PDT. The limited activity against solid tumor cells has detracted from MC540's appeal as a broad-spectrum purging agent. We report here that non-cytotoxic concentrations of amifostine (Ethyol, Ethiofos, WR-2721) and amphotericin B used either alone or in combination potentiate the MC540-sensitized photoinactivation of leukemia cells, wildtype small cell lung cancer cells, and cisplatin-resistant small cell lung cancer cells. Amphotericin B also enhances the MC540-sensitized photoinactivation of normal CFU-GM whereas amifostine protects CFU-GM against the cytotoxic action of MC540-PDT. The yield of CD34-positive normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is only minimally diminished by pretreatment with amifostine, amphotericin B, or combinations of amifostine plus amphotericin B. Purging protocols that combine MC540-PDT with amifostine or with amifostine plus amphotericin B may offer a simple and effective approach to the purging of autologous stem cell grafts that are contaminated with solid tumor cells or the purging of stem cell grafts from heavily pretreated leukemia patients that contain reduced numbers of normal stem and progenitor cells and, therefore, can ill afford additional losses caused by purging. PMID:16613499

  10. Development, characterization and anti-tumor effect of a sequential sustained-release preparation containing ricin and cobra venom cytotoxin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Ke, Li-Ming; Yang, Jing; Lin, Li-Wu; Xue, En-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Yu, Li-Yun; Chen, Zhi-Kui

    2012-07-01

    Cobra venom cytotoxin (CVC) loaded in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres was mixed with ricin and encapsulated in a thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel for this study. This sequential sustained-release preparation (SSRP) containing ricin and CVC could avoid burst release effect of CVC from microspheres. In addition, in SSRP, the two biotoxins have different drug release rates and antitumor mechanisms, which can be complementary to each other. Ricin has a faster release rate than CVC. It can combine with the tumor cell membrane and enter the cell, inhibiting protein synthesis within 2 weeks. Whereas CVC releases slowly in 5 weeks directly dissolving the tumor cell membrane and killing the cells which are less-sensitive to ricin. The in vivo experiments showed that intratumoral injection of SSRP could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth significantly, and the tumor growth inhibition rate reached 73.5%. It appears that a new medicine preparation for cancer local treatment should be further studied for clinical applications. PMID:22888519

  11. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P < 0.05). The tumor inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth. PMID:24818416

  12. Anti-Tumor Effects of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongyun; Sun, Lili; Li, Chang; Hu, Ningning; Sheng, Yuan; Chen, Zhifei; Li, Xiao; Chi, Baorong; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has been an attractive drug platform for targeted therapy of cancer over the past few years. Viral vectors can be used to target and lyse cancer cells, but achieving good efficacy and specificity with this treatment approach is a major challenge. Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN), to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. In vitro, infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN could inhibit the growth of EC-109 cells significantly and also protect normal human liver cell line L02 from growth suppression in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN also effectively and selectively decreased the sialic acid level on EC-109 cells, but not on L02 cells. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN was shown to induce the apoptosis pathway via acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AO/EB staining), increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and release cytochrome c. In vivo, xenografted BALB/c nude mice were treated via intratumoral or intravenous injections of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN. Although both treatments showed an obvious suppression in tumor volume, only Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN delivered via intratumoral injection elicited a complete response to treatment. These results reinforced previous findings and highlighted the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN for treatment of esophageal cancer in clinical trials. PMID:24553109

  13. Anti-Tumor Effects of Novel 5-O-Acyl Plumbagins Based on the Inhibition of Mammalian DNA Replicative Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  14. Reduction of Splenic Immunosuppressive Cells and Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Synergy of Fish Oil and Selenium Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Lin; Bauer, Brent A.; Hsia, Simon; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect-The population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly. PMID:23349693

  15. Blocking effect of anti-Dectin-1 antibodies on the anti-tumor activity of 1,3-beta-glucan and the binding of Dectin-1 to 1,3-beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Aketagawa, Jun; Tanaka, Shigenori; Ohno, Naohito

    2007-08-01

    Schizophyllan (SPG) is used to treat cervical cancer in combination with irradiation to enhance the immunological surveillance system. Dectin-1 is a cell surface receptor for 1,3-beta-glucan. In this study, we prepared two anti-Dectin-1 monoclonal antibodies, 4B2 and SC30 having a K(D) of 7.04 x 10(-8) M and 1.55 x 10(-7) M, respectively, and evaluated the role of Dectin-1 in SPG-induced anti-tumor activity in mice. Expression of Dectin-1 on peritoneal macrophages and binding of SPG to the cells were decreased by administration of 4B2 and SC30. SPG-mediated anti-tumor activity was inhibited by 4B2 and SC30. 4B2 and SC30 inhibited the binding of SPG to splenocytes from mice. The binding of SPG-biotin to Dectin-1-transfected HEK293 cells was inhibited by 4B2, but not SC30. 4B2 and SC30 differ in their influence on Dectin-1 between primary cells and transduced cells, and Dectin-1 effects 1,3-beta-glucan-mediated anti-tumor activity in mice by binding to SPG. PMID:17666790

  16. Synthesis, anti-hypertensive effect of a novel angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist and its anti-tumor activity in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Da, Y-J; Yuan, W-D; Zhu, L-F; Chen, Z-L

    2012-12-01

    Since the first non-peptide Ang II receptor antagonist was originally reported, it has become the most common target in the development of new treatments for hypertension. In recent years, all components of the classical RAS have been reported in the prostate, these results suggest the possibility that ARB is a novel therapeutic class of agents for prostate cancer. In this study, a new compound 2-(4-((2-propyl-5-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl) methyl)-1H-indol-1-yl) benzoic acid was synthesized and evaluated as a novel angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist by radioligand binding assays, anti-hypertensive assays in vivo and oral acute toxicity test. MTT assays and tests in nude mice were used to demonstrate its anti-tumor activity. This new compound showed high affinity to AT1 receptor and anti-hypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, in human prostate cancer cells and in athymic nude mice bearing human prostate cancer cells, we observed this new compound had an efficient antiproliferative activity in vitro and anti-tumor activity in vivo. The preliminary pharmacological characteristics with oral acute toxicity test suggested that this new compound can be considered as a candidate for both anti-hypertensive and anti-tumor drug. PMID:23203543

  17. Fine-tuning anti-tumor immunotherapies via stochastic simulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-tumor therapies aim at reducing to zero the number of tumor cells in a host within their end or, at least, aim at leaving the patient with a sufficiently small number of tumor cells so that the residual tumor can be eradicated by the immune system. Besides severe side-effects, a key problem of such therapies is finding a suitable scheduling of their administration to the patients. In this paper we study the effect of varying therapy-related parameters on the final outcome of the interplay between a tumor and the immune system. Results This work generalizes our previous study on hybrid models of such an interplay where interleukins are modeled as a continuous variable, and the tumor and the immune system as a discrete-state continuous-time stochastic process. The hybrid model we use is obtained by modifying the corresponding deterministic model, originally proposed by Kirschner and Panetta. We consider Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapies and Interleukin-based therapies, as well as their combination. By asymptotic and transitory analyses of the corresponding deterministic model we find conditions guaranteeing tumor eradication, and we tune the parameters of the hybrid model accordingly. We then perform stochastic simulations of the hybrid model under various therapeutic settings: constant, piece-wise constant or impulsive infusion and daily or weekly delivery schedules. Conclusions Results suggest that, in some cases, the delivery schedule may deeply impact on the therapy-induced tumor eradication time. Indeed, our model suggests that Interleukin-based therapies may not be effective for every patient, and that the piece-wise constant is the most effective delivery to stimulate the immune-response. For Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapies a metronomic delivery seems more effective, as it happens for other anti-angiogenesis therapies and chemotherapies, and the impulsive delivery seems more effective than the piece-wise constant. The expected synergistic

  18. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin as a novel therapeutic agent in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metformin, which is widely used as an antidiabetic agent, has recently been reported to reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis in certain malignancies. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the effect of metformin on the development and progression of several cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods OSCC cells treated with or without metformin were counted using a hemocytometer. The clonogenic ability of OSCC cells after metformin treatment was determined by colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and the activation of related signaling pathways was examined by immunoblotting. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin was examined using a xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining were used to determine the expression of cyclin D1 and the presence of apoptotic cells in tumors from mice treated with or without metformin. Results Metformin inhibited proliferation in the OSCC cell lines CAL27, WSU-HN6 and SCC25 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the colony formation of OSCC cells in vitro. Metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by an obvious activation of the AMP kinase pathway and a strongly decreased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and S6 kinase. Metformin treatment led to a remarkable decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK6 protein levels and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, but did not affect p21 or p27 protein expression in OSCC cells. In addition, metformin induced apoptosis in OSCC cells, significantly down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Metformin also markedly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and increased the numbers of apoptotic

  19. The anti-tumor effect of cross-reacting material 197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, in human resistant ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao-han; Deng, Suo; Li, Meng; Lu, Mei-song

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol, A2780/CDDP cells and the matched xenografts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 induces enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 arrests A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells at G0/G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 suppressed the A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP growth of xenografts. -- Abstract: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to represent possible chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. However, the effect of CRM197 on the resistant ovarian carcinoma cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we found that HB-EGF was over-expressed in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/Taxol) and a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780/CDDP), as well as the xenograft mouse tissue samples with these cells. To investigate the possible significance of the HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells, we inhibited HB-EGF expression by CRM197 to investigate the effect of CRM197 treatment on these cells. We observed that CRM197 significantly induced anti-proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner with the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. The sensitive ovarian carcinoma parental cell line (A2780), A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells formed tumors in nude mice, and enhanced tumorigenicity was observed in drug-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we observed that CRM197 significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts in vivo (p < 0.001). These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF-targeted agent has potent anti-tumor activity in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer which over-express HB-EGF.

  20. MUC1 and survivin combination tumor gene vaccine generates specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Liu, Chenlu; Zhang, Fangfang; Geng, Fei; Xia, Qiu; Lu, Zhenzhen; Xu, Ping; Xie, Yu; Wu, Hui; Yu, Bin; Wu, Jiaxin; Yu, Xianghui; Kong, Wei

    2016-05-23

    MUC1 and survivin are ideal tumor antigens. Although many cancer vaccines targeting survivin or MUC1 have entered clinical trials, no vaccine combining MUC1 and survivin have been reported. Due to tumor heterogeneity, vaccines containing a combination of antigens may have improved efficacy and coverage of a broader spectrum of cancer targets. Here, cellular responses and anti-tumor activities induced by a combination of DNA vaccine targeting MUC1 and survivin (MS) were evaluated. Results showed that CTL activity and inhibition of tumor growth were obviously enhanced in mice immunized with the combined vaccine in a protection assay. However, in order to enhance the therapeutic effect in the treatment assay, a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vaccine expressing MUC1 and survivin (Ad-MS) was used as a booster following the DNA vaccine prime. Meanwhile, IL-2 promoting T cell proliferation was used as an immunoadjuvant for the DNA vaccine. Results showed that the CTL activity response to the DNA vaccine was enhanced nearly 200% when boosted by the rAd vaccine and was further enhanced by nearly 60% when combined with the IL-2 adjuvant. Therefore, DNA prime combined with rAd boost and IL-2 (MS/IL2/Ad-MS) adjuvant was considered as the best strategy and further evaluated. Multiple cytokines promoting cellular immune responses were shown to be greatly enhanced in mice immunized with MS/IL2/Ad-MS. Moreover, in the treatment assay, the tumor inhibition rate of MS/IL2/Ad-MS reached up to 50.1%, which may be attributed to the enhancement of immune responses and reduction of immunosuppressive factors in tumor-bearing mice. These results suggested that immunization with the combination vaccine targeting MUC1 and survivin using a DNA prime-rAd boost strategy along with IL-2 adjuvant may be an effective method for breaking through immune tolerance to tumors expressing these antigens with potential therapeutic benefits in melanoma cancer. PMID:27113167

  1. The strong in vivo anti-tumor effect of the UIC2 monoclonal antibody is the combined result of Pgp inhibition and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Szalóki, Gábor; Krasznai, Zoárd T; Tóth, Ágnes; Vízkeleti, Laura; Szöllősi, Attila G; Trencsényi, György; Lajtos, Imre; Juhász, István; Krasznai, Zoltán; Márián, Teréz; Balázs, Margit; Szabó, Gábor; Goda, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) extrudes a large variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cells, causing multidrug resistance (MDR). The UIC2 monoclonal antibody recognizes human Pgp and inhibits its drug transport activity. However, this inhibition is partial, since UIC2 binds only to 10-40% of cell surface Pgps, while the rest becomes accessible to this antibody only in the presence of certain substrates or modulators (e.g. cyclosporine A (CsA)). The combined addition of UIC2 and 10 times lower concentrations of CsA than what is necessary for Pgp inhibition when the modulator is applied alone, decreased the EC50 of doxorubicin (DOX) in KB-V1 (Pgp+) cells in vitro almost to the level of KB-3-1 (Pgp-) cells. At the same time, UIC2 alone did not affect the EC50 value of DOX significantly. In xenotransplanted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice co-treated with DOX, UIC2 and CsA, the average weight of Pgp+ tumors was only ∼10% of the untreated control and in 52% of these animals we could not detect tumors at all, while DOX treatment alone did not decrease the weight of Pgp+ tumors. These data were confirmed by visualizing the tumors in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) based on their increased 18FDG accumulation. Unexpectedly, UIC2+DOX treatment also decreased the size of tumors compared to the DOX only treated animals, as opposed to the results of our in vitro cytotoxicity assays, suggesting that immunological factors are also involved in the antitumor effect of in vivo UIC2 treatment. Since UIC2 binding itself did not affect the viability of Pgp expressing cells, but it triggered in vitro cell killing by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), it is concluded that the impressive in vivo anti-tumor effect of the DOX-UIC2-CsA treatment is the combined result of Pgp inhibition and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). PMID:25238617

  2. High intensity focused ultrasound enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting the negative regulatory effect of miR-134 on CD86 in a murine melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zha, He; Sun, Hui; Li, Xue-Ru; Li, Ai-Fang; Gu, Yue; Duan, Liang; Luo, Jin-Yong; Li, Chong-Yan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Biao; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    HIFU has been demonstrated to enhance anti-tumor immunity, however, the mechanism of which has not been well elucidated. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs play important roles in immune response. In this study, we used the B16F10 melanoma allograft mouse model to investigate the role of miRNAs in HIFU-enhanced anti-tumor immunity. We found that HIFU treatment decreased circulating B16F10 cells and pulmonary metastasis nodules while increased IFN-γ and TNF-α in the peripheral blood and cumulative mouse survival, which was associated with inhibition of miR-134 expression and activation of CD86 expression in tumor tissues. Further, we determined that miR-134 directly binds to the 3′UTR of CD86 mRNA to suppress its expression in B16F10 cells. When B16F10 cells transfected with miR-134 were co-cultured with normal splenic lymphocytes, the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α from lymphocytes was reduced and B16F10 cell survival was increased. HIFU exposure efficiently decreased miR-134 while increased CD86 expression in B16F10 cells in vitro. CD86 knockdown with siRNA markedly rescued the viability of HIFU-treated B16F10 cells that co-cultured with lymphocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that HIFU down-regulates miR-134 to release the inhibition of miR-134 on CD86 in melanoma cells, thereby enhancing anti-tumor immune response. PMID:26485753

  3. Anti-tumor activity of liposome encapsulated fluoroorotic acid as a single agent and in combination with liposome irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, Kareen; Jerger, Katherine; Szoka, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations in the same liposome provides a better anti-tumor effect than the drugs administered in separate liposomes, fluoroorotic acid (FOA) alone and in combination with irinotecan (IRN) were encapsulated in liposomes and evaluated for their anti-tumor activity in the C26 colon carcinoma mouse model. Fluoroorotic acid was dissolved in 7 M urea to increase its solubility so it could be passively loaded into liposomes at a high concentration. IRN was remote loaded into liposomes that contained the ammonium salt of the multi-valent 1,2,3,4-butanetetratcarboxylic acid with a greater than 90% efficiency and at a drug to lipid ratio of 0.2/1. When the two molecules were loaded into the same liposome, FOA was used to remote load IRN. Modulation of the drug/lipid ratio, temperature, and loading time allowed for consistent co-encapsulation of FOA + IRN at various molar ratios. The anti-tumor activity of L-FOA, L-IRN, L-FOA-IRN (5:1), and the L-FOA + L-IRN mixture (5:1) were examined in the C26 mouse model. The maximum tolerated dose of L-FOA was 10 mg/kg given weekly as compared to 100 mg/kg of the non-encapsulated FOA. Delivering two drugs in the same liposome provided a statistically better antitumor effect than delivering the drugs in separate liposomes at the same drug ratio. However, the synergistic activity of the 5:1 ratio of free drugs measured on C26 cells in vitro was not observed in the C26 tumor mouse model. These findings point out the challenges to the design of synergistic treatment protocols based upon results from in vitro cytotoxicity studies. L-FOA at 10 mg/kg as a single agent provided the best anti-tumor efficacy which supports previous suggestions that L-FOA has useful properties as a liposome dependent drug. PMID:21600250

  4. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and the anti-tumor effect of cyclic RGD-modified doxorubicin-loaded polymers in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Yuan; Chen, Binbin; Zou, Meijuan

    2016-10-01

    In our previous study, we successfully produced and characterized a multifunctional drug delivery system with doxorubicin (RC/GO/DOX), which was based on graphene oxide (GO) and cyclic RGD-modified chitosan (RC). Its characteristics include: pH-responsiveness, active targeting of hepatocarcinoma cells, and efficient loading with controlled drug release. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and anti-tumor efficacy of RC/GO/DOX polymers in tumor-bearing nude mice. The objective of this study is to assess its targeting potential for tumors. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles demonstrated that tumor accumulation of RC/GO/DOX polymers was almost three times higher than the others, highlighting the efficacy of the active targeting strategy. Furthermore, the tumor inhibition rate of RC/GO/DOX polymers was 56.64%, 2.09 and 2.93 times higher than that of CS/GO/DOX polymers (without modification) and the DOX solution, respectively. Anti-tumor efficacy results indicated that the tumor growth was better controlled by RC/GO/DOX polymers than the others. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed remarkable changes in tumor histology. Compared with the saline group, the tumor section from the RC/GO/DOX group revealed a marked increase in the quantity of apoptotic and necrotic cells, and a reduction in the quantity of the blood vessels. Together, these studies show that this new system could be regarded as a suitable form of DOX-based treatment of the hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27244048

  5. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 10⁴ Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  6. The Effects of Different Purifying Methods on the Chemical Properties, in Vitro Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Abrus cantoniensis Polysaccharide Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Fu, Xiong; Brennan, Margaret A.; Brennan, Charles S.; Chun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abrus cantoniensis (Hance) is a popular Chinese vegetable consumed as a beverage, soup or folk medicine. To fully exploit the potential of the polysaccharide in Abrus cantoniensis, nine polysaccharide fractions of Abrus cantoniensis were isolated and purified (AP-AOH30-1, AP-AOH30-2, AP-AOH80-1, AP-AOH80-2, AP-ACl-1, AP-ACl-2, AP-ACl-3, AP-H and AP-L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to characterize these Abrus polysaccharides fractions (APF). In vitro anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities were also investigated and compared using the rank-sum ratio (RSR) method. Results demonstrated significant differences in the structure and bioactivities among APF, which were associated to the process used for their purification. Among the APF, AP-ACl-3 yield was 613.5 mg/kg of product and consisted of rhamnose (9.8%), arabinose (8.9%), fructose (3.0%), galactose (9.9%), glucose (4.3%), galacturonic acid (3.0%) and glucuronic acid (61.1%) with a molecular weight of 4.4 × 104 Da. Furthermore, AP-ACl-3 exhibited considerable bioactivities significantly preventing the migration of MCF-7 cells and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation along with nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages. AP-ACl-3 could be explored as a novel potential anti-tumor and immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27058538

  7. Anti-tumor effects of paeonol in a HepA-hepatoma bearing mouse model via induction of tumor cell apoptosis and stimulation of IL-2 and TNF-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Ping; Wang, Hua; Xu, Shu-Ping; Shen, Yu-Xian; Wu, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Wei

    2008-04-28

    Paeonol, a phenolic component from the root bark of Paeonia moutan, is traditionally used as a Chinese herbal medicine to activate the blood flow and remove blood stasis. Evidence shows that paeonol have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which paeonol exerts the anti-tumor effects by using a murine model of hepatoma established by in vivo injection of mouse HepA-hepatoma cells. Treatment of mice with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day of paeonol significantly inhibited the growth of the HepA tumor in mice, induced HepA cell apoptosis as demonstrated by light microscopy and electron microscopy analyses, decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of Bax in HepA tumor tissues in a dose-related manner. Administration of paeonol in vivo also elevated serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-alpha in tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, splenocytes and macrophages isolated from paeonol-treated HepA tumor-bearing mice produced higher levels of IL-2 and TNF-alpha in response to concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide stimulation, respectively, compared to these isolated from non-treated HepA tumor-bearing mice. In vitro treatment with paeonol was able to directly stimulate IL-2 and TNF-alpha production in splenocytes and macrophages from tumor-bearing mice, respectively. In conclusion, paeonol has the anti-tumor effect against hepatoma cells, which are likely mediated via induction of tumor cell apoptosis and stimulation of IL-2 and TNF-alpha production. Paeonol could be a promising drug to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18329639

  8. Peripheral blood-derived, γ9δ2 t cell-enriched cell lines from glioblastoma multiforme patients exert anti-tumoral effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marcu-Malina, V; Garelick, D; Peshes-Yeloz, N; Wohl, A; Zach, L; Nagar, M; Amariglio, N; Besser, M J; Cohen, Z R; Bank, I

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the potential of T cells expressing Vγ9Vδ2+ T cell receptors (TCR, γ9δ2T cells) present in peripheral blood (PB) m ononuclear cells (MC, PBMC) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients to act as anti-tumoral agents. We found that γ9δ2T cell levels were decreased in patients' PB relative to a cohort of healthy donors (HD) (respectively 0.52±0.55%, n=16, vs 1.12±0.6%, n=14, p=0.008) but did not significantly correlate with postoperative survival (R=0.6, p=0.063). Importantly, however, the γ9δ2T cells could be expanded in vitro to consist 51±23% of the cultured lymphocytes (98% CD3+). This was achieved after 14 days of culture in medium containing the amino-bisphosphonate (ABP) Zoledronate (Zol) and interleukin (IL)-2, resulting in γ9δ2T cell-enriched lines (gdTCEL) similar to those of HD derived gdTCEL (54±19%). Moreover, gdTCEL from patients and HD mediated cytotoxicity to GBM-derived cell lines (GBMDCL), which was abrogated by immune-magnetic removal of the γ9δ2T cells. Furthermore, low level interferon (IFN) γ secretion was induced by gdTCEL briefly co-cultured with GBMDCL or autologous - tumor-derived cells, which was greatly amplified in the presence of Zol. Importantly, IFNγ secretion was inhibited by mevastatin but enhanced by cross-linking of butyrophilin 3A1 (CD277) on a CD277+ GBMDCL (U251MG) or by pretreatment of GBMDCL with temozolomide (TMZ). Taken together, these data suggest that γ9δ2T cells in PB of GBM patients can give rise to gdTCEL that mediate anti-tumoral activities. PMID:27049073

  9. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 has dual effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell viability and sensitivity to the anti-tumor effects of imatinib mesylate in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Imatinib mesylate has significantly improved survival and quality of life of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, the molecular mechanism through which imatinib exerts its anti-tumor effects is not clear. Previously, we found up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) expression in imatinib-responsive GIST cells and tumor samples. Because IGFBP3 regulates cell proliferation and survival and mediates the anti-tumor effects of a number of anti-cancer agents through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms, we hypothesized that IGFBP3 mediates GIST cell response to imatinib. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated IGFBP3 levels in two imatinib-responsive GIST cell lines and observed cell viability after drug treatment. Results In the GIST882 cell line, imatinib treatment induced endogenous IGFBP3 expression, and IGFBP3 down-modulation by neutralization or RNA interference resulted in partial resistance to imatinib. In contrast, IGFBP3 overexpression in GIST-T1, which had no detectable endogenous IGFBP3 expression after imatinib, had no effect on imatinib-induced loss of viability. Furthermore, both the loss of IGFBP3 in GIST882 cells and the overexpression of IGFBP3 in GIST-T1 cells was cytotoxic, demonstrating that IGFBP3 has opposing effects on GIST cell viability. Conclusion This data demonstrates that IGFBP3 has dual, opposing roles in modulating GIST cell viability and response to imatinib in vitro. These preliminary findings suggest that there may be some clinical benefits to IGFBP3 therapy in GIST patients, but further studies are needed to better characterize the functions of IGFBP3 in GIST. PMID:19903356

  10. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of MTX-Fe3O 4-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres prepared by suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, AiZheng; Dang, TingTing; Wang, ShiBin; Tang, Na; Liu, YuanGang; Wu, WenGuo

    2014-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of methotrexate-loaded Fe3O4-poly-L-lactide-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-L-lactide magnetic composite microspheres (MTX-Fe3O4-PLLA-PEG-PLLA MCMs, MMCMs), which were produced by co-precipitation (C) and microencapsulation (M) in a supercritical process, was evaluated at various levels: cellular, molecular, and integrated. The results at the cellular level indicate that MMCMs (M) show a better anti-proliferation activity than raw MTX and could induce morphological changes of cells undergoing apoptosis. At the molecular level, MMCMs (M) lead to a significantly higher relative mRNA expression of bax/bcl-2 and caspase-3 than MMCMs (C) at 10 μg mL(-1) (P<0.01); and the pro-caspase-3 protein expression measured by Western blot analysis also demonstrates that MMCMs (M) can effectively activate pro-caspase-3. At the integrated level, mice bearing a sarcoma-180 tumor are used; in vivo anti-tumor activity tests reveal that MMCMs (M) with magnetic induction display a much higher tumor suppression rate and lower toxicity than raw MTX. Pharmacokinetic studies show that MMCMs (M) with magnetic induction significantly increase the accumulation of MTX in the tumor tissue compared with the other treatments. These results suggest that the MMCMs (M) prepared by the SpEDS process have great potential to play a positive role in the magnetic targeted therapy field. PMID:24935781

  11. Synergistic effects in hydrogen-helium bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Erin; Deo, Chaitanya

    2012-07-01

    The detrimental effects of hydrogen and helium on structural materials undergoing irradiation are well documented, if not well understood. There is experimental evidence to suggest that a synergistic effect between the two elements exists, which results in increased damage when both are present. This situation is expected in the next generation of fusion and fission reactors, so a fundamental understanding of these synergistic interactions is needed to predict materials performance. We perform atomistic simulations of hydrogen and helium bubbles in body-centered cubic iron to determine the mechanism behind this effect. We first develop an interatomic potential suitable for describing the interactions between hydrogen and helium. Through analysis of the energetics and structure of these bubbles, we explain the observed synergy as a consequence of bubble growth through helium induced loop punching, aided by the presence of hydrogen, instead of as a direct interaction between hydrogen and helium. The hydrogen benefits from an increased area of free surface on which to bind. PMID:22691382

  12. Effect of expression of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the in vivo anti-tumor activity of prodrugs activated by E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Parker, W B; Allan, P W; Waud, W R; Hong, J S; Sorscher, E J

    2011-06-01

    The use of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) to activate prodrugs has demonstrated excellent activity in the treatment of various human tumor xenografts in mice. E. coli PNP cleaves purine nucleoside analogs to generate toxic adenine analogs, which are activated by adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) to metabolites that inhibit RNA and protein synthesis. We created tumor cell lines that encode both E. coli PNP and excess levels of human APRT, and have used these new cell models to test the hypothesis that treatment of otherwise refractory human tumors could be enhanced by overexpression of APRT. In vivo studies with 6-methylpurine-2'-deoxyriboside (MeP-dR), 2-F-2'-deoxyadenosine (F-dAdo) or 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine 5'-monophosphate (F-araAMP) indicated that increased APRT in human tumor cells coexpressing E. coli PNP did not enhance either the activation or the anti-tumor activity of any of the three prodrugs. Interestingly, expression of excess APRT in bystander cells improved the activity of MeP-dR, but diminished the activity of F-araAMP. In vitro studies indicated that increasing the expression of APRT in the cells did not significantly increase the activation of MeP. These results provide insight into the mechanism of bystander killing of the E. coli PNP strategy, and suggest ways to enhance the approach that are independent of APRT. PMID:21394111

  13. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27130449

  14. Anti-tumor effects of DNA vaccine targeting human fibroblast activation protein α by producing specific immune responses and altering tumor microenvironment in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Geng, Fei; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Ping; Lu, Zhen-Zhen; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hui; Wu, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is a tumor stromal antigen overexpressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). CAFs are genetically more stable compared with the tumor cells and immunosuppressive components of the tumor microenvironment, rendering them excellent targets for cancer immunotherapy. DNA vaccines are widely applied due to their safety. To specifically destroy CAFs, we constructed and examined the immunogenicity and anti-tumor immune mechanism of a DNA vaccine expressing human FAPα. This vaccine successfully reduced 4T1 tumor growth through producing FAPα-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses which could kill CAFs, and the decrease in FAPα-expressing CAFs resulted in markedly attenuated expression of collagen I and other stromal factors that benefit the tumor progression. Based on these results, a DNA vaccine targeting human FAPα may be an attractive and effective cancer immunotherapy strategy. PMID:27020681

  15. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer. PMID:27163210

  16. 15-Deoxy-{Delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} enhanced the anti-tumor activity of camptothecin against renal cell carcinoma independently of topoisomerase-II and PPAR{gamma} pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Megumi; Koma, Hiromi; Yamamori, Motohiro; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Okamura, Noboru; Yagami, Tatsurou

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin, exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}. {yields} The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. {yields} A PPAR{gamma} antagonist did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. {yields} The treatment of camptothecin combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. -- Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is chemoresistant cancer. Although several clinical trials were conducted to explore effective medications, the chemoresistance of RCC has not yet been conquered. An endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), 15-deoxy-{Delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{sub 2}), induces apoptosis in RCC. Here, we examined synergistic effects of several carcinostatics on the anti-tumor activity of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} in Caki-2 cell line by MTT assay. A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin (CPT), exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, but neither 5-fluorouracil nor cisplatin did. The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. The synergistic effect of topoisomerase-I and II inhibitors was not also detected. A PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662, did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. The treatment of CPT combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} exhibited the anti-tumor activity synergistically with CPT independent of topoisomerase-II and PPAR{gamma}.

  17. Targeted Hsp70 expression combined with CIK-activated immune reconstruction synergistically exerts antitumor efficacy in patient-derived hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao; Fang, Lin; Peng, Zhangxiao; Ji, Weidan; Xu, Yang; Shen, Shuwen; Yan, Yan; Huang, Xuandong; Zheng, Junnian; Su, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    The patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models can reproduce a similar natural genetic background and similar biological behaviors to tumor cells in patients, which is conducive to the assessment of personalized cancer treatment. In this study, to verify the targeting and effectiveness of the therapeutic strategy using a Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70, the PDTX models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were established in nude mice and the cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were intravenously infused into mice to partially reconstruct the mouse immune function. The results demonstrated that, either the immune anti-tumor effect caused by CIK cell infusion or the oncolytic effect generated by oncolytic adenovirus replication was very limited. However, the synergistic tumor inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced after treatments with oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70 combined with CIK cells. Oncolytic adenovirus mediated the specific expression of Hsp70 in cancer tissues allowed the CIK chemotaxis, and induce the infiltration of CD3+ T cells in tumor stroma, thereby exhibiting anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor effect was more effective for the highly malignant tumor xenografts with highly Survivin expression. This strategy can synergistically activate multiple anti-tumor mechanisms and exert effective anti-tumor activities that have a significant inhibitory effect against the growth of HCC xenografts. PMID:25473902

  18. Anti-tumor efficacy of BEZ235 is complemented by its anti-angiogenic effects via downregulation of PI3K-mTOR-HIF1alpha signaling in HER2-defined breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nandini; Sun, Yuliang; Carlson, Jennifer H; Wu, Hui; Lin, Xiaoqian; Leyland-Jones, Brian; De, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway via HER2: HER3-mediated signaling in HER2+ breast cancers pose one of the major threats towards the success of trastuzumab. First, trastuzumab cannot perturb survival/proliferative signals following HER2: HER3 heterodimerization in HER2+ tumor cells. Second, trastuzumab treatment has been reported to cause drug-mediated resistance in over 50% of HER2+ breast cancers. We have reported that treatment with an anti-angiogenic drug imparted a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in the trastuzumab-resistant model of HER2+ breast cancers (PMID: 23959459). The very fact as revealed by our study that an inclusion of anti-angiogenic drug conferred a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with dual anti-HER2 therapy clearly indicated a critical and indispensable role of angiogenesis in these tumors. Hence, we hypothesized that BEZ235 a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor will have an effect on the tumor as well as the angiogenic stromal compartments. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of BEZ235 was determined in HER2+ trastuzumab-sensitive, trastuzumab-resistant and HER2 amplified/PIK3CA mutated cell lines. BEZ235 alone and in combination with trastuzumab was tested on the tumor as well as stromal compartments. AKT-mTOR signal was suppressed following BEZ235 treatment in a concentration and time-dependent manner. AnnexinV, cl-CASPASE3, SURVIVIN and p-FOXO1 indicated that BEZ235-induced cell death occurred predominantly via an apoptotic pathway. Heregulin-induced HIF1α synthesis was also significantly decreased. Oncoprint data (cBioPortal) representing PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and Her2-positive breast tumors (TCGA, cell 2015) showed 91.4% genetic alterations and 79.2% genetic alterations in a set of four genes comprised of PIK3CA, ERBB2, VEGFA and HIF1alpha. The co-occurrence of HIF1alpha with VEGFA in PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and the co-occurrence of HIF1alpha

  19. Anti-tumor efficacy of BEZ235 is complemented by its anti-angiogenic effects via downregulation of PI3K-mTOR-HIF1alpha signaling in HER2-defined breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Dey, Nandini; Sun, Yuliang; Carlson, Jennifer H; Wu, Hui; Lin, Xiaoqian; Leyland-Jones, Brian; De, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway via HER2: HER3-mediated signaling in HER2+ breast cancers pose one of the major threats towards the success of trastuzumab. First, trastuzumab cannot perturb survival/proliferative signals following HER2: HER3 heterodimerization in HER2+ tumor cells. Second, trastuzumab treatment has been reported to cause drug-mediated resistance in over 50% of HER2+ breast cancers. We have reported that treatment with an anti-angiogenic drug imparted a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in the trastuzumab-resistant model of HER2+ breast cancers (PMID: 23959459). The very fact as revealed by our study that an inclusion of anti-angiogenic drug conferred a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with dual anti-HER2 therapy clearly indicated a critical and indispensable role of angiogenesis in these tumors. Hence, we hypothesized that BEZ235 a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor will have an effect on the tumor as well as the angiogenic stromal compartments. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of BEZ235 was determined in HER2+ trastuzumab-sensitive, trastuzumab-resistant and HER2 amplified/PIK3CA mutated cell lines. BEZ235 alone and in combination with trastuzumab was tested on the tumor as well as stromal compartments. AKT-mTOR signal was suppressed following BEZ235 treatment in a concentration and time-dependent manner. AnnexinV, cl-CASPASE3, SURVIVIN and p-FOXO1 indicated that BEZ235-induced cell death occurred predominantly via an apoptotic pathway. Heregulin-induced HIF1α synthesis was also significantly decreased. Oncoprint data (cBioPortal) representing PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and Her2-positive breast tumors (TCGA, cell 2015) showed 91.4% genetic alterations and 79.2% genetic alterations in a set of four genes comprised of PIK3CA, ERBB2, VEGFA and HIF1alpha. The co-occurrence of HIF1alpha with VEGFA in PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and the co-occurrence of HIF1alpha

  20. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  1. Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

  2. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC) and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).

    PubMed

    Overholser, Jay; Ambegaokar, Kristen Henkins; Eze, Siobhan M; Sanabria-Figueroa, Eduardo; Nahta, Rita; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kaumaya, Pravin T P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, potency and safety. Specifically, we postulate that novel combination treatments targeting members of the EGFR family and IGF-1R will yield significant anti-tumor effects in in vitro models of EC and TNBC possibly overcoming mechanisms of resistance. We show that the combination of HER-1 and HER-2 or HER-1 and IGF-1R peptide mimics/vaccine antibodies exhibited enhanced antitumor properties with significant inhibition of tumorigenesis in OE19 EC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines. Our work elucidates the mechanisms of HER-1/IGF-1R and HER-1/HER-2 signaling in these cancer cell lines, and the promising results support the rationale for dual targeting with HER-1 and HER-2 or IGF-1R as an improved treatment regimen for advanced therapy tailored to difference types of cancer. PMID:26350593

  3. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC) and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)

    PubMed Central

    Overholser, Jay; Ambegaokar, Kristen Henkins; Eze, Siobhan M.; Sanabria-Figueroa, Eduardo; Nahta, Rita; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kaumaya, Pravin T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, potency and safety. Specifically, we postulate that novel combination treatments targeting members of the EGFR family and IGF-1R will yield significant anti-tumor effects in in vitro models of EC and TNBC possibly overcoming mechanisms of resistance. We show that the combination of HER-1 and HER-2 or HER-1 and IGF-1R peptide mimics/vaccine antibodies exhibited enhanced antitumor properties with significant inhibition of tumorigenesis in OE19 EC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines. Our work elucidates the mechanisms of HER-1/IGF-1R and HER-1/HER-2 signaling in these cancer cell lines, and the promising results support the rationale for dual targeting with HER-1 and HER-2 or IGF-1R as an improved treatment regimen for advanced therapy tailored to difference types of cancer. PMID:26350593

  4. Stimulation of anti-tumor immunity by photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Hashmi, Javad T; Huang, Ying-Ying; Lange, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a rapidly developing cancer treatment that utilizes the combination of nontoxic dyes and harmless visible light to destroy tumors by generating reactive oxygen species. PDT produces tumor-cell destruction in the context of acute inflammation that acts as a ‘danger signal’ to the innate immune system. Activation of the innate immune system increases the priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes that have the ability to recognize and destroy distant tumor cells and, in addition, lead to the development of an immune memory that can combat recurrence of the cancer at a later point in time. PDT may be also successfully combined with immunomodulating strategies that are capable of overcoming or bypassing the escape mechanisms employed by the progressing tumor to evade immune attack. This article will cover the role of the immune response in PDT anti-tumor effectiveness. It will highlight the milestones in the development of PDT-mediated anti-tumor immunity and emphasize the combination strategies that may improve this therapy. PMID:21162652

  5. Effects of synergists on the metabolism and toxicity of anticholinesterases*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    Insecticide synergists enhance insecticidal action through their ability to block the enzymatic detoxification of insecticides with which they are combined. The structure of the synergist is therefore determined by the nature of the insecticide and the critical biochemical pathway responsible for its degradation. Synergists can be broadly classified as either analogue synergists, whose structure closely resembles that of the insecticide they synergize, or inhibitors of microsomal oxidation. Metabolism of the phenyl methylcarbamates is effected largely by the microsomal enzymes. Consequently microsomal enzyme inhibitors, such as the methylenedioxyphenyl compounds, the aryloxyalkylamines, the thiocyanates, the propynyl aryl ethers, and the 1,2,3-benzothiadiazoles, are all effective carbamate synergists. The detoxification pathways of the organophosphates, however, are more complex and include hydrolysis, dealkylation, and carboxylesterase pathways as well as oxidation. Because phosphorothioates are activated by oxidation, their toxicity is often antagonized by oxidase inhibitors. The effectiveness of different synergists towards resistant strains of insects is likely to vary in a manner that reflects the critical metabolic pathway on which resistance depends. PMID:4398521

  6. A novel liposomal recombinant lipoimmunogen enhances anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kuan-Yin; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Li, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chiao-Chieh; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-10

    Synthetic liposomes provide a biocompatible and biodegradable approach for delivering drugs and antigens. In addition, self-adjuvanting recombinant lipoproteins (rlipoproteins) can enhance Th1 anti-tumor immune responses via the TLR2 signaling pathway. To generate a liposomal rlipoprotein for a cancer immunotherapeutic vaccine, we assessed 3 types of synthetic liposomes for use with the rlipoproteins rlipoE7m and rlipoOVA. We determined that the cationic liposome DOTAP could stabilize anionic rlipoproteins and delay rlipoprotein release. Surprisingly, rlipoproteins and DOTAP could synergistically up-regulate CD83 expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Compared with other liposome formulations, the rlipoprotein/DOTAP formulation elicited higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. To explore the mechanism of BMDC activation by rlipoprotein/DOTAP, we assessed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the TNF-α secretion of BMDCs. We observed that rlipoprotein/DOTAP induced ROS to the same extent as DOTAP did. In addition, TLR2 signaling was also required for the TNF-α secretion of rlipoprotein/DOTAP-treated BMDCs. Moreover, compared with rlipoOVA-treated BMDCs, rlipoOVA/DOTAP-treated BMDCs increased the levels of IFN-γ produced by OVA-specific T cells. We also observed that rlipoE7m/DOTAP treatment but not rlipoE7m treatment delayed tumor growth. These results indicate that the rlipoprotein/DOTAP formulation can synergistically activate BMDCs via ROS and the TLR2 signaling pathway. In summary, rlipoprotein/DOTAP is a novel and stable formulation for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27164542

  7. Identification of the anti-tumor activity and mechanisms of nuciferine through a network pharmacology approach

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Quan; Li, Rui; Li, Hui-ying; Cao, Yu-bing; Bai, Ming; Fan, Xiao-jing; Wang, Shu-yan; Zhang, Bo; Li, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Nuciferine is an aporphine alkaloid extracted from lotus leaves, which is a raw material in Chinese medicinal herb for weight loss. In this study we used a network pharmacology approach to identify the anti-tumor activity of nuciferine and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The pharmacological activities and mechanisms of nuciferine were identified through target profile prediction, clustering analysis and functional enrichment analysis using our traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) network pharmacology platform. The anti-tumor activity of nuciferine was validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The anti-tumor mechanisms of nuciferine were predicted through network target analysis and verified by in vitro experiments. Results: The nuciferine target profile was enriched with signaling pathways and biological functions, including “regulation of lipase activity”, “response to nicotine” and “regulation of cell proliferation”. Target profile clustering results suggested that nuciferine to exert anti-tumor effect. In experimental validation, nuciferine (0.8 mg/mL) markedly inhibited the viability of human neuroblastoma SY5Y cells and mouse colorectal cancer CT26 cells in vitro, and nuciferine (0.05 mg/mL) significantly suppressed the invasion of 6 cancer cell lines in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of nuciferine (9.5 mg/mL, ip, 3 times a week for 3 weeks) significantly decreased the weight of SY5Y and CT26 tumor xenografts in nude mice. Network target analysis and experimental validation in SY5Y and CT26 cells showed that the anti-tumor effect of nuciferine was mediated through inhibiting the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and IL-1 levels in SY5Y and CT26 cells. Conclusion: By using a TCM network pharmacology method, nuciferine is identified as an anti-tumor agent against human neuroblastoma and mouse colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo, through inhibiting the PI3K-AKT signaling pathways and IL-1 levels. PMID:27180984

  8. Design, synthesis, and testing of an isoquinoline-3-carboxylic-based novel anti-tumor lead.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Li; Guo, Jianpeng; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-10-15

    Compound 6, a novel isoquinoline comprising two isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acids and a benzoic acid conjugated together using tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, was synthesized and tested for anti-tumor activity. In vivo evaluations found 6 to be well tolerated, of high therapeutic efficacy and of low systemic toxicity, at effective doses. The results suggest 6 to be a promising lead for future study, and the use of multiple isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid moieties as pharmacophores in the same molecule to be a useful strategy for the design of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26386603

  9. Ten tandem repeats of {beta}-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of {beta}-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie . E-mail: wu_jie97@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-14

    The {beta}-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of {beta}-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with {beta}-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 and HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-{beta}-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of {beta}-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens.

  10. Preparation and anti-tumor metastasis of carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiwen; Han, Baoqin; Li, Hui; Li, Xiuhua; Yang, Yan; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-07-10

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), one of the most important water soluble chitosan derivatives, has great potentials in biomedical applications due to its excellent water solubility, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. In the present study, the anti-tumor metastasis effect of CMCS on hepatic tumors was evaluated using human hepatic cancer cell BEL-7402 and mouse hepatoma 22 cells. The results suggested that CMCS could significantly inhibit tumor cell migration in vitro, and reduce the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in BEL-7402 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Furthermore, CMCS significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of hepatoma-22 in Kunming mice (P<0.05). Significant improvement of the lung injury caused by the metastasis of H22 was also observed. The results suggested that the inhibitory effect of CMCS could be attributed in part to the decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and E-selectin in CMCS treated mice. PMID:25857959

  11. Anti-tumor effect of L-methionine-deprived total parenteral nutrition with 5-fluorouracil administration on Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats.

    PubMed Central

    Goseki, N; Endo, M; Onodera, T; Kosaki, G

    1991-01-01

    L-methionine-deprived total parenteral nutrition (methionine-deprived TPN), infusing amino acid solution devoid of L-methionine and L-cysteine by the method of TPN as an only protein source, showed enhancement of the effect of several anti-cancer agents. In this study the combined effect of the methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined in Yoshida Sarcoma (YS)-bearing rats, from aspects of effects on the tumor metastasis and the host animal's life span, in the following four groups treated with: methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-FU, methionine-deprived TPN without administration of 5-FU, L-methionine-contained TPN plus 5-FU, and L-methionine-contained TPN without 5-FU. In the first experiment, TPN was continued for 8 days in the four groups, and the anti-cancer effect of methionine-deprived TPN and administration of 5-FU based on both the growth of the primary tumor at the implanted site and the tumor metastasis was studied from the view point of pathologic findings of animals killed immediately after these treatments. In experiment 2 the survival period was examined after these treatments for 10 days with subsequent oral feeding until death. The results were as follows: proliferation of YS, transplanted subcutaneously, was markedly suppressed; particularly hematogenous metastasis, characteristic in YS, was prominently blunted then obtained an apparent longer survival period in rats treated with the methionine-deprived TPN with administration of 5-FU. PMID:1905913

  12. HPMA copolymer-based combination therapy toxic to both prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells and differentiated cells induces durable anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Yang, Jiyuan; Rhim, Johng S.; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for prostate cancer are still not satisfactory, often resulting in tumor regrowth and metastasis. One of the main reasons for the ineffective anti-prostate cancer treatments is the failure to deplete cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) - a subset of cancer cells with enhanced tumorigenic capacity. Thus, combination of agents against both CSCs and bulk tumor cells may offer better therapeutic benefits. Several molecules with anti-cancer stem/progenitor cell activities have been under preclinical evaluations. However, their low solubility and nonspecific toxicity limit their clinical translation. Herein, we designed a combination macromolecular therapy containing two drug conjugates: HPMA copolymer-cyclopamine conjugate (P-CYP) preferentially toxic to cancer stem/progenitor cells, and HPMA copolymer-docetaxel conjugate (P-DTX) effective in debulking the tumor mass. Both conjugates were synthesized using RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) polymerization resulting in narrow molecular weight distribution. The killing effect of the two conjugates against bulk tumor cells and CSCs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In PC-3 or RC-92a/hTERT prostate cancer cells, P-CYP preferentially kills and impairs the function of CD133+ prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells; P-DTX was able to kill bulk tumor cells instead of CSCs. In PC-3 xenograft mice model, combination of P-DTX and P-CYP showed the most effective and persistent tumor growth inhibitory effect. In addition, residual tumors contained less CD133+ cancer cells following combination or P-CYP treatments, indicating selective killing of cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties. PMID:24041709

  13. Anti-tumor effects on the combination of photodynamic therapy with arsenic compound in TC-1 cells implanted C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu Wan; Wen, Lan Ying; Bae, Su Mi; Park, Choong Hak; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Lee, Doo Yun; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2009-06-01

    The effects of As4O6 were studied as adjuvant on photodynamic therapy. As4O6 is considered to have anticancer activity via several biological actions such as free radical producing and inhibition of VEGF expression. In vitro experiments, cell proliferation and morphology were determined by MTT assay. Also, quantitative PCR array was performed to study the synergetic mechanism. Additionally, this study was supported by the finding that combination of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 shows an inhibition effect of tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice with TC-1 cells xenographs in vivo. Radachlorin and As4O6 significantly inhibited TC-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Antiproliferative effect of combination treatment was significantly higher than those of TC-1 cells treated with either photodynamic therapy or As4O6 (62.4 and 52.5% decrease, respectively, compared to photodynamic therapy or As4O6 alone, P < 0.05). In addition, cell proliferation in combination of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 treatment significantly decreased by 77.4% compared to vehicle-only treated TC-1 cells (P < 0.05). Cell survival pathway (Naip1, Tert and Aip1) and p53-dependent pathway (Bax, p21Cip1, Fas, Gadd45, IGFBP-3 and Mdm-2) were markedly increased by combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. Besides, the immunology response NEAT pathway (Ly- 12, CD178 and IL-2) also modulated after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. This combination effect apparently shows a same pattern in vivo model. These findings suggest the benefit of the combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 for the inhibition of cervical cancer growth.

  14. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation. PMID:17294835

  15. Nanocomposite Treatment Reduces Disease and Lethality in a Murine Model of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Preserves Anti-Tumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Carolina B.; De Paula, Talles P.; Reis, Alesandra C.; Gonçalves, William A.; Vieira, Elias G.; Pinheiro, Maurício V. B.; Souza, Danielle G.; Castor, Marina G. M.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Pinho, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is an immunological disorder triggered by bone marrow transplantation that affects several organs, including the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Fullerenes and their soluble forms, fullerols, are nanocomposites with a closed symmetrical structure with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study evaluated the effects of treatment with the fullerol (C60(OH)18-20) in the development and pathogenesis of GVHD in a murine model. Mice with experimental GVHD that were treated with the fullerol showed reduced clinical signs of disease and mortality compared with untreated mice. Treatment with the fullerol decreased the hepatic damage associated with reduced hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IFN-γ TNF-α, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5) and reduced leukocyte accumulation. The amelioration of GVHD after treatment with the fullerol was also associated with reduced intestinal lesions and consequent bacterial translocation to the blood, liver and peritoneal cavity. Moreover, the fullerol treatment alleviated the GVHD while preserving effects of the graft against a leukemia cell line (GFP+P815). In summary, the fullerol was effective in reducing the GVHD inflammatory response in mice and may suggest novel ways to treat this disease. PMID:25875016

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of 5-deprenyllupulonol C and other compounds from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Hideki; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Yasukawa, Ken; Kimura, Yumiko; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2012-06-01

    A new phloroglucinol derivative, 5-deprenyllupulonol C (1), along with four other phloroglucinol derivatives, 2-5, five chalcones, 6-10, four flavanones, 11-14, two flavonol glycosides, 15 and 16, and five triterpenoids, 17-21, were isolated from the female inflorescence pellet extracts of hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Upon evaluation of these compounds against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, twelve compounds, i.e., 1-4, 11-14, 17-19, and 21, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 215-393 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA. In addition, eleven compounds, i.e., 1-4, 6, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, and 20, were found to inhibit TPA-induced inflammation (1 μg/ear) in mice, with ID₅₀ values in the range of 0.13-1.06 μmol per ear. Further, lupulone C (2) and 6-prenylnaringenin (14) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter. PMID:22700224

  17. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine beta-defensin 2 and tumor endothelial marker-8 in a CT-26 murine colorectal carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Xie, Ganfeng; Geng, Peiliang; Zheng, Chenhong; Li, Jianjun; Pan, Feng; Ruan, Zhihua; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is an endothelial-specific marker that is upregulated during tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that DNA-based vaccine encoding xenogeneic TEM8 can potentiate anti-angiogenesis immunotherapy of malignancy; nevertheless, it remains to be improved in minimizing immune tolerance. Recently, it has been reported that murine beta-defensin 2 (MBD2) is chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and plays a pivotal role in breaking immune tolerance. Herein, we constructed a genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine TEM8 and MBD2 to investigate whether the novel vaccine preferentially elicits therapeutic antitumor immune responses and suppresses cancerous angiogenesis in mouse models. The anti-angiogenesis effect was determined by microvessel density (MVD) using immunohistochemical staining. The efficacy of the fusion vaccine was primarily assessed by detecting cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity (51Cr-release assay). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay was used to detect TEM8-specific INF-γ production, and the activity of CTL was further verified by a depletion of CD8+ T cells via anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody. Our results showed that the DNA fusion vaccine possessed an enhanced therapeutic antitumor immunity through anti-angiogenesis in BALB/c mice inoculated with CT26 cells, and this effect was generally attributed to stimulation of an antigen specific CD8+ T-cell response against mTEM8. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the fusion vaccine based on mTEM8 and MBD2 induced autoimmunity against endothelial cells, resulting in deceleration of tumor growth, and could be potential therapeutical application in clinic. PMID:26064415

  18. Targeting Bone Marrow to Potentiate the Anti-Tumor Effect of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Preclinical Rat Model of Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shaaban, S.; Alsulami, M.; Arbab, S.A.; Ara, R.; Shankar, A.; Iskander, A.; Angara, K.; Jain, M.; Bagher-Ebadian, H.; Achyut, B.R.; Arbab, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents caused paradoxical increase in pro-growth and pro-angiogenic factors and caused tumor growth in glioblastoma (GBM). It is hypothesized that paradoxical increase in pro-angiogenic factors would mobilize Bone Marrow Derived Cells (BMDCs) to the treated tumor and cause refractory tumor growth. The purposes of the studies were to determine whether whole body irradiation (WBIR) or a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) will potentiate the effect of vatalanib (a VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and prevent the refractory growth of GBM. Human GBM were grown orthotopically in three groups of rats (control, pretreated with WBIR and AMD3100) and randomly selected for vehicle or vatalanib treatments for 2 weeks. Then all animals underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) followed by euthanasia and histochemical analysis. Tumor volume and different vascular parameters (plasma volume (vp), forward transfer constant (Ktrans), back flow constant (kep), extravascular extracellular space volume (ve) were determined from MRI. In control group, vatalanib treatment increased the tumor growth significantly compared to that of vehicle treatment but by preventing the mobilization of BMDCs and interaction of CXCR4-SDF-1 using WBIR and ADM3100, respectively, paradoxical growth of tumor was controlled. Pretreatment with WBIR or AMD3100 also decreased tumor cell migration, despite the fact that ADM3100 increased the accumulation of M1 and M2 macrophages in the tumors. Vatalanib also increased Ktrans and ve in control animals but both of the vascular parameters were decreased when the animals were pretreated with WBIR and AMD3100. In conclusion, depleting bone marrow cells or CXCR4 interaction can potentiate the effect of vatalanib. PMID:27429653

  19. Sustained release of PTX-incorporated nanoparticles synergized by burst release of DOX⋅HCl from thermosensitive modified PEG/PCL hydrogel to improve anti-tumor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxin; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Xijing; Liu, Jianping; Dong, Anjie; Deng, Liandong

    2014-10-01

    As drug therapies become increasingly sophisticated, the synergistic benefits of two or more drugs are often required. In this study, we aimed at improving anti-tumor efficiency of paclitaxel (PTX)-incorporated thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogel by the synergy of burst release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX⋅HCl). Thermosensitive injectable hydrogel composed of nanoparticles assembled from amphiphilic copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolaone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) was fabricated. Hydrophobic PTX and hydrophilic DOX⋅HCl were loaded simultaneously in the thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogel by a two-stage entrapment. Thermosensitive gelling behaviors of drug-loading PECT nanoparticle aqueous dispersions were studied. In vitro release profiles of PTX and DOX⋅HCl and in vivo anti-tumor effect by dual drugs from PECT hydrogel were investigated. The results showed that hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs could be successfully entrapped in PECT hydrogel simultaneously without affecting its thermo-sensitive behavior. In vitro release profiles demonstrated the burst release of DOX⋅HCl and the sustained release of PTX. Anti-tumor effect was improved by a fast and tense attack caused by the burst release of hydrophilic DOX⋅HCl from hydrogel, which was continued by the sequent sustained release of PTX-incorporated nanoparticles and remnant DOX⋅HCl. Unintentionally, entrapped in PECT hydrogel, hydrophilic DOX⋅HCl was observed to have a sustained releasing pattern in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24931190

  20. Improved anti-tumor effect of liposomal doxorubicin after targeted blood-brain barrier disruption by MRI-guided focused ultrasound in rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Treat, Lisa H.; McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) inhibits the entry of the majority of chemotherapeutic agents into the brain. Previous studies have illustrated the feasibility of drug delivery across the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles. Here, we investigated the effect of FUS-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin on survival in rats with and 9L gliosarcoma cells inoculated in the brain. Each rat received either: (1) no treatment (control; N=11), (2) FUS only (N=9), (3) i.v. liposomal doxorubicin (DOX only; N=17), or (4) FUS with concurrent i.v. injections of liposomal doxorubicin (FUS+DOX; N=20). Post-treatment MRI showed that FUS+DOX reduced tumor growth compared to DOX only. Further, we observed a modest but significant increase in median survival time after a single treatment FUS+DOX treatment (p=0.0007), whereas neither DOX nor FUS had any significant impact on survival on its own. These results suggest that combined ultrasound-mediated BBB disruption may significantly increase the antineoplastic efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin in the brain. PMID:22818878

  1. Inhibition of A20 expression in tumor microenvironment exerts anti-tumor effect through inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bin; Wei, Xiawei; Luo, Min; Yu, Jiayun; Tong, Aiping; Ma, Xuelei; Ye, Tinghong; Deng, Hongxin; Sang, Yaxiong; Liang, Xiao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Qinjie; Du, Wei; Du, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Wen, Yi; Fu, Ping; Shi, Huashan; Luo, Shuntao; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to play important roles in the development of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. A20 is a zinc-finger protein which could negatively regulate apoptosis in several cell types. However, the role of A20 in tumor microenvironment remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that A20 was over-expressed in MDSCs. The treatment of tumor-bearing mice with small interfering RNA targeting A20 (si-A20) inhibited the growth of tumors. The infiltration of MDSCs was dramatically reduced after si-A20 treatment, as compared to control groups, whereas the numbers of dendritic cells and macrophages were not affected. Also, injection of si-A20 improved T cell mediated tumor-specific immune response. Depletion of MDSCs with anti-Gr1 antibody showed similar antitumor effect and improved T cell response. TNF-α was highly expressed after si-A20 injection. Furthermore, si-A20 induced apoptosis of MDSCs in the presence of TNF-α both in vivo and in vitro. Cleaved Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 were elevated with the activation of JNK pathway after the induction of MDSC apoptosis by si-A20. Thus, our findings suggested that knockdown of A20 in tumor site inhibited tumor growth at least through inducing the apoptosis of MDSCs. A20 might be a potential target in anticancer therapy. PMID:26561336

  2. Decreased level of RASSF6 in sporadic colorectal cancer and its anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Erfei; Yang, Fangfang; He, Hongjuan; Lei, Lei; Liu, Ruitao; Du, Le; Dong, Jing; Wang, Meng; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ras-association domain family protein 6 (RASSF6) is a member of tumor suppressor RASSFs family with a wide range of function from RAS interaction, Hippo signaling involvement to cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. RASSF6 is reported inactivated in various types of cancer. However, whether RASSF6 is associated with colorectal cancer and the underlying mechanisms have yet to be investigated. In our previous exome sequencing study, we found a somatic loss-of-function (LoF) mutation in RASSF6 in one sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) patient, and two missense mutations in deep sequencing group of sCRC samples, implying the possibility that RASSF6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sCRC. In this study, we demonstrate that RASSF6 acts as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer cells. Decreased level of RASSF6 was observed in adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues, especially in advanced tumor cases. Further experiments showed exogenous introduction of RASSF6 into LoVo cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and induced apoptosis in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. In contrast, knockdown of RASSF6 in HT-29 cells showed the opposite effects. Taken together, our results suggest, in addition to epigenetics changes, functional somatic mutations may also contribute to the downregulation of RASSF6 and further participate in the pathogenesis of sCRC. RASSF6 may serve as a novel candidate against tumor growth for sCRC. PMID:27009808

  3. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Pots, Jeanette M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Scharenborg, Nicole M; de Boer, Annemiek J; van Oorschot, Tom G M; Croockewit, Sandra A J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C; Mus, Roel D M; van Rossum, Michelle M; van der Graaf, Chantal A A; Punt, Cornelis J A; Adema, Gosse J; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combined intradermal/intravenous injection (16 patients) with VAC-DC loaded with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mRNA encoding tumor antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Tumor antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored in blood and skin-test infiltrating-lymphocyte cultures. Almost all patients mounted prophylactic vaccine- or KLH-specific immune responses. Both after intranodal injection and after intradermal/intravenous injection, tumor antigen-specific immune responses were detected, which coincide with longer overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients. VAC-DC induce local and systemic CTC grade 2 and 3 toxicity, which is most likely caused by BCG in the maturation cocktail. The side effects were self-limiting or resolved upon a short period of systemic steroid therapy. We conclude that VAC-DC can induce functional tumor-specific responses. Unfortunately, toxicity observed after vaccination precludes the general application of VAC-DC, since in DC maturated with prophylactic vaccines BCG appears to be essential in the maturation cocktail. PMID:26861670

  4. The Anti-Tumor Effects of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transduced with HSV-Tk Gene on U-87-Driven Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Suely Maymone; Bittencourt, Simone; Ferrazoli, Enéas Galdini; da Silva, Clivandir Severino; da Cunha, Flavia Franco; da Silva, Flavia Helena; Stilhano, Roberta Sessa; Denapoli, Priscila Martins Andrade; Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Martin, Priscila Keiko Matsumoto; Silva, Leonardo Martins; dos Santos, Adara Aurea; Baptista, Leandra Santos; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro; Han, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an infiltrative tumor that is difficult to eradicate. Treating GBM with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been modified with the HSV-Tk suicide gene has brought significant advances mainly because MSCs are chemoattracted to GBM and kill tumor cells via a bystander effect. To use this strategy, abundantly present adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) were evaluated for the treatment of GBM in mice. AT-MSCs were prepared using a mechanical protocol to avoid contamination with animal protein and transduced with HSV-Tk via a lentiviral vector. The U-87 glioblastoma cells cultured with AT-MSC-HSV-Tk died in the presence of 25 or 50 μM ganciclovir (GCV). U-87 glioblastoma cells injected into the brains of nude mice generated tumors larger than 3.5 mm2 after 4 weeks, but the injection of AT-MSC-HSV-Tk cells one week after the U-87 injection, combined with GCV treatment, drastically reduced tumors to smaller than 0.5 mm2. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors showed the presence of AT-MSC-HSV-Tk cells only within the tumor and its vicinity, but not in other areas of the brain, showing chemoattraction between them. The abundance of AT-MSCs and the easier to obtain them mechanically are strong advantages when compared to using MSCs from other tissues. PMID:26067671

  5. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Sobrin, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reported use in 2001 of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) agent, infliximab, for the treatment of uveitis, several new anti-TNF-α agents have emerged for the treatment of refractory noninfectious uveitides, although their use remains off-label in the US. These agents have demonstrated remarkable clinical antiinflammatory efficacy and a potential immunoregulatory role in selected uveitis patients, but it is currently unclear whether they can modify the natural history of disease. We review the rationale and clinical indications for this therapy, the differences between agents, how to manage dosing and intervals, and how to screen for and identify potential side effects. We also present a summary of the science behind the use of anti-TNF-α agents in ocular inflammation and the evidence for their efficacy. PMID:26164735

  6. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  7. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  8. Breast tumor cells isolated from in vitro resistance to trastuzumab remain sensitive to trastuzumab anti-tumor effects in vivo and to ADCC killing.

    PubMed

    Kute, Timothy E; Savage, Lori; Stehle, John R; Kim-Shapiro, Jung W; Blanks, Michael J; Wood, James; Vaughn, James P

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of model systems of trastuzumab (Herceptin) resistance is of great importance since the humanized monoclonal antibody is now used as first line therapy with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic Her2 overexpressing breast cancer, and the majority of their tumors has innate resistance or develops acquired resistance to the treatment. Previously, we selected trastuzumab-resistant clonal cell lines in vitro from trastuzumab-sensitive parental BT-474 cells and showed that cloned trastuzumab-resistant cell lines maintain similar levels of the extracellular Her2 receptor, bind trastuzumab as efficiently as the parental cells, but continue to grow in the presence of trastuzumab and display cell cycle profiles and growth rates comparable to parental cells grown in the absence of trastuzumab (Kute et al. in Cytometry A 57:86-93, 2004). We now show that trastuzumab-resistant and trastuzumab-sensitive cells both surprisingly display trastuzumab-mediated growth inhibition in athymic nude mice. This demonstrates that resistance developed in vitro is not predictive of resistance in vivo. The observation that in vitro resistant cells are sensitive to trastuzumab in vivo could be explained by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, both parental and trastuzumab-resistant cells were assayed for ADCC in real time on electroplates with and without trastuzumab in the presence of a natural killer cell line (NK-92), and granulocyte or mononuclear cellular fractions isolated from human peripheral blood. Mononuclear cells and NK-92 cells were more effective in killing both parental and trastuzumab-resistant cells in the presence of trastuzumab. Both trastuzumab-resistant cells and trastuzumab-sensitive cells showed similar susceptibility to ADCC despite displaying divergent growth responses to trastuzumab. The granulocyte fraction was able to kill these cells with equal efficacy in the presence or absence of trastuzumab. These results support a model

  9. Anti-tumor effect of the alphavirus-based virus-like particle vector expressing prostate-specific antigen in a HLA-DR transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Riabov, V; Tretyakova, I; Alexander, R B; Pushko, P; Klyushnenkova, E N

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if an alphavirus-based vaccine encoding human Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) could generate an effective anti-tumor immune response in a stringent mouse model of prostate cancer. DR2bxPSA F1 male mice expressing human PSA and HLA-DRB1(*)1501 transgenes were vaccinated with virus-like particle vector encoding PSA (VLPV-PSA) followed by the challenge with Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate cells engineered to express PSA (TRAMP-PSA). PSA-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were measured before and after tumor challenge. PSA and CD8 reactivity in the tumors was detected by immunohistochemistry. Tumor growth was compared in vaccinated and control groups. We found that VLPV-PSA could infect mouse dendritic cells in vitro and induce a robust PSA-specific immune response in vivo. A substantial proportion of splenic CD8 T cells (19.6 ± 7.4%) produced IFNγ in response to the immunodominant peptide PSA(65-73). In the blood of vaccinated mice, 18.4 ± 4.1% of CD8 T cells were PSA-specific as determined by the staining with H-2D(b)/PSA(65-73) dextramers. VLPV-PSA vaccination also strongly stimulated production of IgG2a/b anti-PSA antibodies. Tumors in vaccinated mice showed low levels of PSA expression and significant CD8+ T cell infiltration. Tumor growth in VLPV-PSA vaccinated mice was significantly delayed at early time points (p=0.002, Gehan-Breslow test). Our data suggest that TC-83-based VLPV-PSA vaccine can efficiently overcome immune tolerance to PSA, mediate rapid clearance of PSA-expressing tumor cells and delay tumor growth. The VLPV-PSA vaccine will undergo further testing for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. PMID:26319744

  10. Cancer vaccines: harnessing the potential of anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of cancer suggests failure of the immune system to protect against development of tumors, the possibility that immunity can be redirected and focused to generate an anti-tumor response offers great translational possibility. The key to this is identifying antigens likely to be present in any given tumor and functionally critical to tumor survival and growth. Such tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are varied and optimally should be absent from normal tissue. Of particular interest are TAAs associated with the tumor stroma, as immunity directed against the stroma may restrict the ability of the tumor to grow and metastasize. Important to directing the immune system toward an effect anti-tumor response is the understanding of how TAAs are processed and how the tumor is able to evade immune elimination. The process of immunoediting happens in response to the selective pressure that the immune system places upon tumor cell populations and allows for emergence of tumor cells capable of escaping immune destruction. Efforts to harness the immune system for clinical application has been aided by vaccines based on purified recombinant protein or nucleic acid TAAs. For example, a vaccine for canine melanoma has been developed and approved based on immunization with DNA components of tyrosinase, a glycoprotein essential to melanin synthesis. The performance of cancer vaccines has been aided in some cases when supplemented with immunostimulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 or a novel extracellular matrix vaccine adjuvant. Vaccines with the broadest menu of antigenic targets may be those most likely to succeed against cancer. For this reason, tissue vaccines produced from harvested tumor material may offer significant benefit. With several cancer vaccines on the veterinary and human markets, efforts to understand basic tumor immunology are soon to yield great dividends. PMID:23850019

  11. Anti-tumor immunity elicited by direct intratumoral administration of a recombinant adenovirus expressing either IL-28A/IFN-λ2 or IL-29/IFN-λ1.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Tagawa, M; Takagi, K; Tsukamoto, H; Tomioka, Y; Suzuki, T; Nishioka, Y; Ohrui, T; Numasaki, M

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-28A/interferon (IFN)-λ2 and IL-29/IFN-λ1 have been demonstrated to elicit direct and indirect anti-tumor actions. In this study, we constructed an adenovirus vector expressing either IL-28A/IFN-λ2 (AdIL-28A) or IL-29/IFN-λ1 (AdIL-29) to evaluate the therapeutic properties of intratumoral injection of recombinant adenovirus to apply for the clinical implementation of cancer gene therapy. Despite the lack of an anti-proliferative effect on MCA205 and B16-F10 cells, a retarded growth of established subcutaneous tumors was observed following multiple injections of either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29 when compared with AdNull. In vivo cell depletion experiments displayed that both NK cells and CD8(+) T cells have a major role in AdIL-28A-mediated tumor growth suppression. A significant increase in the number of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells into the tumors treated with either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29 was observed. Moreover, specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte reactivity was detected in spleen cells from animals treated with either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29. In IFN-γ-deficient mice, anti-tumor activities of AdIL-28A were completely impaired, indicating that IFN-γ is critically involved in the tumor growth inhibition triggered by AdIL-28A. IL-12 provided a synergistic anti-tumor effect when combined with AdIL-28A. These results indicate that AdIL-28A and AdIL-29 could be successfully utilized as an alternative cancer immunogene therapy. PMID:27561689

  12. Synergistic growth inhibitory effect of deracoxib with doxorubicin against a canine mammary tumor cell line, CMT-U27

    PubMed Central

    BAKIREL, Tülay; ALKAN, Fulya Üstün; ÜSTÜNER, Oya; ÇINAR, Suzan; YILDIRIM, Funda; ERTEN, Gaye; BAKIREL, Utku

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities on many types of malignant tumors. These anticancer properties make it worthwhile to examine the possible benefit of combining COX inhibitors with other anti-cancer agents. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of deracoxib (DER) in potentiating antitumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX) in canine mammary carcinoma cells (CMT-U27). DER (50–250 µM) enhanced the antiproliferative activity of DOX by reducing the IC50 (approximately 3- to 3.5 fold). Interaction analysis of the data showed that combinations of DOX at 0.9 µM with DER (100–250 µM) produced synergism in the CMT-U27 cell line, with a ratio index ranging from 1.98 to 2.33. In additional studies identifying the mechanism of observed synergistic effect, we found that DER strongly potentiated DOX-caused G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Also, DER (100–250 µM) augmented apoptosis induction with approximately 1.35- and 1.37- fold increases in apoptotic response caused by DOX in the cells. DER enhanced the antiproliferative effect of DOX in conjunction with induction of apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 expression and changes in the cell cycle of the CMT-U27 cell line. Although the exact molecular mechanism of the alterations in the cell cycle and apoptosis observed with DER and DOX combinations require further investigations, the results suggest that the synergistic effect of DOX and DER combinations in CMT therapy may be achieved at relatively lower doses of DOX with lesser side effects. Therefore, combining DER with DOX may prove beneficial in the clinical treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:26822118

  13. Synergistic growth inhibitory effect of deracoxib with doxorubicin against a canine mammary tumor cell line, CMT-U27.

    PubMed

    Bakirel, Tülay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Üstüner, Oya; Çinar, Suzan; Yildirim, Funda; Erten, Gaye; Bakirel, Utku

    2016-05-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities on many types of malignant tumors. These anticancer properties make it worthwhile to examine the possible benefit of combining COX inhibitors with other anti-cancer agents. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of deracoxib (DER) in potentiating antitumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX) in canine mammary carcinoma cells (CMT-U27). DER (50-250 µM) enhanced the antiproliferative activity of DOX by reducing the IC50 (approximately 3- to 3.5 fold). Interaction analysis of the data showed that combinations of DOX at 0.9 µM with DER (100-250 µM) produced synergism in the CMT-U27 cell line, with a ratio index ranging from 1.98 to 2.33. In additional studies identifying the mechanism of observed synergistic effect, we found that DER strongly potentiated DOX-caused G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Also, DER (100-250 µM) augmented apoptosis induction with approximately 1.35- and 1.37- fold increases in apoptotic response caused by DOX in the cells. DER enhanced the antiproliferative effect of DOX in conjunction with induction of apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 expression and changes in the cell cycle of the CMT-U27 cell line. Although the exact molecular mechanism of the alterations in the cell cycle and apoptosis observed with DER and DOX combinations require further investigations, the results suggest that the synergistic effect of DOX and DER combinations in CMT therapy may be achieved at relatively lower doses of DOX with lesser side effects. Therefore, combining DER with DOX may prove beneficial in the clinical treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:26822118

  14. TAE226, a Bis-Anilino Pyrimidine Compound, Inhibits the EGFR-Mutant Kinase Including T790M Mutant to Show Anti-Tumor Effect on EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Takaoka, Munenori; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Soh, Junichi; Jida, Masaru; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Kawahara, Eiji; Naomoto, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    TAE226, a bis-anilino pyrimidine compound, has been developed as an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). In this study, we investigated the effect of TAE226 on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially focusing on the EGFR mutational status. TAE226 was more effective against cells with mutant EGFR, including the T790M mutant, than against cells with wild-type one. TAE226 preferentially inhibited phospho-EGFR and its downstream signaling mediators in the cells with mutant EGFR than in those with wild-type one. Phosphorylation of FAK and IGF-IR was not inhibited at the concentration at which the proliferation of EGFR-mutant cells was inhibited. Results of the in vitro binding assay indicated significant differences in the affinity for TAE226 between the wild-type and L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant, and the reduced affinity of ATP to the L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant resulted in good responsiveness of the L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant cells to TAE226. Of interest, the L858R/T790M or delE746_A750/T790M mutant enhanced the binding affinity for TAE226 compared with the L858R or delE746_A750 mutant, resulting in the effectiveness of TAE226 against T790M mutant cells despite the T790M mutation restoring the ATP affinity for the mutant EGFR close to that for the wild-type. TAE226 also showed higher affinity of about 15-fold for the L858R/T790M mutant than for the wild-type one by kinetic interaction analysis. The anti-tumor effect against EGFR-mutant tumors including T790M mutation was confirmed in mouse models without any significant toxicity. In summary, we showed that TAE226 inhibited the activation of mutant EGFR and exhibited anti-proliferative activity against NSCLCs carrying EGFR mutations, including T790M mutation. PMID:26090892

  15. TAE226, a Bis-Anilino Pyrimidine Compound, Inhibits the EGFR-Mutant Kinase Including T790M Mutant to Show Anti-Tumor Effect on EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Takaoka, Munenori; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Soh, Junichi; Jida, Masaru; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Kawahara, Eiji; Naomoto, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    TAE226, a bis-anilino pyrimidine compound, has been developed as an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). In this study, we investigated the effect of TAE226 on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially focusing on the EGFR mutational status. TAE226 was more effective against cells with mutant EGFR, including the T790M mutant, than against cells with wild-type one. TAE226 preferentially inhibited phospho-EGFR and its downstream signaling mediators in the cells with mutant EGFR than in those with wild-type one. Phosphorylation of FAK and IGF-IR was not inhibited at the concentration at which the proliferation of EGFR-mutant cells was inhibited. Results of the in vitro binding assay indicated significant differences in the affinity for TAE226 between the wild-type and L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant, and the reduced affinity of ATP to the L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant resulted in good responsiveness of the L858R (or delE746_A750) mutant cells to TAE226. Of interest, the L858R/T790M or delE746_A750/T790M mutant enhanced the binding affinity for TAE226 compared with the L858R or delE746_A750 mutant, resulting in the effectiveness of TAE226 against T790M mutant cells despite the T790M mutation restoring the ATP affinity for the mutant EGFR close to that for the wild-type. TAE226 also showed higher affinity of about 15-fold for the L858R/T790M mutant than for the wild-type one by kinetic interaction analysis. The anti-tumor effect against EGFR-mutant tumors including T790M mutation was confirmed in mouse models without any significant toxicity. In summary, we showed that TAE226 inhibited the activation of mutant EGFR and exhibited anti-proliferative activity against NSCLCs carrying EGFR mutations, including T790M mutation. PMID:26090892

  16. Synergistic effect of ERK inhibition on tetrandrine-induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Chang, Seung Hee; Chung, Youn Sun; Shin, Ji Young; Park, Sung Jin; Lee, Eun Sun; Hwang, Soon Kyung; Kwon, Jung Taek; Tehrani, Arash Minai; Woo, Minah; Noh, Mi Sook; Hanifah, Huda; Jin, Hua; Xu, Cheng Xiong; Cho, Myung Haing

    2009-03-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to have anti-tumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism by which TET inhibits tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. The present studies were performed to characterize the potential effects of TET on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways since these signaling pathways are known to be responsible for cell growth and survival. TET suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. TET treatment resulted in a down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation in both time-/concentration-dependent manners. The inhibition of ERK using PD98059 synergistically enhanced the TET-induced apoptosis of A549 cells whereas the inhibition of Akt using LY294002 had a less significant effect. Taken together, our results suggest that TET: i) selectively inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells by blocking Akt activation and ii) increases apoptosis by inhibiting ERK. The treatment of lung cancers with TET may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and increase the apoptotic potential of lung cancer cells. PMID:19255520

  17. Plasmin releases the anti-tumor peptide from the NC1 domain of collagen XIX.

    PubMed

    Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Vautrin, Alexia; Sellier, Christèle; Machado, Carine; Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurelie; Brassart, Bertrand; Baud, S; Dauchez, Manuel; Monboisse, Jean-Claude; Harakat, Dominique; Maquart, François-Xavier; Ramont, Laurent

    2015-02-28

    During tumor invasion, tumor cells degrade the extracellular matrix. Basement membrane degradation is responsible for the production of peptides with anti-tumor properties. Type XIX collagen is associated with basement membranes in vascular, neuronal, mesenchymal and epithelial tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that the non-collagenous NC1, C-terminal, domain of collagen XIX [NC1(XIX)] inhibits the migration capacities of tumor cells and exerts a strong inhibition of tumor growth. Here, we demonstrate that plasmin, one of the most important enzyme involved in tumor invasion, was able to release a fragment of NC1(XIX), which retained the anti-tumor activity. Molecular modeling studies showed that NC1(XIX) and the anti-tumor fragment released by plasmin (F4) adopted locally the same type I β-turn conformation. This suggests that the anti-tumor effect is conformation-dependent. This study demonstrates that collagen XIX is a novel proteolytic substrate for plasmin. Such release may constitute a defense of the organism against tumor invasion. PMID:25668817

  18. Plasmin releases the anti-tumor peptide from the NC1 domain of collagen XIX

    PubMed Central

    Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Vautrin, Alexia; Sellier, Christèle; Machado, Carine; Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurelie; Brassart, Bertrand; Baud, S.; Dauchez, Manuel; Monboisse, Jean-Claude; Harakat, Dominique; Maquart, François-Xavier; Ramont, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    During tumor invasion, tumor cells degrade the extracellular matrix. Basement membrane degradation is responsible for the production of peptides with anti-tumor properties. Type XIX collagen is associated with basement membranes in vascular, neuronal, mesenchymal and epithelial tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that the non-collagenous NC1, C-terminal, domain of collagen XIX [NC1(XIX)] inhibits the migration capacities of tumor cells and exerts a strong inhibition of tumor growth. Here, we demonstrate that plasmin, one of the most important enzyme involved in tumor invasion, was able to release a fragment of NC1(XIX), which retained the anti-tumor activity. Molecular modeling studies showed that NC1(XIX) and the anti-tumor fragment released by plasmin (F4) adopted locally the same type I β-turn conformation. This suggests that the anti-tumor effect is conformation-dependent. This study demonstrates that collagen XIX is a novel proteolytic substrate for plasmin. Such release may constitute a defense of the organism against tumor invasion. PMID:25668817

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α mediates the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway leading to anti-tumor effects in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells under hypoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shuchen; Li, Mingrong; Huang, Haiying; Li, Jingyuan; Zhou, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are involved in numerous mechanisms of cancer biology, including cell proliferation and survival; however the interaction of the two factors under hypoxic conditions remains unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro mechanism that results in the suppression of tumor cell growth and cellular functions when HIF-1α is silenced. In the present study, the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line was transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against HIF-1α and cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% O2 for 24 h). The expression of HIF-1α and various growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Tumor growth was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and tumor activity was measured using tumor cell invasion and migration assays. Lipopolysaccharide and TAK-242 were used to activate and inhibit TLR4, respectively, to observe the role of TLR4 in the HIF-1α silenced tumor cells. The expression of TLR4 signaling pathway associates, including myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and HIF-1α, were analyzed by western blot assay. Under hypoxic conditions, silencing of HIF-1α expression suppressed tumor cell growth and regulated the expression of tumor growth-associated genes, including EGF, HGF, VEGF and FG2. Suppression of tumor cell invasion and migration was also observed in the HIF-1α silenced HepG2 cell line. In addition, TLR4 was identified to be involved in HIF-1α and MyD88 accumulation, and activation of ASK1 and p38 were demonstrated to be critical for TLR4-mediated HIF-1α pathway. In conclusion, silencing of HIF-1α expression may induce anti-tumor effects under hypoxic

  20. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-wei; Guo, Wei-hua; Qi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jian-zhen; Ma, Xiang-xing; Yu, De-xin

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect.

  1. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Wei; Guo, Wei-Hua; Qi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jian-Zhen; Ma, Xiang-Xing; Yu, De-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect. PMID:27255899

  2. Anti-tumor mechanism in IL-12 Gene therapy using liposomal bubbles and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Koshima, Risa; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Negishi, Yoichi; Utoguchi, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Sonoporation combined with nano/microbubbles is an attractive technique for developing non-invasive and non-viral gene delivery systems. Previously, we developed novel ultrasound sensitive liposomes (Bubble liposomes) which contain the ultrasound imaging gas perfluoropropane. IL-12 corded plasmid DNA delivery into tumor tissue by sonoporation combined with Bubble liposomes was found to suppress tumor growth. In this study, we examined the mechanism of the anti-tumor effect in this IL-12 gene delivery. This therapeutic effect was T-cell dependent, requiring mainly CD8+ T lymphocytes in the effector phase, as confirmed by a mouse in vivo depletion assay. In addition, migration of CD8+ T cells was observed in the mice. These results suggest that CD8+ T lymphocytes play an important role in the anti-tumor effects of this IL-12 gene therapy.

  3. VISTA regulates the development of protective anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    LeMercier, Isabelle; Chen, Wenna; Lines, Janet L.; Day, Maria; Li, Jiannan; Sergent, Petra; Noelle, Randolph J.; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint ligand that is homologous to PD-L1 and suppresses T cell activation. This study demonstrates the multiple mechanisms whereby VISTA relieves negative regulation by hematopoietic cells and enhances protective anti-tumor immunity. VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells and Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory cells, but not on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). VISTA monoclonal antibody (mab) treatment increased the number of tumor-specific T cells in the periphery, and enhanced the infiltration, proliferation and effector function of tumor-reactive T cells within the TME. VISTA blockade altered the suppressive feature of the TME, by decreasing the presence of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increasing the presence of activated DCs within the TME. In addition, VISTA blockade impaired the suppressive function and reduced the emergence of tumor-specific Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells. Consequently, VISTA mab administration as a monotherapy significantly suppressed the growth of both transplantable and inducible melanoma. Initial studies explored a combinatorial regimen using VISTA blockade and a peptide-based cancer vaccine with TLR agonists as adjuvants. VISTA blockade synergized with the vaccine to effectively impair the growth of established tumors. Our study therefore establishes a foundation for designing VISTA-targeted approaches either as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-targeted strategies for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24691994

  4. Anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from blueberry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiyun; Liu, Ning; Wu, Zhaoxia; Feng, Ying; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1) from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg-1·d-1) inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05), increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05), boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01), promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05) and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01). From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator. PMID:25734419

  5. Synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Minasyants, V.A.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Sel'manshchuk, N.N.; Aleksyuk, M.P.

    1988-01-10

    The extraction of phenols from dilute aqueous solutions was studied; the extracting agents were n-butyl acetate, C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols, nitrobenzene, and tributyl phosphate. Isotherms of extraction of phenol by isomolar mixtures of n-butyl acetate and nitrobenzene, n-hexyl alcohol and tributyl phosphate are shown. The synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenol with mixtures of solvents are represented based on n-butyl acetate. The effect of dialkyl phthalates on extraction of pyrocatechol with C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols was studied; in extraction of pyrocatechol with solutions of dialkyl phthalates in alcohols, synergism was observed.

  6. Synergistic bactericidal effects of acrinol and tetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Saji, M; Fujii, K; Ohkuni, H; Irie, N; Osono, E; Kato, F

    2000-06-01

    Combined treatment of acrinol (Ac) and tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical specimens synergistically increased the bactericidal effect. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ac against P. aeruginosa strain no. 985 was 200 microg/ml, while the MBC of Ac against strains no. 47 and no. 783 was above 800 microg/ml for each. The MBC of Tc was above 400 microg/ml against each of the tested strains. However, simultaneous treatment with 25 microg/ml Ac and 200 microg/ml Tc against P. aeruginosa strain no. 985 decreased the viable cell number from 107 cfu/ml to <10 cfu/ml within 24 h, while a higher concentration of Tc (400 microg/ml) with Ac (25 microg/ml) reduced the viable cell number to <10 cfu/ml within 8 h. A similar synergistic bactericidal effect of Ac and Tc was observed in strains no. 47 and no. 783 by treatment with 200 microg/ml Ac and 200 microg/ml or 400 microg/ml Tc. The degree of bactericidal effect against P. aeruginosa was proportional to the concentration of Tc under the condition of a constant concentration of Ac. Furthermore, Ac-treated cells of strain no. 47 were killed by a following Tc treatment, but cells pretreated with Tc did not show such a sensitivity to Ac. To induce the synergistic effect of Ac and Tc, Ac must be applied to P. aeruginosa before or at the same time as Tc. PMID:11810541

  7. Perspectives on Reprograming Cancer-Associated Dendritic Cells for Anti-Tumor Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Benencia, Fabian; Muccioli, Maria; Alnaeeli, Mawadda

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the relevance of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the progression of cancer has gained considerable attention. It has been shown that the TME is capable of inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance, thus favoring cancer cell growth and tumor metastasis. In particular, effects of the TME on antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) include rendering these cells unable to promote specific immune responses or transform them into suppressive cells capable of inducing regulatory T cells. In addition, under the influence of the TME, DCs can produce growth factors that induce neovascularization, therefore further contributing to tumor development. Interestingly, cancer-associated DCs harbor tumor antigens and thus have the potential to become anti-tumor vaccines in situ if properly reactivated. This perspective article provides an overview of the scientific background and experimental basis for reprograming cancer-associated DCs in situ to generate anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:24778991

  8. Anti-tumor-promoting activity of lignans from the aerial part of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Konoshima, T; Komatsu, K; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    2000-09-29

    In the course of our continuing search for novel cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources, several kinds of Compositae plants were screened. Consequently, the lignans, arctiin (ARC) and arctigenin (ARC-G), were obtained from the aerial part of Saussurea medusaas active constituents. These compounds exhibited the remarkable anti-tumor-promoting effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin tumors induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate as a promoter by both topical application and oral administration. Furthermore, ARC-G exhibited potent anti-tumor-promoting activity on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse pulmonary tumors induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide as an initiator and glycerol as a promoter. PMID:10940509

  9. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin. PMID:22474959

  10. Synergistic Effect of Lupenone and Caryophyllene Oxide against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Polanco-Hernández, Glendy; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Rosado, María E.; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y.; Giménez-Turba, Alberto; Salamanca, Efraín; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro trypanocidal activity of a 1 : 4 mixture of lupenone and caryophyllene oxide confirmed a synergistic effect of the terpenoids against epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL, FIC = 0.46). In addition, testing of the terpenoid mixture for its capacity to reduce the number of amastigote nests in cardiac tissue and skeletal muscle of infected mice showed a reduction of more than 80% at a dose level of 20.8 mg·kg−1·day−1. PMID:23762135

  11. Type I IFNs induce anti-tumor polarization of tumor associated neutrophils in mice and human.

    PubMed

    Andzinski, Lisa; Kasnitz, Nadine; Stahnke, Stephanie; Wu, Ching-Fang; Gereke, Marcus; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Schilling, Bastian; Brandau, Sven; Weiss, Siegfried; Jablonska, Jadwiga

    2016-04-15

    The importance of tumor associated neutrophils (TANs) in cancer development is in the meantime well established. Numerous of clinical data document the adverse prognostic effects of neutrophil infiltration in solid tumors. However, certain tumor therapies need functional neutrophils to be effective, suggesting altered neutrophil polarization associated with different outcomes for cancer patients. Therefore, modulation of neutrophilic phenotypes represents a potent therapeutic option, but factors mediating neutrophil polarization are still poorly defined. In this manuscript we provide evidence that type I IFNs alter neutrophilic phenotype into anti-tumor, both in mice and human. In the absence of IFN-β, pro-tumor properties, such as reduced tumor cytotoxicity with low neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) expression, low ICAM1 and TNF-α expression, dominated neutrophil phenotypes in primary lesion and premetastatic lung. Interestingly, such neutrophils have significantly prolonged life-span. Notably, interferon therapy in mice altered TAN polarization towards anti-tumor N1. Similar changes in neutrophil activation could be observed in melanoma patients undergoing type I IFN therapy. Altogether, these data highlight the therapeutic potential of interferons, suggesting optimization of its clinical use as potent anti-tumor agent. PMID:26619320

  12. Synergistic effect of ozonation and ionizing radiation for PVA decomposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Lujun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-08-01

    Ozonation and ionizing radiation are both advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) without chemical addition and secondary pollution. Also, the two processes' efficiency is determined by different pH conditions, which creates more possibilities for their combination. Importantly, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation could be suitable for treating wastewaters with extreme pH values, i.e., textile wastewater. To find synergistic effects, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation mineralization was investigated for degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at different pH levels. A synergistic effect was found at initial pH in the range 3.0-9.4. When the initial pH was 3.0, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation gave a PVA mineralization degree of 17%. This was 2.7 times the sum achieved by the two individual processes, and factors of 2.1 and 1.7 were achieved at initial pH of 7.0 and 9.4, respectively. The combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation was demonstrated to be a feasible strategy for treatment of PVA-containing wastewater. PMID:26257347

  13. Investigation of HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity in a murine tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenlin; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Yunbo; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim; Clay, Timothy M.; Zhong, Pei

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether HIFU treatment can elicit a systemic, anti-tumor immune response in vivo, MC-38 solid tumors grown subcutaneously at the right hindlimbs of C57BL/6 mice were treated in an experimental HIFU system. Three different treatment strategies that produce thermal, mechanical, or thermal combined with mechanical damage to the tumor tissue were evaluated. To detect anti-tumor immune response, a tumor challenge was performed on the left hindlimbs of the mice one day following the HIFU treatment, and subsequently, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response was evaluated on day 14. All three HIFU treatment strategies were found to cause significant regression of the primary tumor, with the best suppressive effect produced by the thermal HIFU. In contrast, the most significant regression of the challenged tumor with concomitantly elevated CTL response were detected in mice treated by the mechanical HIFU, followed by the thermal combined with mechanical HIFU, but not in mice treated by the thermal HIFU alone. These findings suggest that alternative treatment strategies that promote mechanical lysis of the tumor cells (in contrast to purely thermal ablation) may enhance HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response.

  14. Osthole promotes anti-tumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lurong; Jiang, Guorong; Yao, Fei; Liang, Guoqiang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yan; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, has been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effect of osthole on anti-tumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice has not yet been reported. In the present study, osthole treatment did not affect the weight and the coefficient of thymus and spleen in tumor-bearing mice with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, osthole administration significantly elevated the proportion and number of the splenic CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells in tumor tissues, and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-α in the serum of HCC tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that osthole could promote the activation of the tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells, and elevate the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells. Osthole treatment also significantly decreased the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the spleen. Taken together, osthole could enhance the T cell mediated anti-tumor immune responses in the tumor-bearing mice with HCC. PMID:25975579

  15. Synergistic Effects between Biogenic Ligands and a Reductant in Fe Acquisition from Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Wang, Zimeng; Giammar, Daniel E; Kraemer, Stephan M

    2016-06-21

    Organisms have developed different strategies to cope with environmental conditions of low Fe availability based on the exudation of reducing, ligating, and acidifying compounds. In the context of Fe acquisition from soil, the effects of these reactive compounds have generally been considered independent and additive. However, highly efficient Fe acquisition strategies may rely on synergistic effects between reactive exudates. In the present study, we demonstrate that synergistic effects between biogenic ligands and a reductant (ascorbate) can occur in Fe mobilization from soil. Synergistic Fe mobilization was found for all ligands examined (desferrioxamine B (DFOB), 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), esculetin, and citrate). The size and duration of the synergistic effect on Fe mobilization varied with ligand: larger effects were observed for the sideorphores compared to esculetin and citrate. For DFOB, the synergistic effect lasted for the 168 h duration of the experiment; for DMA, an initial synergistic effect turned into an antagonistic effect after 4 h because of enhanced mobilization of competing metals; and for esculetin and citrate, the synergistic effect was temporary (less than 24 h). Our results demonstrate that synergistic effects greatly enhance the reactivity of mixtures of compounds known to be exuded in response to Fe limitation. These synergistic effects could be decisive for the survival of plants and microorganisms under conditions of low Fe availability. PMID:27218689

  16. Aliphatic acid-conjugated antimicrobial peptides--potential agents with anti-tumor, multidrug resistance-reversing activity and enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Wang, Xuekun; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-07-28

    Compared with traditional therapeutics, antimicrobial peptides as novel anti-tumor agents have prominent advantages of higher specificity and circumvention of multi-drug resistance. In a previous study, we found that B1, an antimicrobial peptide derived from Cathelicidin-BF15, presented specific anti-tumor activity against several tumor cells. Since aliphatic chain-conjugated peptides have shown ameliorative activity and stability, we conjugated aliphatic acids with different lengths to the amino terminal of B1. All the conjugated peptides exhibited improved anti-tumor activity over B1. Further investigations revealed that the peptides were capable of disrupting the cell membrane, stimulating cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which results in apoptosis. The peptides also acted against multidrug resistant cells and had multidrug resistance-reversing effects. Additionally, conjugation of aliphatic acid enhanced the peptide stability in plasma. In summary, aliphatic acid-modified peptides might be promising anti-tumor agents in the future. PMID:26083110

  17. Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baohua; Wang, Fangfang; Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ji; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-06-01

    CdS nanocrystals are attached on graphene nanosheets and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated by picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm. We found that synergistic effect between the graphene and CdS makes a major enhancement on the nonlinear optical absorption of graphene/CdS nanohybrid in comparison with cooperative effect, and the synergistic improvement is restricted by nonradiative defects in hybrid. The synergistic mechanism involving the local field theory and charge transfer evolution is proposed.

  18. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Elseweidy, Mohamed M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the remarkable anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX), its clinical application is limited due to multiple organ toxicities. Products with less side effects are therefore highly requested. The current study investigated the anti-cancer activities of vanillin against breast cancer and possible synergistic potentiation of DOX chemotherapeutic effects by vanillin. Vanillin (100mg/kg), DOX (2mg/kg) and their combination were administered i.p. to solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice for 21days. MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with vanillin (1 and 2mM), DOX (100μM) or their combination. Protection against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity was studied in rats that received vanillin (100mg/kg, ip) for 10days with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg) on day 6. Vanillin exerted anticancer effects comparable to DOX and synergesticlly potentiated DOX anticancer effects both in-vivo and in-vitro. The anticancer potency of vanillin in-vivo was mediated via apoptosis and antioxidant capacity. It also offered an in-vitro growth inhibitory effect and cytotoxicity mediated by apoptosis (increased caspase-9 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) along with anti-metasasis effect. Vanillin protected against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In conclusion, vanillin can be a potential lead molecule for the development of non-toxic agents for the treatment of breast cancer either alone or combined with DOX. PMID:27493101

  19. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruilin; Hu, Siyi; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Zhihui; Zha, Zhao; Huang, Hui; Shen, Guodong; Liu, Jing; Song, Lihua; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21) is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21) that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra), markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy. PMID:27092488

  20. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilin; Hu, Siyi; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Zhihui; Zha, Zhao; Huang, Hui; Shen, Guodong; Liu, Jing; Song, Lihua; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21) is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21) that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra), markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy. PMID:27092488

  1. Good things come in small packages: Therapeutic anti-tumor immunity induced by microRNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2012-09-01

    Current ovarian cancer treatments based on surgery/chemotherapy show limited efficacy. Targeting immunosuppression is a requirement for the effectiveness of novel promising anti-tumor immunotherapies. Our latest work in preclinical models shows that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of immunostimulatory microRNAs specifically to tumor-associated leukocytes is sufficient to re-program immunological control of metastatic ovarian cancers. PMID:23162774

  2. Multi-component self-assembled anti-tumor nano-vaccines based on MUC1 glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z Y; Chen, P G; Liu, Y F; Zhang, B D; Wu, J J; Chen, Y X; Zhao, Y F; Li, Y M

    2016-06-18

    Novel multi-component self-assembled nano-vaccines containing both Pam3CSK4 and CpG were developed for the first time. These multi-component vaccines could effectively activate the macrophages in vitro and elicit strong antibody immune responses and anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. PMID:27216415

  3. Synergistic effect of repulsive inhibition in synchronization of excitatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, Igor; Reimbayev, Reimbay; Zhao, Kun

    2015-06-01

    We show that the addition of pairwise repulsive inhibition to excitatory networks of bursting neurons induces synchrony, in contrast to one's expectations. Through stability analysis, we reveal the mechanism underlying this purely synergistic phenomenon and demonstrate that it originates from the transition between different types of bursting, caused by excitatory-inhibitory synaptic coupling. This effect is generic and observed in different models of bursting neurons and fast synaptic interactions. We also find a universal scaling law for the synchronization stability condition for large networks in terms of the number of excitatory and inhibitory inputs each neuron receives, regardless of the network size and topology. This general law is in sharp contrast with linearly coupled networks with positive (attractive) and negative (repulsive) coupling where the placement and structure of negative connections heavily affect synchronization.

  4. Ceria co-doping: synergistic or average effect?

    PubMed

    Burbano, Mario; Nadin, Sian; Marrocchelli, Dario; Salanne, Mathieu; Watson, Graeme W

    2014-05-14

    Ceria (CeO2) co-doping has been suggested as a means to achieve ionic conductivities that are significantly higher than those in singly doped systems. Rekindled interest in this topic over the last decade has given rise to claims of much improved performance. The present study makes use of computer simulations to investigate the bulk ionic conductivity of rare earth (RE) doped ceria, where RE = Sc, Gd, Sm, Nd and La. The results from the singly doped systems are compared to those from ceria co-doped with Nd/Sm and Sc/La. The pattern that emerges from the conductivity data is consistent with the dominance of local lattice strains from individual defects, rather than the synergistic co-doping effect reported recently, and as a result, no enhancement in the conductivity of co-doped samples is observed. PMID:24658460

  5. Synergistic Effects of Toxic Elements on Heat Shock Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Qaisar; Irshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Jamshaid

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins show remarkable variations in their expression levels under a variety of toxic conditions. A research span expanded over five decades has revealed their molecular characterization, gene regulation, expression patterns, vast similarity in diverse groups, and broad range of functional capabilities. Their functions include protection and tolerance against cytotoxic conditions through their molecular chaperoning activity, maintaining cytoskeleton stability, and assisting in cell signaling. However, their role as biomarkers for monitoring the environmental risk assessment is controversial due to a number of conflicting, validating, and nonvalidating reports. The current knowledge regarding the interpretation of HSPs expression levels has been discussed in the present review. The candidature of heat shock proteins as biomarkers of toxicity is thus far unreliable due to synergistic effects of toxicants and other environmental factors. The adoption of heat shock proteins as “suit of biomarkers in a set of organisms” requires further investigation. PMID:25136596

  6. Synergistic Antipseudomonal Effects of Synthetic Peptide AMP38 and Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Rudilla, Héctor; Fusté, Ester; Cajal, Yolanda; Rabanal, Francesc; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide (AMP38) and its synergy with imipenem against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The main mechanism of imipenem resistance is the loss or alteration of protein OprD. Time-kill and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) determinations were carried out by using clinical imipenem-resistant strains. AMP38 was markedly synergistic with imipenem when determined in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. MBEC obtained for the combination of AMP38 and imipenem was of 62.5 μg/mL, whereas the MBEC of each antimicrobial separately was 500 μg/mL. AMP38 should be regarded as a promising antimicrobial to fight MDR P. aeruginosa infections. Moreover, killing effect and antibiofilm activity of AMP38 plus imipenem was much higher than that of colistin plus imipenem. PMID:27626405

  7. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect between Silibinin and Antibiotics in Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Soo; Jang, Kyeung-Ae; Cha, Jeong-Dan

    2012-01-01

    Silibinin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including antibacterial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria. Silibinin was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.1 to 3.2 and 0.2 to 6.4 μg/mL, ampicillin from 0.125 to 64 and 0.5 to 64 μg/mL, gentamicin from 2 to 256 and 4 to 512 μg/mL, respectively. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.025–0.8 μg/mL and 0.1–3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activities of silibinin against oral bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of treatment with ampicillin or gentamicin. The results were evaluated showing that the combination effects of silibinin with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5) against all tested oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic. PMID:21941436

  8. [The anti-tumor mechanisms in long-lived rodents].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanjiao; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2016-05-01

    Rodents, including the nude mice with congenital aplasia of the thymus, cancer-resistant naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and blind mole rat (Spalax galili), are important model organisms that are widely used in biomedical research. The aging process is closely related to cancer incidence in mammals and the aging degree is positively correlated with the risk of cancer. Since rodents account for 40% of mammals, study of the unique antitumor mechanism in long-lived rodents is very important. Replicative senescence is anti-tumor mechanism that prevalently exist in rodents, however, unique anti-tumor mechanisms have been found in naked mole-rats and blind mole-rats. The cancer resistance of Spalax galili is mediated by cell-released IFN-β which activates p53 and Rb signaling pathway and the cells undergoes concerted cell death while that of Heterocephalus glaber is mediated by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) which causes contact inhibition. In addition, highly expressed pro-cell-death and anti-inflammation related genes are found in the genome of both naked mole-rats and blind mole-rats. In this review, we summarize the anti-tumor mechanisms in both Heterocephalus glaber and Spalax galili, which may provide information for related research. PMID:27232489

  9. Unprecedented synergistic effects between weak Lewis and Brønsted acids in Prins cyclization.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Prashant; van de Weghe, Pierre; Reddy, B V Subba; Yadav, J S; Grée, René

    2012-09-25

    Novel synergistic effects between Lewis and Brønsted acids in Prins cyclization are reported. Non-reactive Lewis acids and non-reactive Brønsted acids, which failed to perform Prins cyclization when used alone, have shown remarkable synergistic effects when used in combination to perform the reaction successfully. PMID:22885680

  10. Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

    2014-04-21

    Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24622772